Sample records for urban slum areas

  1. Prevalence and correlates of physical spousal violence against women in slum and non-slum areas of urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and non-slum areas of urban Bangladesh. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9122 currently married women aged 15–49 selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of reported past-year physical spousal violence was 31%. Prevalence of past-year physical spousal violence was higher in slums (35%) than in non-slums (20%). Slapping/arm-twisting and pushing/shaking/throwing something at the women were the most commonly reported acts of physical abuse. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of physical spousal abuse was lower among older women, women with post-primary education, and those belonging to rich households and women whose husband considered their opinion in decision-making. Women were at higher risk of abuse if they had many children, believed that married woman should work if the husband is not making enough money, and approved wife beating norms. This study serves to confirm the commonness of physical spousal abuse in urban Bangladesh demonstrating the seriousness of this multifaceted phenomenon as a social and public health issue. The present findings suggest the need for comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies that capitalize on the interplay of individual and sociocultural factors that cause physical spousal violence. Our study adds to a growing literature documenting domestic violence against women in urban areas of developing south Asian nations. PMID:21831870

  2. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  4. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  5. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C. N.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619 ?S/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2 mmol/L), HCO3 (11 mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3 mmol/L; average of 2.23 mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2 mmol/L and 6 ?mol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2 mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (< 6 meq/100 g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems.

  6. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area.

    PubMed

    Nyenje, P M; Havik, J C N; Foppen, J W; Muwanga, A; Kulabako, R

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619?S/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2mmol/L), HCO3 (11mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3mmol/L; average of 2.23mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2mmol/L and 6?mol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (<6meq/100g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems. PMID:25016588

  7. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  8. All Slums are Not Equal: Maternal Health Conditions Among Two Urban Slum Dwellers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zulfia; Mehnaz, Saira; Siddiqui, Abdul Razzaq; Ansari, Athar; Khalil, Salman; Sachdeva, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a “high risk” group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India). House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services. PMID:22529541

  9. Slums and Urban Development: Questions on Society and Globalisation

    E-print Network

    is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. The existence of slums of material, natural and socio-economic indicators on developing countries, spatial and demographic urbanSlums and Urban Development: Questions on Society and Globalisation JEAN-CLAUDE BOLAY The slum

  10. Automated detection of slum area change in Hyderabad, India using multitemporal satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.

  11. Status of water use sanitation and hygienic condition of urban slums: A study on Rupsha Ferighat slum, Khulna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Sohel Rana

    2009-01-01

    The number of slums has significantly increased in Bangladesh over the last three decades along with the expansion of cities and towns. Rapid urbanization, caused largely by heavy influx of migrants from rural areas, has exerted severe pressure on urban housing and public services in the metropolitan city of Khulna with which the expansion of infrastructure and basic urban services

  12. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  13. Working condition and health hazards in beedi rollers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Rupali V.; Kowli, Shobha S.; Chowdhary, Padmaja H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beedi rollers are exposed to unburnt tobacco dust through cutaneous and pharyngeal route. They are not aware of their rights. Studies have been conducted on beedi workers but not many studies are carried out in urban areas. Thus, study was carried out to understand working condition and health hazards in beedi workers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai and to know whether beedi roller are in better condition in urban areas. Aim: To study working condition and health hazard in beedi rollers in the urban slums. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, community based study was carried in the urban slums of Mumbai with population of 8985 from April 2011 to June 2011. With snow balling sampling technique, 52 beedi workers were interviewed regarding their socio-economic status, working conditions and health problems after informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS windows version 14.0 software. Results: The mean age was 45 years with SD of 12 years. All were Hindu females. Around 42.31% were illiterate. Mean years of service were 30 years and they work on an average for eight hours. Children were not involved in beedi rolling. Most common morbidity was fatigue. None were aware of the benefits provided for them. Awareness regarding health hazard and safety measures was poor. Conclusions: The working condition of beedi rollers in the urban areas is not favourable. PMID:23580837

  14. Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

    2006-01-01

    Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

  15. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, M.; Genderen, J. v.

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  16. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  17. Community-Based Health Programmes: Role Perceptions and Experiences of Female Peer Facilitators in Mumbai's Urban Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

    2009-01-01

    Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…

  18. Sleep and Quality of Life in Urban Poverty: The Effect of a Slum Housing Upgrading Program

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Valličres, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design: Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting: Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants: A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions: Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions: A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity. Citation: Simonelli G; Leanza Y; Boilard A; Hyland M; Augustinavicius JL; Cardinali DP; Valličres A; Pérez-Chada D; Vigo DE. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: the effect of a slum housing upgrading program. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1669-1676. PMID:24179300

  19. Experiential household food insecurity in an urban underserved slum of North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddharth Agarwal; Vani Sethi; Palak Gupta; Meenakshi Jha; Ayushi Agnihotri; Mark Nord

    2009-01-01

    One-third of India’s urban population resides in extreme poverty, in slums and squatters. Food insecurity remains a visible\\u000a reality among this segment. Yet, it is scarcely documented. This paper describes levels and determinants of experiential household\\u000a food insecurity (HFI) in an underserved urban slum of Delhi (India) and reports the internal validity and reliability of the\\u000a measure used to assess

  20. Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control measures in slum settings of high leptospirosis transmission. PMID:25474580

  1. Indian Americans in Southside Minneapolis: Additional Field Notes From the Urban Slum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Richard P.; And Others

    A survey conducted by 8 University of Minnesota students was taken in the urban slum of Minneapolis. The survey was concerned with the contemporary situation of urban American Indians and with the attitudes of local businessmen toward urban Indians. The method used involved recording respondent's answers, and much of the content of the…

  2. Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India Nimmi an anthropological study of everyday mobile internet adoption among teenagers in a low- income urban setting. We-instrumental and entertainment- driven needs. The key here is for ICTD discourse to situate insights from anthropological studies

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Leptospirosis among Urban Slum Residents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Reis, Renato B.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Hagan, José E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Costa, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities. PMID:23269657

  4. Determinants of diarrhea prevalence in urban slums: a comparative assessment towards enhanced environmental management.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Maroun, R; Quba'a, R; Mawla, D; Sayess, R; Massoud, M A; Jamali, I

    2014-02-01

    This study relies on a comparative assessment of diarrhea occurrence in two urban slums to identify salient factors influencing case prevalence. Primary data were collected from both areas using a structured closed-ended questionnaire coupled with bottled and public water quality sampling and analysis at households reporting diarrhea cases. The water quality analysis showed contamination at the household level due primarily to the location of water storage tanks, as well as in some brands of bottled water due to lack of enforcement of source monitoring. Descriptive statistics and chi-square distribution tests revealed significant difference in diarrhea cases in both study areas which was correlated with the educational level of household head, financial status, type of water storage tank, and corresponding cleaning frequency as well as the adoption of measures to treat water or the use of bottled water. PMID:24078142

  5. The Infant Feeding Practices in an Urban Slum of Nagpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Bagul, Abhay Shivram; Supare, Madhulika sahebrao

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective The feeding practices during infancy are of critical importance for the growth and the development of children. Recent studies have reported that wrong feeding practices are widely prevalent in the urban slums. With this background, this study was conducted to assess the infant feeding practices in an urban slum and to determine the the factors which influenced it. Materials and Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Nagpur, Maharashtra, India during June 2011 to December 2011. The study variables which were used were the mother’s religion, occupation, education, the place of delivery, the type of delivery, the sex and the age of the baby, the antenatal clinic registration , breast feeding, weaning, knowledge of the mothers, etc. For the statistical analysis, the Fisher’s exact test was used. Results Out of the 384 enrolled mothers,125(32.56%) mothers had started breast feeding within 1 hour after their deliveries. Colostrum was given by 82(21.38%) mothers. Exclusive breast feeding for 6 months was given by 142(36.84%) mothers. The practice of exclusive breast feeding was more in the literate mothers and in mothers who were informed by the health personnel. This was statistically significant. Conclusion Inappropriate feeding practices are common in an urban slum of Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. PMID:23285446

  6. Sociocultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suneela Garg; Nandini Sharma; Ragini Sahay

    2001-01-01

    This paper attempts to understand the experience of menstruation in the socio-cultural context of an urban Indian slum. Observations were gathered as part of a larger study of reproductive tract infections in women in Delhi, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative phase consisted of 52 in-depth interviews, three focus groups discussions and five key informant interviews. In the

  7. High prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Misra; RM Pandey; J Rama Devi; R Sharma; NK Vikram; Nidhi Khanna

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this study, a prevalence survey of various atherosclerosis risk factors was carried out on hitherto poorly studied rural–urban migrants settled in urban slums in a large metropolitan city in northern India, with the aim of studying anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of this population in socio-economic transition.DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study.SUBJECTS: A total of 532 subjects

  8. Access to Health Services Among Slum Dwellers in an Industrial Township and Surrounding Rural Areas: A Rapid Epidemiological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitav; Bhawalkar, J.S.; Jadhav, S.L.; Rathod, Hetal; Khedkar, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The biggest challenge in implementing the primary health care principles is of equitable distribution of health care to all. The rural masses and urban slum dwellers are most vulnerable to lack of access to health care. Aim: To study access to health services among slum dwellers and rural population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey in an urban slum and surrounding rural areas in field practice area of a medical college. Materials and Methods: Structured instrument along with qualitative techniques such as focus group discussions, were used to collect information on access and utilization of health services from 865 individuals of both sexes and all ages selected from urban slums, villages, and indoor and outdoor patients. Access to basic determinants of good health such as housing, water, and sanitation was also elicited. Besides, health needs based on self-reported disease conditions were compiled. Results: More than 50% of respondents were living in poor housing and insanitary conditions. Besides the burden of communicable diseases and malnutrition (especially in children), risk of lifestyle diseases as evidenced by high Body mass index in 25% of adults surveyed was found. Private medical practitioners were more accessible than government facilities. More than 60% sought treatment from private medical facilities for their own ailments (for sickness in children this proportion was 74%). People who visited government facilities were more dissatisfied with the services (30.88%) than those who visited private facilities (18.31%). This difference was significant (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 2.88; ?2 =15.95, df=1, P=0.007). The main barriers to health care identified were waiting time long, affordability, poor quality of care, distance, and attitude of health workers. Conclusion: The underprivileged in India continue to have poor access to basic determinants of good health as well as to curative services from government sources during illness. PMID:24478995

  9. Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: An exploration in Dhaka urban slums

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25?years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs work as volunteers in Dhaka urban slums impact of their dropout is immense both in financial term and forgone services. High cost of dropout makes the program less sustainable. However, simple and financially competitive strategies can improve the sustainability of the program. PMID:22897922

  10. Dietary Habits of Female Urban Slum-dwellers in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Harsha; Chheda, Purvi; Kehoe, Sarah; Taskar, Vijaya; Brown, Nick; Shivashankaran, Devi; Subbulakshmi, G; Rao, Shobha; Gandhi, Meera; Muley-Lotankar, Priyadarshini; Potdar, Ramesh; Margetts, Barrie; Fall, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    RESEARCH QUESTION: Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among women of child-bearing age living in slums. We investigated relationships between consumption of these foods and socio-demographic variables. METHODOLOGY: A 91-item Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to women (n=1651) aged 16-40 yrs living in a Mumbai slum. We identified associations between categorical demographic variables and consumption frequency of these foods using chi-square tests. Associations with age and body mass index were investigated using one-way ANOVAs. RESULTS: A quarter of women ate fruit and green leafy vegetables < 3 times per week, Apart from in tea, median consumption of milk and milk products was < twice a week, 16% never consumed non-vegetarian foods. Median consumption of non-vegetarian foods was 4.5 times per week. Women employed in unskilled jobs and those whose husbands had skilled occupations ate green leafy vegetables more frequently. Participants educated to tertiary level consumed fruit and milk most frequently (p<0.05). PMID:23400755

  11. Determinants of growth failure in 12–24-month-old children in a high-density urban slum community in East London, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A de Villiers; M Senekal

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study's main objectives were the identification of determinants of growth failure in 12–24-month-old children from an urban slum community attending a day hospital as well as the identification of focus areas for intervention.Design: The research was executed as a case–control study with a one-to-two design. A hypothetical causal model was developed for the undernutrition situation in Duncan Village.

  12. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in an Urban Slum of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Sayera; Rahman, Md. Toufiq; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Khatun, Razia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Rahman, Md. Mojibur; Husain, Md. Ashaque; van Leth, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the tuberculosis (TB) burden and to provide an insight into the type of circulating M. tuberculosis species in urban slums of Bangladesh. We also aimed to test the feasibility of a larger transmission study in this setting. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Dhaka city. The household members were actively screened to assess the presence of TB-related signs and symptoms; cough ?3 weeks and body mass index (BMI) <17 kg/m2. Sputum specimens from suspects were collected for acid fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing. Genotyping of M. tuberculosis was done using spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing. Results Among 9,877 adult screened for pulmonary TB (PTB), 25 were positive for AFB on microscopy and/or culture and the prevalence of new PTB cases was estimated to be 253/100,000. Only one child TB case was diagnosed among 5,147 child screened. Out of 26 cases, 21(81%) had cough for several duration and 5(19%) did not present with cough at the time of screening. One multidrug resistant case was found. Fifty two percent of all TB cases had BMI <17 kg/m2 (p?=?<0.001). Among the 20 analyzed isolates, 13 different spoligotype patterns were identified in which 5 clusters contained 12 strains and 8 strains had unique pattern. Conclusions The study revealed high prevalence of TB in urban slums. Screening using low BMI can be beneficial among risk group population. It is important to conduct larger study to validate clinical variables like cough <3 weeks and low BMI to define TB suspect and also to investigate the transmission of TB in slum settings. PMID:24204933

  13. Immunization in urban areas: issues and strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, S. J.; Cheyne, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, immunization programmes have focused primarily on rural areas. However, with the recognition of the increasing numbers of urban poor, it is timely to review urban immunization activities. This update addresses two questions: Is there any need to be concerned about urban immunization and, if so, is more of the same kind of rural EPI activity needed or are there specific urban issues that need specific urban strategies? Vaccine-preventable diseases have specific urban patterns that require efficacious vaccines for younger children, higher target coverage levels, and particular focus to ensure national and global eradication of poliomyelitis. Although aggregate coverage levels are higher in urban than rural areas, gaps are masked since capital cities are better covered than other urban areas and the coverage in the poorest slum and periurban areas within cities is as bad as or worse than that in rural areas. Difficult access to immunization services in terms of distance, costs, and time can still be the main barrier in some parts of the city. Mobilization and motivation strategies in urban areas should make use of the mass media and workplace networks as well as the traditional word-of-mouth strategies. Use of community health workers has been successful in some urban settings. Management issues concern integration of the needs of the poor into a coherent city health plan, coordination of different health providers, and clear lines of responsibility for addressing the needs of new, urbanizing areas. PMID:8205637

  14. School Enrollment among Urban Non-Slum, Slum and Rural Children in Kenya: Is the Urban Advantage Eroding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugisha, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the "urban advantage." This "urban advantage" is associated with increased access to facilities such as…

  15. Access to Water in the Slums of the Developing World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hulya Dagdeviren; Simon A. Robertson

    2009-01-01

    According to the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), 924 million people lived in slums in 2001. Population growth in these settlements is much greater than in other urban areas. The estimates suggest that this figure may rise to 1.5 billion by 2020 (Payne, 2005). This rapid increase is expected despite ?slum upgrading? efforts that have been taking place for

  16. Land Tenure in Slum Upgrading Projects Paul M. Syagga

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .6 billion by the year 2020 and to 2 billion by 2030 (UN-HABITAT, 2008). In African, Asian and Latin American into filthy, densely packed areas with poorly constructed and often dangerous homes. Due to rising population, especially in urban populations, the number of slum dwellers is growing. In the late 20th century, slums have

  17. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  18. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  19. The impact of an immunization programme administered through the Growth Monitoring Programme Plus as an alternative way of implementing Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in urban-slum areas of Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumiko Igarashi; Satoshi Sasaki; Yasuyuki Fujino; Naohito Tanabe; Clara Mbwili Muleya; Bushimbwa Tambatamba; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    A time-lag study design was used to examine the effects of an immunization programme implemented through an integrated community-based child health approach called the Growth Monitoring Programme Plus (GMP+) in peri-urban areas of Lusaka, Zambia. The immunization coverage and sociodemographic data of eligible children and households were obtained from three repeated surveys in two intervention areas. Logistic regression analysis was

  20. Association of Urban Slum Residency with Infant Mortality and Child Stunting in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15–49 years) and their children (0–59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15–1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63–0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16–1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies. PMID:24151612

  1. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32?034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3?months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  2. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year) was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year). Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens. PMID:23020794

  3. Determining Current Infant Feeding Practices and Teaching the Preparation of Appropriate Infant Weaning Foods Among Indian Urban Slum Dwellers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Malhan; T. K. Rekhi; B. L. Jendrysik

    1995-01-01

    The first year of life is so critical in the growth of an infant. After four to six months, breast milk alone is not sufficient to meet a baby's increasing requirements and supplementary foods should be introduced. However among intents of urban slum dwellers in India, protein calorie malnutrition is prevalent during this crucial timeframe. One explanation is that exclusive

  4. Diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice of physicians in urban slums of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, S; Mahapatra, T; Bhaduri, B; Mahapatra, S; Chakraborty, N D; Manna, B; Sur, D

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhoeal management practices are unsatisfactory in India especially in the slum areas. Dearth of information regarding physicians' diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice in India necessitated this cross-sectional study of allopathic practitioners in the slums of Kolkata, to assess the distribution and interrelationship between physicians' characteristics, knowledge and practice regarding diarrhoea. A total of 264 randomly selected consenting practitioners were interviewed using a field-tested questionnaire. Nineteen percent had good overall knowledge, 49% and 80% prescribed antibiotics to diarrhoea and cholera patients, respectively, and 55% advised stool examination for every case. Qualified and Government physicians had better knowledge regarding diarrhoea [MBBS: odds ratio (OR) 5·96, P < 0·001; postgraduates: OR 9·33, P < 0·001; Government physicians: OR 11·49, P < 0·0001] and were less likely to prescribe antibiotics for all diarrhoea cases (MBBS: OR 0·30, P = 0·002; postgraduates: OR 0·20, P < 0·001; Government physicians OR 0·24, P < 0·029). Better knowledge was associated with a lower likelihood of prescribing antibiotics for diarrhoea (OR 0·72, P < 0·001), cholera (OR 0·78, P = 0·027) and investigative procedure (OR 0·85, P = 0·028). In the slums of Kolkata, diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice were poor with the exception of qualified physicians, hence an improvement in the knowledge of pharmacists and unqualified practitioners is necessary for the overall improvement of diarrhoeal management in these slums. PMID:23659645

  5. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5-6 days/week, but close by 4-5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  6. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5–6 days/week, but close by 4–5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  7. The sanitation environment in urban slums: implications for child health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    I examine the effect of improved sanitation on child health in urban Bangladesh to assess the relative importance of household versus neighborhood characteristics and of adult latrine usage versus safe disposal of children's feces. Using fixed-effects regression, I calculate the change in weight-for-height in 153 children as a function of changes in latrine usage in the surrounding community. The use of longitudinal data allows children to act as their own controls, a stumbling point of many other sanitation evaluation studies using cross-sectional or case–control methods. Results provide strong evidence that children's toileting matters more than adult toileting behavior in creating a safe, hygienic environment and reducing diarrheal disease. I conclude that investments in sanitation improvements offer important externalities, and that sanitation programs must encourage the safe disposal of children's feces in order to produce maximum health gains.

  8. The 2005 census and mapping of slums in Bangladesh: design, select results and application

    PubMed Central

    Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter; Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Islam, Nazrul; Mahbub, AQM; Nazem, Nurul Islam

    2009-01-01

    Background The concentration of poverty and adverse environmental circumstances within slums, particularly those in the cities of developing countries, are an increasingly important concern for both public health policy initiatives and related programs in other sectors. However, there is a dearth of information on the population-level implications of slum life for human health. This manuscript describes the 2005 Census and Mapping of Slums (CMS), which used geographic information systems (GIS) tools and digital satellite imagery combined with more traditional fieldwork methodologies, to obtain detailed, up-to-date and new information about slum life in all slums of six major cities in Bangladesh (including Dhaka). Results The CMS found that Bangladeshi slums are very diverse: there are wide intra- and inter-city variations in population size, density, the percent of urban populations living in slums, and sanitation conditions. Findings also show that common beliefs about slums may be outdated; of note, tenure insecurity was found to be an issue in only a small minority of slums. Conclusion The methodology used in the 2005 Bangladesh CMS provides a useful approach to mapping slums that could be applied to urban areas in other low income societies. This methodology may become an increasingly important analytic tool to inform policy, as cities in developing countries are forecasted to continue increasing their share of total global population in the coming years, with slum populations more than doubling in size during the same period. PMID:19505333

  9. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

  10. Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR?=?1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR?=?1.13, 95% CI?=?1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. Conclusion Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs. PMID:24886046

  11. SCUSA: integrated approaches and strategies to address the sanitation crisis in unsewered slum areas in African mega-cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Willem Foppen; Frank Kansiime

    2009-01-01

    Africa, though reported to be the least urbanized continent, is recognized as one where the rate of urbanization is highest.\\u000a The development and expansion of informal settlements in the suburbs of the cities is widespread, while they harbor the majority\\u000a of the urban population. Slums are characterized by, among other things, poorly constructed houses, poor water supply and\\u000a sanitary conditions,

  12. Costs of Illness Due to Typhoid Fever in an Indian Urban Slum Community: Implications for Vaccination Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Bahl; Anju Sinha; Christine Poulos; Dale Whittington; Sunil Sazawal; Ramesh Kumar; Dilip Mahalanabis; Camilo J. Acosta; John D. Clemens; Maharaj K. Bhan

    Data on the burden of disease, costs of illness, and cost-effectiveness of vaccines are needed to facilitate the use of available anti-typhoid vaccines in developing countries. This one-year prospective surveillance was carried out in an urban slum community in Delhi, India, to estimate the costs of illness for cases of typhoid fever. Ninety-eight culture-positive typhoid, 31 culture-positive paratyphoid, and 94

  13. Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Awasthi; R Awasthi; V K Pande; R C Srivastav; H Frumkin

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status

  14. Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

  15. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. PMID:25169645

  16. Use of verbal autopsy to determine mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Kanungo, Suman; Tsuzuki, Ataru; Lopez, Anna Lena; Rajendran, Krisnan; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Kim, Deok Ryun; Gupta, Vinay Kumar; Ochiai, R Leon; Ali, Mohammad; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Clemens, John D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, in the context of a cholera and typhoid fever project. Methods In a well-defined population that was under surveillance for 18 months, we followed a dynamic cohort of 63?788 residents whose households were visited monthly by community health workers to identify deaths. Trained physicians performed verbal autopsies and experienced senior physicians assigned the primary cause of death according to the International classification of diseases, 10th edition. We tabulated causes of death in accordance with Global Burden of Disease 2000 categories and assessed overall and cause-specific mortality rates per age group and gender. Findings During 87?921 person–years of follow-up, we recorded 544 deaths. This gave an overall mortality rate of 6.2 per 1000 person–years. We assigned a cause to 89% (482/544) of the deaths. The leading causes of death, in descending order, were cardiovascular diseases (especially among adults aged over 40 years), cancer, respiratory ailments and digestive disorders. Most deaths in children under 5 years of age were caused by tuberculosis, respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. Conclusion Although the most common causes of death in children were infectious, non-communicable diseases were predominant among adults. There is a need for continuing interventions against infectious diseases in addition to new and innovative strategies to combat non-infectious conditions. PMID:20865071

  17. Pathway to care of epilepsy patients: Exploratory study from an urban slum in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Jeyashree, Kathiresan; Sinha, Smita; Patro, Binod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with major psychosocial correlates. Most epilepsy patients in developing countries are untreated or inadequately treated. It is essential to understand the pathway, to care taken by epilepsy patients in a community, to be able to target appropriate services to them. Materials and Methods: A community based study was conducted on all epilepsy patients in an urban slum in Northern India to study their pathways to care. A list of persons suffering from epilepsy was generated by house to house visits, snowballing, and key informant contacts. In-depth interview and Medical Record Review were used to document their pathway to care. Results: Thirteen of the twenty two patients had contacted a health-care provider for their first episode. The most common first link of care for the patients was secondary level Government hospitals. The next common was private practitioners, followed by Tertiary Care Hospitals, and registered medical practitioners. Eleven out of twenty two patients had to contact a Tertiary Level Center for seeking care. The number of health-care facilities consulted before arriving at their latest point of care ranged from 0 to 5. Traditional or faith healers were consulted at some point of time for cure. Conclusion: There is a need to focus on strengthening and capacity building of the primary care settings for managing epilepsy to enable their better utilization. This shall prevent unnecessary referrals and hence the load on the already burdened higher facilities. PMID:24101816

  18. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  19. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement123

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Design: Healthy, singleton infants aged 6–11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ?80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Results: Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. Conclusion: A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512. PMID:24225356

  20. The perspectives of clients and unqualified allopathic practitioners on the management of delivery care in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh - a mixed method study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tasnuva Wahed; Allisyn C Moran; Mohammad Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRAC is implementing a program to improve maternal and newborn health among the urban poor in the slums of Bangladesh (Mansohi), funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Formative research has demonstrated that unqualified allopathic practitioners (UAPs) are commonly assisting home-delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the role of unqualified allopathic practitioners during home delivery

  1. Urban Areas and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernie Tretkoff

    2010-01-01

    Half of the world's population lives in urban areas today, and 80% of the world's population is predicted to be city dwelling by 2030. The urban heat island effect, in which cities are several degrees warmer than their surrounding areas, is therefore likely to increase along with increasing urbanization. Scientists at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting last week discussed new

  2. Population-Based Incidence of Typhoid Fever in an Urban Informal Settlement and a Rural Area in Kenya: Implications for Typhoid Vaccine Use in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Breiman; Leonard Cosmas; Henry Njuguna; Allan Audi; Beatrice Olack; John B. Ochieng; Newton Wamola; Godfrey M. Bigogo; George Awiti; Collins W. Tabu; Heather Burke; John Williamson; Joseph O. Oundo; Eric D. Mintz; Daniel R. Feikin

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundHigh rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher

  3. Introduction to Urban Studies Area A. Urban Sociology

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    , Theories and Methods Area C. Urban Planning and Built Environment Area D. Urban Culture and Representation URBS 210: Urban Politics URBS 220: Urban Theory URBS 230: Urban Planning and Design URBS 240: Urban. Ethics: The Good City 1. San Francisco Urbanism 2. Sustainable Design 3. Sacred Cities 4. Colonial Cities

  4. Ecosystem services in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Bolund; Sven Hunhammar

    1999-01-01

    Humanity is increasingly urban, but continues to depend on Nature for its survival. Cities are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits, but also benefit from internal urban ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ecosystem services generated by ecosystems within the urban area. ‘Ecosystem services’ refers to the benefits human populations derive from ecosystems. Seven

  5. The Economics of Slums in the Developing World

    E-print Network

    Marx, Benjamin

    The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

  6. Urban Slum Growth and Human Health: A Panel Study of Infant and Child Mortality in Less-Developed Countries, 1990–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew K. Jorgenson; James Rice

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from various bodies of social scientific literature and research, the authors assess the extent to which infant and child mortality rates in less-developed countries are affected by the percent of domestic populations living in urban slum conditions. Results of first-difference panel model estimates of 80 less-developed countries from 1990 to 2005 indicate that growth in the percent of populations

  7. Lipid patterns, alcohol intake and BMI of adult Nigerians in a sub-urban slum in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ahaneku, Gladys Ifesinachi; Ahaneku, Joseph Eberendu; Osuji, Charles Ukachukwu; Oguejiofor, Celestine Ogonna; Opara, Patience Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Demonstration of cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers in healthy subjects with normal blood chemistry tests underscores the need to study social determinants of risk factors to aid primary prevention worldwide; particularly in slums which harbor nearly 80% of rural to urban migrants in the epidemiologically transiting Africa where CVDs were previously unknown. The objective of this study was to assess lipids in relationship to alcohol consumption and BMI in a Nigerian slum. Methods Cross sectional community based prevalent study involving 191 apparently healthy inhabitants aged 18- 85 years recruited by convenient sampling. Heights, weights and BMIs were measured/ calculated, venous blood samples collected and lipid analysis done procedurally. Excel 13 and SPSS statistical soft ware were used for analysis and chart representation. Results Their mean parameters were: Age (43.87 ± 1.62 years), triglycerides (TG; 1.20 ± 0.08mmol/L), total Cholesterol (TC; 4.54 ± 1.70mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC; 3.69 ± 1.69mmol/L), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC; 0.61 ± 0.24mmol/L), RPI (7.12 ± 5.24), body mass index (BMI; 25.08 ± 5.18Kg/M2). TG and HDLC values were lowest in obese non alcohol drinkers while all other lipid parameters increased with BMI in both drinkers and non drinkers. Low HDLC prevalence was lowest in obese alcohol drinkers and highest (100%) in their non drinking counterparts. Having favourable HDLC was highest in daily alcohol consumers. No weekly drinker (0%) had favourable HDLC. Conclusion Ignorance, poor nutritional and health education may be major factors in the strategic challenge posed by the emergence of non communicable diseases in Africans. PMID:25368726

  8. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  9. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  10. Determinants of Health Care Seeking for Diarrheal Illness in Young Children in Urban Slums of Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Byomkesh; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kanungo, Suman; Roy, Subhasis; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.; Sur, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    Maternal practices regarding children's health care have been recognized as an important factor associated with mortality rates among children < 5 years of age. We focused on health care-seeking practices of primary caretakers of children < 5 years of age with diarrheal disease in Kolkata. We interviewed caretakers of 1,058 children in a baseline survey and 6,077 children on six subsequent surveys. The prevalence of diarrhea during the preceding 2 weeks was 7.9% in the baseline survey and 5.7% (lowest 3.5% to highest 7.8%) in subsequent surveys. Multivariate logistic regression showed that formal education of primary caretakers was associated with seeking care outside the home (odds ratio [OR] = 15.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.5–85.7]; P = 0.002). Multinomial logistic regression showed that formal education of the primary caretaker (OR = 21.4; 95% CI [3.2–139.0]; P = 0.002) and presence of dry mouth during diarrhea (OR = 17.3; 95% CI [2.7–110.9]; P = 0.003) were associated with seeking care from licensed providers compared with the children for whom care was not sought outside of the home. This health care utilization and attitudes survey (HUAS) can serve as a tool to identify the factors that influence a better health care-seeking pattern in urban slums of Kolkata. PMID:23629936

  11. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR?=?9.59, 95% CI?=?5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  12. The burden of disease profile of residents of Nairobi's slums: Results from a Demographic Surveillance System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Kyobutungi; Abdhalah Kasiira Ziraba; Alex Ezeh; Yazoumé Yé

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With increasing urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa and poor economic performance, the growth of slums is unavoidable. About 71% of urban residents in Kenya live in slums. Slums are characteristically unplanned, underserved by social services, and their residents are largely underemployed and poor. Recent research shows that the urban poor fare worse than their rural counterparts on most health indicators,

  13. Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Urban, Semi Urban and Rural Areas in and around Chennai City, India

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Kolappan; Vedhachalam, Chandrasekaran; Rangasamy, Subramani; Sekar, Gomathi; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Swaminathan, Soumya; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged >?=?15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary. PMID:24098418

  14. Institutional synergies in the delivery of urban upgrading services : lessons from the Slum Networking Program in Ahmedabad, India

    E-print Network

    Samad, Taimur

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines factors associated with the limited success of the Slum Networking Project (SNP) implemented in the city of Ahmedabad, India between 1995 and 2001. The SNP was conceived as a partnership between ...

  15. THE SUCCESSFUL URBAN SLUM CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PERSONALITY AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS IN DEPRIVED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Inst. of Urban Studies.

    SUCCESSFUL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS FROM LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN DEPRESSED NEIGHBORHOODS OF THE URBAN NORTH ARE COMPARED WITH AVERAGE AND FAILING PUPILS FROM IDENTICAL SETTINGS. THE AIM OF THE 3 YEAR PROJECT IS TO DOCUMENT DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND TO RELATE THESE PATTERNS TO SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE. EMPHASIS IS ON…

  16. Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lee W; Ko, Albert I; Unger, Alon; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2007-01-01

    Background Urban slums, like refugee communities, comprise a social cluster that engenders a distinct set of health problems. With 1 billion people currently estimated to live in such communities, this neglected population has become a major reservoir for a wide spectrum of health conditions that the formal health sector must deal with. Discussion Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations. Summary Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums is urgently needed. PMID:17343758

  17. Prospective Study of Leptospirosis Transmission in an Urban Slum Community: Role of Poor Environment in Repeated Exposures to the Leptospira Agent

    PubMed Central

    Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Costa, Federico; Reis, Renato B.; Hagan, José E.; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Fraga, Deborah; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; dos Santos, Balbino L.; Silva, Adriano Q.; Santos, Andréia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marília S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis has emerged as an urban health problem as slum settlements have rapidly spread worldwide and created conditions for rat-borne transmission. Prospective studies have not been performed to determine the disease burden, identify risk factors for infection and provide information needed to guide interventions in these marginalized communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled and followed a cohort of 2,003 residents from a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Baseline and one-year serosurveys were performed to identify primary and secondary Leptospira infections, defined as respectively, seroconversion and four-fold rise in microscopic agglutination titers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate risk exposures for acquiring primary and secondary infection. A total of 51 Leptospira infections were identified among 1,585 (79%) participants who completed the one-year follow-up protocol. The crude infection rate was 37.8 per 1,000 person-years. The secondary infection rate was 2.3 times higher than that of primary infection rate (71.7 and 31.1 infections per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Male gender (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40–5.91) and lower per capita household income (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30–0.98 for an increase of $1 per person per day) were independent risk factors for primary infection. In contrast, the 15–34 year age group (OR 10.82, 95% CI 1.38–85.08), and proximity of residence to an open sewer (OR 0.95; 0.91–0.99 for an increase of 1 m distance) were significant risk factors for secondary infection. Conclusions/Significance This study found that slum residents had high risk (>3% per year) for acquiring a Leptospira infection. Re-infection is a frequent event and occurs in regions of slum settlements that are in proximity to open sewers. Effective prevention of leptospirosis will therefore require interventions that address the infrastructure deficiencies that contribute to repeated exposures among slum inhabitants. PMID:24875389

  18. The perspectives of clients and unqualified allopathic practitioners on the management of delivery care in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh - a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background BRAC is implementing a program to improve maternal and newborn health among the urban poor in the slums of Bangladesh (Mansohi), funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Formative research has demonstrated that unqualified allopathic practitioners (UAPs) are commonly assisting home-delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the role of unqualified allopathic practitioners during home delivery in urban slums of Dhaka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2008 and June 2009 in Kamrangirchar slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through a door-to-door household survey, quantitative data were collected from 463 women with a home birth and/or trial of labor at home. We also conducted seven in-depth interviews with the UAPs to explore their practices. Results About one-third (32%) of the 463 women interviewed sought delivery care from a UAP. We did not find an association between socio-demographic characteristics and care-seeking from a UAP, except for education of women. Compared to women with three or more pregnancies, the highest odds ratio was found in the primi-gravidity group [odds ratio (OR): 3.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-7.25)], followed by women with two pregnancies (OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36-4.77) to use a UAP. Of women who reported at least one delivery-related complication, 45.2% received care from the UAPs. Of 149 cases where the UAP was involved with delivery care, 133 (89.3%) received medicine to start or increase labor with only 6% (9 of 149) referred by a UAP to any health facility. The qualitative findings showed that UAPs provided a variety of medicines to manage excessive bleeding immediately after childbirth. Conclusion There is demand among slum women for delivery-related care from UAPs during home births in Bangladesh. Some UAPs' practices are contrary to current World Health Organization recommendations and could be harmful. Programs need to develop interventions to address these practices to improve perinatal care outcomes. PMID:20822521

  19. Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, B. S.; Arun, Priti; Bhargava, Rachna; Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2007-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 ± 5.31 years (mean ± S.D) among rural population and 19.75 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached. PMID:20640064

  20. Săo Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. PMID:25523076

  1. Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Living in Urban Slums: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Nairobi City, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Beguy, Donatien; Mumah, Joyce; Gottschalk, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15–22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007–2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15–22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2. Findings About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69%) have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women. Conclusions Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums. PMID:25080352

  2. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg ?=?1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m?2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  3. SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY EVALUATION IN URBAN AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vânia Barcellos; Gouvęa CAMPOS

    This work applies the sustainable evaluation to the case of transport and land use planning in urban areas. A set of indicators according the three dimensions of sustainability, environment, economics, and social aspects, are defined to evaluate the mobility in urban areas. The aim of this work is to present a procedure to define a Sustainable Mobility Index in Urban

  4. Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959

  5. Population-Based Incidence of Typhoid Fever in an Urban Informal Settlement and a Rural Area in Kenya: Implications for Typhoid Vaccine Use in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Robert F.; Cosmas, Leonard; Njuguna, Henry; Audi, Allan; Olack, Beatrice; Ochieng, John B.; Wamola, Newton; Bigogo, Godfrey M.; Awiti, George; Tabu, Collins W.; Burke, Heather; Williamson, John; Oundo, Joseph O.; Mintz, Eric D.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. Methods During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Results In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo) with highest rates in children 5–9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo) and 2–4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo). Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2–4 and 5–9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively). Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2–4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo) which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. Conclusions This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa. PMID:22276105

  6. Undernutrition and Its Correlates among Children of 3–9 Years of Age Residing in Slum Areas of Bhubaneswar, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sai Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. PMID:25580460

  7. Trends in childhood mortality in Kenya: The urban advantage has seemingly been wiped out

    PubMed Central

    Kimani-Murage, E.W.; Fotso, J.C.; Egondi, T.; Abuya, B.; Elungata, P.; Ziraba, A.K.; Kabiru, C.W.; Madise, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe trends in childhood mortality in Kenya, paying attention to the urban–rural and intra-urban differentials. Methods We use data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) collected between 1993 and 2008 and the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) collected in two Nairobi slums between 2003 and 2010, to estimate infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR). Results Between 1993 and 2008, there was a downward trend in IMR, CMR and U5MR in both rural and urban areas. The decline was more rapid and statistically significant in rural areas but not in urban areas, hence the gap in urban–rural differentials narrowed over time. There was also a downward trend in childhood mortality in the slums between 2003 and 2010 from 83 to 57 for IMR, 33 to 24 for CMR, and 113 to 79 for U5MR, although the rates remained higher compared to those for rural and non-slum urban areas in Kenya. Conclusions The narrowing gap between urban and rural areas may be attributed to the deplorable living conditions in urban slums. To reduce childhood mortality, extra emphasis is needed on the urban slums. PMID:25024120

  8. Prevalence, Pattern and Predictors of Mental Health Morbidity Following an Intermediate Disaster in an Urban Slum in Delhi : A Modified Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nimesh G; Gupta, Dhanesh K; Srivastava, Raj Kumar

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings from an ICMR supported Research Project on the mental health consequences and service needs of the population of an urban slum in Delhi affected by an intermediate fire disaster. The study was aimed at examining the prevalence, the pattern and the predictors of mental health morbidity in the disaster affected population. Modified cohort design was used , with a control group, and two stage assessments for the prevalence of psychiatric disorder at two years after the disaster, with GHQ-12 and SCAN based clinical interview with ICD-10-DCR.. The data were analysed using r2 test and independent ?t? test for inter group comparison and stepwise logistic regression for finding predictors of psychiatric morbidity and psychological ill health. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly higher (78/1,000 v/s 22/1,000), and the prevalence of psychological ill health was also higher (232/1000 v/s 50/1000), as compared to the control group. The commonest psychiatric disorders were Depression, Substance Use Disorders, Generalised Anxiety Disorder, and Somatoform Disorders. The commonest symptoms of psychological ill health were suggestive of depression. Age and participation in relief work were found to be strong predictors, and physical injuries were found to be a weak predictor of mental health morbidity. The findings have important implications in the service delivery and research on mental health aspects of disasters, which are highlighted and discussed. PMID:21206775

  9. Controlling Tree Squirrels in Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2006-09-06

    In urban areas, tree squirrels can become pests when they eat pecans, berries, bird seed or vegetables from home gardens, or when they nest in attics. This leaflet discusses control of squirrels by fencing, trapping, poisoning and shooting....

  10. Health care utilisation under the 30-Baht Scheme among the urban poor in Mitrapap slum, Khon Kaen, Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Coronini-Cronberg, Sophie; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Gericke, Christian A

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2001, the Government of Thailand introduced a universal coverage scheme with the aim of ensuring equitable health care access for even the poorest citizens. For a flat user fee of 30 Baht per consultation, or for free for those falling into exemption categories, every scheme participant may access registered health services. The exemption categories include children under 12 years of age, senior citizens aged 60 years and over, the very poor, and volunteer health workers. The functioning of these exemption mechanisms and the effect of the scheme on health service utilisation among the poor is controversial. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of 30-Baht Scheme registration and subsequent self-reported health service utilisation among an urban poor population in the Teparuk community within the Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen city, northeastern Thailand. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the exemption mechanisms in reaching the very poor and the elderly was examined. Factors for users' choice of health facilities were identified. Results Overall, the proportion of the Teparuk community enrolled with the 30-Baht Scheme was high at 86%, with over one quarter of these exempted from paying the consultation fee. User fee exemption was significantly more frequent among households with an above-poverty-line income (64.7%) compared to those below the poverty line (35.3%), ?2 (df) = 5.251 (1); p-value = 0.018. In addition, one third of respondents over 60 years of age were found to be still paying user fees. Self-reported use of registered medical facilities in case of illness was stated to be predominantly due to the service being available through the scheme, with service quality not a chief consideration. Overall consumer satisfaction was high, especially among those not required to pay the 30 Baht user fee. Conclusion Whilst the 30-Baht Scheme seems to cover most of the poor population of Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen, the user fee exemption mechanism only works partially with regard to reaching the poorest and exempting senior citizens. Service utilisation and satisfaction are highest amongst those who are fee-exempt. Service quality was not an important factor influencing choice of health facility. Ways should be sought to improve the effectiveness of the current exemption mechanisms. PMID:17883874

  11. Photogrammetry and remote sensing on urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.

    2014-08-01

    Urban areas can be considered as complex and dynamic systems, the study of which requires broad and reliable information. The required information must be improved and updated and can be collected by different sources, including photogrammetry and remote sensing. The continuous advances of these scientific disciplines in acquisition and processing of their data, but also their synergy with other modern methods and technologies (as laser scanning), make their contribution on urban areas studies (including axes of urban wide surroundings) particularly interesting. This paper refers to the above and includes a relevant example of the city of Thessaloniki, using high resolution satellite data.

  12. Adult Education and Schooling of Slum Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikara, Jacob

    1980-01-01

    The education of children of urban slum dwellers is adversely affected by the poor educational and economic conditions of their parents. Any attempt to improve the education of these children must deal first with parental attitudes, educational motivation, and illiteracy. (SK)

  13. Understanding the impact of involuntary slum resettlement on women's access to healthcare in Mumbai, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qudsiya Contractor

    2008-01-01

    Resettlement poses several risks to vulnerable urban populations such as slum dwellers in cities like Mumbai in the Third World. The causes for involuntary resettlement in the urban context, such as the expansion of airports, widening roads, or building of commercial complexes, are often unconnected to the lives of those living in slums. Resettlement is associated with economic hardships, disruption

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  15. Handbook for Social Research in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Philip M.

    Addressed primarily to social scientists and administrators in developing areas, this handbook (a volume in the Technology and Society series) is designed for those not widely experienced in research design and data analysis. Many problem areas of developing nations, such as adequate housing and urban amenities, adjustment and acculturation of…

  16. Slum Tourism: Developments in a Young Field of Interdisciplinary Tourism Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian Frenzel; Ko Koens

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Special Issue on slum tourism with a reflection on the state of the art on this new area of tourism research. After a review of the literature we discuss the breadth of research that was presented at the conference ‘Destination Slum’, the first international conference on slum tourism. Identifying various dimensions, as well as similarities and

  17. Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, A. A. M.

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and urbanization have become issues in big cities like Greater Cairo (GC). As a consequence of explosive growth, the living conditions of Cairo Metropolis deteriorate. Development trends of the last twenty years have increased general wealth and modernization, this sets out how GC megacity is creating an increased demand for land combined with environmental degradation. Planning a sustainable development of mega cities requires understanding of physical change of the main environmental drivers. However, this talk will be concerned with monitoring and analysis of dynamic environment changes to capture and refine the urban patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolis on the basis of pixel-based and object-based classifications. Satellite images (TM, ETM+, & Spot) of different dates and resolutions, and ground truth data collected from available maps, field observation, and personal experience were used to execute the image segmentation analysis to reveal urban patterns and expansions. By using Erdas Imagine, and eCognition Developer software, land use/land cover image classifications were constructed, which detect regimes and trends in land changes. Two main types of urban patterns could be detected (passing from centre to periphery). The first one is informal and the second one is formal building. The informal type mainly comprises slums and urban encroachment on arable land. The formal one mostly consists of new cities and legal houses. Moreover, a rate of land cover changes in Greater Cairo during the last three decades could be described as a rapid progression. In contrast, the combination between field observations and classification analyses showed that the high urban densities based on classification of satellite images does not reflect the real densities of population in urban areas in Greater Cairo.

  18. Urban Area Extraction in SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaee, H.; Niazmardi, S.; Amini, J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the performance of different texture measures for detection of urban areas from SAR data is evaluated. The used texture measures are categorized into two groups, the first group include the SAR specific textures and the second one considers the general texture measures. ffmax is selected from the first category and LISA, SRPD, Wavelet measures and fractal dimensions are used as general texture measures. For a better discrimination, all texture measures are calculated and a PCA rotation is applied to them and the first PC is multiplied by the urban inhomogeneity parameter and the obtained image is segmented. The obtained results of this procedure comparing with the K-Means clustering algorithm show the better performance of this algorithm for urban area detection.

  19. Characterization of surface runoff in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Choe; K. W. Bang; J. H. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Water quality measurements of surface runoff have been carried out in selected residential and industrial zones in urban areas, in which yearly mean precipitation is 1,225 mm. The concentrations of constituents in the surface runoff were measured at sampling sites categorized by land use type in the residential zone, and by industry type in the industrial zone. The water quality

  20. Floating Content: Information Sharing in Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Ott, Jörg

    Floating Content: Information Sharing in Urban Areas J¨org Ott, Esa Hyyti¨a, Pasi Lassila Aalto. The net result is a best effort service for floating content in which: 1) information dissemination for floating content, which, at the same time also validate the analytical results obtained for a more abstract

  1. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  2. Rainwater Harvesting and Consumption in urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abbasi, Ali; Tabatabaee, Javad; Ranaee, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    The soaring rate of urban demand for soft water and the rising cost associated with construction and protection of centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems associated with expansion of cities and immigrations of rural population to cities have contributed to increase acceptance of water harvesting systems in urban areas at least. This issue requires special attention in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East semitropical area. In this context, a recent pilot project has been proposed to analyze the performance of rainwater harvesting systems as an answer to some parts of soft water demand in Iranian urban society. A system of rainwater draining and storage has been implemented in a two hectares urban area. Observations and analyses related to runoff quantity and quality have been performed between November 2007 and November 2009 at the basin outlet as well as inside a storage tank which has been set up in the area for water harvesting purposes. The potential of the harvested rainwater to be employed in different consumption contexts has been analyzed in light of national and international standards. Although most of the sampling results support the idea that the quality of harvested water is adequate for any field of consuption, including drinking use (especially during rainfall period of time), a comparison between biological quality evaluation plus turbidity and color of samples with the related standards has led to identify limitations of harvested water usage with particular reference to plant consumptions. Keywords- rainwater harvesting system, runoff, water quality standards

  3. Impact of gutkha chewing & smoking on microbial environment of oral cavity: a case study on slum dwellers of selected areas in Visakhapatnam.

    PubMed

    Avasn Maruthit, Y; Rao, R Sambasiva; Palivela, Hepsibah; Thakre, Sujata

    2004-10-01

    Oral diseases are still a neglected epidemic. During the recent years, in India, both in urban and rual, consumption of tobacco in the form of direct chewing of gutkha is alarmingly increasing especially in the young adults as which is major reason for subsistence of oral cancer. In the present investigation an attempt was made to find out the relationship between gutkha chewing including smoking and oral micro flora in some slum dwellers of Visakhapatnam. The subjects were randomly selected and their health data was collected by distributing questionnaire to control and effected subjects. The oral saliva samples were collected from both gutkha chewers, smokers and from control groups by using saline swabs and inoculated on suitable nutrient media. The results revealed that decrease in salivation and mucous formation in gutkha chewers, which further resulted in reduction in number of oral micro flora. Aspergillus species appeared only in gutkha chewers and smokers. Gutkha chewing and smoking thus, may lead to an increase in the oral pathogens by reducing the normal symbiotic microbial flora. PMID:16649624

  4. Influence of Urban Changes on Informal Settlements and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Nigerian Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, P. O.; Babatola, O.; Fasona, M.

    2011-12-01

    The history of growth of cities and urban changes has left with it many footprints in different trajectories. The growth of large and medium cities in Nigeria overtime has resulted in sharp urban segregation between formal and informal areas. Next to the large and medium cities are the pockets of slums and unplanned informal settlements on the outskirts of large cities. The proliferation of urban slums in cities is exacerbated by the concentration of high population of urban poor in over-crowded living spaces in rapidly changing urban areas. Urban changes manifest in the changes of population, demography and livelihood characteristics of cities. These changes are the main factors that influence adaptive capacity of city dwellers and their vulnerability to climate change. Urban changes and their accompanying changes in the population, demographic and livelihood characteristics in Nigerian cities present both prospects and challenges for building future adaptive capacity to climate change. This study focuses on urban changes and the growth of urban slums in Nigerian cities and the influence of changes in population levels, demographic composition and livelihood characteristics on the adaptive capacity to climate change. The study examines (i) the typology of urban slums in time, space, scale, form and structure in the Northern and Southern Nigeria; (ii) the differentials in the perception of risk and response mechanisms to climate change in different demographic groups, cultures and regions; (iii) characterizes the potentials and challenges of future adaptive capacity to climate change; and (iv) assesses how livelihood strategies change in response to urban changes and how the range of potential adaptations to climate stresses is likely to change overtime. This study will profile urban slums and informal settlements in Nigeria, present comparisons of the socio-economic indicators for mapping of urban slums in Nigeria, provide a detailed analysis of adaptation capacity, and proffer a framework for the integration and governance of urban slums in Nigerian cities. Analyzing the way urban livelihoods, particularly those of the urban slums, are modified to adapt to urban and climate changes will help to define urban policies to re-direct urban growth and planning to respond better to climate stresses.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

  6. Seroprevalence, disease awareness, and risk factors for Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in Makoko, an urban slum community in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gyang, Pam V; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Orok, Akwaowo B; Ajibaye, Olusola; Liao, Chien-Wei; Chen, Po-Ching; Chou, Chia-Mei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Barghouth, Ursula; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in southern Nigeria, which previously was unknown, in addition to evaluating disease awareness and potential risk factors for schoolchildren in an urban slum community. In total, 366 primary schoolchildren were investigated for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Blood was collected and screened by a Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24-35kDa specific for T. canis. Children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted to a titer of 1:32. Questionnaires concerning possible risk factors were given to the schoolchildren to acquire data on this infection. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 86.1% (315/366). The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR)=2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-7.66, p=0.03), contact with dogs (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.28-0.94, p=0.03), the age of the dog (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.18-0.68, p=0.002), the feeding location of the dog (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.12-0.79, p=0.01), the consumption of raw vegetables (OR=0.89, 95% CI=0.54-1.48, p=0.004), and the drinking of unboiled water (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.26-0.90, p=0.02) were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. Although there was a high awareness of dogs being hosts of some parasites in this study, not much was known about T. canis. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among primary schoolchildren in southern Nigeria. The high seroprevalence recorded is an indication of high transmission with the consequent risk of visceral or ocular larval migrans and neurologic toxocariasis in these children. Our findings suggest the need for prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene. PMID:25812836

  7. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Urban area pretreatment program...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA...301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program...practices plans and other pollution prevention...

  8. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Urban area pretreatment program...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA...301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program...practices plans and other pollution prevention...

  9. Controlling Roosting Birds in Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2006-09-06

    during the fall and winter. Damage. Individual grackles normally do not pose much of a problem; however, when they flock together and roost in trees near homes, parks or other public facilities, they can often pose a public health hazard or nuisance... in urban areas. Their presence is often objectionable because of potential health, economic and nuisance problems. Identification Grackles These large blackbirds are characterized by long, keel-shaped tails and yellow eyes. Male grackles often appear...

  10. Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

  11. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  12. Methods on defining the urban fringe area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiulan; Li, Xuerui; Feng, Zhongke; Fang, Yuan

    2009-09-01

    Urban fringe lies in the transitional region between urban area and rural area. Defining the urban fringe area and researching the changing situation will be beneficial to the urban planning and the readjustment of land use structure. Taking Land-Sat TM images as basic information, using the theories of Shannon entropy and land use degree comprehensive index, methods on how to define the urban fringe area of Beijing are discussed. Further, the urban fringe area of Beijing is defined by using these two methods. It shows that the urban fringe area in Beijing includes a part of the urban district and also a small part of rural district. Distributing ring, it extends around irregularly, especially northwest and southeast.

  13. Methods on defining the urban fringe area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiulan; Li, Xuerui; Feng, Zhongke; Fang, Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Urban fringe lies in the transitional region between urban area and rural area. Defining the urban fringe area and researching the changing situation will be beneficial to the urban planning and the readjustment of land use structure. Taking Land-Sat TM images as basic information, using the theories of Shannon entropy and land use degree comprehensive index, methods on how to define the urban fringe area of Beijing are discussed. Further, the urban fringe area of Beijing is defined by using these two methods. It shows that the urban fringe area in Beijing includes a part of the urban district and also a small part of rural district. Distributing ring, it extends around irregularly, especially northwest and southeast.

  14. The different urban efforts to revitalize urban neighborhoods in the United States and the United Kingdom: comparative case study based on governmental responses focusing on urban neighborhood revitalization

    E-print Network

    Ko, Youngho

    2008-10-10

    stage of urban neighborhood was distinguished by a more precise explanation – a slum area with substandard housing. Another five stage model of neighborhood change was offered by Hoover and Vernon (1959) for the Regional Plan Association of New... Action and the Model Cities program. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was also created during this decade. Previous urban programs, in fact, had several department heads unwilling to coordinate themselves (Keating and Smith...

  15. Urban Area Segmentation Using Visual Words Lior Weizman Jacob Goldberger

    E-print Network

    Goldberger, Jacob

    study and planning of urban growth, a continual need. GIS data can also help government agencies, it is essential to have efficient tools for automatic detection and segmentation of urban areas. Because1 Urban Area Segmentation Using Visual Words Lior Weizman Jacob Goldberger Abstract--In this paper

  16. Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2012-03-02

    Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

  17. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues....

  18. Managing Imported Fire Ants in Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2006-08-17

    and formulations, with generic names of active ingredients and examples of product names 4 5 9 11 16 18 19 20 Managing Imported Fire Ants in Urban Areas The two species of imported fire ants (red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and black imported... and fall, broadcast a bait-formulated insecticide or use an outdoor bait station product as directed on the la- bel. Most conventional baits are applied at a rate of 1 to 1 1 ?2 pounds of product per acre, although some products are applied at higher...

  19. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  20. Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. PMID:25157123

  1. Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature Points and Spatial Voting

    E-print Network

    Ă?nsalan, Cem

    government agencies and urban region planners in updating land maps and forming long term plans accordingly1 Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature Points and Spatial Voting Beril Sirmac¸ek, Student Member, IEEE, Cem ¨Unsalan, Member, IEEE, Abstract--Automatically detecting and monitoring urban re

  2. Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kien, Vu Duy; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Weinehall, Lars; Ng, Nawi

    2014-01-01

    Background A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI) in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Design A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas. PMID:25095780

  3. Identification and delineation of urbanized areas using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Lachowski, H. M.; Christenson, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The use of Landsat data to delineate urban boundaries in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas is considered. The project, which is being conducted by the Census-Urbanized Area Application System Verification program, seeks to develop processing techniques and output products that meet urban fringe delineation requirements. A processing approach which will use an interactive processing system to produce digital enhancement and classification results is described.

  4. Mesh network model for urban area

    E-print Network

    Chiang, Nhan Tu

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing population, high crime rate, and limited economic opportunities are all symptoms of urban decline. These characteristics are, unfortunately, evident in major cities and small towns. Local municipalities in these ...

  5. MAGNITUDE OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACES IN URBAN AREAS

    E-print Network

    Pitt, Robert E.

    /QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control Rv Volumetric Runoff Coefficient GIS Geographical Information System Quality Database NURP Nationwide Urban Runoff Program P Phosphorus PLSS Public Land Survey System QA

  6. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Wang, Pu

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road ...

  7. Ontologies in remote sensing data processing for urban area description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryumkin, Alexander I.; Kabanov, Mikhail M.; Kapustin, Sergey N.

    2014-11-01

    The article discusses an approach to incorporating a priori information for urban area automated recognition and classification based on space and aerial images. An approach considered is based on using the ontology describing urban objects and relations between them. Basic steps and guidelines to such ontology building are discussed.

  8. Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosla, Renu

    Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

  9. Development and validation of a global positioning system-based "map book" system for categorizing cluster residency status of community members living in high-density urban slums in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Peter; Choko, Augustine T; Webb, Emily L; Thindwa, Deus; Squire, S Bertel; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chunda, Treza; Chavula, Kondwani; Makombe, Simon D; Lalloo, David G; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2013-05-15

    A significant methodological challenge in implementing community-based cluster-randomized trials is how to accurately categorize cluster residency when data are collected at a site distant from households. This study set out to validate a map book system for use in urban slums with no municipal address systems, where classification has been shown to be inaccurate when address descriptions were used. Between April and July 2011, 28 noncontiguous clusters were demarcated in Blantyre, Malawi. In December 2011, antiretroviral therapy initiators were asked to identify themselves as cluster residents (yes/no and which cluster) by using map books. A random sample of antiretroviral therapy initiators was used to validate map book categorization against Global Positioning System coordinates taken from participants' households. Of the 202 antiretroviral therapy initiators, 48 (23.8%) were categorized with the map book system as in-cluster residents and 147 (72.8%) as out-of-cluster residents, and 7 (3.4%) were unsure. Agreement between map books and the Global Positioning System was 100% in the 20 adults selected for validation and was 95.0% (? = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00) in an additional 20 in-cluster residents (overall ? = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.00). With map books, cluster residents were classified rapidly and accurately. If validated elsewhere, this approach could be of widespread value in that it would enable accurate categorization without home visits. PMID:23589586

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF AREA SOURCES TO HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN THREE URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in three urban areas--Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle-Tacoma (Puget Sound). PA has implemented the Urban Area Source Program (UASP) required until Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act A...

  11. ICMR Task Force National Collaborative Study on Identification of High Risk Families, Mothers and Outcome of their Off-springs with particular reference to the problem of maternal nutrition, low birth weight, perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality in rural and urban slum communities. Summary, conclusions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, S K; Singh, K K; Saxena, B N

    1991-12-01

    The objectives was to assess the determinants of and rates of abortion, stillbirth, and infant mortality for a cohort of pregnant women from slums in New Delhi, Calcutta, and Madras, India and rural slums in Hyderabad, Varanasi, and Chandigarh, India in 1981. The relationship of low birthweight (LBW) and high risk pregnancies to social, environmental, nutritional, cultural, and biological factors was of interest. The results showed variation both between and within urban and rural areas. Rural pregnancy outcome showed fewer LBWs and perinatal and neonatal mortality. Perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates were consistent with prior findings. There was a demonstrated need for prenatal care and referral due to the 10-12% with a poor obstetric history and the significant number with anemia, bleeding, hypertension, toxemia, and urinary tract infections during this pregnancy. Many women were malnourished (body weight 40 kg, height 145 cm, and midarm circumference of 22.5 cm. These women can be identified as high risk. Other risk factors identified were women with disadvantageous personal habits: smoking, alcohol use, tobacco chewing, and working. 10-25% of pregnancies were not registered even though the prenatal clinic was accessible and outreach was provided. 20% completed the recommended number of prenatal visits. 75-85% visited at least once and sometimes more often. Screening for high risk must be done at the 1st visit. Women had strong feelings about the preference for a Dai during delivery and for place of delivery. Poor training of health workers was reflected in the lack of adequate sanitation during the birthing process. Neonatal units were lacking and primary care absent. 10-14% of births were preterm of which 50% occurred at 36 weeks. Multiple regression identified risk factors for fetal and neonatal mortality and LBW as maternal age, preterm birth, maternal anemia, previous preterm or LBW, birth interval, and previous fetal and neonatal mortality. Recommendations are for improving sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies, promoting community awareness of the adverse effects of early marriage and close birth spacing, improving the delivery of health care, allocating health resources based on morality rates, using an intersectoral approach for dealing with the complex social and personal habits adversely affecting childbearing and 7 other suggestions. Existing services and their use are inadequate. PMID:1819569

  12. Generalized flood-frequency estimates for urban areas in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gann, Ector Eugene

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating flood-frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.

  13. Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas

    E-print Network

    Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

  14. Logit Models for Estimating Urban Area Through Travel

    E-print Network

    Talbot, Eric

    2011-10-21

    LOGIT MODELS FOR ESTIMATING URBAN AREA THROUGH TRAVEL A Thesis by ERIC TALBOT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOGIT MODELS FOR ESTIMATING URBAN AREA THROUGH TRAVEL A Thesis by ERIC TALBOT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M...

  15. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East Africa have been derived (six at CSIR and two at CMCC). That is, a multi-model ensemble of simulations of present-day and future climate has been made available for a number of African regions. This approach is most useful to describe the range of uncertainty associated with future climate. In order to obtain a set of plausible and physically defensible projections that can be used for a broad range of subsequent research questions, the two partners followed two different modelling approaches. The first approach, (by CMCC) uses a single dynamic climate change model: the model gets executed several times using a number of pertubations, e.g. changing initial conditions to account for the non-linear dynamics, perturbations of the boundary conditions to account for the 'imperfect' characterizations of the non-atmospheric components of the climate system or to handle the uncertainty of the driving global model, or perturbations of the model physics to account for the uncertainties inherent in the parameterizations. The second approach, (by CSIR) keeps the boundary conditions static but downscales a number of different global circulation models to account for the uncertainties inherent in the models themselves. In total, CSIR has run six different dynamic models. All runs have been conducted on super computing clusters to be completed within reasonable timeframes. The full data set is currently made available on the web. A number of tools is used to provide maximum user experience for climate change experts, social geographers, city planners and policy decision makers.

  16. Waste Water Treatment From Small Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Mahríková

    This paper describes some actual specific problems by sewage systems in small urban centres. It is dilemma to find compliance\\u000a with measures, which is following the strict requirements of EU by discharging of waste waters in receiving waters with lack\\u000a of funds required for the construction of new sewage systems and WWTPs in small municipalities. In 2002 a new Water

  17. Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujita, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

  18. An alternative explanation of the semiarid urban area “oasis effect”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Moustaoui, M.; Mahalov, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2011-12-01

    This research evaluates the climatic summertime representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface temperature using the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) over the rapidly urbanizing and water-vulnerable Phoenix metropolitan area. A suite of monthly, high-resolution (2 km grid spacing) simulations are conducted during the month of July with both a contemporary landscape and a hypothetical presettlement scenario. WRF demonstrates excellent agreement in the representation of the daily to monthly diurnal cycle of near-surface temperatures, including the accurate simulation of maximum daytime temperature timing. Thermal sensitivity to anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULCC), assessed via replacement of the modern-day landscape with natural shrubland, is small on the regional scale. The WRF-simulated characterization of the diurnal cycle, supported by previous observational analyses, illustrates two distinct and opposing impacts on the urbanized diurnal cycle of the Phoenix metro area, with evening and nighttime warming partially offset by daytime cooling. The simulated nighttime urban heat island (UHI) over this semiarid urban complex is explained by well-known mechanisms (slow release of heat from within the urban fabric stored during daytime and increased emission of longwave radiation from the urban canopy toward the surface). During daylight hours, the limited vegetation and dry semidesert region surrounding metro Phoenix warms at greater rates than the urban complex. Although prior work has suggested that daytime temperatures are lower within the urban complex owing to the addition of residential and agricultural irrigation (i.e., "oasis effect") we show that modification of Phoenix's surrounding environment to a biome more representative of temperate regions eliminates the daytime urban cooling. Our results indicate that surrounding environmental conditions, including land cover and availability of soil moisture, play a principal role in establishing the nature and evolution of the diurnal cycle of near-surface temperature for the greater Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area relative to its rural and undeveloped counterpart.

  19. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, Joăo; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  20. Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, Joăo; Spaan, Matthijs T J

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  1. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect area - how the groundwater is interacting with urban structures >, (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final step is the cartographic representation. In this final step the urban groundwater maps are created. All the methodological steps are doubled by programmed procedures developed in a groundwater management platform for urban areas. The core of the procedures is represented by a set of well defined hydrogeological set of geospatial queries. The cartographic products (urban groundwater maps) can be used by different types of users: civil engineers, urban planners, scientist as well as decision and policies makers.

  2. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Holzer; A. Ivan Johnson

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects

  3. STORMWATER RUNOFF ON URBAN AREAS OF STEEP SLOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research is conducted to investigate the applicability of commonly used urban storm runoff prediction models to drainage basins with steep slopes. The hydraulics of runoff on steep slope areas is first reviewed and its difference from that for mild slope areas is discussed. Nex...

  4. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  5. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

  6. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  7. Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and semi-urban areas in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilkis A. Begum; Eugene Kim; Swapan K. Biswas; Philip K. Hopke

    2004-01-01

    Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) were collected in a semi-residential (AECD) area from June 2001 to June 2002 of Dhaka and in an urban area of Rajshahi, a city in northwestern region of Bangladesh from August 2001 to May 2002. The samples were collected using a ‘Gent’ stacked filter sampler in two fractions of

  8. Modelling atmospheric dry deposition in urban areas using an urban canopy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherin, N.; Roustan, Y.; Musson-Genon, L.; Seigneur, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing length parametrisation of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon depending on the height-to-width ratio of built areas: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow. Differences between the classical roughness-length model and the model developed here are investigated. Sensitivity to key parameters are discussed. This approach provides spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes that depend on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area.

  9. On the variability of streamflow - urban versus rural areas

    E-print Network

    Feddes, Robert George

    1970-01-01

    of this type have been pre- pared by Sawyer (1961) and Waananen (1961) for fairly large watersheds (10 to 90 mi ). In this study, the effects of urbanization on runoff were investigated by uti!izing data from two small. watersheds in the same geographical... stream on Burton Creek 0. 2 mi longer; however, it has a drainage area that is only 70 per cent of the area of Hudson Creek. The most important effect of urbanization is the decrease in lag time. Carter (1961) found that for a watershed...

  10. Modelling population changes in small English urban areas.

    PubMed

    Congdon, P; Shepherd, J

    1986-10-01

    The authors examine processes underlying the growth of small urban areas in England. "There is evidence of 'people-led' growth in environmentally attractive locations (for example, through retirement migration). However, growth of small- and medium-sized towns also reflects employment decentralisation and deconcentration to freestanding or satellite towns, and the extension of commuter hinterlands.... Government policies encouraging growth are also demonstrated to be significant." The processes resulting in population decline in some small towns are identified. "The impact on modelling growth in urban areas of a diversity of causal processes and locational contexts for growth is considered." PMID:12340785

  11. DESIGNING THE URBAN FOREST OF TOMORROW: PRE-COMMERCIAL THINNING ADAPTED FOR USE IN URBAN AREAS IN SWEDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Rydberg; Jan Falck

    1998-01-01

    The area of semi-natural young growth in urban green areas of Sweden is growing. These young urban forests are often in urgent need of management. The aim of this study is to show some possibilities for creating a multifunctional urban forest using pre-commercial thinning. Enhancing the variation in the naturally regenerated mixed young forest does this. A demonstration forest was

  12. Multi-scale atmospheric environment modelling for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A. A.; Nuterman, R. B.

    2009-04-01

    Modern supercomputers allow realising multi-scale systems for assessment and forecasting of urban meteorology, air pollution and emergency preparedness and considering nesting with obstacle-resolved models. A multi-scale modelling system with downscaling from regional to city-scale with the Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) and to micro-scale with the obstacle-resolved Micro-scale Model for Urban Environment (M2UE) is suggested and demonstrated. The M2UE validation results versus the Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST) experiment indicate satisfactory quality of the model. Necessary conditions for the choice of nested models, building descriptions, areas and resolutions of nested models are analysed. Two-way nesting (up- and down-scaling), when scale effects both directions (from the meso-scale on the micro-scale and from the micro-scale on the meso-scale), is also discussed.

  13. Water quality problems of urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Hall; J. B. Ellis

    1985-01-01

    The increases in population and building density that occur as predominantly rural catchment areas become progressively urbanised can have a far-reaching effect on the hydrological cycle, and therefore on both the quantity and quality of water resources. The success of management strategies intended to alleviate the flooding problems and to prevent the degradation of water quality within and downstream of

  14. Modelling the groundwater recharge of an urban area in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Tesch; Volkmar Dunger; Jörg Matschullat

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important part of the natural water cycle. This cycle is disturbed particularly in urban areas. Sealing negatively influences the hydrological and mechanical soil properties. The continued sealing of soils, mainly caused by urbanisation, will continue to reduce the infiltration of water to groundwater and increase the surface run-off. Furthermore, recent and future climate changes strongly affect

  15. Concentrated Urban Poverty: The Case of Izmir Inner Area, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, poverty has been a main subject of debates since 1960s. It used to be a serious problem for both rural areas and the big cities that gained migration. In Turkey and world-wide since the 1980s, however, there have been more research interests in the concentrated urban poverty, especially along with the increase in levels of impoverishment around the

  16. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions.

  17. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  18. Modelling muddy floods in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

  19. Physical space and its role in the production and reproduction of violence in the "slum wars" in Medellin, Colombia (1970s-2013)

    E-print Network

    Samper Escobar, Jose Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Rhetorically, people often make a tacit linkage between the spaces of urban informality ("slums"), crime and violence. This occurs in academic circles-as exemplified by the common occurrence that when researchers seek to ...

  20. Rainfall Modification by Urban Areas: New Perspectives from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold F.; Negri, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48% - 116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work is extending the investigation to Phoenix, Arizona, an arid U.S. city, and several international cities like Mexico City, Johannesburg, and Brasilia. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.

  1. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  2. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  3. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  4. Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in complex urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.

    2013-12-01

    A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

  5. Caring for Caregivers of People Living with HIV in the Family: A Response to the HIV Pandemic from Two Urban Slum Communities in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Rewa; Purohit, Vidula; Karve, Latika; Bhalerao, Vinod; Karvande, Shilpa; Rangan, Sheela; Reddy, Srikanth; Paranjape, Ramesh; Sahay, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In low resource settings, the vast majority of ‘Person/people Living with HIV’ (PLHIV/s) and inadequate healthcare delivery systems to meet their treatment and care needs, caregivers play a vital role. Home based caregivers are often unrecognized with limited AIDS policies and programs focusing on them. We explored the perceptions and norms regarding care being provided by family caregivers of PLHIVs in India. Methodology A community based qualitative study to understand the issues pertaining to home based care for PLHIV was conducted in urban settings of Pune city, in Maharashtra, India. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among men, women and peer educators were carried out. A total of 44 in-depth Interviews (IDIs) with PLHIVs (20) and their caregivers (24), were conducted using separate guides respectively. Data was analyzed thematically. Results Home based care was perceived as economically viable option available for PLHIVs. ‘Care’ comprised of emotional, adherence, nursing and financial support to PLHIV. Home based care was preferred over hospital based care as it ensured confidentiality and patient care without hampering routine work at home. Women emerged as more vital primary caregivers compared to men. Home based care for men was almost unconditional while women had no such support. The natal family of women also abandoned. Their marital families seemed to provide support. Caregivers voiced the need for respite care and training. Discussion Gender related stigma and discrimination existed irrespective of women being the primary family caregivers. The support from marital families indicates a need to explore care and support issues at natal and marital homes of the women living with HIV respectively. Home based care training and respite care for the caregivers is recommended. Gender sensitive interventions addressing gender inequity and HIV related stigma should be modeled while designing interventions for PLHIVs and their family caregivers. PMID:23028725

  6. A study of residents' environmental awareness among communities in a peri-urban area of Xiamen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Lin; Xianhua Guo; Yu Zhao; Lingyang Pan; Lishan Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of communities is a common feature in peri-urban areas, which are transitional zones between urban and rural areas. Lifestyles, as well as environmental awareness, may be closely related to the community morphology. Currently, there are few studies on the differences in environmental awareness in peri-urban areas. In this paper, a typical peri-urban area in Xiamen (Jimei District) was

  7. Evolution of the urban heat island at a large coastal urban area of Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, D.; Pierros, F.; Nastos, P. T.; Petrakis, M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are in the focus of research interest during past decades, as they concern densely populated areas, thus having a great impact on health of citizens, but also on environment and economy of cities. The linkage between urban heat islands and climatic change is of particular importance, especially in areas where - according to future projections - significant warming is expected, as the urban effect amplifies regional warming. The study focuses on the city of Athens and concerns the temporal evolution on the mesoscale of UHI over the period 1975-2010. Although the study of the spatial distribution of the urban heat island in Athens has revealed large differences of the air temperature between the central zone of the city and surrounding rural stations (reaching up to 10 oC in certain cases), it is quite important to study the rates of UHI changes on the mesoscale and extract information on whether UHI is amplified, stabilized or has declined over time. It is mentioned that Athens has undergone dramatic changes during recent decades as regards land use/land cover map and population distribution. The knowledge of the rates of UHI changes will also reveal the 'true' rates of background warming which is observed in the area during the study period. Annual and seasonal values were calculated from daily average, maximum and minimum temperature at seven stations of different characteristics of the area of interest (urban/ suburban/ coastal/rural). From the comparison of the average air temperature between the rural and urban stations, it was found that the intensity of UHI increases by approximately +0.2 oC/decade on an annual basis over the study period, but the results are strongly dependent on the season. In summer and spring, the rate of UHI changes is more pronounced, amounting to +0.4 oC/decade (statistically significant at 0.05 CL). Moreover, it was found that the rate of change is higher in the maximum than in the minimum air temperature. It was also estimated that urban effect accounts almost for the half of the observed warming trends in the area, on an annual base.

  8. Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed.

    PubMed

    ?im?ek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine

    2015-02-01

    After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eski?ehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %. PMID:25182427

  9. Dispersion from an area source in urban-like roughness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frauke Pascheke; F. Barlow; Alan Robins

    The ventilation of scalars from urban-like geometries at neighbourhood scale was investigated using two geometries with an equal plan and frontal density of p = f = 25% but different height distribu- tions: a uniform height roughness (C10S) and a non- uniform height roughness (RM10S). In both configura- tions the area source was represented by a sub-unit of the idealised

  10. INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS

    E-print Network

    Ribes, Aurélien

    INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS ­ RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS M of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models in urban areas is commonly limited to a few sites, often just at airports. The surface energy balance

  11. 47 CFR 90.741 - Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...minimum of 28 of the urban areas listed in the following...one of the listed urban areas if it is within 60 kilometers... Table Urban area North latitude West... 71°03?23.2? San Francisco-Oakland...23?36.7? San Diego, California...

  12. Son preference and sterilisation use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Edmeades; Rohini Prabha Pande; Tina Falle; Suneeta Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which women's sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most South Asian countries, relatively little research

  13. Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covőes catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

  14. Demand for private health insurance in Chinese urban areas.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiao-Hua; Hu, Teh-Wei; Ren, Jane; Chen, Wen; Xu, Ke; Huang, Jin-Hui

    2007-10-01

    Between 1993 and 2003, the proportion of urban residents without health insurance rose from 27 to 50%. The probability of outpatient visits in the previous 2 weeks dropped from 19.9 to 11.8% in urban areas between 1993 and 2003, and from 16.0 to 13.9% in rural areas. To improve risk-pooling and risk-sharing, private health insurance should play an important role in China's health insurance system. This paper estimates the demand for private health insurance in urban areas using contingent valuation methods. Individuals were asked about their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for major catastrophic disease insurance (MCDI), inpatient expenses insurance (IEI), and outpatient expenses insurance (OEI). The study was based on a household survey conducted in four small cities in China in 2004 and included 2671 respondents. More people would like to buy IEI and MCDI (48.5 and 43.0%, respectively) than OEI (24.5%). In addition, individuals would pay a higher premium for MCDI and IEI than for OEI. The price elasticities of demand for MCDI, IEI, and OEI were -0.27, -0.34, and -0.42, respectively. The determinants of enrollment in the three private health insurance programs were similar with employment status, age, education, and income. PMID:17199233

  15. A critical knowledge pathway to low-carbon, sustainable futures: Integrated understanding of urbanization, urban areas, and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Seto, Karen C.; Chester, Mikhail; Duren, Riley M.; Hughes, Sara; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Marcotullio, Peter; Baker, Lawrence; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kennedy, Christopher; Larson, Elisabeth; Pincetl, Stephanie; Runfola, Dan; Sanchez, Landy; Shrestha, Gyami; Feddema, Johannes; Sarzynski, Andrea; Sperling, Joshua; Stokes, Eleanor

    2014-10-01

    Independent lines of research on urbanization, urban areas, and carbon have advanced our understanding of some of the processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This synthesis integrates some of these diverse viewpoints as a first step toward a coproduced, integrated framework for understanding urbanization, urban areas, and their relationships to carbon. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas, affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas, based not only on demographics or income but also on other interconnected features of urban development pathways such as urban form, economic function, economic-growth policies, and other governance arrangements. It points to a wide array of uncertainties around the urbanization processes, their interactions with urban socio-institutional and built environment systems, and how these impact the exchange of carbon flows within and outside urban areas. We must also understand in turn how carbon feedbacks, including carbon impacts and potential impacts of climate change, can affect urbanization processes. Finally, the paper explores options, barriers, and limits to transitioning cities to low-carbon trajectories, and suggests the development of an end-to-end, coproduced and integrated scientific understanding that can more effectively inform the navigation of transitional journeys and the avoidance of obstacles along the way.

  16. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kardel; K. Wuyts; M. Babanezhad; U. W. A. Vitharana; T. Wuytack; G. Potters; R. Samson

    2010-01-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density

  17. [Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P < 0.05). The three nitrogen depositions of ring-road and railway station were higher than other functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area. PMID:24812938

  18. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly dependent on tree density, we modeled transpiration as a function of both species and density to evaluate a likely range of values in irrigated urban forests. The results show that urban forests in irrigated, semi-arid regions can constitute a significant use of water, but water use can be mitigated by appropriate selection of site, management method, and species. PMID:21639035

  19. The Low Backscattering Targets Classification in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR) is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m) and slant range (0.4 m). In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO) with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow) in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  20. Vertical Village : towards a new typology of high-density low-income urban housing

    E-print Network

    Harper, Caleb Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Apocalyptic global urbanization is old news. For generations statistically supported oracles have warned against the rising tide of rapid urban growth, one must only casually search the keywords "urban slum" on Goggle to ...

  1. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in dominant processes and solute pathways.

  2. Urban tree health in the Phoenix metropolitan area Department of Applied Biological Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    ). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Tree canopy health of the urban forest was generally good (Fig. 1A). Canopy heathUrban tree health in the Phoenix metropolitan area Jean Stutz Department of Applied Biological Sciences Arizona State University Urban tree health in the Phoenix metropolitan area Jean Stutz Department

  3. Directional mathematical morphology and path openings application to the analysis of satellite remote sensing images from urban areas.

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    applications require an automated classification (urban planning, change detection for disaster management remote sensing images from urban areas pixel. Such images feature fine structures and thus enable an accurate analysis of urban areas. Numerous

  4. Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Shefer, D

    1994-08-01

    The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit. PMID:7522455

  5. CFD model simulation of LPG dispersion in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiggia, Marco; Landucci, Gabriele; Busini, Valentina; Derudi, Marco; Alba, Mario; Scaioni, Marco; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio; Rota, Renato

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing concern related to the releases of industrial hazardous materials (either toxic or flammable) due to terrorist attacks or accidental events in congested industrial or urban areas. In particular, a reliable estimation of the hazardous cloud footprint as a function of time is required to assist emergency response decision and planning as a primary element of any Decision Support System. Among the various hazardous materials, the hazard due to the road and rail transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is well known since large quantities of LPG are commercialized and the rail or road transportation patterns are often close to downtown areas. Since it is well known that the widely-used dispersion models do not account for the effects of any obstacle like buildings, tanks, railcars, or trees, in this paper a CFD model has been applied to simulate the reported consequences of a recent major accident involving an LPG railcar rupture in a congested urban area (Viareggio town, in Italy), showing both the large influence of the obstacles on LPG dispersion as well as the potentials of CFD models to foresee such an influence.

  6. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  7. A Century of the Evolution of the Urban Area in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946–70, 1988–97, and 2004–10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  8. A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  9. Area-based initiatives and urban dynamics. The case of the Porto city centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A. Rio Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    In face of the systemic character of urban problems and the uncertainty surrounding planning methodologies, the need to intervene in urban space requires a holistic and spatial-based approach, rather than simply attempting to regulate urban expansion. Such an approach has increasingly been used in restricted areas to deal with complex urban dynamics and conflicting interests. This area-based and multi-problem approach

  10. A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Mustard, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

  11. Pregnant Women's and Community Health Workers' Perceptions of Root Causes of Malnutrition Among Infants and Young Children in the Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A.; Griffiths, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations. PMID:21653248

  12. PLANNING TOOLS THAT CAN BE USED TO FACILITATE URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR; Zakir HOSSAIN

    2011-01-01

    Global urban populations are increasing day by day and putting continuous pressure on cities. The level of world urbanization rate was 50.6% in the year 2010 and it is forecasted that by 2050 it will be 70% , UN (Habitates, 2010). Rising trend of urbanization creates various urban problems like; urban poverty, environmental hazard, urban slum etc which leads continuous

  13. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M.; Savastru, R.; Savastru, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Tautan, M. N.; Miclos, S.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid urbanization transforms the natural landscape to anthropogenic urban land and changes surface biogeophysical characteristics.Urban growth affects the ecology of cities in a number of ways, such as eliminating and fragmenting native habitats, modifying local climate conditions, and generating anthropogenic pollutants.Urbanization has changed many landscapes throughout the world with serious ecological consequences.To understand the ecology of urban systems, it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization, which often requires dynamic modeling and spatial analysis. Geospatial information provided by satellite remote sensing sensors and biogeophysical field data are very useful for urban landuse-landcover dynamics and impacts analysis. The spatial and spectral variability of urban environments present fundamental challenges to deriving accurate remote sensing information for urban areas. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. Percent impervious surface was used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapour content. Land surface temperatures have been analysed for different land use and land cover categories both in urban as well as in periurban areas. Because of the removal of vegetative cover and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces, the urban heterogeneity of land surface and associated spatial extents influence surface thermal conditions. In situ meteorological data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a serious impact on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects. This papers aims to provide a spatio-temporal analysis of urban structure for Bucharest urban area based on multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite imagery (LANDSAT TM, ETM; MODIS, IKONOS) over 1987 - 2007 period. Understanding the structure of urban cover dynamics and land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas is very important to urban management for reasons such as runoff control, urban forest planning, air quality improvement, and mitigation of global climate change. Accurate maps of urban tree and other surface cover types can provide critical information to better understand urban ecosystems and help improve environmental quality and human health in urban areas. This paper demonstrates the potential of moderate-and high resolution, multispectral imagery to map and monitor the evolution of the physical urban environment in relation with micro and macroclimate conditions and their feedbacks.

  14. Application of district heating system to U. S. urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Karkheck, J.; Powell, J.

    1978-01-01

    In the last few decades district-heating systems have been widely used in a number of European countries using waste heat from electric generation or refuse incineration, as well as energy from primary sources such as geothermal wells or fossil-fired boilers. The current world status of district-heat utilization is summarized. Cost and implementation projections for district-heating systems in the U. S. are discussed in comparison with existing modes of space conditioning and domestic water heating. A substantial fraction, i.e., up to approximately one-half of the U.S. population could employ district-heating systems using waste heat, with present population-distribution patterns. U.S. energy usage would be reduced by an equivalent of approximately 30 percent of current oil imports. Detailed analyses of a number of urban areas are used to formulate conceptual district energy-supply systems, potential implementation levels, and projected energy costs. Important national ancillary economic and social benefits are described, and potential difficulties relating to the implementation of district-heating systems in the U.S. are discussed. District-heating systems appear very attractive for meeting future U.S. energy needs. The technology is well established. The cost/benefit yield is favorable, and the conservation potential is significant. District heating can be applied in urban and densely populated suburban areas. The remaining demand, in rural and low-population-density communities, appears to be better suited to other forms of system substitution.

  15. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. PMID:22687155

  16. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

  17. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  18. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs. PMID:22399250

  19. Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining collapses, with the opening of pits on the surface, circular or elliptical, formed by highly inclined or vertical walls. On the surface have been found sinkholes, large depressions with steep walls and slightly elongated forms, which have caused impacts to homes and roads infrastructure. Based on recent surveys carried out, was estimated that the risk area covers about 2.7 square kilometers, jutting out from the center of mining "Serbariu mine" and arrives conurbation of Sirai. To remember besides, in the eastern outskirts of Carbonia, (Cannas locality), and in the district of Serbariu - Perdas Biancas, in any major tectonic lineation Hercynian and Tertiary age, the presence of 9 sinkholes , 6 of which are newly formed, for the which are studying the possible causes due to the exploitation of groundwater. Referring to the geological and structural models of the study sites, were are made firsts geophysical investigation using GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), in "multi-frequency arrays," in the process of calibration and systematize of the sinkhole phenomenon.

  20. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental changes associated with urbanization in nine metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Cuffney, Thomas F; Brightbill, Robin A; May, Jason T; Waite, Ian R

    2010-07-01

    Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates along gradients of urban intensity were investigated in nine metropolitan areas across the United States. Invertebrate assemblages in metropolitan areas where forests or shrublands were being converted to urban land were strongly related to urban intensity. In metropolitan areas where agriculture and grazing lands were being converted to urban land, invertebrate assemblages showed much weaker or nonsignificant relations with urban intensity because sites with low urban intensity were already degraded by agriculture. Ordination scores, the number of EPT taxa, and the mean pollution-tolerance value of organisms at a site were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition. Diversity indices, functional groups, behavior, and dominance metrics were not good indicators of urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urban effects than were abundance metrics, and qualitative samples collected from multiple habitats gave similar results to those of single habitat quantitative samples (riffles or woody snags) in all metropolitan areas. Changes in urban intensity were strongly correlated with a set of landscape variables that was consistent across all metropolitan areas. In contrast, the instream environmental variables that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses varied among metropolitan areas. The natural environmental setting determined the biological, chemical, and physical instream conditions upon which urbanization acts and dictated the differences in responses to urbanization among metropolitan areas. Threshold analysis showed little evidence for an initial period of resistance to urbanization. Instead, assemblages were degraded at very low levels of urbanization, and response rates were either similar across the gradient or higher at low levels of urbanization. Levels of impervious cover that have been suggested as protective of streams (5-10%) were associated with significant assemblage degradation and were not protective. PMID:20666256

  1. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin L. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food

  2. Fish Assemblage Responses to Urban Intensity Gradients in Contrasting Metropolitan Areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL R. MEADOR; HUMBERT ZAPPIA

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence

  3. How Does Real Exchange Rate Influence Income Inequality Between Urban And Rural Areas In China?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylviane GUILLAUMONT JEANNENEY; Ping HUA

    1999-01-01

    The channels through which the real exchange rate influences urban\\/rural per capita real income inequality are analyzed using yearly data for 28 Chinese provinces. Due to the higher share of tradable goods produced in urban than rural areas, the real depreciation of the Chinese currency raised the urban bias, contrary to the effect usually expected. This rise was, however, mitigated

  4. How does real exchange rate influence income inequality between urban and rural areas in China?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Guillaumont Jeanneney; P. Hua

    2001-01-01

    The channels through which the real exchange rate influences urban\\/rural per capita real income inequality are analyzed using yearly data for 28 Chinese provinces. Due to the higher share of tradable goods produced in urban than rural areas, the real depreciation of the Chinese currency raised the urban bias, contrary to the effect usually expected. This rise was, however, mitigated

  5. Modelling the impact of high-rise buildings in urban areas on precipitation initiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. D. Carraça; C. G. Collier

    2007-01-01

    The impact of urban areas upon precipitation distribution has been studied for many years. However, the relative importance of the distribution and type of surface morphology and urban heating remains unclear. A simple model of the surface sensible heat flux is used to explore the impact of urban heterogeneity. Sensitivity experiments are carried out to test the validity of the

  6. Use of normalized difference built-up index in automatically mapping urban areas from TM imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zha; J. Gao; S. Ni

    2003-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery is ideally used to monitor and detect land cover changes that occur frequently in urban and peri-urban areas as a consequence of incessant urbanization. It is a lengthy process to convert satellite imagery into land cover map using the existing methods of manual interpretation and parametric image classification digitally. In this paper we propose a new method

  7. Effect of urbanization on the avifauna in a tropical metropolitan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estaban Biamonte; Luis Sandoval; Eduardo Chacón; Gilbert Barrantes

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and unplanned expansion of urban areas is a common pattern in neotropical developing countries. Urbanization has\\u000a eliminated or drastically altered large areas of natural habitats used by the rich neotropical avifauna. In our study area,\\u000a in Costa Rica’s Central Valley, urbanization increased 72% in 33 years with the consequent destruction, fragmentation, and\\u000a isolation of forest tracts, shade plantations,

  8. 47 CFR 90.741 - Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...areas listed in the following Table within ten years of initial...is considered to be within one of the listed urban areas...Datum 1983 (NAD83)). Table Urban area North latitude... 71°24?39.2? Salt Lake City, Utah 40°45...66°06?58.6? Little Rock-North Little Rock, Arkansas...

  9. Methodology For Assessing Local Seismic Hazard Maps For Urban Areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantea, A.; Constantin, A.; Moldovan, I.

    We propose a methodology for assessing local seismic hazard maps for urban areas (L.S.H.M.U.A) The necessity derive from the accelerated economical and social de- velopment as well as from the urge of the technical settlement reconsideration in the field of building, the development of the territory and urbanism, as it results from last decade researches in the related scientifically and technical domains. The complexity of this elaboration results from the large volume of knowledge involved from subdo- mains of Geoscience, mostly from Solid Earth Physics as a part of Geophysics, from which Seismology, Tectonophysics, Gravimetry, Geomagnetism and Geochronology belong. In order to elaborate the hazard maps, not only information furnished by seis- mological researches are sufficient, but also the analysis and interpretation of all re- sults of the complex seismotectonical and geological researches, making use of the re- lations between physical measurement that express properties of the rocks, the dynam- ics of tectonically structures and the geological characteristics allowing the knowledge of laws that govern the seismogenesis process.

  10. Persistent Scatterer InSAR monitoring of Bratislava urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique, covering the target area with 57 Envisat ASAR images from Ascending Track No. 229 (32) and Descending Track No. 265 (25) captured between years 2002 and 2010. Processing involves Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) a powerful software solution for obtaining differential interferograms and performing PSInSAR methodology. The area of interest to investigate the deformation phenomena is covering approximately 16 by 16 kilometers (256 sqkm). For evaluation of PSInSAR potential to detect and monitor ground displacements, PS derived time series of deformation signal were compared to the field GNSS data from three GNSS stations coded PIL1, BRAT and GKU4. By the detailed look on the deformation maps the investigated urban area of Bratislava is relatively stable with the deformation rates within the few (±5) millimeters. The comparison of PSInSAR derived time series with GNSS data indicates good correlation and confirms achievable precision and applicability of InSAR measurements for ground stability monitoring purposes. Data for this work were provided by European Space Agency within the Category-1 project ID 9981: "Detection of ground deformation using radar interferometry techniques". The authors are grateful to the Tatrabanka Foundation and The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic for the opportunity to work together. Data have been processed by the Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) and visualised in Google Earth. This paper is also the result of the implementation of the project: the National Centre of Earth's Surface Deformation Diagnostic in the area of Slovakia, ITMS 26220220108 supported by the Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF and the grant No. 1/0642/13 of the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA.

  11. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

  12. 78 FR 51812 - Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...Solicitation of Project Proposals for the Passenger Ferry Grant...

  13. Assessing urbanized area expansion through the integration of Landsat and conventional data /79052/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. B.; Friedman, S. Z.

    1979-01-01

    An image base information system (IBIS) is utilized to integrate Landsat and census data for the purpose of mapping urban land and updating urbanized-area outer lines. IBIS is a subset of the video image communication and retrieval digital image processing system developed at JPL. IBIS is used to analyze three urban areas: Orlando, Florida; Seattle, Washington; and Boston, Massachusetts. In all three applications the primary objective is to map the expansion of urban land cover in the urban fringe. Pertinent tabular reports are produced.

  14. Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sharmila L

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence. PMID:23568948

  15. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  16. Sedimentary PBDEs in urban areas of tropical Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Rinawati; Santiago, Evangeline C

    2013-11-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in surface sediment samples collected from urban canals or rivers in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Japan. The total PBDE concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.83 to 3140 ng/g dry wt. BDE-209 was predominant, ranging from 43% to 97% of total PBDEs, followed by nona-BDEs and some detectable concentrations of BDEs 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183. Sedimentary PBDE levels in Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines and Thailand were generally higher than those reported for highly industrialized countries. Spatial distribution of PBDEs indicated that inland sources may impact coastal areas. The presence of BDE congeners which are not contained in technical mixtures and the higher proportions of nona-BDEs relative to BDE-209 in the sediments were identified as indicators of debromination. BDE-209 was possibly debrominated under anaerobic conditions in some of the sediment samples. PMID:24120227

  17. [Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

    2007-08-01

    By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. PMID:17974233

  18. Factors influencing childhood immunisation in an urban area of Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, T V; Rodrigues, L C

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine the factors associated with incomplete vaccination in an urban area in Sao Paulo, Brazil; and to explore whether differences in vaccine coverage in the catchment area of health centres remain after the demographic constitution of the population in these areas is controlled for. DESIGN--The children were selected as controls for a case-control study. 455 children were selected at random (but age matched) from the health centre registries. Data was collected from the health centre records and from home interviews. SETTING--All children were registered in FAISA, a municipal health service comprising a large network of health centres and hospitals. FAISA's services are free at the point of delivery, and over 85% of the city's children are registered. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were selected to represent, except in their age distribution, all children registered in the municipal health service. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected on subjects' vaccine history, year of birth, sex, birth order and birth weight, and health centre of registration; their mothers' age, education, and marital status; and the family's income per capita and history of migration. Analysis was undertaken to identify risk factors for vaccination and whether the differential coverage in health centres' catchment areas remained after demographic characteristics of the population were controlled for. The high coverage for DPT and polio vaccines suggests that low overall coverage was not simply a result of mothers failing to bring children for vaccination. The variable that best predicted vaccine coverage was year of birth. Children born to immigrant mothers or into large families had lower vaccine uptake. The characteristics of children and their mothers did not account for the variation in vaccination coverage in catchment areas of different health centres. CONCLUSIONS--It is likely that in this area vaccination completeness was associated mainly with the health centre's ability to deliver vaccination to the target population. PMID:1431706

  19. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, R.V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo [University of Utah; Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Cova, Thomas [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  1. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Huang; Ryozo Ooka; Shinsuke Kato

    2005-01-01

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30°C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore,

  2. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L.

    PubMed

    Kardel, F; Wuyts, K; Babanezhad, M; Vitharana, U W A; Wuytack, T; Potters, G; Samson, R

    2010-03-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. PMID:19896758

  3. Aerosol Retrieval over Urban Area in MODIS Dark Target Land Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urban air quality in many parts of the globe has reached at dangerous level (5 to 10 times higher than WHO guidelines) as urbanization and industrialization have amplified many folds during the last few decades. More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas and their number will increase 60% by 2030. Therefore it is very critical to monitor air quality (aerosol or PM) on a daily basis; especially in populated regions (urban areas) around the world. The new version (C6) of MODIS Dark Target Land Aerosol Algorithm (MDT) provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 10km2 and 3km2 spatial resolutions over dark vegetated regions. Initial validation efforts during DISCOVER-AQ field campaign over Baltimore-DC area shows that MDT overestimates AOD over urban areas, mainly because the bright and complex urban surface is not characterized properly. Accurate estimation of the surface signal within satellite-measured radiance is essential for aerosol retrieval. Surface characterization can be challenging and small error (~0.01) can produce large errors in retrieved AOD (~0.1). In this new approach, we have modified the surface characterization for urban areas, using the urban percentage information from the MODIS Land Product. We used the MODIS land surface spectral reflectance product to redefine the relationship between shortwave-IR and visible wavelengths over urban areas. We derived new surface characterization for urban area and used the DRAGON network measurements, during DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, to validate the new AOD retrievals both in 10km and 3km spatial resolution. Initial inter-comparison with AERONET data over US shows significant improvement in AOD retrieval over urban areas. This improved AOD retrieval will be an important step toward utilization of satellite based particulate matter estimation for surface air quality monitoring. We also evaluate whether the new 3km product can enable studies of small-scale gradients in aerosol loading around large urban foot prints around the world.

  4. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  5. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  6. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

    2013-02-01

    Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an industrialized urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachada, A.; Pereira, R.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Duarte, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    Urbanization, agricultural intensification and industrialization are contributing to erosion, local and diffuse contamination and sealing of soil surfaces, resulting in soil quality degradation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments and considered good markers of anthropogenic activities such as traffic, industry, domestic heating and agriculture. Although they are subject to biodegradation and photodegradation, once in the soil, they tend to bind to the soil organic fraction. Estarreja is a small coastal town in the Northwestern Portuguese coast, with a close relation with the lagoon of Aveiro which supports a variety of biotopes (channels, islands with vegetation, mudflats, salt marshes and agricultural fields) of important ecological value. It supports an intensive and diversified agriculture, a variety of heavy and light industries and a population of about half a million people which is dependent on this resource. This is a very industrialized area, due to its five decades of chemical industry. This study aims to assess the impact of the urbanization and of the chemical industry in PAHs distribution. The survey and sampling method were based on pre-interpreted maps, aerial photographs, and directly checked in the field, in order to get an overall characterization of the area. Topsoils were collected from 34 sites, considering different land uses. Five land uses were chosen: ornamental gardens, parks, roadsides, forest and agricultural. Parameters such as soil pH (ISO method 10390:1994), total C, N, H, S percentages (microanalyser LECO, CNHS-932), organic matter (LOI at 430°), particle size distribution (Micromeritics® Sedigraph 5100), cation exchange capacity and exchangeable bases, were determined in order to have a general characterization of soil. Determination of the 16 EPA PAHs in soils was performed by GC/MS after a Soxhlet extraction and an alumina clean-up of extracts. Procedure blanks, duplicates and reference material were used in each extraction batch for quality control assessment. In what concerns the general parameters, Estarreja soils were characterized as slightly acid, with a median pHCaCl2 of 5.15, ranging from 3.12 and 6.88. The content in organic matter observed was relatively high, with a median of 4.6% and ranging from 1.8 to 45%. The median concentration of PAHs was 98 µg kg-1, ranging from 27 to 2,016 µg kg-1. The former value was found in an agricultural area and, together with another agricultural soil (with 1121 µgPAHs/kg), were considered heavily contaminated according to the classification given by Maliszewska-Kordybach. Moreover, eight samples were classified as weakly contaminated (PAHs between 200 and 600 µg/kg) and the remaining ones were not contaminated. The relative abundance of individual PAHs in Estarreja soils was evaluated, being the most abundant Fluoranthene and Pyrene followed by Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Phenanthrene and Crysene. These PAHs are the ones usually associated with the combustion of fossil fuel and other burnable materials, being this composition is typical for topsoil of European industrialized countries. Geostatistical methods were used to show the spatial variability of contaminants and the probability of exceeding the risk-based standards. The plots of concentration of PAHs on GIS highlight areas where the highest elements concentrations occur and the land use associated. These soil maps assemble important information for decision-making, allowing identifying possible sources of contamination, assess the suitability of soil to its use and to contribute for land use planning in accordance to soil characteristics. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/38418/2007) and by CESAM

  8. Atmospheric dispersal of heavy metals around an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloquet, C.; Carignan, J.; Libourel, G.

    2003-04-01

    Anthropogenic input of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb to the atmosphere may be responsible of hazardous pollution and their survey is then of key importance for all the living environment. The studied urban area is located in northern France and correspond to a commune of about 300,000 inhabitants. In order to study the dispersal and fallout of anthropogenic Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, lichens hanging in small tree branches within 15 km diameter from the city centre were analysed. The measured concentrations in lichens and the calculated enrichment factors (EF) were used to map the atmospheric dispersal of these pollutants and to evaluate the relative pollution level. While concentrations and EF display, on average, a coherent distribution relative to the city centre, concentrations in lichens decrease rapidly within 3 or 4 km from downtown and then slightly decrease towards more rural areas. Some excess of metals can also be found in the NW corner of the studied area. This dispersion can be interpreted on the light of the major wind directions and/or secondary pollution sources of metal emissions to the atmosphere. The lead isotopic composition can be used to distinguish different sources of pollution. Preliminary data obtained from epiphytic lichens are reported and show significant variation. Indeed, lichens sampled close the downtown have 206/207 Pb ratios of about 1.125 whereas this ratio consistently increases up to 1.15 for lichens sampled at only four kilometres of the city centre. Two different sources of lead seem to be included in the urban panache. On the one hand, the lead emitted from gasoline combustion and on the other hand, the lead from the local industries. With increasing the distance from the city (up to 15 km), the lead concentration decrease in lichens and the lead source change slightly to 206/207 Pb ratios reaching about 1.155, which is considered as the average French industrial signal. In addition, the influence of gasoline combustion can be observed when the lichens are sampled near a speedway or near a road with important traffic.

  9. Collective Human Mobility Pattern from Taxi Trips in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liň, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

  10. Examining health status of women in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye

    2009-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions. PMID:22666705

  11. Urban poor program launched.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers. PMID:12284664

  12. Network Awareness and the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Joseph B. Kopena

    E-print Network

    Cicirello, Vincent A.

    Network Awareness and the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Joseph B. Kopena Kris William C. Regli College of Engineering Drexel University 3141 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19104 Abstract This paper overviews the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Net- work Testbed (PA-UWNT) project

  13. Capabilities and Constraints of Geodetic Techniques for Monitoring Land Subsidence in the Urban Areas of Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasanuddin Z. ABIDIN; R. Djaja; H. ANDREAS; M. GAMAL; K. HIROSE; Y. MARUYAMA

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Land subsidence in a few urban areas (cities) of Indonesia, i.e. Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang, have been confirmed to be real phenomena. A few other cities, e.g. Medan, Surabaya and Denpasar are also suspected to experience land subsidence. There are four different types of land subsidence that can be expected to occur in the urban areas, namely: subsidence due

  14. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-print Network

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  15. Fire initiation and spread in urban areas due to nuclear attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Reitter; A. N. Takata; S. W. Kang

    2010-01-01

    Calculation of fire development in urban areas is a critical step in estimating the global effects of nuclear warfare with regard to smoke production and transport. As part of the first phase of a program to improve our ability to calculate fire starts and spread in urban areas, we have performed a parameter sensitivity analysis using the three codes originally

  16. Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Postmenopausal Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Northern Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Maddah; Seyede Hajar Sharami; Tirang R. Neyestani

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe vitamin D status in postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, northern Iran. Between October 2004 and February 2005 a group of 750 women older than 50 years was randomly selected from urban and rural areas in Guilan. The participants were interviewed to collect data on age, educational level, body weight, height, employment

  17. The compactness of urban areas in Vietnam. Sustainable urban development and local mobility nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Storch; Ronald Eckert; Paul Pfaffenbichler

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents significant results of an urban sustainability assessment research into housing policies at the urban planning level in Ho Chi Minh City (HCM City), Vietnam. The objective is to develop an integrated approach to the sustainable development of housing and settlement structures to balance urban growth and redevelopment in HCM City. The aim of this paper is to

  18. Rural-urban area of residence and trajectories of children?s behavior in England.

    PubMed

    Midouhas, Emily; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-11-01

    Despite extensive studies of neighborhood effects on children?s outcomes, there is little evidence on rural-urban impacts on child mental health. We modeled trajectories of emotional-behavioral problems of white majority children at ages 3, 5, and 7 in England in areas with varying levels of rural and urban settlement, using the Millennium Cohort Study. After adjusting for area selection, children in less sparse rural areas had fewer conduct and peer problems, and children in areas with a mix of rural and urban settlement had fewer emotional symptoms, explained by the quality of their schools. Area differences remained in emotional problems. PMID:25460905

  19. Cholera vaccination in urban Haiti.

    PubMed

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W

    2013-10-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  20. Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  1. Roadway congestion in major urban areas 1982 to 1987. Interim report, September 1987-February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.W.; Lomax, T.J.

    1989-10-01

    The research report studied 39 urban areas. An assessment of the freeway and major street operating conditions was performed in seven Texas and 32 other urban areas in the continental United States. In addition, the analyses from 1982 to 1986 were updated to include 1987 urban area data. Vehicle-miles of travel and lane-miles of roadway data were collected from a variety of sources to estimate congestion on the freeway/expressway and principal arterial street systems. The values for each system were combined into a roadway congestion index used to rank mobility in each urban area on a relative scale. An analysis of the cost of this congestion was performed using travel delay, increased fuel consumption and increased auto insurance premiums as the economic analysis factors. The economic cost to the urban area, and to the individual resident, was estimated.

  2. Modeling sediment in stormwater runoff from urban areas

    E-print Network

    Haster, Thomas Wayne

    1991-01-01

    to estimate sediment in stormwater runoff for small urban watersheds. The model simulates the contribution of sediments from each of the different land surfaces present within an urban watershed. It was determined that different land surfaces contribute... sediments differently, and that a better estimate of the total sediment load could be determined by representing each of the major land surfaces independently. The model was developed and tested using four small urban watersheds in Austin and Houston...

  3. Fast 3D stereo flood simulations in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.

    2012-04-01

    Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary results of a 3D stereo flood.

  4. Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

  5. [An intervention policy for reducing noise pollution in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Cosa, M; Cosa, G

    1989-01-01

    The methodological methods for a reduction of the noise pollution in the urban areas, mainly, can be advised in 8 operative points: 1) reduction of the source's noise; 2) control of the traffic; 3) planning of the urban and regional development; 4) building's shelter against the noise; 5) compensation's and incentivation's interventions for the exposed people; 6) controls activity and restaining of the noise's sources; 7) scientific research; 8) health education. For executive motivations we must, necessarily, divide the intervention turned to a reduction of the noise's emissions caused by fixed source compared to the noise's emissions determined by motor or railway traffic (mobile sources). This operative criteria have been utilized recently (1988) from Italian Department of Ecology for a bill. The controls of fixed source are made by Public Health Services of U.S.L. (Local Sanitary Unit) assisted, in case, by multiarea country's districts. The regulations of traffic can be took in consideration, in short time, only in more simple problems, as the setting up of pedestrian island or the suspensions of the heavy traffic, etc. The traffic's regulation must care same general data: the halved of traffic's flow in same rilevation's point, involve a reduction of only 3 dBA of the sound pressure level previously measured; if the percentage of heavy traffic is higher than 10% of the traffic's flow, the first intervention must be the no thorough fare to heavy lorries. In general, then, the best way for the resolution of vehicular noise pollution is the noisy emission's control of the single vehicle, because only the regulation of traffic's flow doesn't suffice to realise a enough reduction of noise pollution. For the resolution of more complex problems is necessary a preliminary stage to study and to plan those before to can carry out a typology of intervention. This necessity is, of course, more expensive in time and money; in fact, the solution of the problem can be the building of a efficient subway network completed by car parks in the terminal stations. In alternation at this draft, we can pointed out, also, same compromise resolutions like the appoint areas to limited traffic in the town or the break of continuity of the bus-line in the town. The compensation or the incentivation to make defence works against noise is a very expensive way and, moreover, they don't solve the problem for all exposed people in a future.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2483630

  6. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhao, Kaiguang; Thomson, Allison M.; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2014-05-05

    Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data in five major steps, including data preprocessing, urban cluster segmentation, logistic model development, threshold estimation, and urban extent delineation. Different from previous fixed threshold method with over- and under-estimation issues, in our method the optimal thresholds are estimated based on cluster size and overall nightlight magnitude in the cluster, and they vary with clusters. Two large countries of United States and China with different urbanization patterns were selected to map urban extents using the proposed method. The result indicates that the urbanized area occupies about 2% of total land area in the US ranging from lower than 0.5% to higher than 10% at the state level, and less than 1% in China, ranging from lower than 0.1% to about 5% at the province level with some municipalities as high as 10%. The derived thresholds and urban extents were evaluated using high-resolution land cover data at the cluster and regional levels. It was found that our method can map urban area in both countries efficiently and accurately. Compared to previous threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issues, when mapping urban extent over a large area. More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and temporal dynamics using the DMSP/OLS NTL data in a timely, cost-effective way.

  7. Use of a new generation urban scale dispersion model to estimate the concentration of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide in a large urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Owen; H. A Edmunds; D. J Carruthers; D. W Raper

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of urban emission inventory data and an urban scale dispersion model (ADMS-Urban) to calculate concentrations of NOx and SO2, in two areas of London, Central London and East London. Local authorities in the UK are expected to undertake reviews of air quality in their areas to determine whether air quality objectives set by the National

  8. Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

  9. Preventing Coronary Heart Disease Risk of Slum Dwelling Residents in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Lipi

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the top cause of mortality and morbidity in India. People in slums are generally at a higher risk for CHD than Indians living in more affluent areas mostly because of the higher prevalence of major CHD risk factors such as uncontrolled hypertension and tobacco use amongst them. Knowing their CHD risk perceptions and bringing them into line with the actual CHD risk is a prerequisite for effective CHD risk management. Consequently, there is need to develop tailored interventions focusing medication management and tobacco cessation to reduce growing CHD epidemic among slum dwellers and long-term CHD burden in India. PMID:24791239

  10. Movin' on up : mainstreaming under-serviced urban communities in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    E-print Network

    Wickrema, Marinne Dhakshike

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers an early look at a radical shift in Sri Lankan urban housing policy regarding slums in the capital city of Colombo. During the 1980s, the Sri Lankan government achieved widespread urban improvements by ...

  11. Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

    2002-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

  12. Education in Urban Areas. Cross-National Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.

    This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…

  13. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

    2012-09-01

    Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under a fair weather condition, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deepened urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the less O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection process but also the chemical process under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in forming O3. The intrusion of the air masses, characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length, from surroundings increases ozone production efficiency in the urban area, thus leading to more O3 production. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

  14. Urban heat island and air pollution--an emerging role for hospital respiratory admissions in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Lai, Li-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study discussed here was to determine the associations among the urban heat island (UHI), air quality, and hospital respiratory admissions in the warm center of an urban area. The authors collected and analyzed the data regarding air quality parameters, meteorological parameters, and the daily hospital respiratory admissions in the Taichung metropolis in the autumns of 2003 and 2004. By collecting the vertical meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations via the tethersonde balloon technique, the authors simulated convergence in Dali using The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) for the atmospheric conditions. The authors also examined the hypotheses with Duncan's Multiple Range test, and analyzed spatial patterns vis-ŕ-vis air temperature, air quality, and hospital respiratory admissions with GIS. The results indicated that the UHI phenomenon-which generates convergence and then transports air pollutants to a metropolitan area-increases hospital respiratory admissions in the warm center of an urban area. PMID:20104832

  15. Seismicity and Faulting in an Urbanized area: Flagstaff, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Flagstaff, Arizona is a community of more than 60,000 and lies in an area of active tectonism. Well documented evidence exists of geologically recent volcanism and fault related seismicity. The urban area is located within a volcanic field that is considered active and the area is also the locus of numerous fault systems, some of whose members are considered to be potentially active. This suggestion of active faulting and seismicity for the area is supported by the recent 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake. Chief concern for Flagstaff is focused upon the Anderson Mesa fault which has a mapped surface length of 40 kilometers with the north end extending into the city limits of Flagstaff. A worse case scenario for rupture along the entire length of the fault would be the occurrence of an Mw 6.9 earthquake. The slip rate for this fault is low, however it is not well determined due to a lack of Neogene or Quaternary deposits. The historic record of seismicity adjacent to the surface expression of the Anderson Mesa fault includes two well recorded earthquake swarms (1979,2011) as well as other individual events over this time period all of which are of M< 4.0. The epicentral locations of these events are of interest with respect to the fault geometry which shows four prominent segments: North, Central, South, Ashurst. All of the historic events are located within the central segment. This distribution can be compared to evidence available for the orientation of regional stresses. The focal mechanism for the 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake shows a northwest striking preferred slip surface with a trend (300) parallel to that of the Central segment of the Anderson Mesa fault (300-305). The other three fault segments of the Anderson Mesa fault have north-south trends. The seismicity of the Central segment of the fault suggests that slip on this segment may occur in the future. Given the length of this segment a MCE event could be as large as Mw 6.3.

  16. Slum Upgrading: The Muungano Wa Wanavijiji (MWW) Vision Ezekiel Rema

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , landless and with no property and means of livelihood because the projects have always involved corruption. Consequently, communities are always against slum upgrading whenever the Government proposes it. For example, this Government initiative on slum upgrading has never worked well because there is no slum upgrading policy

  17. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. AKBARI; M. POMERANTZ; H. TAHA

    2001-01-01

    Elevated summertime temperatures in urban ‘heat islands’ increase cooling-energy use and accelerate the formation of urban smog. Except in the city’s core areas, summer heat islands are created mainly by the lack of vegetation and by the high solar radiation absorptance by urban surfaces. Analysis of temperature trends for the last 100 years in several large U.S. cities indicate that,

  18. Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

  19. A New Stereo Matching Approach Using Edges and Nonlinear Matching Process Objected for Urban Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuteru Sakamoto; Wei Lu; Pingtao Wang; Yukio Kosugi

    2001-01-01

    Automatic recognition of buildings has been in demand for efficient digital mapping process or updating of existing information in geographical information applications. It requires effective stereo matching techniques that are applicable to urban area. However conventional techniques that make use of area-based, point-based or edge-based matching cannot generate satisfactory results for urban area because of occlusion or inability of mismatching

  20. PolInSAR analysis of X-band data over vegetated and urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck Garestier; Pascale Dubois-Fernandez; Xavier Dupuis; Philippe Paillou; Irena Hajnsek

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the polarimetric and polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) information contained in the high-resolution X-band data acquired by the RAMSES airborne SAR system over an area around Avignon, France containing bare surfaces, vegetation, and urban areas. The interferometric coherences are computed over natural and urban areas for all possible baseline copolar polarizations. In the complex plane, the

  1. Assessment of flooding in urbanized ungauged basins: a case study in the Upper Tiber area, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Moramarco; F. Melone; V. P. Singh

    2005-01-01

    The reliability of a procedure for investigation of flooding into an ungauged river reach close to an urban area is investigated. The approach is based on the application of a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model for a gauged basin, including the flood-prone area, and that furnishes the inlet flow conditions for a two-dimensional hydraulic model, whose computational domain is the urban area.

  2. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects.

    PubMed

    Baldock, Katherine C R; Goddard, Mark A; Hicks, Damien M; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Stone, Graham N; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-03-22

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km(2)) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators. PMID:25673686

  3. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Goddard, Mark A.; Hicks, Damien M.; Kunin, William E.; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Potts, Simon G.; Robertson, Kirsty M.; Scott, Anna V.; Stone, Graham N.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km2) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators. PMID:25673686

  4. Microbial evaluation of sandboxes located in urban area.

    PubMed

    Gotkowska-P?achta, Anna; Korzeniewska, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the degree of bacteriological pollution of sandboxes situated in fenced and unfenced housing estates located in an urban area in Olsztyn, Poland. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC22, HPC37), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens determined by cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used as indicators of the sanitary state. Their maximum number in the sand samples reached values of up to 5.4×10(7), 2.6×10(6), 3.3×10(4), 2.1×10(3), 1.8×10(4), 1.9×10(1) and 1.2×10(4)CFU/g, respectively. It was found that values of culture-independent method were two-four orders greater than those obtained by the cultivation method. Among identified Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea spp. and Enterobacter cloacae were the most numerous, whereas Escherichia cells were detected only occasionally. Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella sp. were isolated from sandboxes also when E. coli were absent. Bacteria from Staphylococcus genus were isolated irrespective of the site and time of sampling. Additionally, the presence of molds and yeasts was studied. Maximum counts of these microorganisms amounted to 1.0×10(5) and to 3.5×10(4)CFU/g. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Trichoderma genera were most numerous among molds, whereas Trichosporon was detected most frequently among yeasts. Sandboxes in the fenced housing estate and those located in the area which is not close to trees were less polluted than the sand collected from sandboxes in the unfenced housing estate. Potentially pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. were identified in analyzed sandboxes, also when Toxocara and E. coli were absent. It seems that assessing the contamination of children's play areas basing only on fecal bacteria counts and by monitoring number of parasites' eggs may be insufficient to evaluate microbial pollution of sandboxes and may not fully reflect their safety for children. PMID:25483374

  5. Asthma Rates Similar Among Black Children in Urban, Rural Areas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asthma Rates Similar Among Black Children in Urban, Rural ... 9, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health Asthma in Children Health Disparities THURSDAY, April 9, 2015 ( ...

  6. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possčde une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivičre Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intéręt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivičre Han, le réseau de pompage du métro et les pompages privés. Le bilan entre la recharge de la nappe et sa décharge est proche de l'équilibre. Cependant, les infiltrations d'eaux usées, les décharges abandonnées, les décharges d'ordures et les puits abandonnés portent atteinte ŕ la qualité de l'eau souterraine et ŕ la capacité de contrôler les flux de contaminants. Resumen. La ciudad de Seúl tiene más de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 605 km2. Se bombea aguas subterráneas para abastecimiento urbano y para usos industriales, así como para el drenaje de instalaciones subterráneas y de solares en construcción. Aunque la mayor parte del agua de boca procede del río Han, los ciudadanos de Seúl están muy concienciados por la cantidad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas, ya que su explotación para uso de boca está experimentando un continuo incremento. El presente estudio identifica los factores que más afectan a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas en el área de Seúl y hace una estimación del balance de agua en el territorio urbano. Entre los factores principales que afectan al balance y a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, se incluye el lixiviado de la red municipal de suministro y de la red de alcantarillado, la infiltración de agua de lluvia, las fluctuaciones del nivel del río Han, el sistema de bombeo del metro y los bombeos domésticos. El balance entre la recarga y la descarga en el acuífero está próximo al equilibrio. Sin embargo, la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y la capacidad de controlar los flujos de contaminación están amenazadas por la infiltración de aguas residuales, vertederos abandonados, depósitos de residuos y pozos abanadonados.

  7. New Estimates of Quality of Life in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn C. Blomquist; Mark C. Berger; John P. Hoehn

    1988-01-01

    Implicit markets capture compensation for intraurban and interregional differe nces in amenities and yield differences in housing prices and wages. These pecuniary differences become preference-based weights in a qual ity-of-life index. Hedonic equations are estimated using microdata fr om the 1980 Census and assembled county-based amenity data on climati c, environmental, and urban conditions. Ranking of 253 urban counties reveals

  8. Avian Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds in Highly Urbanized Areas

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; Munster, Vincent J.; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B. G.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses. PMID:22761671

  9. Understanding the relationships between radar response patterns and the bio- and geophysical parameters of urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zong-Guo Xia; Floyd M. Henderson

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the relationships between radar response patterns and the bio- and geophysical parameters of urban areas. Specifically, it examines the effects of radar system, ground target, and environmental factors on the intensity and pattern of radar returns from urban features. System parameters considered include radar signal wavelength, polarization, incident angle, and look direction. Ground

  10. The Application of DMC Imagery in Kunming Urban Area Vegetation Coverage Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yalong Xie; Ziwu Wang; Zhijie Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Useful methods of urban vegetation coverage extraction on Kunming urban areas are proposed in the paper using advanced DMC imagery. The spectral response of typical ground objects has been studied and the methods of vegetation coverage extraction are developed to evaluate the accurate and reliable vegetation cover maps. The success of the project shows the methods presented in the paper

  11. An Investigation on Legal Regulations for Robot Deployment in Urban Areas: A Focus on Italian Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pericle Salvini; Giancarlo Teti; Enza Spadoni; Emiliano Frediani; Silvio Boccalatte; Luca Nocco; Barbara Mazzolai; Cecilia Laschi; Giovanni Comandé; Emanuele Rossi; Paolo Carrozza; Paolo Dario

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the administrative, criminal and civil aspects of Italian law in order to find out whether and how current legal regulations impact on robot deployment in urban environments. The paper is based on a case study. The objects of this study are two autonomous mobile robots designed to carry out urban hygiene services in pedestrian areas. The paper

  12. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-Garcia, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Velez-Grajales, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (1- and 2-year) effects of the Mexican "Oportunidades" CCT program on urban

  13. The Health Services Use Among Older Canadians in Rural and Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Conde; James Ted McDonald

    2007-01-01

    Even though universal health care is one of the fundamental pillars of Canadian society, the rising cost of all services has resulted in the relocation and redistribution of funding and services between rural and urban areas. While most econometric analyses of health service use in Canada include broad controls by province and rural\\/urban status, there has been relatively little econometric

  14. BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

  15. Magpie Pica pica predation on Blackbird Turdus merula nests in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Groom

    1993-01-01

    Estimates of rates of Magpie predation on Blackbird nests were made using plasticine eggs added to active clutches. Breeding densities of Blackbirds were lower than those recorded at other urban sites while Magpie densities were higher than those previously recorded in urban areas. Fewer than 5% of Blackbird nests produced flegded young. Predation caused most of the failures where a

  16. PROSEFER National Program of Railway Safety in Urban Areas National Department of Transport Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    railways, 37,000 km of rail lines, operating cargo, intercity and urban passenger transports. 1971 ­ Law nr transport of passengers, gradually abandoned by RFFSA, was extinct (except Vale Company). Passenger stationsPROSEFER ­ National Program of Railway Safety in Urban Areas National Department of Transport

  17. Daily Change in Spatial Distribution of Jungle Crows in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro KATOH; Takashi NAKAMURA

    Jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) have increased in number in urban areas across Japan, creating various kinds of problems. In the present study, jungle crows were counted at 33 study plots located in large open spaces (>10 ha) in central Tokyo to clarify the role of urban open spaces in crows' daily flying. Three types of open spaces were recognized: ones

  18. Human–Black Bear Conflict in Urban Areas: An Integrated Approach to Management Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Don Carlos; Alan D. Bright; Tara L. Teel; Jerry J. Vaske

    2009-01-01

    Human–black bear conflict is a persistent wildlife management problem in North America. Conflicts in urban areas are linked to continued growth and expansion of human populations as well as increased availability of anthropogenic attractants (e.g., garbage, birdfeed). Responding to urban bear conflicts can present difficult and highly publicized management decisions. This challenge highlights the need to understand the basis for

  19. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate the causes of these underlying differences. ?? North American Benthological Society.

  20. Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Particulate Matter (PM10) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%). PMID:22645437

  1. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  2. Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track more than 100 human targets with averaged tracking period (time length) longer than the performance of the current state-of-the-art.

  3. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  4. Wild Ungulates as Disseminators of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Alan B.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Maguire, Hugh; Cichon, Mary K.; Fischer, Justin W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Powell, Amber; Root, J. Jeffrey; Scallan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008, children playing on a soccer field in Colorado were sickened with a strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild Rocky Mountain elk. We addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of STEC infections in humans and whether STEC was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in Colorado. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 483 fecal samples from Rocky Mountain elk and mule deer in urban and non-urban areas. Samples testing positive for STEC were higher in urban (11.0%) than non-urban (1.6%) areas. Elk fecal samples in urban areas had a much higher probability of containing STEC, which increased in both urban and non-urban areas as maximum daily temperature increased. Of the STEC-positive samples, 25% contained stx1 strains, 34.3% contained stx2, and 13% contained both stx1 and stx2. Additionally, eaeA genes were detected in 54.1% of the positive samples. Serotypes O103, and O146 were found in elk and deer feces, which also have the potential to cause human illness. Conclusions/Significance The high incidence of stx2 strains combined with eaeA and E-hyl genes that we found in wild cervid feces is associated with severe human disease, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This is of concern because there is a very close physical interface between elk and humans in urban areas that we sampled. In addition, we found a strong relationship between ambient temperature and incidence of STEC in elk feces, suggesting a higher incidence of STEC in elk feces in public areas on warmer days, which in turn may increase the likelihood that people will come in contact with infected feces. These concerns also have implications to other urban areas where high densities of coexisting wild cervids and humans interact on a regular basis. PMID:24349083

  5. Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0–20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct?=?C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

  6. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  7. Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

    2014-12-01

    As urban land expands rapidly across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Little is known about the relative contribution of these individual factors and their interactions to the terrestrial carbon dynamics, however, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of carbon sequestration policies focusing on urban development. This study developed a comprehensive analysis framework for quantifying relative contribution of individual factors (and their interactions) to terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas. We identified 15 factors belonging to five categories, and we applied a newly developed factorial analysis scheme to the southern United States (SUS), a rapidly urbanizing region. In all, 24 numeric experiments were designed to systematically isolate and quantify the relative contribution of individual factors. We found that the impact of land conversion was far larger than other factors. Urban managements and the overall interactive effects among major factors, however, created a carbon sink that compensated for 42% of the carbon loss in land conversion. Our findings provide valuable information for regional carbon management in the SUS: (1) it is preferable to preserve pre-urban carbon pools than to rely on the carbon sinks in urban ecosystems to compensate for the carbon loss in land conversion. (2) In forested areas, it is recommendable to improve landscape design (e.g., by arranging green spaces close to the city center) to maximize the urbanization-induced environmental change effect on carbon sequestration. Urbanization-induced environmental change will be less effective in shrubland regions. (3) Urban carbon sequestration can be significantly improved through changes in management practices, such as increased irrigation and fertilizer and targeted use of vehicles and machinery with least-associated carbon emissions.

  8. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  9. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  10. APPLICATION OF A DATA-ASSIMILATING PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODEL TO TWO URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we have used a data-assimilating prognostic meteorological model, the Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (SAIMM), ot generate meteorological fields suitable for photochemical modeling of two urban areas; os Angeles, California and the Lower Lake Mich...

  11. Perceptions and Knowledge about Leukorrhea in a Slum Dwelling South Asian Community

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, AK

    2014-01-01

    Objective The problem of RTI/STI is of growing concern worldwide, especially in developing countries; where each year 340 million new cases curable STI occur. Out of these 151 million are in South and Southeast Asia (WHO, 2001). The present paper attempts to capture the prevalence of leukorrhea, its knowledge and perceptions among currently married women of the age-group, 15-49 years, in a south Asian urban-slum dwelling community. Materials and methods A total of 400 households were selected from an urban-slum of Delhi and 391 were interviewed in a house to house survey. Results The results showed that the awareness about leukorrhea was almost universal (97 percent), and around 33 percent reported to have experienced the same either at the time of survey or prior to 3 months of the survey date. The perceptions about leukorrhea were varied. Conclusion The study reports a high prevalence of leukorrhea among the slum dwelling women, and it also reports that there was not a marked difference in the perception and knowledge when it comes to respondent's education, occupational status, and husbands’ education. PMID:24971133

  12. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach for Urban Area Transport and Dispersion Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Coirier; D. M. Fricker; M. Furmanczyk; S. Kim

    2005-01-01

    A simulation tool has been developed to model the wind fields, turbulence fields, and the dispersion of Chemical, Biological,\\u000a Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) substances in urban areas on the building to city blocks scale. A Computational Fluid Dynamics\\u000a (CFD) approach has been taken that naturally accounts for critical flow and dispersion processes in urban areas, such as channeling,\\u000a lofting, vertical

  13. Larger broods in the Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis near urban areas in southern Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapio Solonen

    2008-01-01

    I examined if the distance from densely-built (urban) areas is reflected in the brood size of the Northern Goshawk near the southern coast of Finland. The data were collected from 70 nesting territories in 1976-2007, including 270 fledged broods. Within an approxi- mate distance of less than 2.5 km from the nearest urban area, the average brood size was significantly

  14. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  15. Urban Area Extent Extraction in Spaceborne HR and VHR Data Using Multi-Resolution Features

    PubMed Central

    Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; da Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro; Gamba, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an “urban area” is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, “urban area” extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

  16. Improvement of urban land use and land cover classification approach in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jing; Zhou, Qiming; Chen, Xi

    2010-10-01

    Extraction of urban land-use information is base step of urban change detection. However, challenges remain in automatic delineation of urban areas and differentiation of finer inner-city land cover types. The extraction accuracy of built-up area is still unsatisfactory. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity nature of urban areas, where continuous and discrete elements occur side by side. Another reason is the mixed pixel problem, which is particularly serious in an urban environment. The built-up areas in arid areas may confuse with nearby bare soil and stony desert, which present very similar spectral characteristics as construction materials such as concrete, while they are often surrounded by farmland. This study focuses on improving urban land use and land cover classification approach in typical city of China's west arid areas using multi-sensor data. Pixel-based classification of the NDBI and Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) and object-oriented image classification were used in the study and the classification dataset including Landsat ETM (1999), CBERS (2005), and Beijing-1 (2006). The accuracy is assessed using high-resolution images, aerial photograph and field investigation data. The traditional pixel-based classification approach typically yield large uncertainty in the classification results. Object-oriented processing techniques are becoming more popular compared to traditional pixel-based image analysis.

  17. Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmond, C. S. B.; Oke, T. R.

    2002-07-01

    A linked set of simple equations specifically designed to calculate heat fluxes for the urban environment is presented. This local-scale urban meteorological parameterization scheme (LUMPS), which has similarities to the hybrid plume dispersion model (HPDM) scheme, requires only standard meteorological observations and basic knowledge of surface cover. LUMPS is driven by net all-wave radiation. Heat storage by the urban fabric is parameterized from net all-wave radiation and surface cover information using the objective hysteresis model (OHM). The turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are calculated using the available energy and are partitioned using the approach of de Bruin and Holtslag, and Holtslag and van Ulden. A new scheme to define the Holtslag and van Ulden and parameters for urban environments is presented; is empirically related to the plan fraction of the surface that is vegetated or irrigated, and a new urban value of captures the observed delay in reversal of the sign of the sensible heat flux in the evening. LUMPS is evaluated using field observations collected in seven North American cities (Mexico City, Mexico; Miami, Florida; Tucson, Arizona; Los Angeles and Sacramento, California; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and Chicago, Illinois). Performance is shown to be better than that for the standard HPDM preprocessor scheme. Most improvement derives from the inclusion of the OHM for the storage heat flux and the revised coefficient. The scheme is expected to have broad utility in models used to calculate air pollution dispersion and the mixing depths of urban areas or to provide surface forcing for mesoscale models of urban regions.

  18. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  19. Cross Cultural Methods for Survey Research in Black Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Carl O.

    This paper summarizes the development of a new approach to survey research in black urban communities, in part by adapting standard techniques. Attention is directed at a group of salient assumptions underlying social science investigations, namely: (1) the universality of majority culture models of attitude structure; (2) sociolinguistic and…

  20. Teaching the Geographies of Urban Areas: Views and Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneker, Tine; Sanders, Rickie; Tani, Sirpa; Taylor, Liz; van der Vaart, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on empirical research in four countries on the growing interest in the perceived "gap" between school and university human geography. Focusing on urban geography, we investigated the views of teachers and academic geographers about key elements of the field and those that were important for geography education. These views were…

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...

  3. Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes—one based on occupation and the other on educational level—at the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50?×?50 m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic. PMID:23351567

  4. 146 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature

    E-print Network

    Mignotte, Max

    146 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Urban Area Detection, Member, IEEE Abstract--Automatically detecting and monitoring urban re- gions is an important problem these very large images. There may be some errors in the operation. Second, the urban area is dynamic

  5. Remote sensing of exposure to NO2: Satellite versus ground-based measurement in a large urban area

    E-print Network

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    concentrations from the OMI sensor. OMI estimates with ground-based in situ measurements in a large urban area. OMI column measurements. OMI provides a useful dataset for exploring the epidemiological impact of urban air pollution. OMI

  6. Importance of Farmland in Urbanized Areas as a Landscape Component for Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) Nesting on Concrete Buildings.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas. PMID:25813627

  7. Quantifying bushfire penetration into urban areas in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Keping; McAneney, John

    2004-06-01

    The extent and trajectory of bushfire penetration at the bushland-urban interface are quantified using data from major historical fires in Australia. We find that the maximum distance at which homes are destroyed is typically less than 700 m. The probability of home destruction emerges as a simple linear and decreasing function of distance from the bushland-urban boundary but with a variable slope that presumably depends upon fire regime and human intervention. The collective data suggest that the probability of home destruction at the forest edge is around 60%. Spatial patterns of destroyed homes display significant neighbourhood clustering. Our results provide revealing spatial evidence for estimating fire risk to properties and suggest an ember-attack model.

  8. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  9. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper. PMID:25387534

  10. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  11. Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?Pest? control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

  12. Mapping forest structure, species gradients and growth in an urban area using lidar and hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huan

    Urban forests play an important role in the urban ecosystem by providing a range of ecosystem services. Characterization of forest structure, species variation and growth in urban forests is critical for understanding the status, function and process of urban ecosystems, and helping maximize the benefits of urban ecosystems through management. The development of methods and applications to quantify urban forests using remote sensing data has lagged the study of natural forests due to the heterogeneity and complexity of urban ecosystems. In this dissertation, I quantify and map forest structure, species gradients and forest growth in an urban area using discrete-return lidar, airborne imaging spectroscopy and thermal infrared data. Specific objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the utility of leaf-off lidar originally collected for topographic mapping to characterize and map forest structure and associated uncertainties, including aboveground biomass, basal area, diameter, height and crown size; (2) to map species gradients using forest structural variables estimated from lidar and foliar functional traits, vegetation indices derived from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with field-measured species data; and (3) to identify factors related to relative growth rates in aboveground biomass in the urban forests, and assess forest growth patterns across areas with varying degree of human interactions. The findings from this dissertation are: (1) leaf-off lidar originally acquired for topographic mapping provides a robust, potentially low-cost approach to quantify spatial patterns of forest structure and carbon stock in urban areas; (2) foliar functional traits and vegetation indices from hyperspectral data capture gradients of species distributions in the heterogeneous urban landscape; (3) species gradients, stand structure, foliar functional traits and temperature are strongly related to forest growth in the urban forests; and (4) high uncertainties in our ability to map forest structure, species gradient and growth rate occur in residential neighborhoods and along forest edges. Maps generated from this dissertation provide estimates of broad-scale spatial variations in forest structure, species distributions and growth to the city forest managers. The associated maps of uncertainty help managers understand the limitations of the maps and identify locations where the maps are more reliable and where more data are needed.

  13. Automatic 3D building reconstruction by integration of digital map and stereo imagery for urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Hong Yom; Dong-Cheon Lee; Deok-In Kim

    2004-01-01

    Three dimensional model of urban areas is useful in several applications. In urban administration, perspective views derived\\u000a from three dimensional model are used by city planners for landscape analysis. Three dimensional models are also used in modeling\\u000a telecommunication environment. Building heights are important in searching for the optimal locations of transmission antennas\\u000a especially in mobile telecommunication for cell planning. Furthermore,

  14. Ventilation strategy and air change rates in idealized high-rise compact urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Hang; Yuguo Li

    2010-01-01

    We regarded high-rise compact urban areas as obstacles and pathways to the approaching wind. Flow rates across street openings, open street roofs and along street networks contribute to air exchange between urban airspaces and their external surroundings. We numerically studied the ventilation and air change rates in some aligned square building arrays (the building width B = 30 mm, building heights H = 2B or

  15. Urban area change detection procedures with remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L. (principal investigator); Riordan, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The underlying factors affecting the detection and identification of nonurban to urban land cover change using satellite data were studied. Computer programs were developed to create a digital scene and to simulate the effect of the sensor point spread function (PSF) on the transfer of modulation from the scene to an image of the scene. The theory behind the development of a digital filter representing the PSF is given as well as an example of its application. Atmospheric effects on modulation transfer are also discussed. A user's guide and program listings are given.

  16. Gravitational drainage systems in urban areas: case study (Gala?i town, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfirescu, Fl.; Popa, I.; Danchiv, Al.

    2006-03-01

    The water leakage in the urban areas causes a continuous rise in the water table, with harmful effects. An experimental drainage system, based on horizontal well technology, was designed and implemented in a populated area. Groundwater flow modeling was used to assess the hydrodynamic efficiency of the system through drain conductance parameter estimation.

  17. Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Mattson

    2011-01-01

    Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,

  18. Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Mattson

    2011-01-01

    Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,

  19. Zone of influence of ground potential rise on wire-line communication installations in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Grcev; Velimir Filiposki

    1997-01-01

    Wire-line communication installations serving telephone subscribers in the zone of influence of fault-produced ground potential rise (GPR) in an area surrounding the high voltage substations require special protection. In urban areas the substation grounding system may be connected to or located near to a large and complex network of conductors composed of metal sheaths of power and telecommunication cables, pipes

  20. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  1. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  2. Geology and geological hazards of the Auckland urban area, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W Edbrooke; Colin Mazengarb; William Stephenson

    2003-01-01

    Auckland, in the north of New Zealand's North Island, is the largest urban area in the country, accommodating over a quarter of its population. The Auckland landscape is one of subdued rolling hills formed on weathered Mesozoic and Early Miocene sedimentary rocks, with many distinctive small volcanic cones rising abruptly from low hills in the central isthmus area, between the

  3. Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. B. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

  4. Identifying dissolved phosphorus source areas and predicting transport from an urban watershed using distributed hydrologic modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary M. Easton; Pierre Gérard-Marchant; M. Todd Walter; A. Martin Petrovic; Tammo S. Steenhuis

    2007-01-01

    A reduction in surface water quality in urban watersheds due to nonpoint source phosphorus (P) loading has prompted municipalities to consider management practices to reduce P loss from landscapes. However, locating P source areas can be time consuming and expensive. Use of distributed models allows delineation of P source areas and focused management strategies. Using the spatially distributed soil moisture

  5. Using Quality of Life Criteria to Define Urban Areas in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuela, Vicente; Romani, Javier; Artis, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept and definition of multidimensional urban areas, thereby providing insights into our understanding of the sub-regional structures of household spatial systems. Hence, we propose a framework for strategic planning that considers several areas of household needs. In order to achieve this goal, we…

  6. Urban Boundary-Layer Height Determination from Lidar Measurements Over the Paris Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Menut; Cyrille Flamant; Jacques Pelon; Pierre H. Flamant

    1999-01-01

    The Paris area is strongly urbanized and is exposed to atmospheric pollution events. To understand the chemical and physical processes that are taking place in this area it is necessary to describe correctly the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) dynamics and the ABL height evolution. During the winter of 1994 1995, within the framework of the Etude de la Couche Limite Atmosphe

  7. Improvement of health risk factors after reduction of VOC concentrations in industrial and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Jorge Esteban Colman; Kohajda, Tibor; Aguilar, Myriam Elisabeth; Massolo, Laura Andrea; Sánchez, Erica Yanina; Porta, Atilio Andrés; Opitz, Philipp; Wichmann, Gunnar; Herbarth, Olf; Mueller, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    After reductions of fugitive and diffuse emissions by an industrial complex, a follow-up study was performed to determine the time variability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the lifetime cancer risk (LCR). Passive samplers (3 M monitors) were placed outdoors (n?=?179) and indoors (n?=?75) in industrial, urban, and control areas for 4 weeks. Twenty-five compounds including n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and terpenes were determined by GC/MS. The results show a significant decrease of all VOCs, especially in the industrial area and to a lesser extent in the urban area. The median outdoor concentration of benzene in the industrial area declined compared to the former study, around 85% and about 50% in the urban area, which in the past was strongly influenced by industrial emissions. Other carcinogenic compounds like styrene and tetrachloroethylene were reduced to approximately 60%. VOC concentrations in control areas remained nearly unchanged. According to the determined BTEX ratios and interspecies correlations, in contrast to the previous study, traffic was identified as the main emission source in the urban and control areas and showed an increased influence in the industrial area. The LCR, calculated for benzene, styrene, and tetrachloroethylene, shows a decrease of one order of magnitude in accordance to the decreased total VOC concentrations and is now acceptable according to values proposed by the World Health Organization. PMID:24788932

  8. EHSMu: a new conceptual model for hourly discharge simulation under ecohydrological framework in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.; Pumo, Dario; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2013-04-01

    A parsimonious conceptual lumped model is presented here with the aim of simulating hourly discharge in urban areas. The EHSMu (EcoHydrological Streamflow Model for urban areas) is able to reproduce the discharge at the outlet of an urban drainage system and, at the same time, soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspirative fluxes over vegetated areas within an urban catchment. In urban areas, rain falling over impervious surfaces is directly transferred towards the drainage system in a time depending on the catchment characteristics, and drainage network geometry. If the rain falls over pervious and vegetated areas the runoff generation is driven by soil moisture content, which in turn is linked to evapotranspiration and leakage. While on one side soil water content determines if rainfall produces saturation excess or a leakage loss, on the other side it constrains the evapotranspirative fluxes, so that, when it approaches to saturation, the actual evapotranspiration tends to the potential one. The hydrological scheme of the urban catchment follows these premises and consists of three interconnected elements: a soil bucket and two linear reservoirs. The soil bucket epitomizes in two distinct classes different conditions within a catchment: the first interprets impervious areas while the second describes pervious and vegetated soils. The soil bucket is linked to the two linear reservoirs: one is responsible for the runoff within the drainage system, while the other is used to delay the entry of subsurface runoff component into the drainage system. The surface reservoir is fed by the rain falling on imperviuos areas, by the saturation excess generated over pervious areas and by the delayed contribution arising from the subsurface reservoir, which is solely supplied by leakage pulses. Soil moisture dynamics in the pervious part of the basin, are simulated by a simple bucket model feed by rainfall and depleted by evapotranspiration. The latter component is calculated as a linear function of soil moisture. The model has been calibrated using Montecarlo simulations on an urban catchment in the United States. This method allows to adapt the conceptual model framework to the catchment characteristics and at the same time to obtain the set of parameters with the higher efficiency in reproducing historical discharge at the outlet. The proposed model gives reliable estimate of runoff, soil moisture traces and evapotranspiration fluxes. Model outputs could be very useful for urban ecohydrology, because they allow for the simulation of vegetation water stress and consequently the design of sustainable urban green spaces. At the same time the model structure allows to simulate the effects of stormwater management best practices for achieving the hydraulic invariance.

  9. Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

  10. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs???0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  11. Slum dwellers' diagnosis of their own needs: implications for community development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwangwu, R E

    1998-05-01

    This report describes a community participatory approach for improving health in urban slum communities in Nigeria. The study site included 6 slum communities in Lagos State. Public health conditions included poor hygiene, overcrowding, blocked drainage systems, lack of toilet facilities, feces-contaminated water, and cramped housing construction. Drinking water was unavailable, and people obtained paid water per bucket. These communities had taken it upon themselves to improve conditions. People built roads, acquired electricity, dug gutters, and planned their communities. In one community, a school was built; in another, a health center. One community spent its energies preventing another relocation. Interviews revealed people's interest in talking about the history of their communities, the peculiar problems faced, their organizational structure, and solutions to improving their lives. Slum dwellers did not view themselves as poor. People wanted drinking water, better roads linking their community to the larger community, expanded canals to prevent flooding, good drainage, electricity and street lights, good education, literacy education, modern equipment for sand dredging, improved fishing systems, better buildings, a policy department, libraries, and recreational facilities. No one mentioned health education. Without this assessment, the author would have set up an inappropriate health education plan. The alternative was to help these communities secure funding for their desired projects. PMID:12293705

  12. A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in East Asia from LANDSAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XU, R.; Jia, G.

    2012-12-01

    Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of East Asia into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in East Asia selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; East AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China

  13. Slums’ Access to and Coverage of Primary Health Care Services: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shiraz, a Metropolis in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joulaei, Hassan; Bhuiyan, Azad R; Sayadi, Mehrab; Morady, Fariba; Afsar Kazerooni, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The United Nations has predicted that the population of slum dwellers will have grown from one billion people worldwide to 2 billion by 2030. This trend is also predictable in Iran. In the Iranian metropolis of Shiraz, more than 10% of the residents live in slum areas. There are several problems regarding the delivery of social services in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate slums dwellers’ access to and coverage of health care. Methods: This cross-sectional face-to-face study included 380 household of slum dwellers via stratified random sampling. Demographics, accessibility of health services, coverage of health care, and route of receiving health services were recorded through interviews. Results: Approximately, 21.6% of the households had no physical access to health centers. The coverage rate of family planning programs for safe methods was 51.4% (95% CI: 48.86-53.9%). Vaccination coverage among children under 5 years old was 98% (95% CI: 97-99%). Furthermore, 34% of pregnant women had not received standard health care due to a lack of access to health centers. Conclusion: Limited access to health services along with inadequate knowledge of slum residents about health care facilities was the main barrier to the utilization of the health care in the slums. PMID:24753641

  14. Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban areas: A comparison of biomagnetic monitoring and urban scale modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Jelle; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nackaerts, Ruben; Nuyts, Siegmund; Mattheyses, Lars; Samson, Roeland

    2014-08-01

    Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban environments is designated as a priority area within current research. Biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both methodologies able to provide information about the spatial variation of particulate pollutant levels within urban environments. This study evaluates both methods by comparing results of a biomagnetic monitoring campaign at 110 locations throughout Antwerp, Belgium, with modelled pollutant concentrations of PM10 and NO2. Due to the relation of biomagnetic monitoring with railway traffic, analyses were conducted for both all locations (n = 110) and railway traffic excluded locations (n = 67). While the general spatial variation, land use comparison and the relation with traffic intensity were comparable between the two applied methodologies, an overall bad agreement is obtained when the methodologies are correlated to each other. While no correlation was found between SIRM and PM10 results (p = 0.75 for n = 110 and p = 0.68 for n = 67), a significant but low (r ? 0.33) correlation was found between SIRM and NO2 (p < 0.01 for n = 110 and p = 0.04 for n = 67). While biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both able to provide high spatial resolution information about urban pollutant levels, we need to take into account some considerations. While uncertainty in the biomagnetic monitoring approach might arise from the processes that determine leaf particulate deposition and the incorporation of multiple emission sources with diverging magnetic composition, air quality modelling remains an approximation of reality which implies its dependency on accurate emission factors, implication of atmospheric processes and representation of the urban morphology. Therefore, continuous evaluation of model performance against measured data is essential to produce reliable model results. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that in addition to telemetric monitoring networks, the combination of both air quality modelling and biomagnetic monitoring is a valuable approach to provide insights into the variation of atmospheric pollutants in heterogeneous urban environments.

  15. Food Security among Urban Households: A Case Study of Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ibrahim; N. R. Uba-Eze; S. O. Oyewole; E. G. Onuk

    2009-01-01

    Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents

  16. Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

  17. A prediction model of signal degradation in LMSS for urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsudo, Takashi; Minamisono, Kenichi; Karasawa, Yoshio; Shiokawa, Takayasu

    1993-01-01

    A prediction model of signal degradation in a Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) for urban areas is proposed. This model treats shadowing effects caused by buildings statistically and can predict a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of signal diffraction losses in urban areas as a function of system parameters such as frequency and elevation angle and environmental parameters such as number of building stories and so on. In order to examine the validity of the model, we compared the percentage of locations where diffraction losses were smaller than 6 dB obtained by the CDF with satellite visibility measured by a radiometer. As a result, it was found that this proposed model is useful for estimating the feasibility of providing LMSS in urban areas.

  18. Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

  19. Does Size Matter? Scaling of CO2 Emissions and U.S. Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Fragkias, Michail; Lobo, José; Strumsky, Deborah; Seto, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas consume more than 66% of the world’s energy and generate more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With the world’s population expected to reach 10 billion by 2100, nearly 90% of whom will live in urban areas, a critical question for planetary sustainability is how the size of cities affects energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Are larger cities more energy and emissions efficient than smaller ones? Do larger cities exhibit gains from economies of scale with regard to emissions? Here we examine the relationship between city size and CO2 emissions for U.S. metropolitan areas using a production accounting allocation of emissions. We find that for the time period of 1999–2008, CO2 emissions scale proportionally with urban population size. Contrary to theoretical expectations, larger cities are not more emissions efficient than smaller ones. PMID:23750213

  20. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

  1. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural and urban areas of northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256

  2. Urban PDE dynamics: Situating PRIPODE research in

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    urban policymakers 1. Water & sanitation 2. Waste disposal 3. Slum & Informal settlements 4. Air pollution #12;9 Water & Sanitation Source: UN Statistics Division 2005 Total House Connections MDG Target 10;2 Population Urban Population: The Scale +215609394Latin Am. & Caribbean +1,2802,6401,360Asia +448742294Africa

  3. The lost history of urban renewal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander von Hoffman

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to common understanding, the US government's policy of “urban renewal” was conceived as an alternative policy to slum clearance. Bitterly opposed to public housing, conservative housing?industry trade associations sought a way to reform the urban redevelopment formula of clearance and public housing established in the Housing Act of 1949. In the early 1950s, the industry groups seized on citizens'

  4. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    Urban population density may influence transportation demand, e.g., as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled in private motor vehicles per capita. In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions to which populations are exposed. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. For the system considered, the magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity (?), a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, based on the idealized representation of the emissions-to-intake relationship presented herein, if urban population increases, then per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if ? is <-0.5, while for ? >-0.5, the reverse is true.

  5. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the TCMA UHI with an emphasis on the contribution of different land use types on the UHI. We also present a comparison of thermal and radiative properties of two different roofing materials with data collected from the roof of the Science Museum of Minnesota in Saint Paul, MN. The impact of the TCMA UHI on thermal pollution into local water bodies is also investigated.

  6. 77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas. A. List of Census...Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas An alphabetical...4,515,419 Atlantic City, NJ...61,270 Grand Island, NE...Mission Viejo--Lake Forest--San Clemente,...

  7. Simple Methods of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Steven R.

    A simple but physically realistic model is shown to be adequate for estimating long-term average pollutant concentrations due to area sources in cities. In this model, the surface concentration is directly proportional to the local area source strength and inversely proportional to the wind speed. The model performs nearly as well as much more…

  8. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  9. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1982-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1979-80 water years for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of urbanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1979-80 water years. (USGS)

  10. The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  11. The macroecology of airborne pollen in Australian and New Zealand urban areas.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Simon G; Bowman, David M J S; Newnham, Rewi M; Johnston, Fay H; Beggs, Paul J; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J; Davies, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  12. Community resource centres to improve the health of women and children in Mumbai slums: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The trial addresses the general question of whether community resource centers run by a non-government organization improve the health of women and children in slums. The resource centers will be run by the Society for Nutrition, Education and Health Action, and the trial will evaluate their effects on a series of public health indicators. Each resource center will be located in a vulnerable Mumbai slum area and will serve as a base for salaried community workers, supervised by officers and coordinators, to organize the collection and dissemination of health information, provision of services, home visits to identify and counsel families at risk, referral of individuals and families to appropriate services and support for their access, meetings of community members and providers, and events and campaigns on health issues. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial in which 20 urban slum areas with resource centers are compared with 20 control areas. Each cluster will contain approximately 600 households and randomized allocation will be in three blocked phases, of 12, 12 and 16 clusters. Any resident of an intervention cluster will be able to participate in the intervention, but the resource centers will target women and children, particularly women of reproductive age and children under 5. The outcomes will be assessed through a household census after 2 years of resource center operations. The primary outcomes are unmet need for family planning in women aged 15 to 49 years, proportion of children under 5 years of age not fully immunized for their ages, and proportion of children under 5 years of age with weight for height less than 2 standard deviations below the median for age and sex. Secondary outcomes describe adolescent pregnancies, home deliveries, receipt of conditional cash transfers for institutional delivery, other childhood anthropometric indices, use of public sector health and nutrition services, indices of infant and young child feeding, and consultation for violence against women and children. Trial registration ISRCTN Register: ISRCTN56183183 Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2012/09/003004 PMID:23782816

  13. Storm water runoff concentration matrix for urban areas.

    PubMed

    Göbel, P; Dierkes, C; Coldewey, W G

    2007-04-01

    The infrastructure (roads, sidewalk, commercial and residential structures) added during the land development and urbanisation process is designed to collect precipitation and convey it out of the watershed, typically in existing surface water channels, such as streams and rivers. The quality of surface water, seepage water and ground water is influenced by pollutants that collect on impervious surfaces and that are carried by urban storm water runoff. Heavy metals, e.g. lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) and readily soluble salts in runoff, contribute to the degradation of water. An intensive literature search on the distribution and concentration of the surface-dependent runoff water has been compiled. Concentration variations of several pollutants derived from different surfaces have been averaged. More than 300 references providing about 1300 data for different pollutants culminate in a representative concentration matrix consisting of medians and extreme values. This matrix can be applied to long-term valuations and numerical modelling of storm water treatment facilities. PMID:17174006

  14. Integration of spectral information and photogrammetric DSM for urban areas classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nex, F.; Dalla Mura, M.; Remondino, F.

    2013-10-01

    The automated classification of urban areas in one of the main topic in the Geomatics domain. Several papers dealing with this topic have been already presented in the last decade. Most of these approaches uses multi-spectral or LiDAR data or both of them as input. In this paper, an algorithm for urban areas classification based only on overlapping RGB images is presented. The integration of radiometric and geometric information derived from aerial images is exploited in order to extract the three main classes of urban areas (i.e. building, vegetation and road) in automated way and without prior information. A photogrammetric Digital Surface Model (DSM) is firstly generated applying dense image matching techniques and this information as well as some spatial features provided by morphological filters are combined to derive a first classification. Subsequently, a thematic classification of the surveyed areas is performed considering the surface's reflectance in the visible spectrum of the used images and the multi-image information provided by the overlapping images. Range and image information are so merged in an algorithm that allows the reciprocal and iterative sharing of information in order to increase the reliability and completeness of the classification process. After a detailed description of the algorithm, the achieved results over dense urban areas are shown and discussed.

  15. Intimate partner violence against women during and after pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Mumbai slums

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At least one-third of women in India experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at some point in adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and after delivery in an urban slum setting, to review its social determinants, and to explore its effects on maternal and newborn health. Methods We did a cross-sectional study nested within the data collection system for a concurrent trial. Through urban community surveillance, we identified births in 48 slum areas and interviewed mothers ~6 weeks later. After collecting information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic indicators, and maternal and newborn care, we asked their opinions on the justifiability of IPV and on their experience of it in the last 12 months. Results Of 2139 respondents, 35% (748) said that violence was justifiable if a woman disrespected her in-laws or argued with her husband, failed to provide good food, housework and childcare, or went out without permission. 318 (15%, 95% CI 13, 16%) reported IPV in the year that included pregnancy and the postpartum period. Physical IPV was reported by 247 (12%, 95% CI 10, 13%), sexual IPV by 35 (2%, 95% CI 1, 2%), and emotional IPV by 167 (8%, 95% CI 7, 9). 219 (69%) women said that the likelihood of IPV was either unaffected by or increased during maternity. IPV was more likely to be reported by women from poorer families and when husbands used alcohol. Although 18% of women who had suffered physical IPV sought clinical care for their injuries, seeking help from organizations outside the family to address IPV itself was rare. Women who reported IPV were more likely to have reported illness during pregnancy and use of modern methods of family planning. They were more than twice as likely to say that there were situations in which violence was justifiable (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.7, 3.4). Conclusions One in seven women suffered IPV during or shortly after pregnancy. The elements of the violent milieu are mutually reinforcing and need to be taken into account collectively in responding to both individual cases and framing public health initiatives. PMID:24015762

  16. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  17. Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption. PMID:24914598

  18. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF NOX IN AN URBAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the Regional Air Pollution Study are surveyed to delineate the experience with NO and NO2 concentrations in St. Louis, a metropolitan area in the central United States. Two-year time series are produced for the daily maximum 1-h average in the monitoring network and the...

  19. Use of mobile screening unit for diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Leese, G P; Ahmed, S; Newton, R W; Jung, R T; Ellingford, A; Baines, P; Roxburgh, S; Coleiro, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the effectiveness of a mobile screening unit with a non-mydriatic polaroid camera in detecting diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas. To estimate the cost of the service. DESIGN--Prospective data collection over two years of screening for diabetic retinopathy throughout Tayside. SETTING--Tayside region, population 390,000, area 7770 km2. SUBJECTS--961 patients in rural areas and 1225 in urban areas who presented for screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Presence of diabetic retinopathy, need for laser photocoagulation, age, duration of diabetes, and diabetic treatment. RESULTS--Compared with diabetic patients in urban areas, those in rural areas were less likely to attend a hospital based diabetic clinic (46% (442) v 86% (1054), p < 0.001); less likely to be receiving insulin (260 (27%) v 416 (34%), p < 0.001 and also after correction for differences in age distribution); more likely to have advanced (maculopathy or proliferative retinopathy) diabetic retinopathy (13% (122) v 7% (89), p < 0.001); and more likely to require urgent laser photocoagulation for previously unrecognised retinopathy (1.4% (13) v 0.5% (6), p < 0.02). The screening programme cost 10 pounds per patient screened and 1000 pounds per patient requiring laser treatment. CONCLUSION--The mobile diabetic eye screening programme detected a greater prevalence of advanced retinopathy in diabetic patients living in rural areas. Patients in rural areas were also more likely to need urgent laser photocoagulation. Present screening procedures seem to be less effective in rural areas and rural patients may benefit more from mobile screening units than urban patients. PMID:8443485

  20. Proposal for estimating ground-level ozone concentrations at urban areas based on multivariate statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Domínguez, P.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on describing ozone patterns and estimating ozone concentrations in urban settings through the classification of an urban area into homogeneous typologies, according to hourly ozone concentrations, and the development of accurate estimation models for each typology. For these proposals, a hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted in order to define homogeneous subareas, and multiple linear regressions were subsequently applied with the aim of obtaining ozone predictions, employing chemical and meteorological variables as predictors. Seville metropolitan area (Spain) is a densely populated area of the Mediterranean Basin that exhibits environmental problems related to ozone pollution episodes. Ozone exceedances are a consequence of the combination of road traffic and industry emissions with hot temperatures and high solar radiation, mainly during anticyclonic events. Cluster analysis evince that this area can be divided into 3 categories according to hourly ozone concentration in summer. Cluster 1 is comprised of monitoring stations located in the outskirts of the city of Seville; Cluster 2 corresponds to monitoring stations located within the city of Seville; and Cluster 3 is comprised of a monitoring station specialized in traffic emissions. Multiple linear regression shows that the relative weight of meteorological variables decreases when moving from the urban periphery towards the urban center, whereas the weight of chemical variables increases. Coefficients of determination (R2) values were 0.885, 0.890 and 0.830 and root mean squared error (RMSE) were 11.226, 11.874 and 11.260 ?g m-3 for Cluster 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

  1. Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman

    E-print Network

    Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman that the performance of insulators in cold climates is an important issue. Several types of salts are used for deicing. The most common is rock salt (sodium chloride) as it is inexpensive. It lowers the freezing point

  2. Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations1 Performance in Urban Areas2

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations1 Performance in Urban Areas2 3 4 5 6 7Met is the transit4 provider in the Portland metropolitan region and its Bus Dispatch System (BDS) has been in this study can aid transit agency managers and operators to identify operational problems,12 better

  3. Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

  4. Building and Sustaining Community-University Partnerships in Marginalized Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allahwala, Ahmed; Bunce, Susannah; Beagrie, Lesley; Brail, Shauna; Hawthorne, Timothy; Levesque, Sue; von Mahs, Jurgen; Spotton Visano, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores and examines the challenges and opportunities of building community-university collaborations in marginalized urban areas. The selection of short essays highlights different experiences of building and sustaining community-university partnerships in a variety of cities as vehicles for enhancing experiential learning in…

  5. Global comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas Erika von Schneidemesser a

    E-print Network

    , Leicester LE1 7RH, UK b Meteorological Observatory, German Weather Service (DWD), 82383 Hohenpeissenberg As of 2007, over half of the world's population live in urban areas. A recent modelling study showed- pogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are important

  6. AIR QUALITY MODELING AT COARSE-TO-FINE SCALES IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air toxics control strategies are moving towards a community based modeling approach, with an emphasis on assessing those areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This approach will require information that accurately maps and...

  7. SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS IN LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION TO MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON URBAN EXPANSION AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Bontorim

    Summary The population growth and the need to occupy available land brought bad consequences to the environment, e.g. habitats degradation and reduction of animal species. The urban expansion of the cities through actions that can mitigate environmental impacts in suburb areas is crucial to guarantee natural resources preservation. Identifying homebuyers' behavior, this article aims to recognize, from its conception and

  8. Vertical dispersion of suspended particulates in urban area of Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y Chan; W. S Kwok

    2000-01-01

    Field data are used to evaluate the vertical distribution of suspended particulates at different height levels in an urban area of Hong Kong. Four buildings in different street configurations and street environments were selected. According to the street configuration, they are classified into two groups: street canyon and open street. In street canyon, TSP and PM10 concentration varies with height

  9. Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

  10. Assessing the Environmental Risks of Silver from Clothes in an Urban Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rickard Arvidsson; Sverker Molander; Björn A. Sandén

    2012-01-01

    The environmental risks from the use of silver-containing clothes (“silver clothes”) were assessed for an urban area. First, we evaluated whether the use of silver clothes may cause contamination of wastewater treatment sludge that exceeds certain risk thresholds. Second, we assessed the risk of silver exposure to earthworms from applying the sludge as fertilizer to agricultural land. The most critical

  11. Heat Island Effect in urban Areas and its Impact on the Energy Behaviour of Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Papadopoulos; E.-A. Kalognomou

    2003-01-01

    The net effect of the urban thermal process is to make the city temperatures generally higher than those of the surrounding suburb or rural areas. The phenomenon of heat islands is rather complex, both the modelling and the spot measurements approach providing only a partial description of it, as the energy balance differences that cause this effect depend on the

  12. The Implementation of the Korean Green Growth Strategy in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamia Kamal-Chaoui; Fabio Grazi; Jongwan Joo; Marissa Plouin

    2011-01-01

    This report on the Korean Strategy for Green Growth and its implementation in urban areas assesses the contributions of sub-national governments to Korea's National Strategy for Green Growth and identifies the main challenges for effective implementation at the local level. Korea's economy, heavily reliant on foreign exports, was hard hit by the recent global financial crisis. Since the 1970s, Korea

  13. A Study in Comparative Urban Indicators: Conditions in 18 Large Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Michael J.

    This is a revised and expanded version of a previous report on urban indicators which introduces new indicators for 4 of the 14 quality of life categories covered in the previous report. It updates indicators for 9 of the 14 categories and employs the indicators to develop charts and tables which use the Washington, D.C. area as a illustrative…

  14. Performance Assessment of Micro and Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge L. Acosta; Kevin Combe; Saša Ž Djokic; Ignacio Hernando-Gil

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses some general issues related to the difficulties and uncertainties during the assessment and characterization of micro and small-scale wind-based generation in urban areas. This paper proposes four generic wind turbine models, which could be used for the analysis and selection of optimal wind turbines in target applications, as they accurately represent the range of wind turbines currently

  15. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN: INFLUENCE OF THE CHICAGO/GARY URBAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative importance of the Chicago/Gay urban area was investigated to determine its impact on atmospheric mercury (Hg) concentrations and wet deposition in the Lake Michigan basin. Event wet-only precipitation, total particulate, and vapor phase samples were collected for ...

  16. Using Solar Cookers and Gardens to Improve Health in Urban and Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dow; C. R. Dow

    1999-01-01

    Although health benefits of vegetables have been scientifically documented and well publicized, food habits and cost frequently limit vegetable consumption. Our work in Latin America in varied climates, in urban and rural areas, with different populations--especialy those with limited resources--has global applications. In Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, and in Central America we found that often fresh vegetables are readily available but

  17. A visually guided AGV for use as passenger transport in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Cawkwell

    2000-01-01

    A small passenger carrying automated guided vehicle (AGV) is described which can guide itself along a visual track and detect obstacles in its path. AGV with this capability have been available for some time, but this AGV is very cheap and reliable. The proposed AGV is intended to provide passenger transport in urban areas, in the manner of a taxi.

  18. Attitudes and actions toward birds in urban areas: Human cultural differences influence bird behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Clucas; John M. Marzluff

    2012-01-01

    Humans profoundly affect wildlife through environmental modification but they can also influence wildlife through direct interactions. We surveyed human attitudes and actions towards birds in two urban areas (Seattle, Washington, and Berlin, Germany) to determine whether encouraging (e.g., providing bird feeders) and discouraging (e.g., actively repelling) behavior directed at birds affected bird behavior. We studied human and bird behavior across

  19. Parasite Polymorphism and Severe Malaria in Dakar (Senegal): A West African Urban Area

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of increasing numbers of malaria cases among adults. Inappropriate self treatment and mutations in genes for malaria treatment. For these patients, despite the low level of transmission, SM was associatedParasite Polymorphism and Severe Malaria in Dakar (Senegal): A West African Urban Area Ndeye Sakha

  20. Quantification of groundwater contamination in an urban area using integral pumping tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bauer; M. Bayer-Raich; T. Holder; C. Kolesar; D. Müller; T. Ptak

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the integral groundwater investigation method is used for the quantification of PCE and TCE mass flow rates at an industrialized urban area in Linz, Austria. In this approach, pumping wells positioned along control planes perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction are operated for a time period on the order of days and sampled for contaminants. The concentration

  1. Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking

    E-print Network

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    1 Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking Luis Mej of a vision-based feature tracking system for an autonomous helicopter. Visual sensing is used for estimating, autonomous helicopter I. INTRODUCTION Our goal is to build vision-guided autonomous flying robots. Vision

  2. Visual Servoing for Tracking Features in Urban Areas Using an Autonomous Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    Visual Servoing for Tracking Features in Urban Areas Using an Autonomous Helicopter Abstract of a vision-based feature tracker for an autonomous helicopter. Using vision in the control loop allows estimating the position and velocity of a set of features with respect to the helicopter. The helicopter

  3. Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania is…

  4. The number complexity of the PM vertical profiles in Milan urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Ferrero; Maria Grazia Perrone; Stefania Petraccone; Giorgia Sangiorgi; Zelda Lazzati; Claudia LoPorto; Ezio Bolzacchini

    Atmospheric pollution is a key parameter in quality of life in urban areas. In this way atmospheric particulate matter concentrations are very important and are related to a large number of factors. Meteorology plays an important role cause influences the atmospheric capability to disperse pollutants with height, and so it has a very sensible effect on PM ground concentrations. Vertical

  5. Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

  6. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

  7. Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Conche; Miles Tight

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of

  8. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  9. CONCLUSIONS FROM A NEGATIVE TRACER TEST IN THE URBAN THERMAL KARST AREA, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Er?ss; Judit Mádl-Sz?nyi; Andrea Mindszenty; Imre Müller

    To prove the hydraulic connection between the urban R?zsadomb recharge area (Buda Thermal Karst System, Budapest, Hungary) ? through its hydrothermal inactive caves ? and the springs at the foothills has been an important question since the 1980s. These cold and lukewarm springs have been utilized as thermal baths since Roman times, and in modern times, occasionally, chemical and bacterial

  10. INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL PARTICULATE MATTER ON SELECTED URBAN AREAS ACROSS THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the next few years, states will be required to develop state implementation plans for reducing concentrations of fine particles in air where, PM2.5 annual and or daily standards are exceeded. It is now well recognized that high concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas are in p...

  11. Fatal motor vehicle crashes in rural and urban areas: decomposing rates into contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Zwerling, C; Peek-Asa, C; Whitten, P; Choi, S; Sprince, N; Jones, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Motor vehicle crash fatality rates have been consistently higher in rural areas than in urban areas. However, the explanations for these differences are less clear. In this study the decomposition method was used to explore the factors associated with increased fatal crash involvement rates in rural communities. Design: Using national databases, the fatal crash incidence density was decomposed into the product of three factors: the injury fatality rate, the crash injury rate, and the crash incidence density. Results: As expected, the fatal crash incidence density was more than two times higher in rural than in urban areas. This was driven primarily by the injury fatality rate, which was almost three times higher in rural areas. Conclusions: Further research should examine the relative roles of crash severity and the timely receipt of definitive medical care after a crash. PMID:15691985

  12. Urban climate and clues of heat island events in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena, Andrews José de; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corręa; França, José Ricardo de Almeida; Peres, Leonardo de Faria; Xavier, Luciano Nóbrega Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    This paper aims to map the thermal field in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) considering the atmospheric characteristics and the land use that contribute to understanding the urban heat island. Three thermal maps are defined through the use of Landsat5-TM satellite images for three winter events chosen for the decades of 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively. The results reveal a concentration of warmer cores in urban central areas as well as some local warmer areas in suburban region. Sites with lower temperatures correspond to vegetated areas which are away from the central part of the MARJ, including points of suburban areas. This work emphasizes the importance of the combined analysis of surface temperature with land use and atmospheric conditions, depicting a distinct pattern of heat islands for tropical climate.

  13. Urbanisation Trends and Urban Planning in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joăo Cabral; Sofia Morgado; José Luís Crespo; Carine Coelho

    This article analysis the relationship between urbanisation processes and the functions and role of planning, using the case\\u000a study of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA). It is based on two research projects on the LMA, one already finished and another\\u000a one still in progress developed by research teams in four schools of the UTL. The information comes from two different

  14. The AI Technologies of the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Gustave Anderson and Andrew Burnheimer and Vincent Cicirello

    E-print Network

    Cicirello, Vincent A.

    The AI Technologies of the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Gustave Anderson Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 Introduction Drexel University's College a Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed (PA-UWNT) (Cicirello et al. 2004). The PA- UWNT is a mobile ad

  15. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain...Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that...

  16. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and...INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain Facilities Under the Prospective...Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas...

  17. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and...INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain Facilities Under the Prospective...Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas...

  18. Understanding Peri-Urban Maize Production through an Examination of Household Livelihoods in the Toluca Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Amy M.; Eakin, Hallie; Sweeney, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The rates of urban growth globally continue to rise, especially in small and intermediary cities and peri-urban areas of the developing world. Communities in these settings share characteristics with rural areas, in terms of continued connections with agriculture, yet with an increasing reliance of non-agricultural employment which poses…

  19. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pueyo Anchuela; A. Soriano; A. Casas Sainz; A. Pocoví Juan

    2009-01-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction.

  20. Comparison of conceptually based and regression rainfall-runoff models, Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado, and potential applications in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindner-Lunsford, J. B.; Ellis, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Multievent, conceptually based models and a single-event, multiple linear-regression model for estimating storm-runoff quantity and quality from urban areas were calibrated and verified for four small (57 to 167 acres) basins in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The basins represented different land-use types - light commercial, single-family housing, and multi-family housing. Both types of models were calibrated using the same data set for each basin. A comparison was made between the storm-runoff volume, peak flow, and storm-runoff loads of seven water quality constituents simulated by each of the models by use of identical verification data sets. The models studied were the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II) (a runoff-quantity model designed for urban areas), and a multievent urban runoff quality model (DR3M-QUAL). Water quality constituents modeled were chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total lead, total manganese, and total zinc. (USGS)

  1. Integral assessment of air pollution dispersion regimes in the main industrialized and urban areas in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yassine Charabi; Sultan Al-Yahyai

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a rather complete picture of conditions of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation factors in the main\\u000a industrialized and urban areas in Oman, developed along the coastal area. This study focuses on four sites; Sohar, Muscat,\\u000a Sur, and Salalah. Each site has a local emission sources from transportation, industry and energy production activities. For\\u000a the calculation of the integral

  2. Crossing-scale hydrological impacts of urbanization and climate variability in the Greater Chicago Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougé, Charles; Cai, Ximing

    2014-09-01

    This paper uses past hydrological records in Northeastern Illinois to disentangle the combined effects of urban development and climatic variability at different spatial scales in the Greater Chicago Area. A step increase in annual precipitation occurred in Northeastern Illinois during 1965-1972 according to climate records. Urbanization has occurred as a gradual process over the entire Greater Chicago Area, both before and after the abrupt annual precipitation increase. The analysis of streamflow trends at each gaging station is supplemented by the comparison of the evolution of streamflow indicators in a group of urban and agricultural watersheds, thanks to an original use of the Mann-Whitney test. Results suggest that urban expansion in the Greater Chicago Area has led to widespread increases in a wide variety of streamflow metrics, with the exceptions being spring flows and some of the peak flow indicators. The increases detected in small (<100 km2) urban watersheds are mitigated in large (>200 km2) ones, over which the changes in streamflow are relatively homogeneous. While the impacts of land-use change are identified across a wide range of flow indicators and spatial scales, there are indications that some of these effects are mitigated or made negligible by other factors. For example, while impervious surfaces are found to increase flooding, stormwater management facilities, an adaptation to increased flooding, mitigate their impacts at a wide range of scales. While impervious surfaces are known to reduce infiltration and baseflow, a low flow increase was triggered by water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, as a response to a rising water demand which made on-site groundwater extraction unsustainable. Our analysis thus highlights the impacts of adaptive planning and management of water resources on urban hydrology.

  3. Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

  4. Longitudinal effects on mental health of moving to greener and less green urban areas.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Ian; White, Mathew P; Wheeler, Benedict W; Fleming, Lora E; Depledge, Michael H

    2014-01-21

    Despite growing evidence of public health benefits from urban green space there has been little longitudinal analysis. This study used panel data to explore three different hypotheses about how moving to greener or less green areas may affect mental health over time. The samples were participants in the British Household Panel Survey with mental health data (General Health Questionnaire scores) for five consecutive years, and who relocated to a different residential area between the second and third years (n = 1064; observations = 5320). Fixed-effects analyses controlled for time-invariant individual level heterogeneity and other area and individual level effects. Compared to premove mental health scores, individuals who moved to greener areas (n = 594) had significantly better mental health in all three postmove years (P = .015; P = .016; P = .008), supporting a "shifting baseline" hypothesis. Individuals who moved to less green areas (n = 470) showed significantly worse mental health in the year preceding the move (P = .031) but returned to baseline in the postmove years. Moving to greener urban areas was associated with sustained mental health improvements, suggesting that environmental policies to increase urban green space may have sustainable public health benefits. PMID:24320055

  5. Ray tracing algorithm for accurate solar irradiance prediction in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Vitucci, Enrico M; Falaschi, Federico; Degli-Esposti, Vittorio

    2014-08-20

    A ray tracing algorithm has been developed to model solar radiation interaction with complex urban environments and, in particular, its effects, including the total irradiance on each surface and overall dissipated power contribution. The proposed model accounts for multiple reflection and diffuse scattering interactions and is based on a rigorous theory, so that the overall power balance is satisfied at the generic surface element. Such approach is validated against measurements in the present work in simple reference scenarios. The results show the importance of multiple-bounce interactions and diffuse scattering to obtain reliable solar irradiance and heat dissipation estimates in urban areas. PMID:25321121

  6. Effects of Urbanization on Floods in the Houston, Texas Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Steven L.; Sayre, Douglas M.

    1973-01-01

    Rainfall and runoff data from drainage basins in the Houston metropolitan area and a 60-year rainfall record for the National Weather Service station, Houston-City, were used to simulate 60 annual flood peaks at 26 sites. Selected frequency characteristics, based on these simulated annual peaks, are related to drainage area and percentage of impervious area. These relations, which may be used to estimate the flood characteristics at ungaged sites, indicate that in the Houston metropolitan area, complete urbanization increases the magnitude of a 2-year flood nine times and increases the magnitude of a 50-year flood five times.

  7. Recharge assessment in an urban area: a case study of La Plata, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Eduardo; Carol, Eleonora; Mancuso, Malva; Laurencena, Patricia; Deluchi, Marta; Rojo, Adolfo

    2013-08-01

    Leakage from water mains, storm drainage and sewer systems in urban areas constitutes a source of recharge that is difficult to identify and quantify at a regional scale. The objective of this work is to apply a methodology that would make it possible to evaluate urban recharge at a regional scale, taking as a case study the city of La Plata (Argentina). In the study area, population growth and an increase in water demand has caused the intensive exploitation of groundwater with resulting alteration in groundwater flow. The methodology used was developed on the basis of a water balance and the simulation of the temporal evolution of the cones of depression and the volumes of water extracted from the aquifer. The method consists of adjusting the piezometry resulting from the numerical modelling to the measured piezometry, by means of the variation of the recharge parameter in the urban area. The results obtained make it possible to identify and quantify urban recharge, which in this case represents a volume of water similar to the recharge from precipitation.

  8. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  9. Increased atmospheric deposition of mercury in reference lakes near major urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of Hg is the predominant pathway for Hg to reach sensitive ecosystems, but the importance of emissions on near-field deposition remains unclear. To better understand spatial variability in Hg deposition, mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediment cores from 12 lakes with undeveloped watersheds near to (<50 km) and remote from (>150 km) several major urban areas in the United States. Background and focusing corrected Hg fluxes and flux ratios (modern to background) in the near-urban lakes (68 ?? 6.9 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 9.8 ?? 4.8, respectively) greatly exceed those in the remote lakes (14 ?? 9.3 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 3.5 ?? 1.0) and the fluxes are strongly related to distance from the nearest major urban area (r 2 = 0.87) and to population and Hg emissions within 50-100 km of the lakes. Comparison to monitored wet deposition suggests that dry deposition is a major contributor of Hg to lakes near major urban areas. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased atmospheric deposition of mercury in reference lakes near major urban areas.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of Hg is the predominant pathway for Hg to reach sensitive ecosystems, but the importance of emissions on near-field deposition remains unclear. To better understand spatial variability in Hg deposition, mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediment cores from 12 lakes with undeveloped watersheds near to (<50 km) and remote from (>150 km) several major urban areas in the United States. Background and focusing corrected Hg fluxes and flux ratios (modern to background) in the near-urban lakes (68 ± 6.9 ?g m(-2) yr(-1) and 9.8 ± 4.8, respectively) greatly exceed those in the remote lakes (14 ± 9.3 ?g m(-2) yr(-1) and 3.5 ± 1.0) and the fluxes are strongly related to distance from the nearest major urban area (r(2) = 0.87) and to population and Hg emissions within 50-100 km of the lakes. Comparison to monitored wet deposition suggests that dry deposition is a major contributor of Hg to lakes near major urban areas. PMID:22243866

  11. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  12. The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Conclusions Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post-source contamination during storage in the household, except during the monsoon season, when there was some point-of-source water contamination. This suggests that safe storage and household water treatment interventions may improve water quality in slums. Problems of exorbitant expense, inadequate quantity, and poor point-of-source quality can only be remedied by providing unrecognized slums with equitable access to municipal water supplies. PMID:23442300

  13. Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): A comparative hydrological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, S.; Peters, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds within a 20 000 km2 region in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia: In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of the southeastern USA. Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers were also evaluated. Data were analysed for seven US Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauges, 17 National Weather Service rain gauges, and five USGS monitoring wells. Annual runoff coefficients (RCs; runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek) were not significantly greater than for the less-urbanized watersheds. The RCs for some streams were similar to others and the similar streams were grouped according to location. The RCs decreased from the higher elevation and higher relief watersheds to the lower elevation and lower relief watersheds: Values were 0.54 for the two Blue Ridge streams. 0.37 for the four middle Piedmont streams (near Atlanta), and 0.28 for a southern Piedmont stream. For the 25 largest stormflows, the peak flows for Peachtree Creek were 30% to 100% greater then peak flows for the other stream. The storm recession period for the urban stream was 1-2 days less than that for the other streams and the recession was characterized by a 2-day storm recession constant that was, on average, 40 to 100% greater, i.e. streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Baseflow recession constants ranged from 35 to 40% lower for Peachtree Creek than for the other streams; this is attributed to lower evapotranspiration losses, which result in a smaller change in groundwater storage than in the less-urbanized watersheds. Low flow of Peachtree Creek ranged from 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of stormwater and the paving of groundwater rechange areas. The timing of daily or monthly groundwater-level fluctuations was similar annually in each well, reflecting the seasonal recharge. Although water-level monitoring only began in the 1980s for the two urban wells, water levels displayed a notable decline compared with non-urban wells since then; this is attributed to decreased groundwater rechange in the urban watersheds due to increased imperviousness and related rapid storm runoff. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. High-resolution rainfall estimation for Helsinki urban area using Helsinki radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Laura; Nordling, Kalle; Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2014-05-01

    High resolution precipitation data is a crucial factor for hydrological applications in urban areas. Small fluctuations in precipitation fields are of great importance considering the fast response of urban catchments due to the dominance of impervious surfaces. High resolution precipitation observations are needed in order to characterize these fluctuations. Weather radar provides high spatial resolution precipitation estimations. However, the quality of its observations in an urban environment is significantly degraded, among other things, by ground clutter and beam-blockage. A solution for this problem is to use a radar network, where the data gaps of one radar will be filled by using observations from the others. Very few cities have dedicated weather radar networks. In some cities, like Helsinki, there are several weather radars covering the metropolitan area, but they are operated by different organizations. In this study, we show how such systems can be used to build a network and what is the advantage of using radarnetworks for estimating precipitation in urban catchments. The urban Helsinki area is covered by observations from three individual-purpose C-band weather radars (Helsinki University's Kumpula (KUM), Vaisala Oy's Kerava (KER) and Finnish Meteorological Institute's Vantaa (VAN)). We used the data from these radars to form a network and we design a similar task which runs at the same time in each radar couple of times per day. Nonetheless, it is challenging to make them observe at the same area at exactly the same time, which could lead to fast changing, short precipitation events being missed. Hence, synchronization and temporal resolution are the main concerns when building a network. Consequently, to decrease the impact of these restrictions in the Helsinki radar network we propose the use of the optic flow interpolation algorithm to retrieve information in between two radar observations and use the retrieved dataset from the three radars to estimate rainfall. The accuracy of this method is studied by comparing the composite rainfall estimation with both single radar observations and ground measurements.

  15. Storm runoff as related to urbanization in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1980-01-01

    A series of equations was developed to provide a better method of determining flood frequencies in the Portland-Vancouver urban area than is now available. The resulting regression equations can be used to compute peak discharge and storm runoff with a standard error of estimate of approximately 30 percent. Basins used to define the regression equations ranged in size from 0.2 to 26 square miles. Those physical basin parameters that proved to be significant are: drainage area, effective impervious area, storage, rainfall intensity, basin slope, and soil infiltration. The equations indicate that total urbanization of an undeveloped basin can increase peak discharge as much as 3? times and almost double the volume of storm runoff. Impervious area, as delineated by mapping techniques, proved to be an inadequate physical parameter for use in the regression equations because builders and planners have devised many methods of routing storm runoff from impervious areas to the main channel (in effect, speeding up or slowing down the response to the storm). In some parts of the study area, storm runoff was diverted into dry wells and never entered the main channel. To define the effect of this rerouting, the digital model was used to find an effective impervious area that would 'best fit' the rainfall-runoff data. Field estimates to verify the effectiveness of the impervious area for two of the basins showed that optimizations were within 20 percent of those shown by the digital model. Users of these data who may find the effective impervious area a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming parameter to obtain have an alternative. The combination of land-use type I (parks, forests, and vacant lots) and Type II (agriculture) proved to be an excellent inverse indicator of impervious area. Land-use types I and II, coupled with the street-gutter density, an indication of effective routing, provide the user with alternative indices of urbanization.

  16. Storm runoff as related to urbanization in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1980-01-01

    A series of equations was developed to provide a better method of determining flood frequencies in the Portland-Vancouver urban area than is now available. The resulting regression equations can be used to compute peak discharge and storm runoff with a standard error of estimate of approximately 30 percent. Basins used to define the regression equations ranged in size from 0.2 to 26 square miles. Those physical basin parameters that proved to be significant are: drainage area, effective impervious area, storage, rainfall intensity, basin slope, and soil infiltration. The equations indicate that total urbanization of an undeveloped basin can increase peak discharge as much as 3? times and almost double the volume of storm runoff. Impervious area, as delineated by mapping techniques, proved to be an inadequate physical parameter for use in the regression equations because builders and planners have devised many methods of routing storm runoff from impervious areas to the main channel (in effect, speeding up or slowing down the response to the storm). In some parts of the study area, storm runoff was diverted into dry wells and never entered the main channel. To define the effect of this rerouting, the digital model was used to find an effective impervious area that would 'best fit' the rainfall-runoff data. Field estimates to verify the effectiveness of the impervious area for two of the basins showed that optimizations were within 20 percent of those shown by the digital model. Users of these data who may find the effective impervious area a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming parameter to obtain have an alternative. The combination of land-use type I (parks, forests, and vacant lots) and Type II (agriculture) proved to be an excellent inverse indicator of impervious area. Land-use types I and II, coupled with the street-gutter density, an indication of effective routing, provide the user with alternative indices of urbanization.

  17. Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

  18. Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Liao, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

  19. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-12-01

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  20. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  1. Rainfall Modification by Major Urban Areas: Observations from Spaceborne Rain Radar on the TRMM Satellite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold; Negri, Andrew J.

    2002-07-01

    Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's precipitation radar (PR) were employed to identify warm-season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Georgia; Montgomery, Alabama; Nashville, Tennessee; and San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas, Texas. Results reveal an average increase of about 28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 km downwind of the metropolis, with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48%-116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with the Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX) studies of St. Louis, Missouri, almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.

  2. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  3. Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

  4. A drill-hole geodatabase as a tool to investigate geological hazard in Napoli Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albericoa, I.; Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.

    2003-04-01

    Geological investigations in urban areas are complicated by the absence of good outcrops and field exposures, as a result of the density of civil buildings and railway and road network. On the other side, in urban areas geological investigation represents a basic tool to decisional support for the management of present private buildings and public works and for the planning of new ones. This is much more true in urban areas very exposed to geological hazard (volcanic, hydrogeological, seismic) where the high exposed value greatly rises the risk. The methodology to deal with the geological hazard in urban areas here presented is the reconstruction of buried geological formations deduced by drill-holes stratigraphy.The test area is represented by the whole municipality of Napoli city, that proves very apt to the investigation of the hazard in urban areas since it stands over an active volcanic area, comprised between the Campi Flegrei volcanic field and the Somma-Vesuvio district, that both gave explosive and effusive activity through the last centuries. Besides, the extension of the main part of the city constrained between the coastline and the belt of volcanic hills together with the presence of loose material due to pyroclastic activity makes the alluvional events an other hazardous phenomenon for the city. The performed up datable drill-holes geodata-base for the city of Napoli at present contains the record of about 800 holes stratigraphy, collected through the main public and private bodies, reflecting the drill-holes surveys made along the last 50 years before constructing the main railways, roads and aqueduct network. Drill-holes data have been interpreted and can now be read under various viewpoints (geological, lithological, volcanological); the present work presents the first results of the geological hazard investigation. The investigation of buried stratigraphy in the eastern area allows to identify the presence of pyroclastic flow deposits from Somma-Vesuvio younger than TGN up to the Sebeto river valley, so testifying to a volcanic risk from Somma-Vesuvio for the city of Napoli, often neglected before. Besides the presence of alluvial deposits interbedded to volcanic products in the drill-hole sequences in the Sebeto plain and in the coastal plains of Fuorigrotta and Bagnoli made it possible to precisely define the areas subjected to alluvial flooding and to chronologically relate the alluvial phase with the volcanic eruption, so demonstrating that the city of Napoli suffers the direct volcanic hazard from Campi Flegrei and partly from Somma-Vesuvio but much more suffers the inter-eruption hyperconcentrated-flood flow hazard.

  5. Composition and source apportionment of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols of urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd; Latif, Mohd Talib; Suratman, Suhaimi

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition and source apportionment of surfactant in atmospheric aerosols around urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia based on ionic compositions. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as Disulphine Blue Active Substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrophotometer. Ionic compositions were determined using ion chromatography for cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). Principle component analysis (PCA) combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) were used to identify the source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS. Results indicated that the concentrations of surfactants at both sampling sites were dominated by MBAS rather than DBAS especially in fine mode aerosols during the southwest monsoon. Three main sources of surfactants were identified from PCA-MLR analysis for MBAS in fine mode samples particularly in Kuala Lumpur, dominated by motor vehicles, followed by soil/road dust and sea spray. Besides, for MBAS in coarse mode, biomass burning/sea spray were the dominant source followed by motor vehicles/road dust and building material. PMID:23336924

  6. Factors influencing sexual initiation, multiple partners and condom use among male slum youth in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Rukmini; Mmari, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use at first intercourse) and factors within the family/household social environment, peer environment and individual level during the respondents' formative years. Regression analyses found factors within the family and peer-level domains such as growing up in a two-parent household, having adequate levels of parental supervision, experiencing violence in the home and having peers who drank significantly impact the age of sexual debut and the subsequent number of lifetime partners. Condom use at first intercourse appears to be significantly influenced by age of sexual debut and type of sexual partner. These findings indicate that in low-resource urban settings, the influence of family and friends as role models can play an important role in determining the initiation of sexual behaviour among male youth and in making behaviour choices that result in favourable health outcomes. PMID:20960360

  7. HIV Risk Perception and Constraints to Protective Behaviour among Young Slum Dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Omololu, Femi O.; Odutolu, Oluwole

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS risk perception and protective behaviour among sexually-active urban young slum dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria. The multistage sampling techniques were used for selecting 1,600 respondents aged 15-24 years. Of these, 1,042 (65%) respondents who reported unprotected sex in the last three months were selected for analysis. Although the sexually-active respondents demonstrated basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high risk perception, risky behaviour was common and protective behaviour was poor. About 48% of 505 males and 12% of 537 females had multiple partners. Similarly, 29% of males and 38% of females were engaged in transactional sex. Only 14% of males and 5% of females used any form of protection, resulting in the high rates of sexually transmitted infections reported by 27% of males and 10% of females. Structural and environmental constraints were identified as barriers to adopting protective behaviour. Therefore, programme and policy interventions should be designed to address the peculiar circumstances of urban young slum dwellers to curtail the HIV epidemic. PMID:17985816

  8. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  9. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (?Tu-r) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ?Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*).

  10. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto; Harmsen, Lynn

    1980-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio. The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing gaging-station network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the San Antonio River Authority in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. These stations will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent drainage basins. One drainage basin is undergoing extensive urbanization while the other is undeveloped. The objective of the San Antonio urban-hydrology study are: 1. To provide data showing the effects of various stages of urbanization on flood discharge and runoff. 2. To provide water-quality data on surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes, during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of utilization.

  11. Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

  12. Ensemble simulations of the urban effect on a summer rainfall event in the Great Beijing Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shi; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2015-02-01

    The Great Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA), located in North China, is one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world. In this study, ensemble simulations are conducted to investigate the urban effects on a summertime heavy rainfall event in the GBMA. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that couples with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used for the ensemble simulation. Results show that the ensemble simulation with a realistic land-use representation of urban areas (i.e. control run) can well reproduce the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the rainfall event. The simulated total precipitation agrees well with observation. Compared with the sensitivity ensemble simulation, in which the urban area is replaced by cropland, the control run generates more precipitation over the southwest of Beijing, while less rainfall is found in the area to the northeast of Beijing. This result suggests that the underlying urban surface and urban canopy physics in the surface layer have remarkable impacts on precipitation. The stronger upward motion along with larger convergence and more moisture transportation caused by the urban dynamic and thermodynamic effects directly contribute to the differences in rainfall distribution between the control run and the sensitivity run. In addition, the urban effects are found to slow the cold front movement due to the intense warm air over the urban area, leading to a delayed occurrence of the peak rainfall. However, the slow-moving cold front over the urban area enhances the maximum precipitation intensity. The evolution of the rainfall pattern during the intensification period of the precipitation event is dependent on the movement of the cold front in both the control and sensitivity experiments, indicating that urban effects tend to modify the precipitation distribution and influence the temporal variation of the rainfall process.

  13. Detection and tracking of gas clouds in an urban area by imaging infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, Samer; Rusch, Peter; Gerhard, Jörn-Hinnrich; Harig, Roland

    2013-05-01

    The release of toxic industrial compounds in urban areas is a threat for the population and the environment. In order to supply emergency response forces with information about the released compounds after accidents or terrorist attacks, monitoring systems such as the scanning imaging spectrometer SIGIS 2 or the hyperspectral imager HI 90 were developed. Both systems are based on the method of infrared spectroscopy. The systems were deployed to monitor gas clouds released in the harbor area of Hamburg. The gas clouds were identified, visualized and quantified from a distance in real time. Using data of two systems it was possible to identify contaminated areas and to determine the source location.

  14. Endless Urban Growth? On the Mismatch of Population, Household and Urban Land Area Growth and Its Effects on the Urban Debate

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

    2013-01-01

    In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990–2000 and 2000–2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these “double-declining” cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number “automatically” solve the global problem of land consumption. PMID:23840501

  15. Endless urban growth? On the mismatch of population, household and urban land area growth and its effects on the urban debate.

    PubMed

    Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

    2013-01-01

    In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these "double-declining" cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number "automatically" solve the global problem of land consumption. PMID:23840501

  16. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range?=?0–52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to predict fatalities in the broader landscape. PMID:23326420

  17. Ecohydrology in semiarid urban ecosystems: Modeling the relationship between connected impervious area and ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Catherine; Tague, Christina

    2015-01-01

    In water-stressed, semiarid urban environments, connections between impervious surfaces and drainage networks may strongly impact the water use and ecosystem productivity of neighboring vegetated areas. We use an ecohydrologic model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), to quantify the sensitivity of vegetation water use and net primary productivity (NPP) to fine-scale impervious surface connectivity. We develop a set of very fine-scale (2 m2) scenarios that vary both the percentage of impervious surface and fraction of this impervious surface with direct hydrologic connections to urban drainage systems for a small hillslope. When driven by Mediterranean climate forcing, model estimates suggest that total vegetation water use declines with increasing impervious area. However, when impervious area is hydrologically disconnected from the urban drainage network, declines in water and carbon fluxes with decreased vegetated area can be partially, or in some cases even completely, offset by increased transpiration and NPP in the remaining vegetation. Relative increases in water use and NPP of remaining vegetation are much greater for deeply rooted shrubs and trees and negligible for shallow rooted grasses. We extrapolate our findings to the catchment scale by developing a first-order approximation of fine-scale impervious connection impacts on aggregate watershed water and carbon flux estimates. Our approach offers a computationally and data-efficient method for estimating the impact of impervious area connectivity on these ecohydrologic fluxes. For our only partially urbanized Santa Barbara watershed, estimates of water use and NPP that account for fine-scale impervious connection differed by more than 10% from those that did not.

  18. Emissions variation in urban areas resulting from the introduction of natural gas vehicles: Application to Barcelona and Madrid Greater Areas (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Gonçalves; Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero; José M. Baldasano

    2009-01-01

    On-road traffic is the major contributor to pollutant emissions in urban areas. Nowadays different emission abatement strategies are being tested in order to improve urban air quality (e.g. the European Commission currently promotes the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel). Several feasible scenarios regarding the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV) are studied in the two main cities

  19. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Brown; M. Brian Gregory; Jason T. May

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine\\u000a major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan\\u000a areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental\\u000a variables with strong associations (rs???0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended

  20. Variations of soil lead in different land uses along the urbanization gradient in the Beijing metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg-292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located. PMID:24646863

  1. Using Smart Planning to Mitigate Drought in Urban Areas: A Seasonal Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation in the Indianapolis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, P. E.; Niyogi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Indianapolis region exhibits a precipitation distribution indicative of urban weather modification: negative bias upwind and positive bias downwind. The causes for such a distribution within an urban area arise from a combination of land-surface heterogeneity and urban aerosol-cloud interaction. This study investigates the causes of the precipitation distribution with a 120-day simulation using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with the Town Energy Budget (TEB) model. Using a nested grid with a maximum resolution of 500m, a seasonal simulation of May through August, 2008 is conducted. Land surface conditions are varied, removing, expanding, and intensifying the Indianapolis urban area. Aerosol conditions are scaled by a three-dimensional combination of MODIS and CALIPSO observations, and varied in concentration and plume extent. Results from the study demonstrate the paradigm of urban precipitation modification on a seasonal time scale. The boundary between the rural and urban land surfaces weakens approaching systems upwind, decreasing precipitation in the city center. A larger urban extent diminishes the systems further. The aerosol plume downwind increases cloud lifetimes via cloud-nucleating aerosol, then invigorates precipitation via large drizzle-invigorating aerosols. The overall effect reproduces the observed negative precipitation bias upwind and positive bias downwind of the urban center. A lower concentration of aerosols leads to a higher proportion of stratiform rain over a larger area, whereas a higher concentration of aerosols leads to more convective rain and heavy rain events. This manifests in a weekly cycle of precipitation with rain most likely on weekends, and with less frequent but heavier rain events most likely during midweek, when aerosol concentrations are the highest. More intense urbanization, via both land surface and aerosol effects, creates more frequent heavy rainfall events and exacerbates dry-periods, potentially leading to premature drought onset. The wetter than average May, June, and July received more total rainfall from the heavy rainfall events, while the dry August became drier due to lack of stratiform precipitation. Smart planning solutions can partially mitigate the urban precipitation problem. In a simulation where a more intense urban Indianapolis is surrounded by a greenbelt and green roofs are implemented in the city, the urban precipitation bias becomes less significant. Upwind, the greenbelt provides surface moisture and mitigates how much precipitation systems weaken. Downwind, the greenbelt slows the transport of drizzle-invigorating aerosol, reducing the heavy rain events. The green roofs reduce the urban-rural gradient and slow the initial weakening of systems.

  2. Linking nitrogen cycling and export with variable source area dynamics in forested and urbanizing catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.; Tague, C. E.; Groffman, P.; Belt, K.

    2001-05-01

    One of the goals of the Baltimore Urban LTER site is to investigate how interactions between ecological processes and urban land use effect ecosystem functions, such as the cycling and export of nutrients. As part of this project, nitrogen export from Pond Branch, a 41 hectare forested catchment in Baltimore County, has been monitored since 1998 and is compared with nitrogen export from neighboring agricultural and urbanizing catchments. To better understand the spatial structure of nitrogen cycling and export processes in this region, a GIS and physically based, hydro-ecological model is used to investigate the interactions between soil water levels, flowpath dynamics and nitrogen cycling and export in Pond Branch. Rates of key ecosystem processes including vegetation uptake, litterfall, decomposition, mineralization, nitrification and denitrification vary in regular spatial and temporal patterns in response to meteorologically driven variations in soil water, temperature and biological activity as well as decadal level variations in canopy composition and extent. Alteration in the distribution of nitrogen sinks and sources in the landscape are particularly manifest in the dynamics of riparian areas that result in peak nitrogen export during the active growing season in this catchment. Urbanization effects can be added to the simulation by altering irrigation and fertilization rates, vegetation patterns and by altering hydrologic flowpaths through the construction of roads and sewer networks. The model is used to investigate current nitrogen cycling and export patterns and scenarios for urbanization of the Pond Branch catchment. Variation in the pattern of land cover change and infrastructure development with respect to the existing pattern of vegetation and topographic controls on nitrogen cycling is shown by the model to influence the impact of urbanization on nitrogen export.

  3. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

  4. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

  5. The effect of urban leaf area on summertime urban surface kinetic temperatures: A Terre Haute case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry J. Hardin; Ryan R. Jensen

    2007-01-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHIE) has been documented in many temperate region cities. One cause of the UHIE is the replacement of green spaces with impervious materials as urbanization commences and the city builds up and fills in. During the summer, elevated urban temperatures result in increased electricity usage, higher pollution levels, and greater resident discomfort. Through evapotranspiration and

  6. Comparison of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux Determined by Large-Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance over Urban and Suburban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sensible heat fluxes were obtained by eddy-covariance (EC) systems and large-aperture scintillometers (LASs). The results indicated that (1) the sensible heat flux obtained by LAS was less noisy and slightly larger than that obtained by EC over both urban and suburban surfaces; (2) the values of were higher when the correlation coefficient of vertical wind speed and temperature () was smaller. Lower values of were due to low-frequency trends. The urban values of were smaller than suburban values at low values; (3) the sensible heat flux determined by LAS was improved by use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory of the temperature structure parameter over urban and suburban areas, and the improvement is more significant over urban surface areas.

  7. Assessment of satellite-based rainfall estimates in urban areas in different geographic and climatic regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo Suk Han; Steven J. Burian; J. Marshall Shepherd

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the 3B42 research version rainfall product from NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission\\u000a Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). The study provides new results of TMPA data accuracy in urban areas and highlights\\u000a trends associated with the climatological indicators of temperature and relative humidity in cities. Ten years (1998-2007)\\u000a of TMPA data were analyzed for three case

  8. Buildup characteristics of roof pollutants in the Shanghai urban area, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biao Wang; Tian Li

    2009-01-01

    The buildup of roof pollutants in an urban area of Shanghai, China was investigated by conducting 16 experiments between November\\u000a 2007 and October 2008. Concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in runoff from three types of roof (concrete, aluminum and glass) exceeded\\u000a USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria. The solid\\/liquid partition of the selected metal elements was consistent\\u000a for the

  9. Impact of emission control strategy on NO 2 in urban areas of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zang-Ho Shon; Ki-Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Long-term trend in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels was analyzed from 16 urban roadside (U-RS) locations in 7 major cities along with 5 reference background areas in Korea over an 11-year period (1998–2008). These NO2 data were examined after being grouped into periods I (1998–2000) and II (2001–2008) in light of the major emission control strategy such as the natural gas

  10. Composition of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Débora de Almeida Azevedo; Larissa Silveira Moreira; Denilson Soares de Siqueira

    1999-01-01

    The hydrocarbon compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city have been studied to assess the different pollution levels. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol), extracts were prepared and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic compounds. High-resolution gas chromatography and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) were used for the analysis of

  11. Increasing photovoltaics grid penetration in urban areas through active distribution systems: First large scale demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Van Loon; T. Vu Van; A. Woyte; F. Truyens; B. Bletterie; J. Reekers; B. Blazic; R. Engelen

    2010-01-01

    MetaPV is the first project world-wide that will demonstrate the provision of electrical benefits from photovoltaics (PV) on a large scale, showing the way toward cities powered by renewable energy sources. Additional benefits for active grid support from PV will be demonstrated at two sites: a residential\\/urban area of 128 households with 4 kWp each, and an industrial zone of

  12. The session series on “Natural Hazards’ impact on urban areas and infrastructure”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Bostenaru Dan

    2011-01-01

    The series started as sessions on “Natural hazards impact on large cities and on infrastructure” 1999 within the European\\u000a Geophysical Society XXIV General Assembly held in The Hague, The Netherlands. The series were continued as Session “Natural\\u000a Hazards Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure” at the EGS XXV, XXVI and XXVII General Assemblies held in 2000–2002 in Nice\\u000a (France). The

  13. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  14. Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

    2014-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

  15. Urban Area Extraction Using Airborne X-Band Fully Polarimetric PI-SAR2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, J.; Kishimoto, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to extract urban areas from X-band fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. It is known that very high resolution (VHR) SAR can extract buildings, but it requires more processes to map urban areas that should include other objects. The proposed method is mainly composed of two classifications. One classification uses total power of scattering and volume scattering derived by using four component decomposition method with correction of the polarization orientation angle (POA) effect. The other classification uses polarimetric coherency between SHH and SVV . The two results are intersected and final urban areas are extracted after post-classification processing. We applied the proposed method to airborne X-band fully polarimetric SAR data of Polarimetric and Interferometric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System (Pi-SAR2), developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan. The validation show that the results of the proposed method were acceptable, with an overall accuracy of approximately 80 to 90% at 100-m spatial scale.

  16. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for estimating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other microenvironments in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The population exposure originating from the long-range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure in Helsinki. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  17. Landslide and flood hazard assessment in urban areas of LevoÄŤa region (Eastern Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magulova, Barbora; Caporali, Enrica; Bednarik, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The case study presents the use of statistical methods and analysis tools, for hazard assessment of "urbanization units", implemented in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. As a case study, the Levo?a region (Slovakia) is selected. The region, with a total area of about 351 km2, is widely affected by landslides and floods. The problem, for small urbanization areas, is nowadays particularly significant from the socio-economic point of view. It is considered, presently, also an increasing problem, mainly because of climate change and more frequent extreme rainfall events. The geo-hazards are evaluated using a multivariate analysis. The landslide hazard assessment is based on the comparison and subsequent statistical elaboration of territorial dependence among different input factors influencing the instability of the slopes. Particularly, five factors influencing slope stability are evaluated, i.e. lithology, slope aspect, slope angle, hypsographic level and present land use. As a result a new landslide susceptibility map is compiled and different zones of stable, dormant and non-stable areas are defined. For flood hazard map a detailed digital elevation model is created. A compose index of flood hazard is derived from topography, land cover and pedology related data. To estimate flood discharge, time series of stream flow and precipitation measurements are used. The assessment results are prognostic maps of landslide hazard and flood hazard, which presents the optimal base for urbanization planning.

  18. Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

  19. Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

  20. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goncalves; P. Jimenez; J. Baldasano

    2007-01-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or

  1. Investigation of the Interactive, Intimidating Relation Between Urbanization and the Environment in an Arid Area Based on Grey System Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biao QIAO; Chuang-lin FANG; Mao-sheng BAN

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Hexi Corridor in western China as an example, this paper studies the interactive intimate i relation between urbanization and the environment in arid areas based on the grey system theory. The results show that the grey relational degree between urbanization and the environment is low in the agriculture-oriented cities, modest in the tourism-oriented cities and great in the

  2. Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

    Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

  3. Cloud residues and interstitial aerosols from non-precipitating clouds over an industrial and urban area in northern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weijun Li; Peiren Li; Guode Sun; Shengzhen Zhou; Qi Yuan; Wenxing Wang

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of aerosol–cloud interactions have been conducted in remote locations; few have investigated the characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over highly polluted urban and industrial areas. The present work, based on samples collected at Mt. Tai, a site in northern China affected by nearby urban and industrial air pollutant emissions, illuminates CCN properties in a polluted atmosphere. High-resolution

  4. Impacts of flooding and climate change on urban transportation: A systemwide performance assessment of the Boston Metro Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Suarez; William Anderson; Vijay Mahal; T. R. Lakshmanan

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is likely to affect urban infrastructure through sea level rise and increased frequency of extreme events. This paper assesses the potential impact of climate change on the system-wide performance of transportation networks using the Boston Metro Area as a case study. The methodology integrates projected changes in land use, demographic and climatic conditions into the urban transportation

  5. The challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development: a comparative study of the Copenhagen and Hangzhou metropolitan areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Xue; Petter Nćss; Yinmei Yao; Fen Li

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is how the challenge of sustainable mobility has been dealt with in urban planning and urban development in the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Hangzhou (China). The two metropolises have followed different trajectories in their land use and transport infrastructure development since the 1990s. Land use policies in Copenhagen have to some extent been

  6. Decline in the concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC11, CFC12 and CFC113) in an urban area of Beijing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dajun Qin

    2007-01-01

    During this study 352 whole air samples were collected in an urban area of Beijing between January 2005 and March 2007. The temporal variation of the concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) in air in the Beijing urban atmosphere is presented and discussed. The weighted mean monthly values of these concentrations have been compared with the data from

  7. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  8. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H.; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this hard-to-reach population. Moreover, this technology may also be suitable for injury-specific research given that there were few differences with respect to injury-related variables in mobile phone ownership and usage. PMID:25157308

  9. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  10. Context-sensitive extraction of tree crown objects in urban areas using VHR satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Juan P.; Bijker, Wietske; Tolpekin, Valentyn A.; Stein, Alfred

    2012-04-01

    Municipalities need accurate and updated inventories of urban vegetation in order to manage green resources and estimate their return on investment in urban forestry activities. Earlier studies have shown that semi-automatic tree detection using remote sensing is a challenging task. This study aims to develop a reproducible geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) methodology to locate and delineate tree crowns in urban areas using high resolution imagery. We propose a GEOBIA approach that considers the spectral, spatial and contextual characteristics of tree objects in the urban space. The study presents classification rules that exploit object features at multiple segmentation scales modifying the labeling and shape of image-objects. The GEOBIA methodology was implemented on QuickBird images acquired over the cities of Enschede and Delft (The Netherlands), resulting in an identification rate of 70% and 82% respectively. False negative errors concentrated on small trees and false positive errors in private gardens. The quality of crown boundaries was acceptable, with an overall delineation error <0.24 outside of gardens and backyards.

  11. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  12. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

  13. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Veenhuis, J.E.; Dorsey, M.E.; Gardiner, Heather; Smith, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1981 water year for the Austin, Texas metropolitan area are reported. In 1975, the program was expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. In 1978, the program was expanded to include a ground-water resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones Fault Zone. The information will be useful in determining the effect of urbanization on flood peaks, volume , and water quality. The major streams in the study area are Onion Creek, Baron Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek, Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. All streams in the area are within the Colorado River basin. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storms during the 1981 water year. Water-quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

  14. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin metropolitan area, Texas, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, J.D.; Pate, D.L.; Slagle, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff collected during the 1986 water year for the Austin, Texas metropolitan area. In 1975 , the program was expanded to include the collection of water quality data, and in 1978, to include a groundwater resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones Fault Zone. The information will be useful in determining the effect of urbanization of flood peaks, volume, and water quality. The major streams in the study area are Onion Creek, Barton Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek , Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. All streams in the area are within the Colorado River basin. Rainfall-runoff computations are presented for seven storms producing rainfall over 3 inches during the 1986 water year. Water quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

  15. Modeling of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czader, Beata H.; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    1,3-butadiene is an important pollutant in terms of public health and important driver for photochemical processes influencing ozone formation in the area of Houston. Ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) including the SAPRC99-extended mechanism and the results were compared to spatially and temporally resolved observations of 1,3-butadiene for an episodic period during Summer 2006. Relative contributions of different type of emissions and chemical reactions to 1,3-butadiene concentrations were examined, the highest contribution was found to be from industrial emission sources. 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios in the urban area were found to be lower than in the industrial area. Although emissions of 1,3-butadiene peak during daytime its mixing ratios are lower during daytimes as compared to nighttime. 1,3-butadiene is removed from the surface through vertical upward transport (?90%) and chemical reactions (?10%). During daytime 1,3-butadiene reacts mainly with the OH radical (90%), during nighttime this reaction pathway is still significant in the industrial area (57% of all reaction pathways). Reaction with NO3 during nighttime contributes 33% in industrial and 56% in urban areas, where high NOx emissions occur. Reaction with ozone contributes 10% and 13% in industrial and urban areas, respectively. Analysis of measured data revealed that episodically very high emissions spikes of 1,3-butadiene occur. CMAQ often underpredicts 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios when sites are exposed to sporadic releases from industrial facilities. These releases are not accounted for in the emission inventory. It also appears that emissions of 1,3-butadiene from point sources have much more variability than those listed in the emission inventory.

  16. Electrifying the bottom of the pyramid : improving access in slums

    E-print Network

    Scott, Cecilia (Cecilia Lauren)

    2010-01-01

    Slums are expanding in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, and as a result, the lack of safe, reliable electricity access in these regions is expanding. Addressing this issue will require a comprehensive strategy that caters ...

  17. Determinants of aerosol lung-deposited surface area variation in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Brines, Mariola; Pérez, Noemí; Beddows, David; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Ultrafine particles are characterized by a high surface area per mass. Particle surface has been reported to play a significant role in determining the toxicological activity of ultrafine particles. In light of this potential role, the time variation of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations in the alveolar region was studied at the urban background environment of Barcelona (Spain), aiming to asses which processes and sources govern this parameter. Simultaneous data on Black Carbon (BC), total particle number (N) and particle number size distribution were correlated with LDSA. Average LDSA concentrations in Barcelona were 37±26?m(2)cm(-3), levels which seem to be characteristic for urban environments under traffic influence across Europe. Results confirm the comparability between LDSA data provided by the online monitor and those calculated based on particle size distributions (by SMPS), and reveal that LDSA concentrations are mainly influenced by particles in the size range 50-200nm. A set of representative daily cycles for LDSA concentrations was obtained by means of a k-means cluster technique. The contribution of traffic emissions to daily patterns was evidenced in all the clusters, but was quantitatively different. Traffic events under stable atmospheric conditions increased mean hourly background LDSA concentrations up to 6 times, attaining levels higher than 200?m(2)cm(-3). However, under warm and relatively clean atmospheric conditions, the traffic rush hour contribution to the daily LDSA mean appeared to be lower and the contribution of new urban particle formation events (by photochemically induced nucleation) was detected. These nucleation events were calculated to increase average background LDSA concentrations by 15-35% (maximum LDSA levels=45-50?m(2)cm(-3)). Thereby, it may be concluded that in the urban background of Barcelona road traffic is the main source increasing the aerosol surface area which can deposit on critical regions of the human lung, followed by nucleation episodes. PMID:25710624

  18. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne offsite sanitation system was found to be a feasible option. The simplified sewerage system was found to deliver the same hydraulic benefits for collecting wastewater as the conventional but was 33% cheaper to construct and hence more affordable for the community. It was recommended that stringent environmental monitoring of the sanitation system be put in place to minimise any potential environmental impacts.

  19. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  20. Generation of 3D Model for Urban area using Ikonos and Cartosat-1 Satellite Imageries with RS and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpriya, N. R.; Vyas, A.; Sharma, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Urban design is a subject that is concerned with the shape, the surface and its physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements. Although urban design is a practice process and needs much detailed and multi-dimensional description. 3D city models based spatial analysis gives the possibility of solving these problems. Ahmedabad is third fastest growing cities in the world with large amount of development in infrastructure and planning. The fabric of the city is changing and expanding at the same time, which creates need of 3d visualization of the city to develop a sustainable planning for the city. These areas have to be monitored and mapped on a regular basis and satellite remote sensing images provide a valuable and irreplaceable source for urban monitoring. With this, the derivation of structural urban types or the mapping of urban biotopes becomes possible. The present study focused at development of technique for 3D modeling of buildings for urban area analysis and to implement encoding standards prescribed in "OGC City GML" for urban features. An attempt has been to develop a 3D city model with level of details 1 (LOD 1) for part of city of Ahmedabad in State of Gujarat, India. It shows the capability to monitor urbanization in 2D and 3D.

  1. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Overweight, Obesity, and Perception of Body Image Among Slum Residents in Nairobi, Kenya, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Sam; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increase in cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed in part to the changes in lifestyle, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease is higher among urban populations than among nonurban populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine perceptions of body size differentiated by sex and other determinants among slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Analysis included 4,934 adults randomly selected from the Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. Height and weight were measured during interviews; body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perceptions of current and ideal body image were determined by using 18 silhouette drawings of body sizes ranging from very thin to very obese. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of underestimation of body weight among overweight and obese respondents. Results Overall, 43.4% of women and 17.3% of men in the study population were overweight or obese. More than half (53%) of those who were overweight or obese underestimated their weight; 34.6% of women and 16.9% of men did so. In all BMI categories, more than one-third of women and men preferred body sizes classified as overweight or obese. Conclusion This study highlights the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the strong preference for larger body size among adults in the slums of Nairobi. Interventions to educate residents on the health risks associated with excess body weight are necessary as a part of strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in these settlements. PMID:24355105

  3. Epidemiology of hypertension in Yemen: effects of urbanization and geographical area.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Rapi, Stefano; Massetti, Luciano; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

    2013-08-01

    Although globalization can contribute to increased blood pressure by spreading unhealthy behaviors, it also provides powerful means to tackle hypertension. The dissemination of information about and advice on cardiovascular prevention and facilitated contact with health services are valuable resources. To investigate the effects of urbanization, geographical area, and air temperature on hypertension burden and kidney damage, a survey was performed in 2008 with a door-to-door approach among urban and rural adult dwellers of three geographic areas (capital, inland, coast) of Yemen. Subjects (n=10?242) received two visits several days apart to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Proteinuria (dipstick test ?+1) was used as a marker of kidney damage. Prevalence rates were weighted to represent the Yemen population aged 15-69 years in 2008. Rates of hypertension and proteinuria progressively increased from the capital (6.4%; 95% confidence level (CI) 5.8-7.0 and 5.1%; 4.4-5.9, respectively), to inland areas (7.9%; 7.0-8.7 and 6.1%; 5.1-7.1), to the coastal area (10.1%; 8.9-11.4 and 8.9%; 7.3-10.4). When compared with urban dwellers, rural dwellers had similar hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 1.03; 95% CI 0.91-1.17) but higher proteinuria rates (adjusted ORs 1.55; 1.31-1.85). Overall, home temperature was associated with a lower hypertension rate (adjusted OR 0.98; 0.96-0.99). This large population study reveals that the highest burden of hypertension and kidney damage is detectable in remote areas of the country. PMID:23486167

  4. Spatial distribution of gases emitted from large urban areas derived from SF6 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, N.; Ho, D.; Schlosser, P.; Stute, M.

    2004-12-01

    A 6 year (1998-2003) long, high-resolution, time series of atmospheric SF6 from Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), ~ 25 km north of New York City (NYC), has shown that SF6 mixing ratios are highly variable and elevated above remote atmosphere values. Subsequent measurements in soil air (which functions as a low-pass filter) around the New York metropolitan area demonstrate that elevated SF6 levels are widespread. Mapping of the elevated SF6 levels caused by local emissions in NYC allows us to determine the region influenced by emissions from this urban area. To determine if such elevated SF6 levels are typical for large US cities, soil air measurements were repeated in five major urban areas in the US. In each case, significant elevation of SF6 mixing ratios above remote atmosphere values was observed. SF6 emissions from the electrical industry in NYC are particular high, resulting in average mixing ratios within the city in excess of remote atmosphere values by up to 200 %, with elevated levels persisting out to ca. 200 km. Emissions from Boston, Philadelphia, Washington DC/Baltimore, and Tucson appear average for large cities in the U.S.A. with maximum mixing ratios 50-100% above background, and elevated levels detected over tens of kilometers. Using a simplistic atmospheric dispersion model and emissions records, the observed distribution of average SF6 mixing ratios around NYC can be reproduced. This indicates that studies using similar methods, with higher spatial resolution, coupled with modeling of atmospheric transport may allow independent estimates of emissions of SF6, or other inert gases. Observed distributions of SF6 are indicative of average atmospheric transport patterns, and elevated levels of SF6 in remote areas demonstrate significant influence of air masses from urban areas. Comparison of SF6 timeseries at LDEO and Harvard Forest, 205 km to the northeast, demonstrate transport of individual pollution events.

  5. Integration of different geospatial data in urban areas: a case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franci, Francesca; Lambertini, Alessandro; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Efficient management of the territory requires today the availability of comprehensive geographical data, accurate and up to date, supported by powerful databases. In this context, remote sensing data are used for a variety of applications related to urban areas; some examples are land use/cover mapping, urban growth and soil sealing evaluation, detection of green areas, updating of existing maps, energy applications and detection and characterization of buildings. This work aims to highlight how different geomatic techniques and data acquired from heterogeneous surveys can be today used together for producing or updating a digital cartography inside a GIS. The study has been conducted in the urban area of Bologna, Emilia-Romagna region, located in the North of Italy. A high resolution WorldView-2 satellite image and the DSM/DTM, obtained by airborne LiDAR, have been used to obtain a vector layer of the buildings. In particular, to distinguish the buildings among all the elements present in the study area, such as roads, trees, vegetated areas, etc., an object-oriented classification has been performed. This approach, working on groups of pixels (image objects), allows to expand the information content of the basic unit of classification. Therefore, features such as shape, texture and contextual information, coupled with spectral characteristics, potentially allow cartographers to generate products that are competitive, in terms of thematic contents, with those derived from the photo-interpretation. A first application described in this work is to perform a quick change analysis procedure based on the results of the classification compared to an existing numerical cartographic base or a previous classification.

  6. Modeling urban growth and land use/land cover change in the Houston Metropolitan Area from 2002 - 2030

    E-print Network

    Oguz, Hakan

    2005-08-29

    spatially explicit cellular automata model, to simulate future (2002-2030) urban growth in the Houston metropolitan area, one of the fastest growing metropolises in the United States during the past decades. The model is calibrated with historical data...

  7. 75 FR 61553 - National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual and to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...the 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized Area Annual Reporting...Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) reporting requirements...202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility: U.S. Department...Background The National Transit Database (NTD) is the Federal...

  8. The case for pension plan and university endowment equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Tamara C. (Tamara Candace), 1977-

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to present a case for institutional equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas. Pension plans and university endowments are the primary institutional investors ...

  9. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  10. Mapping dustfall distribution in urban areas using remote sensing and ground spectral data.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wenzhong; Zhao, Wenji; Luo, Nana

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study was to utilize remote sensing and ground-based spectral data to assess dustfall distribution in urban areas. The ground-based spectral data denoted that dust has a significant impact on spectral features. Dusty leaves have an obviously lower reflectance than clean leaves in the near-infrared bands (780-1,300 nm). The correlation analysis between dustfall weight and spectral reflectance showed that spectroscopy in the 350-2,500-nm region produced useful dust information and could assist in dust weight estimation. A back propagation (BP) neutral network model was generated using spectral response functions and integrated remote sensing data to assess dustfall weight in the city of Beijing. Compared with actual dustfall weight, validation of the results showed a satisfactory accuracy with a lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6g/m(2). The derived dustfall distribution in Beijing indicated that dustfall was easily accumulated and increased in the south of the city. In addition, our results showed that construction sites and low-rise buildings with inappropriate land use were two main sources of dust pollution. This study offers a low-cost and effective method for investigating detailed dustfall in an urban environment. Environmental authorities may use this method for deriving dustfall distribution maps and pinpointing the sources of pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25433376

  11. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time-use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for evaluating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other micro-environments. The population exposure originated from the long range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  12. ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

    2007-12-01

    Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between 1.48 × 109 and 8.76 × 109 or between 3.98 × 109 and 16.7 × 109, depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities ( q i ) of TEC. Changes in q i resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation.

  13. [Snakes from the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: ecological aspects and associated snakebites].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, M A; Nogueira, F N

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on snakes recorded in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sources of information included specimens captured by local residents (1986-1993) and turned over to the Mato Grosso Regional Ophiological Center (Normat), and data from the Anti-Venom Information Center (Ciave), regarding urban snake bites (1988-1993). Thirty-seven species of snakes from 25 genera and three families were recorded. Diurnal and terrestrial habits predominated, as well as a diet based on amphibians and/or lizards. From a total of 307 snake bites recorded, some 56% were of no clinical importance, caused by non-venomous snakes, whereas 44% were clinically relevant. Approximately 99% of the latter were attributed to vipers of the genus Bothrops, and especially the Bothrops moojeni and Bothrops neuwiedi species The colubrids Philodryas olfersii and Waglerophis merremii were probably responsible for most of the non-venomous snake bites. PMID:9878908

  14. Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images in Urban Areas with Class-Specific Higher-Order Cliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Zegarra, J. A.; Wegner, J. D.; Ladický, L.; Schindler, K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to multi-class semantic segmentation of urban areas in high-resolution aerial images with classspecific object priors for buildings and roads. What makes model design challenging are highly heterogeneous object appearances and shapes that call for priors beyond standard smoothness or co-occurrence assumptions. The data term of our energy function consists of a pixel-wise classifier that learns local co-occurrence patterns in urban environments. To specifically model the structure of roads and buildings, we add high-level shape representations for both classes by sampling large sets of putative object candidates. Buildings are represented by sets of compact polygons, while roads are modeled as a collection of long, narrow segments. To obtain the final pixel-wise labeling, we use a CRF with higher-order potentials that balances the data term with the object candidates. We achieve overall labeling accuracies of > 80%.

  15. A new approach for highly resolved air temperature measurements in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttstädt, M.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Merbitz, H.; Schneider, C.

    2011-02-01

    In different fields of applied local climate investigation, highly resolved data of air temperature are of great importance. As a part of the research programme entitled City2020+, which deals with future climate conditions in agglomerations, this study focuses on increasing the quantity of urban air temperature data intended for the analysis of their spatial distribution. A new measurement approach using local transport buses as "riding thermometers" is presented. By this means, temperature data with a very high temporal and spatial resolution could be collected during scheduled bus rides. The data obtained provide the basis for the identification of thermally affected areas and for the investigation of factors in urban structure which influence the thermal conditions. Initial results from the ongoing study, which show the temperature distribution along different traverses through the city of Aachen, are presented.

  16. Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

  17. Analysis of urban area land cover using SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Digitally processed SEASAT synthetic aperture raar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado urban area was examined to explore the potential of SAR data for mapping urban land cover and the compatability of SAR derived land cover classes with the United States Geological Survey classification system. The imagery is examined at three different scales to determine the effect of image enlargement on accuracy and level of detail extractable. At each scale the value of employing a simplistic preprocessing smoothing algorithm to improve image interpretation is addressed. A visual interpretation approach and an automated machine/visual approach are employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing a semiautomated land cover classification from SAR data. Confusion matrices of omission and commission errors are employed to define classification accuracies for each interpretation approach and image scale.

  18. Residential segregation in urbanized areas of the United States in 1970: An analysis of social class and racial differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reynolds Farley

    1977-01-01

    Sociologists and urban commentators often portray metropolitan areas as highly segregated by social class and race. We measured\\u000a the extent of socioeconomic residential segregation in urbanized areas of the United States in 1970, determined whether cities\\u000a were as segregated as suburban rings, and compared levels of socioeconomic and racial residential segregation. We found moderate\\u000a levels of residential segregation of socioeconomic

  19. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  20. Grouping and representativeness of monitoring stations based on wind speed and wind direction data in urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    Data on wind speed and wind direction from 27 air pollution monitoring stations in an urban area of Japan were analyzed and studied for the future assessment of the urban heat island phenomenon. A cluster analysis clarified the regionality of the wind speed and wind direction. In the study area, land and sea breeze developed and controlled the wind direction. On the other hand, the mountain and valley wind should be studied to determine their typical behavior. PMID:17610033