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1

Urbanization and Slum Formation  

PubMed Central

The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

Phua, Kai Hong

2007-01-01

2

Raising the Breast Health Awareness amongst Women in an Urban Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Breast Cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring cancer among Egyptian women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a health education program on raising the knowledge related to BC, its risk factors, and some related preventive practices among women living in an urban slum area in Alexandria. Patients and Methods A pre-/post-test interventional study was conducted during 2009–2010 on a random sample of women aged 30–65 years (n = 486) living in a slum area in Alexandria, Egypt. 20 health education sessions were carried out to educate the women on BC risk factors and some preventive practices. Previously trained nurses educated the sampled women on breast self-examination (BSE). The women's knowledge and opinion about BC and their practice of BSE were evaluated before and 3 months after the intervention. Results The findings indicated a significant increase in the mean knowledge score regarding BC and the mean opinion score regarding some BC risk factors. A significant increase in the practice of BSE was observed post intervention. Conclusion This study confirms the effectiveness of intervention programs in improving the knowledge about BC risk factors and practice of BSE even in a group of women with a low literacy rate living in a slum area. PMID:22619648

Kharboush, Ibrahim F.; Ismail, Hanaa M.; Kandil, Alaa A.; Mamdouh, Heba M.; Muhammad, Yasmine Y.; El Sharkawy, Omnia G.; Sallam, Hassan N.

2011-01-01

3

Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2013-08-01

4

Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619?S/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2mmol/L), HCO3 (11mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3mmol/L; average of 2.23mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2mmol/L and 6?mol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (<6meq/100g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems. PMID:25016588

Nyenje, P M; Havik, J C N; Foppen, J W; Muwanga, A; Kulabako, R

2014-08-01

5

Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

2013-01-01

6

Beneficiary level factors influencing Janani Suraksha Yojana utilization in urban slum population of trans-Yamuna area of Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a conditional cash transfer scheme introduced to improve the institutional delivery rates and thereby reduce the maternal and infant mortality was implemented in all States and Union Territories of India from 2007. The present study was carried out to identify the beneficiary level factors of utilization of JSY scheme in urban slums and resettlement colonies of trans-Yamuna area of Delhi. Methods: A cross-sectional community based survey was done of mothers of infants in the selected areas of the two districts by stratified random sampling on a population proportionate basis. Socio-demographic factors, antenatal services availed and distance of nearest health facility were studied. Outcome variable, a beneficiary, was a woman who had ever interacted with the ASHA of her area during the antenatal period of previous pregnancy and had child birth in an institution. Descriptive tables were drawn; univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regression was applied for identifying the predictors for availing the benefits. Results: Of the 469 mothers interviewed, 333 (71%) had institutional delivery, 128 (27.3%) had benefited from JSY scheme and 68 (14.5%) had received cash benefits of JSY. Belonging to Hindu religion and having had more than 6 antenatal check ups were the significant predictors of availing the benefits of JSY. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the awareness among urban slum population about the utilization of JSY scheme. Targeting difficult to access areas with special measures and encouraging more antenatal visits were essential, prerequisites to improve the impact of JSY. PMID:24135178

Vikram, K.; Sharma, A. K.; Kannan, A. T.

2013-01-01

7

Slums, violence and health : a critical discussion of the interactions and effects of violence and slum settings on health and their inclusion in contemporary urban health interventions & recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficult circumstances in slums are often caused by a multitude of factors and actors on different levels. The same is true for violence. The thesis maintains that slum characteristics can potentially promote violence and violence can exacerbate slum circumstances. Together, they have devastating effects on the health outcomes for slum dwellers. How urban health determinants in slums and the dynamics

Weerdt de S

2011-01-01

8

Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

2009-01-01

9

Household Transmission of Leptospira Infection in Urban Slum Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment. Methods and Findings A survey was performed to determine whether Leptospira infection clustered within households located in slum communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hospital-based surveillance identified 89 confirmed cases of leptospirosis during an outbreak. Serum samples were obtained from members of 22 households with index cases of leptospirosis and 52 control households located in the same slum communities. The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinating antibodies was used as a marker for previous infection. In households with index cases, 22 (30%) of 74 members had anti-Leptospira antibodies, whereas 16 (8%) of 195 members from control households had anti-Leptospira antibodies. Highest titres were directed against L. interrogans serovars of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in 95% and 100% of the subjects with agglutinating antibodies from case and control households, respectively. Residence in a household with an index case of leptospirosis was associated with increased risk (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.13–13.12) of having had a Leptospira infection. Increased infection risk was found for all age groups who resided in a household with an index case, including children <15 years of age (P?=?0.008). Conclusions This study identified significant household clustering of Leptospira infection in slum communities where recurrent epidemics of leptospirosis occur. The findings support the hypothesis that the household environment is an important transmission determinant in the urban slum setting. Prevention therefore needs to target sources of contamination and risk activities which occur in the places where slum inhabitants reside. PMID:18357340

Maciel, Elves A. P.; de Carvalho, Ana Luiza F.; Nascimento, Simone F.; de Matos, Rosan B.; Gouveia, Edilane L.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2008-01-01

10

Urban poverty: delivering babies in the slum.  

PubMed

Government of India statistics indicate that about 3 million of New Delhi's 11 million people live in slums, while another 3 million people, most fleeing rural poverty, are expected to migrate to the capital by 2000. ASHA Community Health and Development Society is a nongovernmental organization currently working in 23 of India's slums, serving a population of about 150,000 people. The group has pioneered the use of community-based networks in New Delhi to improve health in the poorest communities. While ASHA has a small, full-time staff, most of the daily health care work is conducted by slum volunteers. Ekta Vihar is a slum community of 1800 residents. Community members' primary source of health care are Vimla Rana and Sobha, two illiterate women who reside in the community and are part of a team of community health workers trained by ASHA. Rana and Sobha deliver almost all of the babies born annually in the slum and care for community members when they become ill. PMID:12321870

Lloyd, M

1998-01-01

11

Impact of Environment and Social Gradient on Leptospira Infection in Urban Slums  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting. Methods and Findings We performed a community-based survey of 3,171 slum residents from Salvador, Brazil. Leptospira agglutinating antibodies were measured as a marker for prior infection. Poisson regression models evaluated the association between the presence of Leptospira antibodies and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys and indicators of socioeconomic status and exposures for individuals. Overall prevalence of Leptospira antibodies was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0–16.8). Households of subjects with Leptospira antibodies clustered in squatter areas at the bottom of valleys. The risk of acquiring Leptospira antibodies was associated with household environmental factors such as residence in flood-risk regions with open sewers (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.14–1.75) and proximity to accumulated refuse (1.43, 1.04–1.88), sighting rats (1.32, 1.10–1.58), and the presence of chickens (1.26, 1.05–1.51). Furthermore, low income and black race (1.25, 1.03–1.50) were independent risk factors. An increase of US$1 per day in per capita household income was associated with an 11% (95% CI 5%–18%) decrease in infection risk. Conclusions Deficiencies in the sanitation infrastructure where slum inhabitants reside were found to be environmental sources of Leptospira transmission. Even after controlling for environmental factors, differences in socioeconomic status contributed to the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that effective prevention of leptospirosis may need to address the social factors that produce unequal health outcomes among slum residents, in addition to improving sanitation. PMID:18431445

Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Andréia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marília S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2008-01-01

12

Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

Marghany, Maged

2014-06-01

13

Dietary adequacy of Indian children residing in an urban slum--analysis of proximal and distal determinants.  

PubMed

The influences of proximal and distal determinants of dietary adequacy of children from an urban slum in India were analyzed. Children numbering 271 (5-14 years) and their mothers were enrolled for the study. Intake of all nutrients except protein was inadequate in the dietaries of children. Among distal determinants, associations were found between (i) calorie intake and maternal nutritional status; (ii) protein, iron and B-complex intakes and economic status, and (iii) retinol, calcium and fat intakes and family size. Literacy status was not associated with dietary adequacy. Age of children and economic status of family were important determinants of dietary adequacy of children from slum area. PMID:21883060

Kulsum, Asma; A, Jyothi Lakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

2009-01-01

14

Proportion and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Elderly in an Urban Slum in Bangalore.  

PubMed

Depression among elderly is emerging as an important public health issue in developing countries like India. Published evidence regarding the magnitude and determinants of depression among elderly hailing from urban slum is currently limited. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess magnitude of the problem and identify factors associated with depression among the elderly in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study was done to cover total of473 elderly persons from an urban slum in Bangalore, India. They were assessed for depression using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 37.8 (95 % CI?=?33.43-42.16). Multivariate analysis revealed that unemployment (self or children) (odds ratio (OR) 2.6; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.41-4.72), illness of self (OR 2.2; 95 % CI 1.45-3.21), female gender (OR 1.9; 95 % CI 1.19-2.89), conflicts in family (OR 1.6; 95 % CI 1.03-2.43), and marriage of children or grandchildren (OR 1.6; 95 % CI 1.02-2.68) as independent risk factors. Depression among elderly is an important health issue of this area. Psychological intervention need to be provided for all elderly persons especially at the time of being diagnosed with any kind of illness. Strategies should be targeted to the females. The stressful life events need to be identified and remedial actions taken. This facility should be made available to them at the primary level of health care. There is a need to include screening of depression in our national health programs. PMID:25163930

Thirthahalli, Chethana; Suryanarayana, S P; Sukumar, Gautham Melur; Bharath, Srikala; Rao, Girish N; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa

2014-12-01

15

Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment  

PubMed Central

Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control measures in slum settings of high leptospirosis transmission. PMID:25474580

Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2014-01-01

16

Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is proposed for quantifying the health impacts of improved water supplies, and sensitivity analysis of cost and health data provides an indication of cost- effectiveness. Climate change impacts are assessed via weather model parameter adjustment according to statistical downscaling of general circulation model output. Future work involving the interpolation of model parameters to ungaged sites, incorporation of additional global change scenarios (e.g., population, emissions), and extension of the procedure to a full Monte Carlo analysis will be discussed as time allows.

Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

2007-12-01

17

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India  

E-print Network

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India Nimmi an anthropological study of everyday mobile internet adoption among teenagers in a low- income urban setting. We-instrumental and entertainment- driven needs. The key here is for ICTD discourse to situate insights from anthropological studies

Rajamani, Sriram K.

18

Determinants of diarrhea prevalence in urban slums: a comparative assessment towards enhanced environmental management.  

PubMed

This study relies on a comparative assessment of diarrhea occurrence in two urban slums to identify salient factors influencing case prevalence. Primary data were collected from both areas using a structured closed-ended questionnaire coupled with bottled and public water quality sampling and analysis at households reporting diarrhea cases. The water quality analysis showed contamination at the household level due primarily to the location of water storage tanks, as well as in some brands of bottled water due to lack of enforcement of source monitoring. Descriptive statistics and chi-square distribution tests revealed significant difference in diarrhea cases in both study areas which was correlated with the educational level of household head, financial status, type of water storage tank, and corresponding cleaning frequency as well as the adoption of measures to treat water or the use of bottled water. PMID:24078142

El-Fadel, M; Maroun, R; Quba'a, R; Mawla, D; Sayess, R; Massoud, M A; Jamali, I

2014-02-01

19

Sociocultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand the experience of menstruation in the socio-cultural context of an urban Indian slum. Observations were gathered as part of a larger study of reproductive tract infections in women in Delhi, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative phase consisted of 52 in-depth interviews, three focus groups discussions and five key informant interviews. In the

Suneela Garg; Nandini Sharma; Ragini Sahay

2001-01-01

20

Material deprivation affects high sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums, South Africa.  

PubMed

Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households. PMID:24481587

Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence

2014-06-01

21

Vulnerability to food insecurity in urban slums: experiences from Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Food and nutrition security is critical for economic development due to the role of nutrition in healthy growth and human capital development. Slum residents, already grossly affected by chronic poverty, are highly vulnerable to different forms of shocks, including those arising from political instability. This study describes the food security situation among slum residents in Nairobi, with specific focus on vulnerability associated with the 2007/2008 postelection crisis in Kenya. The study from which the data is drawn was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS), which follows about 70,000 individuals from close to 30,000 households in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The study triangulates data from qualitative and quantitative sources. It uses qualitative data from 10 focus group discussions with community members and 12 key-informant interviews with community opinion leaders conducted in November 2010, and quantitative data involving about 3,000 households randomly sampled from the NUHDSS database in three rounds of data collection between March 2011 and January 2012. Food security was defined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) criteria. The study found high prevalence of food insecurity; 85% of the households were food insecure, with 50% being severely food insecure. Factors associated with food security include level of income, source of livelihood, household size, dependence ratio; illness, perceived insecurity and slum of residence. The qualitative narratives highlighted household vulnerability to food insecurity as commonplace but critical during times of crisis. Respondents indicated that residents in the slums generally eat for bare survival, with little concern for quality. The narratives described heightened vulnerability during the 2007/2008 postelection violence in Kenya in the perception of slum residents. Prices of staple foods like maize flour doubled and simultaneously household purchasing power was eroded due to worsened unemployment situation. The use of negative coping strategies to address food insecurity such as reducing the number of meals, reducing food variety and quality, scavenging, and eating street foods was prevalent. In conclusion, this study describes the deeply intertwined nature of chronic poverty and acute crisis, and the subsequent high levels of food insecurity in urban slum settings. Households are extremely vulnerable to food insecurity; the situation worsening during periods of crisis in the perception of slum residents, engendering frequent use of negative coping strategies. Effective response to addressing vulnerability to household food insecurity among the urban poor should focus on both the underlying vulnerabilities of households due to chronic poverty and added impacts of acute crises. PMID:25172616

Kimani-Murage, E W; Schofield, L; Wekesah, F; Mohamed, S; Mberu, B; Ettarh, R; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A

2014-12-01

22

URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND THE INDIAN SLUM, A CASE STUDY (IN SLUMS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, EXPERIMENTS IN SELF-HELP, BY MARSHALL B. CLINARD. NEW YORK, THE FREE PRESS, 1966/139-278).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE DELHI PILOT PROJECT IN URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, DESIGNED TO STIMULATE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION, INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP, AND SELF- HELP ACTIVITIES TO ALLEVIATE SLUM CONDITIONS, WAS INITIATED BY THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (AIDED BY FORD FOUNDATION GRANTS) IN 1958. SLUM DWELLERS WERE ORGANIZED INTO--(1) VIKAS SUBHAS (ZONE COUNCILS) OF 15-100…

CLINARD, MARSHALL B.

23

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water in peripheral urban and rural lands, mostly found in slum areas. According to the Rural Sanitary Inventory and sanitary of the Colombian peri-urban and rural population, and its also the way to empower communities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

2013-01-01

25

Impact of nutrition education on health of the mother and newborn belonging to the poor urban slum community.  

PubMed

To find the nutritional knowledge among mothers of one child of the poor community and to relate status of education to the nutritional health of them and the newborn and to get a thorough knowledge on the impact of nutritional education, a comprehensive study was undertaken in an urban slum area. Nutritional grading was done through scoring system. There were 47 mothers (24.1%) out of 195 having normal nutritional grade and 37 mothers (19%) having severe nutritional grade. There were 80 mothers having 'no knowledge' on maternal nutrition. 'Adequate knowledge' was found in 31 cases. Mothers (n = 80) of 'no knowledge' delivered babies of average weight 2.3 kg whereas 'adequate knowledge' mothers gave birth to babies of average weight 2.9 kg. PMID:9425844

Sur, D; Mukhopadhyay, S P; Biswas, R

1997-07-01

26

Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.  

PubMed

The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study. PMID:23542227

Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

2013-06-15

27

Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi  

PubMed Central

Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32?034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3?months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

2014-01-01

28

Determinants of Contraceptive Practices Among Eligible Couples of Urban Slum in Bankura District, West Bengal  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary care physicians should be aware of the alarming population growth in the developing countries including India. Objectives: To find couple protection rate (CPR) and risk variables that affect contraceptive practice among eligible couples in an urban slum of Bankura district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study of 3 months was undertaken on 200 eligible couples in Bakultala urban slum, Lokepur, Bankura district, West Bengal to get relation between various factors that could affect contraceptive practices. Results: Majority of the study population (59%) was young adults (20–29 years age); 65% belonged to nuclear families; one-third were married in less than 18 years of their age. CPR was 67.50%; 49% used permanent methods. Among contraceptive users, significantly higher numbers of couples were married during 18–24 years of age (75%), belonged to nuclear family (70%), literate up to class 10 (73%), having three or more living children (77.50%), and from socioeconomic status of class II (80%). Female literacy rate was higher than national average; 92.50%wives of eligible couple were literate; and tubectomy was commonest contraceptive methods. Conclusion: CPR was high, though different factors like age at marriage, type of family, number of living children, literacy status of female partner, and socioeconomic status significantly affected contraceptive behavior of the study population. PMID:25657949

Gupta, Avisek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Sarker, Gautam; Banerjee, Bratati; Ghosh, Somenath; Pal, Ranabir

2014-01-01

29

Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India  

PubMed Central

Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year) was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year). Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens. PMID:23020794

2012-01-01

30

Diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice of physicians in urban slums of Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal management practices are unsatisfactory in India especially in the slum areas. Dearth of information regarding physicians' diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice in India necessitated this cross-sectional study of allopathic practitioners in the slums of Kolkata, to assess the distribution and interrelationship between physicians' characteristics, knowledge and practice regarding diarrhoea. A total of 264 randomly selected consenting practitioners were interviewed using a field-tested questionnaire. Nineteen percent had good overall knowledge, 49% and 80% prescribed antibiotics to diarrhoea and cholera patients, respectively, and 55% advised stool examination for every case. Qualified and Government physicians had better knowledge regarding diarrhoea [MBBS: odds ratio (OR) 5·96, P < 0·001; postgraduates: OR 9·33, P < 0·001; Government physicians: OR 11·49, P < 0·0001] and were less likely to prescribe antibiotics for all diarrhoea cases (MBBS: OR 0·30, P = 0·002; postgraduates: OR 0·20, P < 0·001; Government physicians OR 0·24, P < 0·029). Better knowledge was associated with a lower likelihood of prescribing antibiotics for diarrhoea (OR 0·72, P < 0·001), cholera (OR 0·78, P = 0·027) and investigative procedure (OR 0·85, P = 0·028). In the slums of Kolkata, diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice were poor with the exception of qualified physicians, hence an improvement in the knowledge of pharmacists and unqualified practitioners is necessary for the overall improvement of diarrhoeal management in these slums. PMID:23659645

Kanungo, S; Mahapatra, T; Bhaduri, B; Mahapatra, S; Chakraborty, N D; Manna, B; Sur, D

2014-02-01

31

Partnership in Action: Introducing Family-Based Intervention for Children with Disability in Urban Slums of Kolkata, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the processes and findings of a three-year action research project implemented in a small number of urban slums in the city of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the state of West Bengal in Eastern India. The project involved partnership between an established institute for cerebral palsy in Kolkata, two…

Sen, Reena; Goldbart, Juliet

2005-01-01

32

Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India  

PubMed Central

Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

2012-01-01

33

The high cost of diarrhoeal illness for urban slum households–a cost-recovery approach: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Rapid urbanisation has often meant that public infrastructure has not kept pace with growth leading to urban slums with poor access to water and sanitation and high rates of diarrhoea with greater household costs due to illness. This study sought to determine the monetary cost of diarrhoea to urban slum households in Kaula Bandar slum in Mumbai, India. The study also tested the hypotheses that the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure may be surpassed by the cumulative costs of diarrhoea for households in an urban slum community. Design A cohort study using a baseline survey of a random sample followed by a systematic longitudinal household survey. The baseline survey was administered to a random sample of households. The systematic longitudinal survey was administered to every available household in the community with a case of diarrhoea for a period of 5?weeks. Participants Every household in Kaula Bandar was approached for the longitudinal survey and all available and consenting adults were included. Results The direct cost of medical care for having at least one person in the household with diarrhoea was 205 rupees. Other direct costs brought total expenses to 291 rupees. Adding an average loss of 55 rupees per household from lost wages and monetising lost productivity from homemakers gave a total loss of 409 rupees per household. During the 5-week study period, this community lost an estimated 163?600 rupees or 3635 US dollars due to diarrhoeal illness. Conclusions The lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure is expensive for urban slum households in this community. Financing approaches that transfer that cost to infrastructure development to prevent illness may be feasible. These findings along with the myriad of unmeasured benefits of preventing diarrhoeal illness add to pressing arguments for investment in basic water and sanitation infrastructure. PMID:23558731

Patel, Ronak B; Stoklosa, Hanni; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Ridpath, Alison; Patil-Deshmuk, Anita

2013-01-01

34

Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

2013-03-01

35

Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR?=?1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR?=?1.13, 95% CI?=?1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. Conclusion Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs. PMID:24886046

2014-01-01

36

Infant and child feeding index reflects feeding practices, nutritional status of urban slum children.  

PubMed

BackgroundInfant and child feeding index (ICFI) an age-specific index, can be used to assess child feeding practices. We used the ICFI to assess feeding practices for urban slum children and the association between ICFI and child nutritional status.Methods446 children aged 6 to 24 months from urban slums of Mumbai, India were studied. We used the 24-hour diet recall to study dietary diversity and a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of food groups during the preceding week. ICFI was computed using five components, namely, breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity score (DDS), food group frequency score (FGFS) and feeding frequency scores (FFS). Weight, height and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were measured, and z scores were calculated. Association between ICFI scores and nutritional status was examined.ResultsThe mean total ICFI score for all was 5.9¿±¿1.9. Among the five components, FGFS and FFS differed between children <12 months of age and >12 months and by breast feeding status. In contrast, there were no differences vis-à-vis dietary diversity scores (DDS), breast feeding, and use of bottle. Non-breastfed children had significantly higher DDS scores than did breastfed children. The mean feeding frequency score (FFS) for children <12 months of age was slightly but not significantly lower than scores for children >12 months of age. Mother¿s age and child¿s age were significant determinants of ICFI. Multivariate analysis indicated that ICFI was significantly associated with Length-for-Age z scores (LAZ) and BMI-for-Age z scores (BAZ). Sensitivity of ICFI was lower than its specificity.ConclusionsThe results of the present study confirmed that the ICFI can be used to collect information on key components of young child feeding practices and be incorporated into public-health programmes. Further, it could be used to determine the influence of complementary feeding practices on nutritional status of children. PMID:25433391

Lohia, Neha; Udipi, Shobha A

2014-11-30

37

Diarrhoea episodes and treatment-seeking behaviour in a slum area of North Jakarta, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Visits to household during a census in an impoverished area of north Jakarta were used for exploring the four-week prevalence of diarrhoea, factors associated with episodes of diarrhoea, and the patterns of healthcare use. For 160,261 urban slum-dwellers, information was collected on the socioeconomic status of the household and on diarrhoea episodes of individual household residents in the preceding four weeks. In households with a reported case of diarrhoea, the household head was asked which form of healthcare was used first. In total, 8,074 individuals (5%)--13% of children aged less than five years and 4% of adults--had a diarrhoea episode in the preceding four weeks. The two strongest factors associated with a history of diarrhoea were a diarrhoea episode in another household member in the four weeks preceding the interview (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.4-11.8) and age less than five years (adjusted OR 3.4; 95% CI 3.2-3.5). Of the 8,074 diarrhoea cases, 1,969 (25%) treated themselves, 1,822 (23%) visited a public-health centre (PHC), 1,462 (18%) visited a private practitioner or a private clinic, 1,318 (16%) presented at a hospital, 753 (9%) bought drugs from a drug vendor, and 750 (9%) used other healthcare providers, such as belian (traditional healers). Children with diarrhoea were most often brought to a PHC, a private clinic, or a hospital for treatment. Compared to children, adults with diarrhoea were more likely to treat themselves. Individuals from households in the lowest-income group were significantly more likely to attend a PHC for treatment of diarrhoea compared to individuals from households in the middle- and higher-income groups. PMID:15473515

Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Punjabi, Narain H; Wangsasaputra, Ferry; Nurdin, Dazwir; Pulungsih, Sri Pandam; Rofiq, Ainur; Santoso, Hari; Pujarwoto, H; Sjahrurachman, Agus; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Acosta, Camilo; Robertson, Susan E; Ali, Mohammad; Lee, Hyejon; Park, JinKyung; Deen, Jacqueline L; Agtini, Magdarina D; Clemens, John D

2004-06-01

38

A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum.  

PubMed

Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. PMID:24388927

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2014-01-15

39

Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

2010-01-01

40

Migration and labour characteristics of slum dwellers in Bombay.  

PubMed

This article presents a description of the migration and labor force characteristics of a sample of Bombay households in three slum areas. Interviews were conducted among 135 households in 1989. Slum areas were both similar and different from one another. Wadala slum had a large migrant population and a more integrated community structure. Slum dwellers tended to retain assets at their place of origin and were from agricultural areas in south Maharashtra. A greater proportion had close kin living in Wadala. Slum dwellers tended to be better-educated, formal-sector workers. Worli slum was less affluent and less close-knit. Migrants were mostly external migrants from Uttar and Andhra Pradesh. Kurla slum was the oldest slum area and had mixed traits. Kin interaction was voluntary and selective and flexible. The decision to return was unrelated to years spent in Bombay. Survey findings indicate that all areas had roughly equal proportions of internal and external migrants. Villagers migrated to cities due to unemployment in villages and the opportunity for social mobility and better employment. This analysis indicates that community-based politics were more influenced by state concerns than by the attributes of settlers or settlement types. State policies and market forces constrained poor people's housing options. The cost of urban housing and amenities rises as population density increases. The demand in urban areas for public services, housing, and infrastructure increases due to expanding populations, inadequate and deteriorating facilities, and social pressures. Governments are constrained by high debt levels and inadequate revenues. National agencies may be inefficient in the provision of services and infrastructure. There is growing pressure on international donors and developing country governments to reexamine the role of the private sector in financing and providing services and infrastructure. PMID:12292071

Desai, V

1994-03-01

41

Prevalence of Osteoarthritis of Knee Among Elderly Persons in Urban Slums Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of osteoarthritis among elderly is high and it majorly affects the quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis. Timely diagnosis using clinical criteria and effective intervention is of utmost importance. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of osteoarthritis of knee joint among elderly persons residing in an urban slum of Delhi using ACR clinical criteria. Materials and Methods: We did a community-based cross-sectional study among 496 elderly (>= 60 years) persons residing in urban slum of Delhi, India from December 2009 to February 2010. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria was used to clinically diagnose osteoarthritis knee. Statistical Analysis: Bivariate analysis using Chi-square test and multivariate analysis was done to identify the determinants. Sensitivity and specificity of individual factors to diagnose osteoarthritis knee was calculated. Results: The prevalence of osteoarthritis was estimated to be 41.1% (95% C.I., 36.7-45.6). Female sex and age >= 70 y were found to be independent risk factor for osteoarthritis knee. Among those having knee pain, presence of crepitus and tenderness were the most sensitive factors whereas bone overgrowth and bone warmth were most specific factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoarthritis knee was high among this elderly population and increased with age. Overall, individual factors of ACR criteria were both sensitive and specific in diagnosing osteoarthritis knee. In resource constrained setting of urban India, it can be an effective tool in clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis knee. PMID:25386465

Kalaivani, Mani; Krishnan, Anand; Aggarwal, Praveen Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2014-01-01

42

Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement123  

PubMed Central

Background: Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Design: Healthy, singleton infants aged 6–11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ?80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Results: Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. Conclusion: A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512. PMID:24225356

Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

2014-01-01

43

Myths and fallacies about epilepsy among residents of a Karachi slum area.  

PubMed

Misconceptions about epilepsy may explain the considerable stigma accompanying it. We aimed to identify such fallacies through questionnaire-based interviews of 487 adult residents of a slum area in Karachi, Pakistan. Of those interviewed, 25% believed that epilepsy was caused by evil spirits, black magic and envy by others - those without a school education were more likely to hold these views (P < 0.05). Perceived complications included impotence and cancer. Shoe-sniffing was considered a treatment modality by 13%. It appears that misconceptions abound regarding epilepsy's causes, complications and methods of treatment. However, those who had received a school education were less likely to link epilepsy with supernatural phenomena. PMID:18302862

Shafiq, Majid; Tanwir, Mansoor; Tariq, Asma; Saleem, Ayesha; Zafar, Monaa; Khuwaja, Ali Khan

2008-01-01

44

Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

Glaser, Daniel; And Others

1971-01-01

45

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

46

Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.  

PubMed

To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children. PMID:23243080

Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

2013-06-01

47

Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2012-04-01

48

Adverse profile of dietary nutrients, anthropometry and lipids in urban slum dwellers of northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The intra-country rural to urban migrant populations undergo radical socio-economic and lifestyle changes in a developing country. Therefore, it is an interesting sample in which to study nutrition pattern, anthropometry and metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to assess nutrient profile and its association with the anthropometry, percentage body fat (%BF) and blood lipids in the urban

A Misra; R Sharma; RM Pandey; N Khanna

2001-01-01

49

Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

50

Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums  

PubMed Central

Background While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this reversal movement is critical in sustainable sanitation services and should be a concern for all actors. PMID:24948084

2014-01-01

51

Nutritional anemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Bhubaneswar, Orissa.  

PubMed

The present cross-sectional study involving 240 women of reproductive age as the study population was carried out in the beneficiary slum area, the field practice area of Community Medicine department to find out the burden of nutritional anemia and study its epidemiological correlates. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 60.8%, of which 39.6, 20.0 and 1.2% women had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Almost 63, 21.2 and 15.7% of the study subjects had microcytic hypochromic picture, indicative of iron deficiency anemia, normocytic hypochromic picture suggestive of early stage of iron deficiency anemia and dimorphic/ macrocytic hypochromic anemia implying iron deficiency anemia and or folate/vitamin B12 deficiency respectively. Statistical analyses have shown that epidemiological factors like age, education of respondents, socioeconomic status, history of excessive menstrual bleeding and inadequate intake of green leafy vegetables and pulses were found to be significantly associated with anemia. PMID:22298143

Panigrahi, Ansuman; Sahoo, Prasun Bikash

2011-01-01

52

Fractal cartography of urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2012-07-01

53

Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035  

E-print Network

and Development Developed by In association with Neel-Schaffer, Inc. **DRAFT** Adopted Date Here This document was prepared in cooperation with: The Monroe Urbanized Area MPO Technical Advisory Committee and The Louisiana Department... of Transportation and Development The document was reviewed and approved by: The Monroe Urbanized Area MPO Policy Committee on Adopt Date Here This document was developed under contract with the: STATE PROJECT NO. 736-37-0047 FEDERAL AID PROJECT NO. SPR...

Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

2010-10-31

54

Prospective Study of Leptospirosis Transmission in an Urban Slum Community: Role of Poor Environment in Repeated Exposures to the Leptospira Agent  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis has emerged as an urban health problem as slum settlements have rapidly spread worldwide and created conditions for rat-borne transmission. Prospective studies have not been performed to determine the disease burden, identify risk factors for infection and provide information needed to guide interventions in these marginalized communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled and followed a cohort of 2,003 residents from a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Baseline and one-year serosurveys were performed to identify primary and secondary Leptospira infections, defined as respectively, seroconversion and four-fold rise in microscopic agglutination titers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate risk exposures for acquiring primary and secondary infection. A total of 51 Leptospira infections were identified among 1,585 (79%) participants who completed the one-year follow-up protocol. The crude infection rate was 37.8 per 1,000 person-years. The secondary infection rate was 2.3 times higher than that of primary infection rate (71.7 and 31.1 infections per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Male gender (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40–5.91) and lower per capita household income (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30–0.98 for an increase of $1 per person per day) were independent risk factors for primary infection. In contrast, the 15–34 year age group (OR 10.82, 95% CI 1.38–85.08), and proximity of residence to an open sewer (OR 0.95; 0.91–0.99 for an increase of 1 m distance) were significant risk factors for secondary infection. Conclusions/Significance This study found that slum residents had high risk (>3% per year) for acquiring a Leptospira infection. Re-infection is a frequent event and occurs in regions of slum settlements that are in proximity to open sewers. Effective prevention of leptospirosis will therefore require interventions that address the infrastructure deficiencies that contribute to repeated exposures among slum inhabitants. PMID:24875389

Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Costa, Federico; Reis, Renato B.; Hagan, José E.; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Fraga, Deborah; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; dos Santos, Balbino L.; Silva, Adriano Q.; Santos, Andréia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marília S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2014-01-01

55

Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Living in Urban Slums: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Nairobi City, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15–22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007–2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15–22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2. Findings About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69%) have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women. Conclusions Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums. PMID:25080352

Beguy, Donatien; Mumah, Joyce; Gottschalk, Lindsey

2014-01-01

56

Serological trail of Brucella infection in an urban slum population in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brucellosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with new cases reported each year in many Latin American countries, but it is mostly under-recognized. This study presents a serological investigation of infection with Brucella abortus and Brucella canis in a poor urban community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Methodology Human sera (n = 180) were randomly selected from 3,171 samples taken from healthy individuals during 2003-2004 and tested with C-ELISA for B. abortus and I-ELISA for B. canis. Results Thirteen percent (24/180) of the individuals were positive for B. abortus and 4.6 % (8/174) were positive for B. canis. Among the variables studied only age (older than 45 years) appeared to be a risk factor for the detection of Brucella antibodies. Conclusion These results indicate the presence of Brucella infection in this settlement and highlight the need to understand the epidemiology of infection under these circumstances to establish the necessary measures for surveillance and control. PMID:23000868

Angel, Martha Olivera; Ristow, Paula; Ko, Albert I.; Di-Lorenzo, Cecilia

2013-01-01

57

Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India  

PubMed Central

Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

Mohan, Yogesh

2014-01-01

58

High prevalence of enteroparasitosis in urban slums of Belo Horizonte-Brazil. Presence of enteroparasites as a risk factor in the family group  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluates the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the urban slums of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and the risk of transmitting enteroparasites to the family members of infected individuals. Stool samples were collected and examined at clinical laboratories near each slum. Individuals were identified and classified as positive for parasitosis (IP+), and individuals with negative stool tests were classified as negative for parasitosis (IP?) and enrolled as control patients. We collected samples from 594 patients, of which 20.2% and 79.8% were classified as IP+ and IP?, respectively. In addition, 744 family members (FIPs) effectively participated in the study by providing fecal samples. In total, 1338 participants were evaluated. Of these, 34.6% were tested positive for parasitosis. Blastocystis was the most prevalent parasite, infecting 22.4% of individuals. Among FIPs, the overall prevalence was 46.1%. Of these, 50.6% and 44.7% were classified as FIPs+ and FIPs?, respectively. These results showed that IP+ did not impact the prevalence of infection within the studied communities, not constituting index cases of specific risk behaviors, suggesting that, in fact, these communities are exposed to similar oral–fecal routes of contamination. PMID:24091002

Gil, Frederico F; Busatti, Haendel G N O; Cruz, Valeria L; Santos, Joseph F G; Gomes, Maria A

2013-01-01

59

Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959

2012-01-01

60

Undernutrition and Its Correlates among Children of 3–9 Years of Age Residing in Slum Areas of Bhubaneswar, India  

PubMed Central

Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. PMID:25580460

Das, Sai Chandan

2014-01-01

61

Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg ?=?1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m?2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

2013-01-01

62

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!  

E-print Network

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

Minnesota, University of

63

Understanding chronic poverty in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of chronic poverty in urban areas has been given little attention despite an increasing interest in poverty and some recognition of the growing significance of urban populations. This paper reviews the literature to bring together what we know about the nature and scale of chronic poverty in urban areas. It begins with a consideration of the definition of

Diana Mitlin

2005-01-01

64

Trends in childhood mortality in Kenya: The urban advantage has seemingly been wiped out  

PubMed Central

Background We describe trends in childhood mortality in Kenya, paying attention to the urban–rural and intra-urban differentials. Methods We use data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) collected between 1993 and 2008 and the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) collected in two Nairobi slums between 2003 and 2010, to estimate infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR). Results Between 1993 and 2008, there was a downward trend in IMR, CMR and U5MR in both rural and urban areas. The decline was more rapid and statistically significant in rural areas but not in urban areas, hence the gap in urban–rural differentials narrowed over time. There was also a downward trend in childhood mortality in the slums between 2003 and 2010 from 83 to 57 for IMR, 33 to 24 for CMR, and 113 to 79 for U5MR, although the rates remained higher compared to those for rural and non-slum urban areas in Kenya. Conclusions The narrowing gap between urban and rural areas may be attributed to the deplorable living conditions in urban slums. To reduce childhood mortality, extra emphasis is needed on the urban slums. PMID:25024120

Kimani-Murage, E.W.; Fotso, J.C.; Egondi, T.; Abuya, B.; Elungata, P.; Ziraba, A.K.; Kabiru, C.W.; Madise, N.

2014-01-01

65

Introduction to Urban Studies Area A. Urban Sociology  

E-print Network

of the Post-Movida 4. Contesting Culture, Remaking the City 5. German Literature and Culture 6. Paris-Berlin 7, Theories and Methods Area C. Urban Planning and Built Environment Area D. Urban Culture and Representation Culture 1. San Francisco Development Politics 2. Landscapes of Communication 3. Global Inequalities

Galles, David

66

Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.

2014-01-01

67

Noise propagation in urban and industrial areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise propagation in streets and the discrepancies between theoretical analyses and field measurements are discussed. A cell-model is used to estimate the general background level of noise due to vehicular sources distributed over the urban area.

Davies, H. G.

1976-01-01

68

Controlling Tree Squirrels in Urban Areas  

E-print Network

In urban areas, tree squirrels can become pests when they eat pecans, berries, bird seed or vegetables from home gardens, or when they nest in attics. This leaflet discusses control of squirrels by fencing, trapping, poisoning and shooting....

Texas Wildlife Services

2006-09-06

69

A study on health status of women engaged in a home-based “Papad-making” industry in a slum area of Kolkata  

PubMed Central

Background: The ‘papad-making’ industries of India have provided ample opportunity of employment for the women workers of low socio-economic class although their problems are not much explored. In this study an attempt had been made for the same. Aims: 1. To find out the health status of the women. 2. To find out the factors, in the working conditions, influencing their health status. 3. To assess their felt needs. Settings: A slum area of Kolkata. Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive type of observational study. Methods and Materials: The slum was chosen by random sampling method. Following this, complete enumeration method was adopted. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination of the women engaged in this occupation with a predesigned and pretested schedule. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: 77.5% were in the reproductive age group and none were below 14 years. Most of them belonged to poor socioeconomic status. Sixty per cent were in this occupation for more than 10 years and they spent 5 hours for this work daily over and above their household job. Musculoskeletal problem was their commonest health problem. Pallor, angular stomatitis, pedal edema, chronic energy deficiency were found on examination. Personal hygienic measures taken were far from satisfactory. A focus group discussion revealed their health and family problems, dissatisfaction about their working conditions and wage. Other needs identified were home visits for their health care, free medicines and health education. Conclusion: Need exists for a participatory occupational health programme for this working population. PMID:20040996

Roy, Sima; Dasgupta, Aparajita

2008-01-01

70

Handbook for Social Research in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressed primarily to social scientists and administrators in developing areas, this handbook (a volume in the Technology and Society series) is designed for those not widely experienced in research design and data analysis. Many problem areas of developing nations, such as adequate housing and urban amenities, adjustment and acculturation of…

Hauser, Philip M.

71

Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and urbanization have become issues in big cities like Greater Cairo (GC). As a consequence of explosive growth, the living conditions of Cairo Metropolis deteriorate. Development trends of the last twenty years have increased general wealth and modernization, this sets out how GC megacity is creating an increased demand for land combined with environmental degradation. Planning a sustainable development of mega cities requires understanding of physical change of the main environmental drivers. However, this talk will be concerned with monitoring and analysis of dynamic environment changes to capture and refine the urban patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolis on the basis of pixel-based and object-based classifications. Satellite images (TM, ETM+, & Spot) of different dates and resolutions, and ground truth data collected from available maps, field observation, and personal experience were used to execute the image segmentation analysis to reveal urban patterns and expansions. By using Erdas Imagine, and eCognition Developer software, land use/land cover image classifications were constructed, which detect regimes and trends in land changes. Two main types of urban patterns could be detected (passing from centre to periphery). The first one is informal and the second one is formal building. The informal type mainly comprises slums and urban encroachment on arable land. The formal one mostly consists of new cities and legal houses. Moreover, a rate of land cover changes in Greater Cairo during the last three decades could be described as a rapid progression. In contrast, the combination between field observations and classification analyses showed that the high urban densities based on classification of satellite images does not reflect the real densities of population in urban areas in Greater Cairo.

Hassan, A. A. M.

2011-08-01

72

Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

2015-01-01

73

Epidemiological study of mental morbidity in an urban slum community in India for the development of a community mental health programme.  

PubMed

A crossectional field study was carried out in an urban slum in order to assess the prevalence and nature of mental morbidity and identify stressors in the community. A face to face interview was conducted with the help of a questionnaire. The interview consisted of three sections as follows: Data identifying the informant by age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, age at marriage, number of members, children and monthly income. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 5- item version used as a screening instrument to assess the present mental health status of the informant and data of past illnesses in self or family and questions framed to elicit perceptions regarding mental illness, alcoholism, their causation and treatment. The subjects who scored above 2 ie 3,4,and 5 in the GHQ were requested to follow up at the Mental Health OPD and subjected to a standardized psychiatric interview by a Psychiatrist. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Third Revised (DSM 3 R) criteria were used for diagnosis. After the interview and examination, the appropriate treatment was instituted. A total of 443 individuals were screened. The overall prevalence rate of mental illness in the community was 61 per thousand. It is estimated that the case rate ranges from 38 to 84 per thousand within 95% confidence limits. The overall severity ranged from mild to severe morbidity. The prevalence of severe mental morbidity which includes psychosis, depressive illness, mental retardation was 22.5 per thousand. Neurosis (63.31%) especially Major Depression and Adjustment disorder, Psychosis (10.00%), Somatization disorder (6.66%) and Psychiatric symptoms secondary to physical illness were the major groups of illness. Women were found to have more mental health problems than men. The morbidity pattern also differs significantly with the gender. Neurosis was seen more among the female subjects. There was a significant association of mental health problems with low educational status, unemployment and large family size. Financial problems, marital conflicts, interpersonal conflicts and housing problems were the major stressors as perceived by the respondents. There exists significant mental health problems in the community which can be due to deleterious sociocultural factors and we recommend the integration of mental health care with general health care. PMID:23441488

Silvanus, V; Subramanian, P

2012-03-01

74

Influence of Urban Changes on Informal Settlements and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Nigerian Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of growth of cities and urban changes has left with it many footprints in different trajectories. The growth of large and medium cities in Nigeria overtime has resulted in sharp urban segregation between formal and informal areas. Next to the large and medium cities are the pockets of slums and unplanned informal settlements on the outskirts of large cities. The proliferation of urban slums in cities is exacerbated by the concentration of high population of urban poor in over-crowded living spaces in rapidly changing urban areas. Urban changes manifest in the changes of population, demography and livelihood characteristics of cities. These changes are the main factors that influence adaptive capacity of city dwellers and their vulnerability to climate change. Urban changes and their accompanying changes in the population, demographic and livelihood characteristics in Nigerian cities present both prospects and challenges for building future adaptive capacity to climate change. This study focuses on urban changes and the growth of urban slums in Nigerian cities and the influence of changes in population levels, demographic composition and livelihood characteristics on the adaptive capacity to climate change. The study examines (i) the typology of urban slums in time, space, scale, form and structure in the Northern and Southern Nigeria; (ii) the differentials in the perception of risk and response mechanisms to climate change in different demographic groups, cultures and regions; (iii) characterizes the potentials and challenges of future adaptive capacity to climate change; and (iv) assesses how livelihood strategies change in response to urban changes and how the range of potential adaptations to climate stresses is likely to change overtime. This study will profile urban slums and informal settlements in Nigeria, present comparisons of the socio-economic indicators for mapping of urban slums in Nigeria, provide a detailed analysis of adaptation capacity, and proffer a framework for the integration and governance of urban slums in Nigerian cities. Analyzing the way urban livelihoods, particularly those of the urban slums, are modified to adapt to urban and climate changes will help to define urban policies to re-direct urban growth and planning to respond better to climate stresses.

Elias, P. O.; Babatola, O.; Fasona, M.

2011-12-01

75

Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

2011-01-01

76

Sound propagation in periodic urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of low frequency sound propagation in regular urban areas, under the assumption of a periodic distribution of buildings. Although the radiation losses above the urban canyons are generally significant, our results show that the effects of the periodicity still occur. Band diagrams are notably characterized, both numerically and experimentally, to investigate the effect of the radiation above the periodic structure. The problem is tackled using a coupled modal-finite elements method. The main idea is to turn the original unbounded domain into an equivalent waveguiding structure, with PML bounding the originally open region. The experimental study is performed in a scale model of urban area. Numerical and experimental results on both the band diagrams and the wavefield propagating through the lattice are in good agreement.

Molerón, Miguel; Félix, Simon; Pagneux, Vincent; Richoux, Olivier

2012-06-01

77

[Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].  

PubMed

The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka City Institute Laboratory of Health and Environment) DNA fingerprinting establishes the genetic relatedness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and has become a powerful tool in tuberculosis epidemiology. To use DNA fingerprinting to assess the efficacy of current tuberculosis infection-control practices. Combining conventional epidemiologic techniques with DNA fingerprinting of M. tuberculosis can improve the understanding of how tuberculosis is transmitted. Patients were assigned to clusters based on mycobacterial isolates with identical DNA fingerprints. Clusters were assumed to have arisen from recent transmission. We analyzed M. tuberculosis isolates from patients reported to the tuberculosis registry by RFLP techniques. These results were interpreted along with demographic data. Patients infected with the same strains were identified according to their RFLP patterns, and patients with identical patterns were grouped in clusters. RFLP patterns of high incidence districts have more variations than other areas. This suggests that the source of tuberculosis infection are quite diverse and complicated. Tuberculosis patients may accumulate to high incidence districts from other places after infection. 4. Structure of High Incidence of Tuberculosis and Control Plan in Osaka City: Yoichi TATSUMI (Bureau of Infection Control, Osaka City Office) The case notification rate in Osaka City is the highest in Japan. That of all TB cases and smear positive TB cases was 1573 and 216 per 100,000 population in 1997 at Airin District in Osaka City. The main reason for this highest incidence rate is that there are many homeless people and it is a mobile population. Most of residents are daily laborers. They come from all over Japan and stay there, mainly in rented rooms, to look for jobs. Thousands of homeless people also live in tents on streets or in parks. We are making to new strategic plan to intensify tuberculosis control measures throughout the city. Osaka city government h PMID:11109777

2000-10-01

78

New Orleans Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation Plan FY 2032  

E-print Network

Planning Commission is the MPO for the New Orleans, Slidell, and Mandeville-Covington Urbanized areas. There are ten urbanized areas in the state of Louisiana and eight MPOs designated by the governor. The Regional Planning Commission is the only...

New Orleans Urbanized Area Regional Planning Commission

2007-06-12

79

Combating the growth of slums using for-profit social business models  

E-print Network

With 1 billion people living in the slums of cities today and no signs of a decrease in the rate of urbanization and population growth, it is obvious that new approaches to combating poverty and the global housing crisis ...

Fusaro, Kurtis C

2009-01-01

80

Managing Imported Fire Ants in Urban Areas  

E-print Network

out- weigh any benefits in urban areas. While it may not be possible to eradicate fire ants, controlling them is highly desirable. The best control programs use a combination of non-chemical and chemical meth- ods that are effective, economical... granules, granules drenched with water after applica- tion, liquid drenches, baits, or aerosol injec- tions. Non-chemical treatment methods such as drenching mounds with very hot water also may be used. Mound treatments may need to be repeated...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2006-08-17

81

[Background and characteristics of migration to urban areas in Java].  

PubMed

A review of urbanization trends in Java, Indonesia, is presented, with the focus on the background and characteristics of migrants to urban areas. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of laborers in the informal sector (housemaids) and those of factory workers, and between migrants from rural areas and those from other urban areas. (summary in ENG) PMID:12157859

Kawamoto, I

1985-06-01

82

Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

Yinger, John

83

Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.  

PubMed

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. PMID:25157123

Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

2014-11-01

84

Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

Grinnell, Max

2012-03-02

85

MONITORING THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT AREAS BY USING PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Urban areas have been growing up and developing like living creatures. Development can be regularly or spontaneously. In Turkey, municipalities responsible for planned development of urban as the most of countries are in the world. In urban, which will be categorized in the shape of old and development areas, development plans have been using to direct the development. Planning

B. Uzun; O. Demir; F. Karsli; M. Atasoy

86

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues....

87

Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI) in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Design A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas. PMID:25095780

Kien, Vu Duy; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Weinehall, Lars; Ng, Nawi

2014-01-01

88

Pharaon Urbain, A Digital Radio Relay System for Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radio relay system Pharaon Urbain has been conceived to realize the interconnection between switching and transit centers in urban areas. The first practical use of this system is planned in the urban zone of Paris, using the Maine-Montparnasse tower as a nodal point. This paper describes the system conception and the equipment of this first French urban radio relay

M. Liger; P. Magne; J. Poitevin

1974-01-01

89

Mapping Urbanized and Rural Drainages in the Bay Area  

E-print Network

Mapping Urbanized and Rural Drainages in the Bay Area: A Tool for Improved Management of Stormwater, and prioritization of local tributaries and urban drainages for research and management will be necessary to improve discharges, and monitoring and modeling the quantity and quality of urban runoff). Setting aside

90

Flood Detection in Urban Areas Using TerraSAR-X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high-resolution TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. The study uses a TerraSAR-X image of a one-in-150-year flood near Tewkesbury, U.K., in

David C. Mason; Rainer Speck; Bernard Devereux; Guy J.-P. Schumann; Jeffrey C. Neal; Paul D. Bates

2010-01-01

91

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2010-10-01

92

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2011-10-01

93

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2013-10-01

94

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2012-10-01

95

Amazonian Native Youths and Notions of Indigeneity in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indigenous presence in urban areas of Amazonia has become more visible as Indian populations have negotiated their own spaces and acted in new contexts previously reserved for the dominant society. This article looks at ways in which today's young Indians in an urban area define and interpret their new cultural and social situations, drawing from research conducted with Apurinã,

Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen

2010-01-01

96

A mechanistic model to study ozone production in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple box model for studying the influence of emissions changes and meteorological conditions on ozone production in urban areas is presented. Several calculation examples illustrate how the model can be used to investigate the interrelationships of the primary mechanisms which determine ozone concentration levels in urban areas.

A. Rachel Laird; Paulette Middleton; Richard W. Miksad

1983-01-01

97

Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

Kimbrough, R.A.

1995-01-01

98

76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual...of Amendments to 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) 2011 National Transit Database (NTD) Urbanized Area Annual...

2011-05-27

99

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on...systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining...highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine...

2013-04-01

100

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on...systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining...highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine...

2014-04-01

101

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on...systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining...highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine...

2012-04-01

102

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on...systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining...highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine...

2011-04-01

103

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on...systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining...highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine functional...

2010-04-01

104

Mesh network model for urban area  

E-print Network

Decreasing population, high crime rate, and limited economic opportunities are all symptoms of urban decline. These characteristics are, unfortunately, evident in major cities and small towns. Local municipalities in these ...

Chiang, Nhan Tu

2008-01-01

105

Ontologies in remote sensing data processing for urban area description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article discusses an approach to incorporating a priori information for urban area automated recognition and classification based on space and aerial images. An approach considered is based on using the ontology describing urban objects and relations between them. Basic steps and guidelines to such ontology building are discussed.

Ryumkin, Alexander I.; Kabanov, Mikhail M.; Kapustin, Sergey N.

2014-11-01

106

Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.  

PubMed

Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

2014-01-01

107

Value to Wildlife of Urban-Agricultural Parks: A Case Study from Rome Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban-agricultural parks could have some advantages to wildlife because of less intensive agricultural procedures, absence\\u000a of hunting pressure, and reduced human disturbance. In this study, the breeding and wintering bird communities and the small\\u000a mammal community in an urban-agricultural park of Rome were compared to those of a close urban park and a close agricultural\\u000a area just outside the city.

ALBERTO SORACE

2001-01-01

108

CONTRIBUTION OF AREA SOURCES TO HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN THREE URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in three urban areas--Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle-Tacoma (Puget Sound). PA has implemented the Urban Area Source Program (UASP) required until Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act A...

109

Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

110

Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

111

Incorporating Urban Area Truck Freight Value into the Texas A&M Transportation1 Institute's Urban Mobility Report2  

E-print Network

, there is an increased need to32 understand the impact of urban area congestion on trucks.33 Urban and rural corridors1 Incorporating Urban Area Truck Freight Value into the Texas A&M Transportation1 Institute's Urban Mobility Report2 3 by4 5 6 William L. Eisele, Ph.D., P.E.7 Senior Research Engineer8 Texas

112

Modelling and managing runoff processes in peri-urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, a deeper knowledge of the extreme runoff generation requires more inclusive and interactive understanding of its numerous determining factors. This includes not only a better estimation of meteorological extremes under changing climate conditions, but also a better evaluation of infiltration and saturation excesses, of subsurface return flows, as well as, of human impacts on surface runoff. This communication presents a physically based and spatially distributed numerical model for simulation of the hydrologic interactions between the surface and subsurface flows. Further particularities of this model correspond to: (1) a new methodology for the estimation of the precipitation input; and (2) a new modelling methodology to design Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas. The multifractal frequency analyses have been used to evaluate the maximum precipitation rate for several durations with the design return period. This method has the advantage to rely on a few robust exponents that are physically meaningful and can be evaluated on discontinuous and/or low frequency samples. The design of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas with low permeability soils as well as with high groundwater levels can be used to decrease the floods risk in the inundated zones. Our model was particularly oriented towards the retention in ponds and swales, infiltration into the ground and drainage through perforated pipes to manage the storm water runoff. The methodology explicitly takes into account the interactions with the water table, the evolution of the latter with infiltration and the soil profile. Using GIS, we visualise the resulting runoff processes together with the evolution of water table levels for the two case studies: a county contiguous to Paris (France) and in the Panola Area (USA). The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of SUDS in urban and peri-urban areas and fluvial retention measures to attenuate floods in small urban catchments. Comparisons with natural catchments with low urban development illustrate the impact of climate change and urbanisation on extreme runoff characteristics.

El Tabach, E.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

2008-12-01

113

Dispersion of buoyant emissions from low level sources in urban areas: water channel modelling  

E-print Network

sources in urban areas: water channel modelling’, Int. J.level sources in urban areas: water channel modelling Sammodelling the dispersion from low level buoyant sources: Dispersion of buoyant emissions from low level sources in urban

Pournazeri, Sam; Schulte, Nico; Tan, Si; Princevac, Marko; Venkatram, Akula

2013-01-01

114

An alternative explanation of the semiarid urban area “oasis effect”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates the climatic summertime representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface temperature using the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) over the rapidly urbanizing and water-vulnerable Phoenix metropolitan area. A suite of monthly, high-resolution (2 km grid spacing) simulations are conducted during the month of July with both a contemporary landscape and a hypothetical presettlement scenario. WRF demonstrates excellent agreement in the representation of the daily to monthly diurnal cycle of near-surface temperatures, including the accurate simulation of maximum daytime temperature timing. Thermal sensitivity to anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULCC), assessed via replacement of the modern-day landscape with natural shrubland, is small on the regional scale. The WRF-simulated characterization of the diurnal cycle, supported by previous observational analyses, illustrates two distinct and opposing impacts on the urbanized diurnal cycle of the Phoenix metro area, with evening and nighttime warming partially offset by daytime cooling. The simulated nighttime urban heat island (UHI) over this semiarid urban complex is explained by well-known mechanisms (slow release of heat from within the urban fabric stored during daytime and increased emission of longwave radiation from the urban canopy toward the surface). During daylight hours, the limited vegetation and dry semidesert region surrounding metro Phoenix warms at greater rates than the urban complex. Although prior work has suggested that daytime temperatures are lower within the urban complex owing to the addition of residential and agricultural irrigation (i.e., "oasis effect") we show that modification of Phoenix's surrounding environment to a biome more representative of temperate regions eliminates the daytime urban cooling. Our results indicate that surrounding environmental conditions, including land cover and availability of soil moisture, play a principal role in establishing the nature and evolution of the diurnal cycle of near-surface temperature for the greater Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area relative to its rural and undeveloped counterpart.

Georgescu, M.; Moustaoui, M.; Mahalov, A.; Dudhia, J.

2011-12-01

115

Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

2010-01-01

116

Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect area - how the groundwater is interacting with urban structures >, (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final step is the cartographic representation. In this final step the urban groundwater maps are created. All the methodological steps are doubled by programmed procedures developed in a groundwater management platform for urban areas. The core of the procedures is represented by a set of well defined hydrogeological set of geospatial queries. The cartographic products (urban groundwater maps) can be used by different types of users: civil engineers, urban planners, scientist as well as decision and policies makers.

Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

2013-04-01

117

[The creation of the informal sector in urban areas].  

PubMed

The development of the informal sector of the economy in urban areas of Indonesia is analyzed. The author notes that this sector is dominated by high rates of migration from rural areas, limited employment opportunities for the unskilled in the modern sector, and a demand for low-priced services and products from the informal sector. (summary in ENG) PMID:12267486

Papayungan, M M

1984-12-01

118

STORMWATER RUNOFF ON URBAN AREAS OF STEEP SLOPE  

EPA Science Inventory

A research is conducted to investigate the applicability of commonly used urban storm runoff prediction models to drainage basins with steep slopes. The hydraulics of runoff on steep slope areas is first reviewed and its difference from that for mild slope areas is discussed. Nex...

119

Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

2011-01-01

120

Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.  

PubMed

The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

Desmond, Bree

2011-01-01

121

Modelling atmospheric dry deposition in urban areas using an urban canopy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing length parametrisation of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon depending on the height-to-width ratio of built areas: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow. Differences between the classical roughness-length model and the model developed here are investigated. Sensitivity to key parameters are discussed. This approach provides spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes that depend on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area.

Cherin, N.; Roustan, Y.; Musson-Genon, L.; Seigneur, C.

2014-12-01

122

Slum Dwellers in Indian Cities: The Case of Surat in Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many problems associated with urban growth in India, an increase in the proportion of slums and squatters especially in its 'metros' and other large cities has been prominent. Generally, such locations are inhabited by the poor and their growth \\

Biswaroop Das

123

Caring for Caregivers of People Living with HIV in the Family: A Response to the HIV Pandemic from Two Urban Slum Communities in Pune, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction In low resource settings, the vast majority of ‘Person/people Living with HIV’ (PLHIV/s) and inadequate healthcare delivery systems to meet their treatment and care needs, caregivers play a vital role. Home based caregivers are often unrecognized with limited AIDS policies and programs focusing on them. We explored the perceptions and norms regarding care being provided by family caregivers of PLHIVs in India. Methodology A community based qualitative study to understand the issues pertaining to home based care for PLHIV was conducted in urban settings of Pune city, in Maharashtra, India. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among men, women and peer educators were carried out. A total of 44 in-depth Interviews (IDIs) with PLHIVs (20) and their caregivers (24), were conducted using separate guides respectively. Data was analyzed thematically. Results Home based care was perceived as economically viable option available for PLHIVs. ‘Care’ comprised of emotional, adherence, nursing and financial support to PLHIV. Home based care was preferred over hospital based care as it ensured confidentiality and patient care without hampering routine work at home. Women emerged as more vital primary caregivers compared to men. Home based care for men was almost unconditional while women had no such support. The natal family of women also abandoned. Their marital families seemed to provide support. Caregivers voiced the need for respite care and training. Discussion Gender related stigma and discrimination existed irrespective of women being the primary family caregivers. The support from marital families indicates a need to explore care and support issues at natal and marital homes of the women living with HIV respectively. Home based care training and respite care for the caregivers is recommended. Gender sensitive interventions addressing gender inequity and HIV related stigma should be modeled while designing interventions for PLHIVs and their family caregivers. PMID:23028725

Kohli, Rewa; Purohit, Vidula; Karve, Latika; Bhalerao, Vinod; Karvande, Shilpa; Rangan, Sheela; Reddy, Srikanth; Paranjape, Ramesh; Sahay, Seema

2012-01-01

124

Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

125

Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for

Taylor Ricketts; Marc Imhoff

2003-01-01

126

Pesticides in streams draining agricultural and urban areas in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from April 1993 through April 1994 to describe and compare the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural and a small urban area in Colorado. Twenty-five water samples collected at least monthly at the mouths of two tributary streams of the South Plate River were analyzed for 47 pesticides. The results indicate that both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources for pesticides in streams. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected, and in the urban area, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more samples. Most often, the more frequently detected pesticides in both areas also were some of the more commonly used pesticides. In both areas, pesticide concentrations were higher during the summer (application period) with maximum concentrations generally occurring in storm runoff. The year-round detection of some pesticides in both areas at consistently low concentrations, regardless of season or streamflow volume, could indicate that these compounds persist in the shallow alluvial aquifer year-round.

Kimbrough, R.A.; Litke, D.W.

1996-01-01

127

Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

1985-01-01

128

Imaging shallow velocity structure using ambient noise in urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle traffic and other human activities provide affluent seismic excitation in urban area. We extract Green's function of surface wave from cross correlation of ambient noise recorded by a small array in schoolyard of Peking University. Although non-isotropic source distribution introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction, relative steady phase and group velocity map could be estimated from only days' records. The inverted S structure demonstrates agreement with well logging data. This technique could be introduced to engineering for well location optimizing design in noisy urban environment.

Meng, H.; Chen, Y. J.

2013-12-01

129

Towards an urban world.  

PubMed

December 5, 2006 is the date when the world will become predominantly urban according to Carl Haub, a US demographer. The date is based on current UN population projections and will likely change over the next 15 years, but the trend is towards an urban population is still just as significant as the change from hunter gather to settled agriculturalist. The urban growth rate is currently 3.6% in less developed countries (LDC) which accounts for 9/10 of the total urban growth. Out of the 28 cities that the UN projects will have populations over 10 million people by the end of the decade, only 4 are in more developed nations: Los Angeles, Moscow, New York, and Tokyo. People are attracted to urban areas because of increased opportunity. 60% of GNP in LDCs is generated in urban areas, this figure is projected to grown to 80% by the end of the century. The quality of life for urban dwellers in LDCs is quite low. The 3 main areas of environmental degradation are: air pollution, waste management, and drinking water contamination. In many urban areas, the fuel used to power industries as well as the fuel used by urban dwellers to cook and heat often results in excessive air pollution. According to WHO less than 60% of LDC urban dwellers have access to sanitation and only 30% of the buildings are connected to sewer lines, and 90% of the sewage that is collected is discharged untreated. Untreated drinking water contains diseases which infect the poorest urban dwellers. In Bombay, the death rate in the slums is twice as high as in the suburbs. In Manilia the infant mortality rate is 3 times higher in the squatter communities than in the rest of the capital. PMID:12284496

Carty, W P

1991-01-01

130

Growing up at the ‘margins’: Concerns, aspirations, and expectations of young people living in Nairobi’s slums  

PubMed Central

We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4033 12-22 year olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with a subset of 75 youth when they were 13-24 years old (45.3% male). We observe that despite the challenges characteristic of urban slums, some youth maintain high aspirations and try to achieve them through education, delinquency, residential mobility, and religion. We note that others adjust their aspirations to account for limited opportunities. Overall, our findings highlight positive youth agency and underscore the need to improve the quality of life in urban slums. PMID:24999299

Kabiru, Caroline W; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

2014-01-01

131

Intestinal parasitic infections and urbanization.  

PubMed Central

About a third of the population in the cities of developing countries live in slums and shanty towns. By the year 2000 it is estimated that this number will grow to 2200 million, and by 2025 about 57% of the population in developing countries will be in urban areas. The prevalence of infections caused by Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis and the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections may increase among the rural populations who are migrating to these urban and suburban settings owing to the favourable conditions for transmission. Urgent consideration should therefore be given to improving sanitation in deprived urban areas and to treating periodically these populations to reduce the worm burden, especially in school-age children. PMID:8440028

Crompton, D. W.; Savioli, L.

1993-01-01

132

A STUDY OF STABILITY CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN AREA  

SciTech Connect

Accurate numerical prediction of airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas depends, to a great extent, on the use of appropriate stability conditions. Due to the lack of relevant field measurements or sufficiently sophisticated turbulence models, modelers often assume that nearly neutral conditions are appropriate to use for the entire urban area being simulated. The main argument for such an assumption is that atmospheric stability (as defined by the Richardson number) is determined by both mechanical stresses and buoyant forcing but, for a typical urban setting with a given thermal stability or sensible heat flux, building-induced mechanical stresses can become so dominant to drive the resulting stability toward nearly neutral conditions. Results from our recent simulations of two Joint URBAN 2003 releases, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model - FEM3MP, appear to support partially the assumption that urban areas tend toward neutral stability. More specifically, based on a model-data comparison for winds and concentration in the near field and velocity and turbulence profiles in the urban wake region, Chan and Lundquist (2005) and Lundquist and Chan (2005) observed that neutral stability assumption appears to be valid for intensive operation period (IOP) 9 (a nighttime release with moderate winds) and also appears to be valid for IOP 3 (a daytime release with strong buoyant forcing) in the urban core area but is less valid in the urban wake region. Our model, developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm is based on finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex building geometries and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection scheme and modern iterative solvers developed by Gresho and Chan (1998) for efficient time integration. Physical processes treated in our code include turbulence modeling via Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches described in Chan and Stevens (2000), atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budgets, and vegetative canopies, etc. Predictions from our model are continuously being verified against measured data from wind tunnel and field experiments. Examples of such studies are discussed in Chan et al. (2001, 2004), Chan and Leach (2004), Calhoun et al. (2004, 2005), and Humphreys et al. (2004). In this study, the stability conditions associated with two more of the Joint URBAN 2003 releases are investigated. Through a model-data comparison of the wind and concentration fields, observed buoyancy production in the urban wake region, together with predicted values of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in various regions of the computational domain, a more definitive characterization of stability conditions associated with the simulated releases is presented. In the following, we first discuss briefly the field experiments being simulated, then present sample results from a model-data comparison for both the wind and concentration fields, examine the predicted TKE field and the observed buoyant forcing relative to the total TKE in the urban wake, and finally offer a few concluding remarks including the resulting stability conditions of the simulated releases.

Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

2005-11-01

133

Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in complex urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.

2013-12-01

134

Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28\\u000a urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and\\u000a natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land\\u000a use and natural habitat in surrounding

Paul G. R. Smith

2007-01-01

135

Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed.  

PubMed

After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eski?ehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %. PMID:25182427

?im?ek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine

2015-02-01

136

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2012-10-01

137

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2011-10-01

138

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2013-10-01

139

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2010-10-01

140

Dispersion from an area source in urban-like roughness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ventilation of scalars from urban-like geometries at neighbourhood scale was investigated using two geometries with an equal plan and frontal density of p = f = 25% but different height distribu- tions: a uniform height roughness (C10S) and a non- uniform height roughness (RM10S). In both configura- tions the area source was represented by a sub-unit of the idealised

Frauke Pascheke; F. Barlow; Alan Robins

141

Pregnant Women's and Community Health Workers' Perceptions of Root Causes of Malnutrition Among Infants and Young Children in the Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations. PMID:21653248

Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A.; Griffiths, Paula L.

2011-01-01

142

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density

F. Kardel; K. Wuyts; M. Babanezhad; U. W. A. Vitharana; T. Wuytack; G. Potters; R. Samson

2010-01-01

143

Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly dependent on tree density, we modeled transpiration as a function of both species and density to evaluate a likely range of values in irrigated urban forests. The results show that urban forests in irrigated, semi-arid regions can constitute a significant use of water, but water use can be mitigated by appropriate selection of site, management method, and species. PMID:21639035

Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

2011-04-01

144

Migration from rural to urban areas in China.  

PubMed

During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility. PMID:12285849

Wakabayashi, K

1990-12-01

145

Carbon dioxide fluxes over an urban park area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From September 2006 to October 2007 turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured at an urban tower station (26 m above ground level, z/z h = 1.73) in Essen, Germany, using the eddy covariance technique. The site was located at the border between a public park area (70 ha) in the south-west of the station and suburban/urban residential as well as light commercial areas in the north and east of the tower. Depending on the land-use two different sectors ( park and urban) were identified showing distinct differences in the temporal evolution of the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO 2. While urban fluxes appear to be governed by anthropogenic emissions from domestic heating and traffic (average flux 9.3 ?mol m -2 s -1), the exchange of CO 2 was steered by biological processes when the park contributed to the flux footprint. The diurnal course during the vegetation period exhibited negative daytime fluxes up to -10 ?mol m -2 s -1 on average in summer. Nevertheless, with a mean of 0.8 ?mol m -2 s -1 park sector fluxes were slightly positive, thus no net carbon uptake by the surface occurred throughout the year. In order to sum the transport of CO 2 a gap-filling procedure was performed by means of artificial neural network generalisation. Using additional meteorological inputs the daily exchange of CO 2 was reproduced using radial basis function networks (RBF). The resulting yearly sum of 6031 g m -2 a -1 indicates the entire study site to be a considerable source of CO 2.

Kordowski, Klaus; Kuttler, Wilhelm

2010-07-01

146

A flexible urban health index for small area disparities.  

PubMed

Available urban health metrics focus primarily on large area rankings. Less has been done to develop an index that provides information about level of health and health disparities for small geographic areas. Adopting a method used by the Human Development Index, we standardized indicators for small area units on a (0, 1) interval and combined them using their geometric mean to form an Urban Health Index (UHI). Disparities were assessed using the ratio of the highest to lowest decile and measurement of the slope of the eight middle deciles (middle; 80 %) of the data. We examined the sensitivity of the measure to weighting, to changes in the method, to correlation among indicators, and to substitution of indicators. Using seven health determinants and applying these methods to the 128 census tracts in the city of Atlanta, USA, we found a disparity ratio of 5.92 and a disparity slope of 0.54, suggesting substantial inequality and heterogeneity of risk. The component indicators were highly correlated; their systematic removal had a small effect on the results. Except in extreme cases, weighting had a little effect on the rankings. A map of Atlanta census tracts exposed a swath of high disparity. UHI rankings, ratio, and slope were resistant to alteration in composition and to non-extreme weighting schemes. This empirical evaluation was limited to a single realization, but suggests that a flexible tool, whose method rather than content is standardized, may be of use for local evaluation, for decision making, and for area comparison. PMID:24733190

Rothenberg, Richard; Weaver, Scott R; Dai, Dajun; Stauber, Christine; Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi

2014-10-01

147

Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in dominant processes and solute pathways.

van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

2014-05-01

148

INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS  

E-print Network

of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models these gaps. Keywords: COST-715, meso-scale models, surface energy balance, surface flux modelling, urbanINVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS ­ RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS M

Ribes, Aurélien

149

URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,  

E-print Network

of satellite remote sensing imagery can provide a timely and relatively cheap view of urban land covers urban areas using remote sensing imagery is the land-cover classification, that is assignment of an area for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus

Plaza, Antonio J.

150

The Concentration of Severely Disturbed CMI in a Core Urban Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted two needs assessment studies of chronically mentally ill (CMI). Examined differential concentration of CMI persons in areas of Colorado, finding a disproportionate concentration on CMI persons in core urban area of Denver. Comparison of core urban clients to national sample revealed that Denver's core urban CMI population was severely…

Shern, David; Dilts, Stephen L.

1987-01-01

151

Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates  

E-print Network

1 Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates (1990, 2000, 2010, 2100 Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates version 1 data release. Please see Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University. 2012. Low Elevation Coastal Zone: Urban-Rural

Columbia University

152

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007  

E-print Network

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 safety Urban­rural difference Traffic crashes a b s t r a c t A large literature base has found investigated the possible difference of these effects between urban and rural areas. In this study, we used

Levinson, David M.

153

Global comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas Erika von Schneidemesser a  

E-print Network

As of 2007, over half of the world's population live in urban areas. A recent modelling study showedGlobal comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas Erika von Schneidemesser a , Paul S 2010 Accepted 4 September 2010 Keywords: Volatile organic compounds Long-term trends Urban Carbon

154

End-consumer movements in French medium urban areas 1 END CONSUMMER GOODS MOVEMENT  

E-print Network

). Two main approaches have been proposed for urban freight modelling: in classical modelling approachesEnd-consumer movements in French medium urban areas 1 ? END CONSUMMER GOODS MOVEMENT GENERATION IN FRENCH MEDIUM URBAN AREAS Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu, Laboratoire d'Economie des Transports, Lyon, France

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

Smith, Paul G. R.

2007-03-01

156

A Century of the Evolution of the Urban Area in Shenyang, China  

PubMed Central

Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946–70, 1988–97, and 2004–10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

2014-01-01

157

Is global dimming and brightening limited to urban areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts have been put into place for decades around the world to understand the surface energy budget of the Earth. One of the pillars of such activities is the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) project (Ohmura and Lang 1989), which established a database for the measurements of Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) and other parameters around the world. A major finding from the GEBA project is "global dimming and brightening" (Ohmura and Lang 1989; Wild 2009), which refers originally to the secular trend of SSR on the decadal time scale in Europe that had declined till around 1980s and then has been rising ever since. Secular trends have also been found elsewhere in the world, but the strength and the direction of the trend differ across regions (Ohmura 2009; Skeie et al. 2011; Wild et al. 2005). As a number of observations are made in or close to urban areas, speculations have arisen that the observed SSR trends may be influenced by local atmospheric pollution (with the direct aerosol effects being predominant (Kvalevåg and Myhre 2007)) and also by enhanced cloud cover over urban areas (Shepherd 2005). Thus, this raises a question: to what extent the observed global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. To date, only a few studies address this problem including a statistical study based on population data (Alpert et al. 2005) and model studies inspecting SSR trends (e.g. Dwyer et al. 2010; Skeie et al. 2011). Answers are, however, inconclusive and remain debated. We investigate whether the observed global dimming and brightening is a large scale phenomenon or limited to urban areas by using the following two complementary approaches: 1) We focus on a set of selected 14 stations in Japan that yield various high quality measurements since 1961 with three of them being least influenced by urbanization (based on expert elicitation). We look into seasonal time-series of SSR, cloud amount, and sunshine duration (Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency) as well as zenith transmittance and maximum transmittance (A. Ohmura, personal communication, 26 February 2012) separately for the pristine (i.e. least influenced by urbanization) and polluted stations. 2) We deal with several hundreds of stations in Europe, Japan, and China compiled by the GEBA project and look into the SSR data since 1960. To infer the temporal development of the urbanization level at each measurement site, we use the following two datasets: i) the high resolution gridded emission data (0.5 degree) provided by the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) (Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre / Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), and ii) the population data (0.08 degree) obtained from the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) (Klein Goldewijk et al. 2010). To these data, we apply a selection of distance weighting functions to account for the spatial extent of urbanization surrounding each site (Folini et al. 2009). Our preliminary results obtained from these two approaches do not support the claim that the global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. References Alpert P, Kishcha P, Kaufman YJ, Schwarzbard R (2005) Global dimming or local dimming?: Effect of urbanization on sunlight availability. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L17802. Dwyer JG, Norris JR, Ruckstuhl C (2010) Do climate models reproduce observed solar dimming and brightening over China and Japan? Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115, D00K08. Folini D, Kaufmann P, Ubl S, Henne S (2009) Region of influence of 13 remote European measurement sites based on modeled carbon monoxide mixing ratios. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114, D08307. Klein Goldewijk K, Beusen A, Janssen P (2010) Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20, 565-573. Kvalevåg MM, Myhre G (2007) Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era. Journal of Climate, 20, 4874-4883. Ohmura A (2009) Observed decadal v

Tanaka, Katsumasa; Imamovic, Adel; Folini, Doris; Ohmura, Atsumu; Wild, Martin

2013-04-01

158

A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

Ellis, S.R.; Mustard, M.H.

1985-01-01

159

Widowed mama-grannies buffering HIV\\/AIDS-affected households in a city slum of Kampala, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the experiences, challenges and coping strategies of urban elderly residents in Kasubi-Kawaala, a slum on the margins of Kampala city, Uganda. The city is mainly stereotyped as a space for able-bodied individuals able to hustle, innovatively compete for limited resources, and accrue themselves benefits. It is widely assumed that old age causes people to retire to rural

Stella Nyanzi

2009-01-01

160

Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization transforms the natural landscape to anthropogenic urban land and changes surface biogeophysical characteristics.Urban growth affects the ecology of cities in a number of ways, such as eliminating and fragmenting native habitats, modifying local climate conditions, and generating anthropogenic pollutants.Urbanization has changed many landscapes throughout the world with serious ecological consequences.To understand the ecology of urban systems, it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization, which often requires dynamic modeling and spatial analysis. Geospatial information provided by satellite remote sensing sensors and biogeophysical field data are very useful for urban landuse-landcover dynamics and impacts analysis. The spatial and spectral variability of urban environments present fundamental challenges to deriving accurate remote sensing information for urban areas. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. Percent impervious surface was used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapour content. Land surface temperatures have been analysed for different land use and land cover categories both in urban as well as in periurban areas. Because of the removal of vegetative cover and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces, the urban heterogeneity of land surface and associated spatial extents influence surface thermal conditions. In situ meteorological data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a serious impact on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects. This papers aims to provide a spatio-temporal analysis of urban structure for Bucharest urban area based on multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite imagery (LANDSAT TM, ETM; MODIS, IKONOS) over 1987 - 2007 period. Understanding the structure of urban cover dynamics and land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas is very important to urban management for reasons such as runoff control, urban forest planning, air quality improvement, and mitigation of global climate change. Accurate maps of urban tree and other surface cover types can provide critical information to better understand urban ecosystems and help improve environmental quality and human health in urban areas. This paper demonstrates the potential of moderate-and high resolution, multispectral imagery to map and monitor the evolution of the physical urban environment in relation with micro and macroclimate conditions and their feedbacks.

Zoran, M.; Savastru, R.; Savastru, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Tautan, M. N.; Miclos, S.

2009-04-01

161

42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

2010-10-01

162

LES validation for contaminant transport in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant transport in urban areas poses a major challenge with respect to its simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The use of time-resolved approaches like large-eddy simulation (LES) can provide insight into transient flow and dispersion regimes, which are strongly influenced by the urban geometry. LES models have the potential to resolve the characteristic unsteady flow features and their impact on plume dynamics, whereas standard industrial codes based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations can only yield steady state solutions. However, the potential to simulate the energetically dominating part of an inherently unsteady turbulent flow with LES also sets higher requirements for validation strategies. This includes that the evaluation of the model performance must go beyond comparisons of first and second order statistics which were adequate for RANS models and currently provide the basis for most of the validation metrics used as a standard. With regard to an a posteriori validation of model results for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and dispersion in complex geometry, laboratory data from boundary-layer wind tunnels are of special value. Since inflow and boundary conditions are well-defined, systematic laboratory studies provide high statistical confidence levels of measured quantities. The potential of field measurements - in this regard - is limited due to the natural atmospheric variability. In order to verify the realistic simulation of the spatio-temporal behavior of turbulent eddies, transient flow phenomena have to be characterized in experimental validation data sets as well. This topic is closely linked to structure identification and the characterization of organized motions in ABL flows, for which advanced analysis strategies like wavelet transforms, orthogonal decomposition, or stochastic estimation can be employed. Systematic comparisons of wind-tunnel measurements and LES simulation results are planned for the case of turbulent flow and contaminant dispersion in the inner city of Hamburg, Germany. The reference laboratory measurements of velocity and concentration fields are carried out in a neutrally stratified boundary-layer wind tunnel within an urban model on a scale of 1:350. Numerical results are obtained from simulations of urban contaminant transport with FAST3D-CT. The numerical model is developed and operated by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and is based on the monotone integrated large-eddy simulation (MILES) methodology. The presentation will highlight particular challenges with respect to the validation of time-resolved LES codes in contrast to standard approaches with an emphasis on specific demands of urban flow and dispersion regimes. Furthermore, an introduction to qualified evaluation strategies will be given based on experience from structure identification in experimental data sets and from the first results of the Hamburg campaign.

Hertwig, D.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.; Patnaik, G.

2010-09-01

163

Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

1991-01-01

164

Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

1999-07-01

165

Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining collapses, with the opening of pits on the surface, circular or elliptical, formed by highly inclined or vertical walls. On the surface have been found sinkholes, large depressions with steep walls and slightly elongated forms, which have caused impacts to homes and roads infrastructure. Based on recent surveys carried out, was estimated that the risk area covers about 2.7 square kilometers, jutting out from the center of mining "Serbariu mine" and arrives conurbation of Sirai. To remember besides, in the eastern outskirts of Carbonia, (Cannas locality), and in the district of Serbariu - Perdas Biancas, in any major tectonic lineation Hercynian and Tertiary age, the presence of 9 sinkholes , 6 of which are newly formed, for the which are studying the possible causes due to the exploitation of groundwater. Referring to the geological and structural models of the study sites, were are made firsts geophysical investigation using GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), in "multi-frequency arrays," in the process of calibration and systematize of the sinkhole phenomenon.

Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

2012-04-01

166

Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. In this talk we will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type. We will discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.

2012-12-01

167

From bulldozing to housing rights: reducing vulnerability and improving health in African slums.  

PubMed

Forced evictions heighten vulnerability among slum dwellers who already face multiple risks of ill health. They constitute a well-documented violation of economic and social rights and are reaching epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa as economic globalization creates and strengthens incentives for forced evictions. We describe evictions in the slums of four African metropolitan areas: Accra (Ghana), Lagos (Nigeria), Luanda (Angola) and Nairobi (Kenya). We survey diverse strategies used in responding to forced evictions and outline the challenges and barriers encountered. We conclude that the international human rights framework offers an important approach for protecting the health of vulnerable populations. PMID:23549705

Mohindra, Katia S; Schrecker, Ted

2013-03-01

168

1 Introduction Over 70% of the population in developed countries lives in urbanized areas (Henderson  

E-print Network

for data acquisition and for land-use characterization and analysis which utilize remote sensing imagery environment: urban land-use The use of remote sensing and landscape metrics to describe structures and changes, 1995). A major problem in urban area remote sensing from space is the heterogeneity of the urban

Clarke, Keith

169

AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS  

E-print Network

AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS Scott C between urban and rural sites. Data are segregated by air mass and by season. Overall, the three "dry" air of the most intense urban/rural differentiations, with overnight temperatures typically 3° C or more above

Sheridan, Scott

170

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF AFRICAN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM POPULATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS  

E-print Network

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF AFRICAN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM POPULATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL areas. We have assessed length polymorphism at 6­22 microsatellites in four urban and rural sites and Senegal.9 Moreover, geographic genetic differ- entiation exists in Sudan between rural and urban sites.11

171

Modeling Residential Urban Areas from Dense Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds  

E-print Network

Modeling Residential Urban Areas from Dense Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds Qian-Yi Zhou and Ulrich) Aerial imagery is shown as a reference. 1 Introduction Urban modeling from aerial LiDAR scans has been; building reconstruction is be- lieved to be the core of urban modeling, which has attracted much attention

Shahabi, Cyrus

172

Fish Assemblage Responses to Urban Intensity Gradients in Contrasting Metropolitan Areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence

MICHAEL R. MEADOR; HUMBERT ZAPPIA

173

Effect of urbanization on the avifauna in a tropical metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid and unplanned expansion of urban areas is a common pattern in neotropical developing countries. Urbanization has\\u000a eliminated or drastically altered large areas of natural habitats used by the rich neotropical avifauna. In our study area,\\u000a in Costa Rica’s Central Valley, urbanization increased 72% in 33 years with the consequent destruction, fragmentation, and\\u000a isolation of forest tracts, shade plantations,

Estaban Biamonte; Luis Sandoval; Eduardo Chacón; Gilbert Barrantes

2011-01-01

174

Characterization and heterogeneity of coarse particles across an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse particles exposures are expected to be highly heterogeneous in an urban area. However, little data are available to explore the extent of heterogeneity of coarse particles, especially on a local scale. An extensive sampling program for the coarse particles was conducted using University of North Carolina (UNC) passive aerosol samplers. The samplers were deployed for 4-5 week periods during four seasons, fall, winter, spring, and summer at 25 different sites across Syracuse, a small city located in central New York. The substrates from the UNC passive samplers were analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) providing size, shape, and elemental composition in the form of fluoresced X-ray spectra. Adaptive resonance theory (ART-2a) based neural network algorithm was applied with processed X-ray data to identify homogenous particles classes of 25,437 coarse particles from all four seasons. Thirty-four particle classes were identified with similar chemical characteristics. The mass fractions of particles in each identified class were then used to assess the homogeneity of composition and concentration across the measurement domain for each season. Road/soil dust, carbonaceous dust, biological materials, and deicing road salt were identified as the major sources of the urban coarse particles. Spatial and seasonal variations in both composition and concentration were observed and a noticeable heterogeneity between adjacent sites is indicated by the coefficient of divergence and correlation coefficient analysis.

Kumar, Pramod; Hopke, Philip K.; Raja, Suresh; Casuccio, Gary; Lersch, Traci L.; West, Roger R.

2012-01-01

175

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

176

Persistent Scatterer InSAR monitoring of Bratislava urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique, covering the target area with 57 Envisat ASAR images from Ascending Track No. 229 (32) and Descending Track No. 265 (25) captured between years 2002 and 2010. Processing involves Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) a powerful software solution for obtaining differential interferograms and performing PSInSAR methodology. The area of interest to investigate the deformation phenomena is covering approximately 16 by 16 kilometers (256 sqkm). For evaluation of PSInSAR potential to detect and monitor ground displacements, PS derived time series of deformation signal were compared to the field GNSS data from three GNSS stations coded PIL1, BRAT and GKU4. By the detailed look on the deformation maps the investigated urban area of Bratislava is relatively stable with the deformation rates within the few (±5) millimeters. The comparison of PSInSAR derived time series with GNSS data indicates good correlation and confirms achievable precision and applicability of InSAR measurements for ground stability monitoring purposes. Data for this work were provided by European Space Agency within the Category-1 project ID 9981: "Detection of ground deformation using radar interferometry techniques". The authors are grateful to the Tatrabanka Foundation and The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic for the opportunity to work together. Data have been processed by the Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) and visualised in Google Earth. This paper is also the result of the implementation of the project: the National Centre of Earth's Surface Deformation Diagnostic in the area of Slovakia, ITMS 26220220108 supported by the Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF and the grant No. 1/0642/13 of the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA.

Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan

2014-05-01

177

Assessing urbanized area expansion through the integration of Landsat and conventional data /79052/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image base information system (IBIS) is utilized to integrate Landsat and census data for the purpose of mapping urban land and updating urbanized-area outer lines. IBIS is a subset of the video image communication and retrieval digital image processing system developed at JPL. IBIS is used to analyze three urban areas: Orlando, Florida; Seattle, Washington; and Boston, Massachusetts. In all three applications the primary objective is to map the expansion of urban land cover in the urban fringe. Pertinent tabular reports are produced.

Davis, J. B.; Friedman, S. Z.

1979-01-01

178

The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

1982-01-01

179

[Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].  

PubMed

By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. PMID:17974233

Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

2007-08-01

180

Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti  

PubMed Central

Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

2013-01-01

181

Indoor radon levels in urban Hyderabad area, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Indoor radon levels in urban areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India were measured by a time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector-based dosemeters. Results show that the radon levels varied widely in the area ranging from 17 to 311 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean value of 52.8 Bq m(-3) (GSD=1.7). Cumulative frequency distribution of radon levels gave a best fit on a log-normal scale. Measurements were carried out for 1 y, segregating the measurement periods in accordance with seasonal changes. Soil samples from the region were also analysed for natural radionuclides to study its effect, if any, on indoor radon levels. Dwellings categorised based on construction types showed that the average radon levels in the order tiles (TLE)>asbestos (ASB)>concrete (RCC) for the roof structures. The estimated radon levels in the study area are relatively higher than the country's average value of 23 Bq m(-3) and global average value of 30 Bq m(-3). PMID:19122001

Sreenath Reddy, M; Yadagiri Reddy, P; Rama Reddy, K; Eappen, K P; Ramachandran, T V; Mayya, Y S

2008-01-01

182

Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

Kobayashi, Tetsuo [University of Utah; Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Cova, Thomas [University of Utah

2011-01-01

183

Movin' on up : mainstreaming under-serviced urban communities in Colombo, Sri Lanka  

E-print Network

This thesis offers an early look at a radical shift in Sri Lankan urban housing policy regarding slums in the capital city of Colombo. During the 1980s, the Sri Lankan government achieved widespread urban improvements by ...

Wickrema, Marinne Dhakshike

2005-01-01

184

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2013-01-01

185

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2014-01-01

186

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2011-01-01

187

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2012-01-01

188

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L.  

PubMed

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. PMID:19896758

Kardel, F; Wuyts, K; Babanezhad, M; Vitharana, U W A; Wuytack, T; Potters, G; Samson, R

2010-03-01

189

Urban agriculture in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City: changes over time in urban, suburban and peri-urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the scale and nature of agricultural production in urban, suburban and peri-urban zones of Mexico City and how these have adapted to the changing demands from urban populations for food, wood and recreation. It also demonstrates how agricultural producers have successfully adapted their products and their production methods, including building on traditional production systems, despite the environmental

H. Losada; H. Martínez; J. Vieyra; R. Pealing; R. Zavala; J. Cortés

1998-01-01

190

High Resolution Aerosol Retrievals from ETM+ Over Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite monitoring of the main sources of the man-made pollutants is important to understand the climate forcing of anthropogenic aerosols. Over land, the aerosol retrievals are most accurate over dark dense vegetation (DDV). In the urban/industrial areas the DDV targets are small, often varying from a few tens of meters (clumps of trees) to several hundred meters (small fields and parks), and can only be captured by the high-resolution sensors. In this case, because of the high surface heterogeneity and focus on the dark pixels, the traditional aerosol retrievals based on 1D radiative transfer (RT) theory have a substantial bias. We developed a new dark target method for unbiased simultaneous retrieval of the aerosol model and optical thickness over land from Landsat ETM+ data, based on 3-D RT theory. The method automatically selects an aerosol model from a large set of candidate models using statistical approach of probability distribution function. The aerosols are retrieved in the blue and red bands relying on prediction of the surface reflectance in these bands from the shortwave infrared region (2.1-2.2 mkm). We will describe the developed method and its validation with AERONET measurements for a set of ETM+ images of the Washington-Baltimore area.

Lyapustin, A.

2005-05-01

191

Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.  

PubMed

We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liò, Pietro

2012-01-01

192

Collective Human Mobility Pattern from Taxi Trips in Urban Area  

PubMed Central

We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liò, Pietro

2012-01-01

193

Urbanization and homogenization – Comparing the floras of urban and rural areas in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of urbanization has resulted in an expansion of alien plant species and declines of native species, in particular already rare species. These processes may cause a greater similarity between different urban regions, i.e. biotic homogenization. We explored the relationship between urban regions and homogenization for plant species in Germany using (i) all plant species, (ii) only native species,

Ingolf Kühn; Stefan Klotz

2006-01-01

194

Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Postmenopausal Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to describe vitamin D status in postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, northern Iran. Between October 2004 and February 2005 a group of 750 women older than 50 years was randomly selected from urban and rural areas in Guilan. The participants were interviewed to collect data on age, educational level, body weight, height, employment

Mohsen Maddah; Seyede Hajar Sharami; Tirang R. Neyestani

2009-01-01

195

75 FR 16229 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...authority for the Urbanized Area Formula program, followed by the...relationship of the Urbanized Area Formula Program to other FTA programs...their use as determinants, formulas such as the fixed guideway tier of the 5307 formula are determined by...

2010-03-31

196

Fire initiation and spread in urban areas due to nuclear attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculation of fire development in urban areas is a critical step in estimating the global effects of nuclear warfare with regard to smoke production and transport. As part of the first phase of a program to improve our ability to calculate fire starts and spread in urban areas, we have performed a parameter sensitivity analysis using the three codes originally

T. A. Reitter; A. N. Takata; S. W. Kang

2010-01-01

197

USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE  

E-print Network

USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

Irfanoglu, Ayhan

198

Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

Holland, Donald

2009-01-01

199

A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights  

SciTech Connect

Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data in five major steps, including data preprocessing, urban cluster segmentation, logistic model development, threshold estimation, and urban extent delineation. Different from previous fixed threshold method with over- and under-estimation issues, in our method the optimal thresholds are estimated based on cluster size and overall nightlight magnitude in the cluster, and they vary with clusters. Two large countries of United States and China with different urbanization patterns were selected to map urban extents using the proposed method. The result indicates that the urbanized area occupies about 2% of total land area in the US ranging from lower than 0.5% to higher than 10% at the state level, and less than 1% in China, ranging from lower than 0.1% to about 5% at the province level with some municipalities as high as 10%. The derived thresholds and urban extents were evaluated using high-resolution land cover data at the cluster and regional levels. It was found that our method can map urban area in both countries efficiently and accurately. Compared to previous threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issues, when mapping urban extent over a large area. More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and temporal dynamics using the DMSP/OLS NTL data in a timely, cost-effective way.

Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhao, Kaiguang; Thomson, Allison M.; Imhoff, Marc L.

2014-05-05

200

Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in public than private schools. Goitre was not detected. Overweight/obesity was low (2.3%) and affected significantly more children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p < 0.05). Thinness and stunting were significantly higher in peri-urban compared to urban schools (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 respectively). Almost 15% of the children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them. PMID:21504619

2011-01-01

201

Education in Urban Areas. Cross-National Dimensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…

Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.

202

Soiling degradation by atmospheric aerosols in an urban industrial area  

SciTech Connect

The gradual and progressive soiling of structures exposed to the atmosphere is commonplace. Wooden homes required painting every few years for aesthetic purposes as well as for preservation, while public buildings, houses of worship, and statuary require occasional cleaning of their exterior because of gradual soiling. The soilant is usually a component of atmospheric aerosols. This paper presents the results of a study that attempts to identify the components of the atmospheric aerosol primarily responsible for the observed soiling of exposed materials. The site chosen for the study was in Elizabeth, N.J., an urban area with a mix of residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. the test site was close to various sources of aerosols. Since the site is close to major highways on three sides automobile and diesel truck traffic abounds, and road dust is prevalent. Oil refineries and chemical plants lie to the south and south-west, and an international airport is located about 3 1/2 miles away.

Creighton, P.J. (Rutgers: The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (US)); Lioy, P.J. (UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (US)); Haynie, F.C.; Lemons, T.J; Miller, J.L; Gerhart, J. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1988-01-01

203

Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

1995-12-31

204

Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

2002-01-01

205

Food security, growth and spatial organization of urban areas: a global perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are increasingly admonished to play a prominent role in achieving sustainability at global scale. They host more than 50% of the population worldwide and emit approx. 70% of all greenhouse gases worldwide. Land use and climate change are only two of the prominent processes forced by urbanization. In particular in the light of climate change and rapid urbanization cities require to increase their food security while reducing CO2 emissions related to food supply, such as due to transportation. Using high resolution data of land-use, agricultural yield and population data, we provide an estimate of the current human carrying capacity of peri-urban areas worldwide, for urban areas with more than 500,000 inhabitants. We discuss the application of a novel algorithm to delineate city boundaries in terms of population and built-up area, which allows to characterize urban growth and its impacts on the peri-urban human carrying capacity in further detail. In addition, this algorithm is used to characterize the spatial organization of urban zones at regional scale. Our results show scale-free pattern, e.g. clusters of urban spots, which may distinguish cities in developed and developing countries. Using this benchmarking helps to measure the degree of sustainability of a city.

Garcia Cantu Ros, A.; Kriewald, S.; Rybski, D.; Kropp, J. P.

2012-04-01

206

Seismicity and Faulting in an Urbanized area: Flagstaff, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flagstaff, Arizona is a community of more than 60,000 and lies in an area of active tectonism. Well documented evidence exists of geologically recent volcanism and fault related seismicity. The urban area is located within a volcanic field that is considered active and the area is also the locus of numerous fault systems, some of whose members are considered to be potentially active. This suggestion of active faulting and seismicity for the area is supported by the recent 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake. Chief concern for Flagstaff is focused upon the Anderson Mesa fault which has a mapped surface length of 40 kilometers with the north end extending into the city limits of Flagstaff. A worse case scenario for rupture along the entire length of the fault would be the occurrence of an Mw 6.9 earthquake. The slip rate for this fault is low, however it is not well determined due to a lack of Neogene or Quaternary deposits. The historic record of seismicity adjacent to the surface expression of the Anderson Mesa fault includes two well recorded earthquake swarms (1979,2011) as well as other individual events over this time period all of which are of M< 4.0. The epicentral locations of these events are of interest with respect to the fault geometry which shows four prominent segments: North, Central, South, Ashurst. All of the historic events are located within the central segment. This distribution can be compared to evidence available for the orientation of regional stresses. The focal mechanism for the 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake shows a northwest striking preferred slip surface with a trend (300) parallel to that of the Central segment of the Anderson Mesa fault (300-305). The other three fault segments of the Anderson Mesa fault have north-south trends. The seismicity of the Central segment of the fault suggests that slip on this segment may occur in the future. Given the length of this segment a MCE event could be as large as Mw 6.3.

Brumbaugh, D. S.

2013-12-01

207

Tuberculosis in an Urban Area in China: Differences between Urban Migrants and Local Residents  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006–2008, among whom 440 (32.6%) were local residents and 908 (67.4%) were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population) had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population), and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.91–0.94, p<0.001), poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR?=?4.12, 95% CI: 2.65–5.72, p<0.001), and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR?=?0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.26, p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants). Conclusions/Significance A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006–2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). PMID:23226479

Shen, Xin; Xia, Zhen; Li, Xiangqun; Wu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yuan; Guo, Juntao; Chen, Jing; Hong, Jianjun; Yuan, Zheng’an; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Sun, Guomei; Gao, Qian; Mei, Jian

2012-01-01

208

Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

2000-01-01

209

Differences between health-related physical fitness profiles of Croatian children in urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization. PMID:23697253

Ujevi?, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Sasa; Neljak, Boris

2013-03-01

210

Microbial evaluation of sandboxes located in urban area.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study on the degree of bacteriological pollution of sandboxes situated in fenced and unfenced housing estates located in an urban area in Olsztyn, Poland. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC22, HPC37), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens determined by cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used as indicators of the sanitary state. Their maximum number in the sand samples reached values of up to 5.4×10(7), 2.6×10(6), 3.3×10(4), 2.1×10(3), 1.8×10(4), 1.9×10(1) and 1.2×10(4)CFU/g, respectively. It was found that values of culture-independent method were two-four orders greater than those obtained by the cultivation method. Among identified Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea spp. and Enterobacter cloacae were the most numerous, whereas Escherichia cells were detected only occasionally. Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella sp. were isolated from sandboxes also when E. coli were absent. Bacteria from Staphylococcus genus were isolated irrespective of the site and time of sampling. Additionally, the presence of molds and yeasts was studied. Maximum counts of these microorganisms amounted to 1.0×10(5) and to 3.5×10(4)CFU/g. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Trichoderma genera were most numerous among molds, whereas Trichosporon was detected most frequently among yeasts. Sandboxes in the fenced housing estate and those located in the area which is not close to trees were less polluted than the sand collected from sandboxes in the unfenced housing estate. Potentially pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. were identified in analyzed sandboxes, also when Toxocara and E. coli were absent. It seems that assessing the contamination of children's play areas basing only on fecal bacteria counts and by monitoring number of parasites' eggs may be insufficient to evaluate microbial pollution of sandboxes and may not fully reflect their safety for children. PMID:25483374

Gotkowska-P?achta, Anna; Korzeniewska, Ewa

2015-03-01

211

Variation of urban momentum roughness length with land use in the upwind source area, as observed in two UK cities.  

E-print Network

in the urban boundary layer and maps of land use obtained from satellite mapping, with a source-area model to the findings from the first study. Keywords urban meteorology, land use, source-area model c 2003 British Crown land use in the urban environment, using source-area modelling and satellite-derived land use data

Reading, University of

212

Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage du métro et les pompages privés. Le bilan entre la recharge de la nappe et sa décharge est proche de l'équilibre. Cependant, les infiltrations d'eaux usées, les décharges abandonnées, les décharges d'ordures et les puits abandonnés portent atteinte à la qualité de l'eau souterraine et à la capacité de contrôler les flux de contaminants. Resumen. La ciudad de Seúl tiene más de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 605 km2. Se bombea aguas subterráneas para abastecimiento urbano y para usos industriales, así como para el drenaje de instalaciones subterráneas y de solares en construcción. Aunque la mayor parte del agua de boca procede del río Han, los ciudadanos de Seúl están muy concienciados por la cantidad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas, ya que su explotación para uso de boca está experimentando un continuo incremento. El presente estudio identifica los factores que más afectan a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas en el área de Seúl y hace una estimación del balance de agua en el territorio urbano. Entre los factores principales que afectan al balance y a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, se incluye el lixiviado de la red municipal de suministro y de la red de alcantarillado, la infiltración de agua de lluvia, las fluctuaciones del nivel del río Han, el sistema de bombeo del metro y los bombeos domésticos. El balance entre la recarga y la descarga en el acuífero está próximo al equilibrio. Sin embargo, la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y la capacidad de controlar los flujos de contaminación están amenazadas por la infiltración de aguas residuales, vertederos abandonados, depósitos de residuos y pozos abanadonados.

Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

2001-07-01

213

Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

1977-01-01

214

Magpie Pica pica predation on Blackbird Turdus merula nests in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of rates of Magpie predation on Blackbird nests were made using plasticine eggs added to active clutches. Breeding densities of Blackbirds were lower than those recorded at other urban sites while Magpie densities were higher than those previously recorded in urban areas. Fewer than 5% of Blackbird nests produced flegded young. Predation caused most of the failures where a

D. W. Groom

1993-01-01

215

Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (1- and 2-year) effects of the Mexican "Oportunidades" CCT program on urban

Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-Garcia, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Velez-Grajales, Viviana

2012-01-01

216

Avian Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds in Highly Urbanized Areas  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses. PMID:22761671

Verhagen, Josanne H.; Munster, Vincent J.; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B. G.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

2012-01-01

217

EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL Lock Wai Lek In an urban environment, the linkage between UAVs and ground control stations are subjected to multipath multipath can result in a nearly complete loss of command signals, which can limit the UAV's operational

Jenn, David C.

218

BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"  

EPA Science Inventory

This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

219

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION OF THE GREATER CAIRO AREA ON THE GROUNDWATER IN THE UNDERLYING AQUIFER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cairo, like many capital cities in developing countries, is expanding in urbanization because of its growing population. The consumption of water is increasing with time and with urbanization. The demand is supplied partly from the Nile and partly from the aquifer underlying the Greater Cairo area. Only a small part of the township is served by an old municipal sewage

Mamdouh M. A. Shahin

220

Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate the causes of these underlying differences. ?? North American Benthological Society.

Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

2009-01-01

221

Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

1998-01-01

222

Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track more than 100 human targets with averaged tracking period (time length) longer than the performance of the current state-of-the-art.

Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

2014-06-01

223

Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

224

Wild Ungulates as Disseminators of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, children playing on a soccer field in Colorado were sickened with a strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild Rocky Mountain elk. We addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of STEC infections in humans and whether STEC was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in Colorado. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 483 fecal samples from Rocky Mountain elk and mule deer in urban and non-urban areas. Samples testing positive for STEC were higher in urban (11.0%) than non-urban (1.6%) areas. Elk fecal samples in urban areas had a much higher probability of containing STEC, which increased in both urban and non-urban areas as maximum daily temperature increased. Of the STEC-positive samples, 25% contained stx1 strains, 34.3% contained stx2, and 13% contained both stx1 and stx2. Additionally, eaeA genes were detected in 54.1% of the positive samples. Serotypes O103, and O146 were found in elk and deer feces, which also have the potential to cause human illness. Conclusions/Significance The high incidence of stx2 strains combined with eaeA and E-hyl genes that we found in wild cervid feces is associated with severe human disease, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This is of concern because there is a very close physical interface between elk and humans in urban areas that we sampled. In addition, we found a strong relationship between ambient temperature and incidence of STEC in elk feces, suggesting a higher incidence of STEC in elk feces in public areas on warmer days, which in turn may increase the likelihood that people will come in contact with infected feces. These concerns also have implications to other urban areas where high densities of coexisting wild cervids and humans interact on a regular basis. PMID:24349083

Franklin, Alan B.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Maguire, Hugh; Cichon, Mary K.; Fischer, Justin W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Powell, Amber; Root, J. Jeffrey; Scallan, Elaine

2013-01-01

225

Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 ?g/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 ?g/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic nitrogen (WSIN) for the urban coastal, sub-urban and pristine zones (R2= 0.81, n=22). This correlation could be explained by a possible source of secondary water soluble organic aerosols derived by the reaction between biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as isoprene, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) present in the atmosphere of these regions. Such correlation was not found in Caracas, possibly due to the fact that in this city the major source of VOCs is fossil fuel combustion which produces mostly non soluble aliphatic VOCs. These compounds could most likely produce low water soluble secondary organic nitrogen aerosols.

Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

2007-12-01

226

Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0–20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct?=?C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

2014-01-01

227

Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As urban land expands rapidly across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Little is known about the relative contribution of these individual factors and their interactions to the terrestrial carbon dynamics, however, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of carbon sequestration policies focusing on urban development. This study developed a comprehensive analysis framework for quantifying relative contribution of individual factors (and their interactions) to terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas. We identified 15 factors belonging to five categories, and we applied a newly developed factorial analysis scheme to the southern United States (SUS), a rapidly urbanizing region. In all, 24 numeric experiments were designed to systematically isolate and quantify the relative contribution of individual factors. We found that the impact of land conversion was far larger than other factors. Urban managements and the overall interactive effects among major factors, however, created a carbon sink that compensated for 42% of the carbon loss in land conversion. Our findings provide valuable information for regional carbon management in the SUS: (1) it is preferable to preserve pre-urban carbon pools than to rely on the carbon sinks in urban ecosystems to compensate for the carbon loss in land conversion. (2) In forested areas, it is recommendable to improve landscape design (e.g., by arranging green spaces close to the city center) to maximize the urbanization-induced environmental change effect on carbon sequestration. Urbanization-induced environmental change will be less effective in shrubland regions. (3) Urban carbon sequestration can be significantly improved through changes in management practices, such as increased irrigation and fertilizer and targeted use of vehicles and machinery with least-associated carbon emissions.

Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

2014-12-01

228

Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

1983-01-01

229

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

230

APPLICATION OF A DATA-ASSIMILATING PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODEL TO TWO URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study we have used a data-assimilating prognostic meteorological model, the Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (SAIMM), ot generate meteorological fields suitable for photochemical modeling of two urban areas; os Angeles, California and the Lower Lake Mich...

231

[Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].  

PubMed

This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions. PMID:25210905

de Almeida, Andréa Sobral; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; da Costa Resendes, Ana Paula

2014-08-01

232

Slums’ Access to and Coverage of Primary Health Care Services: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shiraz, a Metropolis in Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The United Nations has predicted that the population of slum dwellers will have grown from one billion people worldwide to 2 billion by 2030. This trend is also predictable in Iran. In the Iranian metropolis of Shiraz, more than 10% of the residents live in slum areas. There are several problems regarding the delivery of social services in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate slums dwellers’ access to and coverage of health care. Methods: This cross-sectional face-to-face study included 380 household of slum dwellers via stratified random sampling. Demographics, accessibility of health services, coverage of health care, and route of receiving health services were recorded through interviews. Results: Approximately, 21.6% of the households had no physical access to health centers. The coverage rate of family planning programs for safe methods was 51.4% (95% CI: 48.86-53.9%). Vaccination coverage among children under 5 years old was 98% (95% CI: 97-99%). Furthermore, 34% of pregnant women had not received standard health care due to a lack of access to health centers. Conclusion: Limited access to health services along with inadequate knowledge of slum residents about health care facilities was the main barrier to the utilization of the health care in the slums. PMID:24753641

Joulaei, Hassan; Bhuiyan, Azad R; Sayadi, Mehrab; Morady, Fariba; Afsar Kazerooni, Parvin

2014-01-01

233

The nuclear fire threat to urban areas. Final report Aug 1973Apr 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear fire threat to urban areas was evaluated in a five-year structural fire dynamics program. The program (1) experimentally determined the dynamic characteristics of full-scale building fires, and (2) used the findings of the structural fire behavior experiments along with existing knowledge of structural blast behavior to predict the combined blast-fire response of an urban area to a nuclear

S. J. Wiersma; S. B. Martin

1975-01-01

234

Monitoring the effect of urban green areas on the heat island in Athens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of urban green areas in the microclimatic conditions of cities, during summer, is investigated in this paper through\\u000a monitoring campaigns carried out at the National garden, at the city centre of Athens. Two types of investigations were carried\\u000a out: i) a microscopic one that investigated the thermal conditions inside the Garden and the immediate surrounding urban area\\u000a and

I. Zoulia; M. Santamouris; A. Dimoudi

2009-01-01

235

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

2014-01-01

236

Downscaling of thermal images over urban areas using the land surface temperature-impervious percentage relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive expansion and densification of urban areas decreases environmental quality and quality of urban life as exemplified by the urban heat island effect. For this reason, thermal information is becoming an increasingly important data source for integration in urban studies. It is expected that future spaceborne thermal sensors will provide data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for urban studies. Until they become operational, research has to rely on downscaling algorithms increasing the spatial resolution of relatively coarse resolution thermal images albeit having a high temporal resolution. Existing downscaling algorithms, however, have been developed for sharpening images over rural and natural areas, resulting in large errors when applied to urban areas. The objective of this study is to adapt the DisTrad method for downscaling land surface temperature (LST) over urban areas using the relationship between LST and impervious percentage. The proposed approach is evaluated by sharpening aggregated LST derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery collected over the city of Dublin on May 24th 2001. The new approach shows improved downscaling results over urban areas for all evaluated resolutions, especially in an environment with mixed land cover. The adapted DisTrad approach was most successful at a resolution of 480 m, resulting in a correlation of R2 = 0.84 with an observed image at the same resolution. Furthermore, sharpening using the adapted DisTrad approach was able to preserve the spatial autocorrelation present in urban environments. The unmixing performance of the adapted DisTrad approach improves with decreasing resolution due to the fact that the functional relationship between LST and impervious percentage was defined at coarse resolutions.

Essa, W.; van der Kwast, J.; Verbeiren, B.; Batelaan, O.

2013-08-01

237

Wideband channel modelling in UHF band for urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the small-scale multipath propagation characteristics of a typical outdoor urban environment. Wideband channel sounding measurements are performed and findings are presented. Channel sounding is carried out at UHF band (250, 300, 350, 400 MHz) for static transmit and receive antennas. The power delay profile, mean delay spread, RMS delay spread, as well as coherence bandwidth have been

Xiaohong Mao; Yee Hui Lee; Boon Chong Ng

2008-01-01

238

Teaching the Geographies of Urban Areas: Views and Visions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on empirical research in four countries on the growing interest in the perceived "gap" between school and university human geography. Focusing on urban geography, we investigated the views of teachers and academic geographers about key elements of the field and those that were important for geography education. These views were…

Beneker, Tine; Sanders, Rickie; Tani, Sirpa; Taylor, Liz; van der Vaart, Rob

2007-01-01

239

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COASTAL URBAN DYNAMICS AND AGRICULTURAL AREAS OF THE COTE D'AZUR  

E-print Network

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COASTAL URBAN DYNAMICS AND AGRICULTURAL AREAS OF THE COTE D'AZUR: STAKES On the Côte d'Azur, agricultural areas are major components of the landscape's beauty and contribute to an intense urbanisation of agricultural areas and a degradation of the local landscape. This paper analyses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

2006-01-01

241

Community resource centres to improve the health of women and children in Mumbai slums: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The trial addresses the general question of whether community resource centers run by a non-government organization improve the health of women and children in slums. The resource centers will be run by the Society for Nutrition, Education and Health Action, and the trial will evaluate their effects on a series of public health indicators. Each resource center will be located in a vulnerable Mumbai slum area and will serve as a base for salaried community workers, supervised by officers and coordinators, to organize the collection and dissemination of health information, provision of services, home visits to identify and counsel families at risk, referral of individuals and families to appropriate services and support for their access, meetings of community members and providers, and events and campaigns on health issues. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial in which 20 urban slum areas with resource centers are compared with 20 control areas. Each cluster will contain approximately 600 households and randomized allocation will be in three blocked phases, of 12, 12 and 16 clusters. Any resident of an intervention cluster will be able to participate in the intervention, but the resource centers will target women and children, particularly women of reproductive age and children under 5. The outcomes will be assessed through a household census after 2 years of resource center operations. The primary outcomes are unmet need for family planning in women aged 15 to 49 years, proportion of children under 5 years of age not fully immunized for their ages, and proportion of children under 5 years of age with weight for height less than 2 standard deviations below the median for age and sex. Secondary outcomes describe adolescent pregnancies, home deliveries, receipt of conditional cash transfers for institutional delivery, other childhood anthropometric indices, use of public sector health and nutrition services, indices of infant and young child feeding, and consultation for violence against women and children. Trial registration ISRCTN Register: ISRCTN56183183 Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2012/09/003004 PMID:23782816

2013-01-01

242

Monitoring urban growth on the European side of the Istanbul metropolitan area: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with an area of around 5750 km 2 and a population of around 10.8 M (2000). In 1980, the population was only around 4.7 M and so has more than doubled in only 2 decades. In 2000, around 65% of the population were living on the European side of the city with its large industrial/commercial and trade centres. The population is increasing as a result of both births exceeding deaths and mass immigration. Consequently, planned and unplanned housing are increasing while green areas are decreasing in area. Monitoring urban growth will enable the Municipality of Istanbul to better manage this complex urban area. The primary aim of this research was to quantify urban growth on the European side of Istanbul. Six land covers were identified using Landsat 5 TM images for 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2001 and differences in land cover area between these dates were used to determine the rate of change. The accuracy of land cover maps was determined using aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. The overall accuracy of these classifications was between 80 and 86%; urban residential areas increased by around 1000 ha year -1 and forest, semi-natural vegetation, crop and bare soil areas decreased collectively at a similar rate. The paper ends with a discussion of the relationship between urban growth and population growth.

Kaya, S.; Curran, P. J.

2006-01-01

243

Maternal and neonatal health expenditure in mumbai slums (India): A cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The cost of maternity care can be a barrier to access that may increase maternal and neonatal mortality risk. We analyzed\\u000a spending on maternity care in urban slum communities in Mumbai to better understand the equity of spending and the impact\\u000a of spending on household poverty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used expenditure data for maternal and neonatal care, collected during post-partum interviews. Interviews

Jolene Skordis-Worrall; Noemi Pace; Ujwala Bapat; Sushmita Das; Neena S More; Wasundhara Joshi; Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom; David Osrin

2011-01-01

244

An alternative basin characteristic for use in estimating impervious area in urban Missouri basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A previous regression analysis of flood peaks on urban basins in St. Louis County, Missouri, indicated that the basin characteristics of percentage of impervious area and drainage area were statistically significant for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-. and 100-yr peak discharges at ungaged urban basins. In this statewide regression analysis of the urban basins for Missouri, an alternative basin characteristic called the percentage of developed area was evaluated. A regression analysis of the percentage of developed area (independent variable), resulted in a simple equation for computing percentage of impervious area. The percentage of developed area also was evaluated using flood-frequency data for 23 streamflow gaging stations, and the use of this variable was determined to be valid. Using nationwide data, an urban basin characteristic known as the basin development factor was determined to be valid for inclusion in urban regression equations for estimating flood flows. The basin development factor and the percentage of developed area were compared for use in regression equations to estimate peak flows of streams in Missouri. The equations with the basin development factor produced peak flow estimates with slightly smaller average standard errors of estimate than the equation with the percentage of developed area; however, this study indicates that there was not enough statistical or numerical difference to warrant using the basin development factor instead of the percentage of developed area in Missouri. The selection of a basin characteristic to describe the physical conditions of a drainage basin will depend not only on its contribution to accuracy of regression equations, but also on the ease of determining the characteristics; the percentage of developed area has this advantage. A correlation analysis was made by correlating drainage area to percentage of impervious area, the percentage of developed area, and the basin development factor. The results of the analysis indicate that the three basin characteristics are independent of drainage area and appropriate to use in multiple-regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

Southard, R.E.

1986-01-01

245

Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

2015-02-01

246

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

247

Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.  

PubMed

Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper. PMID:25387534

van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

2014-01-01

248

Intimate partner violence against women during and after pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Mumbai slums  

PubMed Central

Background At least one-third of women in India experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at some point in adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and after delivery in an urban slum setting, to review its social determinants, and to explore its effects on maternal and newborn health. Methods We did a cross-sectional study nested within the data collection system for a concurrent trial. Through urban community surveillance, we identified births in 48 slum areas and interviewed mothers ~6 weeks later. After collecting information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic indicators, and maternal and newborn care, we asked their opinions on the justifiability of IPV and on their experience of it in the last 12 months. Results Of 2139 respondents, 35% (748) said that violence was justifiable if a woman disrespected her in-laws or argued with her husband, failed to provide good food, housework and childcare, or went out without permission. 318 (15%, 95% CI 13, 16%) reported IPV in the year that included pregnancy and the postpartum period. Physical IPV was reported by 247 (12%, 95% CI 10, 13%), sexual IPV by 35 (2%, 95% CI 1, 2%), and emotional IPV by 167 (8%, 95% CI 7, 9). 219 (69%) women said that the likelihood of IPV was either unaffected by or increased during maternity. IPV was more likely to be reported by women from poorer families and when husbands used alcohol. Although 18% of women who had suffered physical IPV sought clinical care for their injuries, seeking help from organizations outside the family to address IPV itself was rare. Women who reported IPV were more likely to have reported illness during pregnancy and use of modern methods of family planning. They were more than twice as likely to say that there were situations in which violence was justifiable (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.7, 3.4). Conclusions One in seven women suffered IPV during or shortly after pregnancy. The elements of the violent milieu are mutually reinforcing and need to be taken into account collectively in responding to both individual cases and framing public health initiatives. PMID:24015762

2013-01-01

249

Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California  

EPA Science Inventory

?Pest? control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

250

Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

2011-01-01

251

Stochastic model to forecast ground-level ozone concentration at urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0)×(1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1)×(0,1,1)24 has been developed for

C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; S. Cañete; J. Carretero; E. Liger

2005-01-01

252

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BREAKFAST INTAKE AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF NSUKKA  

E-print Network

A comparative study of the breakfast intake of school children between the ages of 10-12yeras in Nsukka urban and rural areas was investigated. Sixty urban and thirty rural school children were randomly selected from three primary schools. Data was collected using a structured; pre tested and validated questionnaire which was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) and descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentages). Chi-square analysis was also used to compare the breakfast intake of these school children in the urban and rural areas. The result of the study showed a higher breakfast consumption of children in the rural than the urban areas though the result was not statistically significant. The percentage distribution showed that 90 % of the rural children took breakfast compared to the 78.3 % of the urban school children while 10 % and 21.7 % of the rural and urban children respectively did not consume breakfast. The factors that contributed to the rural children not taking breakfast include unavailability of food, and not being hungry. In the urban area the factors that affect breakfast intake include lack of time, not being hungry and unavailability of food. However, there was a significant difference (Prural homes and the quantity of food purchased in the market compared to the urban dwellers. The rural dwellers had more food in their homes and purchased less food in the market. Poverty was implicated as the major cause of low breakfast intake. Other factors that affected breakfast intake were family size, occupation of the head of the house hold and educational level.

Uchenna Agatha

253

Gaseous elemental mercury and reactive gaseous mercury in coastal urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is both a global and a local pollutant. Anthropogenic emissions are found in the long lived form of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) and the short lived forms of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury. Bromine is believed to be the main oxidant of Hg(0) in the atmosphere. One source of bromine is release from sea spray above the ocean. The difference in meteorological conditions and chemical composition in the marine boundary layer compared to the terrestrial boundary layer combined with mercury emissions from coastal urban areas could cause a different pattern in speciation and deposition of mercury at the coast than seen at inland urban sites. We want to investigate the impact of anthropogenic emissions on mercury concentrations in the immediate environment of coastal urban areas versus long range. This is done to better understand emission loads, speciation, and impact of mercury on air, soil, and water in urban areas. We present results from short duration measurements of Hg(0) and RGM in 15 coastal cities and their marine boundary layer. A closer examination of 3-4 days continuous harbor measurements in three urban areas in the Southern Hemisphere (Sydney (Australia), Christchurch (New Zealand) and Valparaiso (Chile)) was carried out. The speciation and concentration patterns in urban areas close to the coast could be different from inland urban areas due to the effect of e.g. bromine atoms from MBL and high relative humidity at the coast, which is mixed with polluted air from the cities. The dynamics of the observations will be discussed.

Soerensen, Anne L.; Skov, Henrik; Johnson, Matthew

2010-05-01

254

Modeling sediment in stormwater runoff from urban areas  

E-print Network

surfaces. Proposed here is an event based model that simulates sediments in the form of suspended solids in stormwater runoff for each of the major types of land surfaces encountered in an urban watershed. Suspended solids has long been used as a... terms are combined into the continuity equation and rearranged, the following equation can be written to represent the transport of suspended sediment in overland flow as given by Bennet (1974), B(hcV), B(hc) (I p) By B ' Bt " ' Br (2-4) where...

Haster, Thomas Wayne

2012-06-07

255

Urban area change detection procedures with remote sensing data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying factors affecting the detection and identification of nonurban to urban land cover change using satellite data were studied. Computer programs were developed to create a digital scene and to simulate the effect of the sensor point spread function (PSF) on the transfer of modulation from the scene to an image of the scene. The theory behind the development of a digital filter representing the PSF is given as well as an example of its application. Atmospheric effects on modulation transfer are also discussed. A user's guide and program listings are given.

Maxwell, E. L. (principal investigator); Riordan, C. J.

1980-01-01

256

GUI: GPS-Less Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Urban Areas with Inter-Vehicular Communication  

E-print Network

for turn-to-turn guidance with inter-vehicle communication in vehicle ad-hoc networks (VANETs). Vehicles area, while sufficiently guiding each vehicle to achieve a global optimization on its path. Such a GPS-less navigation in urban area with V2V communication, simply called GUI, can help vehicles

Wu, Jie

257

Recharging of EV in a typical Italian urban area: Evaluation of the hosting capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses impact on planning of Low Voltage (LV) distribution grids within the urban area of a major Italian metropolis due to the introduction of the Electric Mobility. It takes into account that, in this area, the diffusion of Electric Vehicles (EV), will be greater than in the rest of Italy. Two scenarios are analyzed. In the 2020 scenario,

G. Mauri; P. Gramatica; E. Fasciolo; S. Fratti

2011-01-01

258

Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

Gallagher, D. B. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

259

The Management of Manpower Programs in Urban Areas; An Information System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This federally funded survey, undertaken to develop a model of a decentralized local area manpower information system for meeting program management needs in urban areas, discusses the need for this system, and the origins and uses of manpower data. Characteristics and parameters of such a system, alternative models of information systems, and a…

Masters, Kenneth W.; Siskin, Bernard R.

260

Long-term strategies of climate change adaptation to manage flooding events in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy and sudden rainfalls regularly affect the Mediterranean area, so a great number of people and buildings are exposed to the risk of rain-generated floods. Climate change is expected to modify this risk and, in the case that extreme rainfalls increase in frequencies and intensity, this could result in important damages, particularly in urban areas. This paper presents a project

Laurent Pouget; Beniamino Russo; Angel Redaño; Jaime Ribalaygua

2010-01-01

261

Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

2013-09-01

262

Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

2013-05-01

263

Detection of flood extent in urban areas using high resolution TerraSAR-X data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high resolution TerraSAR-X data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. An important application for this would be the calibration and validation of the flood extent predicted by an urban flood inundation model. To date, research on such models has been hampered by lack of suitable distributed validation data. The study uses a 3m resolution TerraSAR-X image of a 1-in-150 year flood near Tewkesbury, UK, in 2007, for which contemporaneous aerial photography exists for validation. The DLR SETES SAR simulator was used in conjunction with airborne LiDAR data to estimate regions of the TerraSAR-X image in which water would not be visible due to radar shadow or layover caused by buildings and taller vegetation, and these regions were masked out in the flood detection process. A semi-automatic algorithm for the detection of floodwater was developed, based on a hybrid approach. Flooding in rural areas adjacent to the urban areas was detected using an active contour model (snake) region-growing algorithm seeded using the un-flooded river channel network, which was applied to the TerraSAR-X image fused with the LiDAR DTM to ensure the smooth variation of heights along the reach. A simpler region-growing approach was used in the urban areas, which was initialized using knowledge of the flood waterline in the rural areas. Seed pixels having low backscatter were identified in the urban areas using supervised classification based on training areas for water taken from the rural flood, and non-water taken from the higher urban areas. Seed pixels were required to have heights less than a spatially-varying height threshold determined from nearby rural waterline heights. Seed pixels were clustered into urban flood regions based on their close proximity, rather than requiring that all pixels in the region should have low backscatter. This approach was taken because it appeared that urban water backscatter values were corrupted in some pixels, perhaps due to contributions from side-lobes of strong reflectors nearby. The TerraSAR-X urban flood extent was validated using the flood extent visible in the aerial photos. It turned out that 76% of the urban water pixels visible to TerraSAR-X were correctly detected, with an associated false positive rate of 25%. If all urban water pixels were considered, including those in shadow and layover regions, these figures fell to 58% and 19% respectively. These findings indicate that TerraSAR-X is capable of providing useful data for the calibration and validation of urban flood inundation models.

Mason, D.; Speck, R.; Devereux, B.; Schumann, G.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.

2009-04-01

264

EHSMu: a new conceptual model for hourly discharge simulation under ecohydrological framework in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parsimonious conceptual lumped model is presented here with the aim of simulating hourly discharge in urban areas. The EHSMu (EcoHydrological Streamflow Model for urban areas) is able to reproduce the discharge at the outlet of an urban drainage system and, at the same time, soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspirative fluxes over vegetated areas within an urban catchment. In urban areas, rain falling over impervious surfaces is directly transferred towards the drainage system in a time depending on the catchment characteristics, and drainage network geometry. If the rain falls over pervious and vegetated areas the runoff generation is driven by soil moisture content, which in turn is linked to evapotranspiration and leakage. While on one side soil water content determines if rainfall produces saturation excess or a leakage loss, on the other side it constrains the evapotranspirative fluxes, so that, when it approaches to saturation, the actual evapotranspiration tends to the potential one. The hydrological scheme of the urban catchment follows these premises and consists of three interconnected elements: a soil bucket and two linear reservoirs. The soil bucket epitomizes in two distinct classes different conditions within a catchment: the first interprets impervious areas while the second describes pervious and vegetated soils. The soil bucket is linked to the two linear reservoirs: one is responsible for the runoff within the drainage system, while the other is used to delay the entry of subsurface runoff component into the drainage system. The surface reservoir is fed by the rain falling on imperviuos areas, by the saturation excess generated over pervious areas and by the delayed contribution arising from the subsurface reservoir, which is solely supplied by leakage pulses. Soil moisture dynamics in the pervious part of the basin, are simulated by a simple bucket model feed by rainfall and depleted by evapotranspiration. The latter component is calculated as a linear function of soil moisture. The model has been calibrated using Montecarlo simulations on an urban catchment in the United States. This method allows to adapt the conceptual model framework to the catchment characteristics and at the same time to obtain the set of parameters with the higher efficiency in reproducing historical discharge at the outlet. The proposed model gives reliable estimate of runoff, soil moisture traces and evapotranspiration fluxes. Model outputs could be very useful for urban ecohydrology, because they allow for the simulation of vegetation water stress and consequently the design of sustainable urban green spaces. At the same time the model structure allows to simulate the effects of stormwater management best practices for achieving the hydraulic invariance.

Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.; Pumo, Dario; La Loggia, Goffredo

2013-04-01

265

Wetland change in the rapidly urbanizing area: take Nanjing as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation and loss of the regional wetland of urbanization is a more and more concerned question in the whole world. This paper takes Nanjing as an example, adopting five Nanjing area Landsat MSS and TM data: 1979, 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, combining historical data, land use and field observation, adopting decision tree method to extract Nanjing wetland. We analyze time and space changed characteristic of Nanjing wetland. The result shows: in 1979-2004, the wetlands of Nanjing changed obviously on the time and space. The total amount drops to 363.66 km2 from 397.91 km2, reduce 34.25km2 together. The delta wetland has little change, but it is the largest in proportion of all kinds of Nanjing wetland by 2004. The river wetland in the rural is the greatest one that has changed in every wetland type. In suburban areas, lake and river wetland change frequently because of urban spawl. The wetland area of lake has little change in the urban, but more suburban wetland transferred to urban wetland so the amount of increase in 2000-2004 are greater than 1979-2000. Every stage, there are some Nanjing wetland (except the delta) to transfer to urban construction land and so loss. In the space change characteristic, the rural wetland is continuously substituted by the suburban and urban wetland. It is usually the main area where wetlands are interfered with around new urban area and communication lines. The wetlands are usually interfered by noise, rubbish, and pollution. We should include the development of population and traffic system in the wetland change predicting in future planning. So can we meet wetland management's demands more effectively.

Zhou, Lianyi; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Mo; Wang, Shen; Liu, Xin

2007-06-01

266

Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?  

PubMed Central

Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

2014-01-01

267

Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban areas: A comparison of biomagnetic monitoring and urban scale modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban environments is designated as a priority area within current research. Biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both methodologies able to provide information about the spatial variation of particulate pollutant levels within urban environments. This study evaluates both methods by comparing results of a biomagnetic monitoring campaign at 110 locations throughout Antwerp, Belgium, with modelled pollutant concentrations of PM10 and NO2. Due to the relation of biomagnetic monitoring with railway traffic, analyses were conducted for both all locations (n = 110) and railway traffic excluded locations (n = 67). While the general spatial variation, land use comparison and the relation with traffic intensity were comparable between the two applied methodologies, an overall bad agreement is obtained when the methodologies are correlated to each other. While no correlation was found between SIRM and PM10 results (p = 0.75 for n = 110 and p = 0.68 for n = 67), a significant but low (r ? 0.33) correlation was found between SIRM and NO2 (p < 0.01 for n = 110 and p = 0.04 for n = 67). While biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both able to provide high spatial resolution information about urban pollutant levels, we need to take into account some considerations. While uncertainty in the biomagnetic monitoring approach might arise from the processes that determine leaf particulate deposition and the incorporation of multiple emission sources with diverging magnetic composition, air quality modelling remains an approximation of reality which implies its dependency on accurate emission factors, implication of atmospheric processes and representation of the urban morphology. Therefore, continuous evaluation of model performance against measured data is essential to produce reliable model results. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that in addition to telemetric monitoring networks, the combination of both air quality modelling and biomagnetic monitoring is a valuable approach to provide insights into the variation of atmospheric pollutants in heterogeneous urban environments.

Hofman, Jelle; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nackaerts, Ruben; Nuyts, Siegmund; Mattheyses, Lars; Samson, Roeland

2014-08-01

268

Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

269

The closed city as a strategy to reduce vulnerability of urban areas for climate change.  

PubMed

Urbanization, land subsidence and sea level rise will increase vulnerability to droughts in the urbanized low-lying areas in the western part of the Netherlands. In this paper a possibility is explored to decrease vulnerability of urban areas by implementing an alternative water supply option. A four component vulnerability framework is presented that includes threshold capacity, coping capacity, recovery capacity and adaptive capacity. By using the vulnerability framework it is elaborated that current water supply strategies in the Netherlands mainly focus on increasing threshold capacity by constructing improved water storage and delivery infrastructure. A complete vulnerability decreasing strategy requires measures that include all four components. Adaptive capacity can be developed by starting experiments with new modes of water supply. A concept which is symbolically called 'the closed city' uses local urban rainfall as the only source of water supply. The 'closed city' can decrease the water dependence of urban areas on (1) the surrounding rural areas that are diminishing in size and that are increasingly under strain and (2) river water resources that will probably be less constant and reliable as a result of climate change. PMID:17851217

de Graaf, R E; van de Giesen, N C; van de Ven, F H M

2007-01-01

270

Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.  

PubMed

Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

2013-12-01

271

A prediction model of signal degradation in LMSS for urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction model of signal degradation in a Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) for urban areas is proposed. This model treats shadowing effects caused by buildings statistically and can predict a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of signal diffraction losses in urban areas as a function of system parameters such as frequency and elevation angle and environmental parameters such as number of building stories and so on. In order to examine the validity of the model, we compared the percentage of locations where diffraction losses were smaller than 6 dB obtained by the CDF with satellite visibility measured by a radiometer. As a result, it was found that this proposed model is useful for estimating the feasibility of providing LMSS in urban areas.

Matsudo, Takashi; Minamisono, Kenichi; Karasawa, Yoshio; Shiokawa, Takayasu

1993-01-01

272

Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

2014-06-01

273

Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been diagnosed as due to exposure to cold. Of these cases, the greatest number were males in their forties and fifties, and most of these were inebriated and/or homeless. Eighty-four perent of urban hypothermia cases occurred when the outdoor temperature was below 5°C, and 50% of deaths from cold occurred when the outdoor temperature was between 0° and 5°C. There were no incidences of death from cold when the minimum outdoor temperature had remained above 16°C. Seventy-four percent of deaths from cold occurred during the winter months of December, January and February, and most of the remaining deaths occurred in March and November. There were no deaths from cold from June to August. More than half of all deaths from cold occurred from 3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m., with the peak occurring at 5.00 a.m. A blood alcohol concentration of over 2.5 mg/ml had often been found in those in their forties and fifties who had died from hypothermia, and autopsy had often revealed disorders of the liver, digestive system, and circulatory system. Chronic lesions of the liver, probably due to alcoholism, were found in many cases; few cases showed no evidence of alcoholism and these were significantly different from the former group.

Tanaka, Masatoshi; Tokudome, Shogo

1991-12-01

274

Detroit's East Side Village Health Worker Partnership: Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Intervention in an Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there have been few reports in the literature of interventions using a lay health advisor approach in an urban area. Consequently, little is known about how implementation of this type of community health worker model, which has been used extensively in rural areas, may differ in an urban area. This article describes the implementation of the East

Edith A. Parker; Amy J. Schulz; Barbara A. Israel; Rose Hollis

1998-01-01

275

Temporal variations in PAH concentrations in Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) leaves in an urban area.  

PubMed

Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor PAH air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. PAH extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for PAH air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf PAH concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in PAH contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total PAHs were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The medium molecular weight PAHs showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites. PMID:16182861

De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna

2005-10-01

276

Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. In response to general concerns about the degradation of urban streams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national-scale, scientific investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems. Nine metropolitan study areas of the United States were selected—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The studies were conducted in Salt Lake City, Birmingham, and Boston in 1999–2000; in Atlanta, Raleigh, and Denver in 2002–2003; and in Portland, Dallas, and Milwaukee in 2003–2004. The comprehensive investigation of all nine studies focused on three broad questions of interest to decision makers: 1. What are the primary effects of urban development on stream ecosystems? 2. How do the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems vary regionally across the country? 3. Which urban-related stressors are most closely linked to biological community degradation, and how can multiple stressors be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized?

Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder-Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

2012-01-01

277

Simple Methods of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple but physically realistic model is shown to be adequate for estimating long-term average pollutant concentrations due to area sources in cities. In this model, the surface concentration is directly proportional to the local area source strength and inversely proportional to the wind speed. The model performs nearly as well as much more…

Hanna, Steven R.

278

The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

2014-01-01

279

Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

1982-06-01

280

Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.

Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.

2008-03-15

281

Environmental assessment in slum improvement programs: Some evidence from a study on infrastructure projects in two Dhaka slums  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports findings from a study on slum improvement projects to show the difference that environmental assessment (EA) can make in such interventions and to suggest mechanisms for its integration into such projects. The findings are based on a field survey that was carried out in two slums of Dhaka where infrastructure projects were implemented. In one slum, the EA process was considered in designing and locating infrastructure and in the other it was not. The survey results traced the severe problems that existed in both slums before the implementation of infrastructure improvement projects and reveal that after the intervention the situation has considerably improved in the slum where EA was conducted. In contrast, some problems still persist in the other slum where EA was not considered. To make it worse, the newly built infrastructures have even given rise to a set of new problems. In order to avoid such negative outcomes from development interventions, the paper finally develops the mechanism for integration of EA into slum improvement project.

Chowdhury, Farhat Jahan [SEA-UEMA Project, Urban Environmental Management, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: farhat@ait.ac.th; Amin, A.T.M. Nurul [Urban Environmental Management, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: amin@ait.ac.th

2006-08-15

282

Spatial Correlation between Land Subsidence and Flooding in Urban Areas of Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land subsidence is a silent hazard affecting three large urban areas in Indonesia, namely Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang. Geodetic based results from Levelling, GPS and InSAR measurement methods, show that land subsidence rates in all three cities generally have spatial and temporal variations, and their magnitude is in average about 5-10 cm/year and can reach up to about 20 cm/year at certain locations and times. In general, the impacts of land subsidence in urban areas can be seen in the forms of cracking of permanent constructions and roads, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of coastal and/or inland flooding areas, and malfunction of drainage system. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta and Semarang already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. These coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. Subsidence in the areas along the rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta, Semarang and Bandung will also worsen the impacts of riverine flooding. In Bandung, the study shows that 21 % of the total riverine flooded area coincides with area affected by subsidence. The changes in river canal and drain flow systems and malfunction of drainage system due to land subsidence will also aggravate the flooding. Land subsidence will have direct and indirect affects with the flooding in urban areas, both in coastal or inland areas of the cities. This paper analyzes and discusses the characteristics of spatial correlation between land subsidence and flooding phenomena in urban areas of Jakarta, Semarang and Bandung.

Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Gumilar, Irwan; Jaap Brinkman, Jan

2013-04-01

283

Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. PMID:17380412

Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

2008-01-01

284

Nitrogen and carbon export from urban areas through removal and export of litterfall.  

PubMed

We found that up to 52 ± 17% of residential litterfall carbon (C) and nitrogen (N; 390.6 kg C and 6.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) is exported through yard waste removed from the City of Boston, which is equivalent to more than half of annual N outputs as gas loss (i.e. denitrification) or leaching. Our results show that removing yard waste results in a substantial decrease in N inputs to urban areas, which may offset excess N inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application and pet waste. However, export of C and N via yard waste removal may create nutrient limitation for some vegetation due to diminished recycling of nutrients. Removal of leaf litter from residential areas disrupts nutrient cycling and residential yard management practices are an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling, which could contribute to spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems that are either N limited or saturated within urban ecosystems. PMID:25434864

Templer, Pamela H; Toll, Jonathan W; Hutyra, Lucy R; Raciti, Steve M

2015-02-01

285

Using measurements in urban areas to estimate turbulent velocities for modeling dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study extends a study [Princevac, M., Venkatram, A., 2007. Estimating micrometeorological inputs for modeling dispersion in urban areas during stable conditions. Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.02.029.] in which mean winds and temperatures measured at one or two levels on towers located in urban areas were fitted to Monin-Obukhov similarity equations to obtain estimates of micrometeorological variables required in modeling dispersion in the stable boundary layer. This study shows that such methods are also useful in unstable conditions: measurements of the mean wind speed and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations, ?T, at one level on a tower yield estimates of surface heat flux, surface friction velocity, and standard deviations of turbulent velocities that are within a factor of two of values observed at two urban sites over 80% of the time.

Venkatram, Akula; Princevac, Marko

2008-05-01

286

Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

Wheeler, R.L.

2008-01-01

287

Sediment Transport from Urban, Urbanizing, and Rural Areas in Johnson County, Kansas, 2006-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Studies have commonly illustrated that erosion and sediment transport from construction sites is extensive, typically 10-100X that of background levels. 2. However, to our knowledge, the affects of construction and urbanization have rarely been assessed (1) since erosion and sediment controls have been required at construction sites, and (2) at watershed (5-65 mi2) scales. This is primarily because of difficulty characterizing sediment loads in small basins. Studies (such as that illustrated from Timble, 1999) illustrated how large changes in surface erosion may not result in substantive changes in downstream sediment loads (b/c of sediment deposition on land-surfaces, floodplains, and in stream channels). 3. Improved technology (in-situ turbidity) sensors provide a good application b/c they provide an independent surrogate of sediment concentration that is more accurate at estimating sediment concentrations and loads that instantaneous streamflow.

Lee, Casey J.

2013-01-01

288

Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption. PMID:24914598

Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

2014-01-01

289

Comparative streamflow characteristics in urbanizing basins in the Portland Metropolitan Area, Oregon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates changes in streamflow characteristics for urbanizing watersheds in the Portland Metropolitan Area of Oregon for the period from 1951 to 2000. The objective of this study was to assess how mean annual runoff ratio, mean seasonal runoff ratio, annual peak runoff ratio, changes in streamflow in response to storm amount, the fraction of time that the daily mean flow exceeds the annual mean flow, 3-day recession constants, and dry/wet flow ratio vary among watersheds with different degrees of urban development. There were no statistically significant changes in annual runoff ratio and annual peak runoff ratio for the mixed land-use watershed (Tualatin River watershed) and the urban watershed (Johnson Creek watershed) during the entire study period. The Tualatin River watershed, where most of the urban development occurred in a lower part of the watershed, showed a statistically significant increase in annual peak runoff ratio during the 1976 and 2000 period. The Upper Tualatin River watershed illustrated a significant decrease in annual peak runoff ratio for the entire study period. With significant differences in seasonal runoff ratio, only Johnson Creek exhibited a significant increase in both wet and dry season runoff ratios. Streamflow during storm events declined rapidly in the urban watershed, with a high 3-day recession constant. At an event storm scale, streamflow in Fanno Creek, which is the most urbanized watershed, responded quickly to precipitation input. The fraction of time that the daily mean flow exceeded the annual mean flow and dry/wet flow ratio are all lower in Johnson Creek. This suggests a shorter duration of storm runoff and lower baseflow in the urbanized watershed when compared to the mixed land use watershed. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of spatial and temporal scale, climate variability, and basin physiographic characteristics in detecting the hydrologic effects of urbanization in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. Copyright

Chang, Heejun

2007-01-01

290

Environmental impact of white phosphorus weapons on urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts and geopolitical competition of global and regional powers have stimulated regional conflicts in certain geographic areas in the twenty-first century as well as the twentieth century. During the geopolitical conflicts governments to achieve their goals and commitments sometimes violated environmental treaties and human rights and used weapons which severely damaged the environmental resources and civilian population. Middle East as

S. M. Mojabi; F. Feizi; A. Navazi; M. Ghourchi

2010-01-01

291

Fusion of Feature-and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery  

E-print Network

Fusion of Feature- and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery on Graph Cuts. The fusion pro- cess exploits the advantages of both information sources and thus yields the complete geometry of the build- ing. The fusion of those sparse features is very fragile as there is no way

Giger, Christine

292

Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania is…

Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

2012-01-01

293

Numerical solution to a two-dimensional hypersingular integral equation and sound propagation in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model of sound propagation from a noise source in urban areas is constructed. The exterior Neumann problem for the scalar Helmholtz equation is reduced to a system of hypersingular integral equations. A numerical method for solving the system of integral equations is described. The convergence of the quadrature formulas underlying the numerical method is estimated. Numerical results are presented for particular applications.

Gutnikov, V. A.; Kiryakin, V. Yu.; Lifanov, I. K.; Setukha, A. V.; Stavtsev, S. L.

2007-12-01

294

Numerical solution to a two-dimensional hypersingular integral equation and sound propagation in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of sound propagation from a noise source in urban areas is constructed. The exterior Neumann problem for the scalar Helmholtz equation is reduced to a system of hypersingular integral equations. A numerical method for solving the system of integral equations is described. The convergence of the quadrature formulas underlying the numerical method is estimated. Numerical results are

V. A. Gutnikov; V. Yu. Kiryakin; I. K. Lifanov; A. V. Setukha; S. L. Stavtsev

2007-01-01

295

Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of

Florence Conche; Miles Tight

2006-01-01

296

Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.

2000-03-01

297

Classification and feature extraction for remote sensing images from urban areas based on morphological transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of panchromatic high-resolution data from urban areas using morphological and neural approaches is investigated. The proposed approach is based on three steps. First, the composition of geodesic opening and closing operations of different sizes is used in order to build a differential morphological profile that records image structural information. Although, the original panchromatic image only has one data channel,

Jon Atli Benediktsson; Martino Pesaresi; K. Arnason

2003-01-01

298

Building and Sustaining Community-University Partnerships in Marginalized Urban Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium explores and examines the challenges and opportunities of building community-university collaborations in marginalized urban areas. The selection of short essays highlights different experiences of building and sustaining community-university partnerships in a variety of cities as vehicles for enhancing experiential learning in…

Allahwala, Ahmed; Bunce, Susannah; Beagrie, Lesley; Brail, Shauna; Hawthorne, Timothy; Levesque, Sue; von Mahs, Jurgen; Spotton Visano, Brenda

2013-01-01

299

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

2010-01-01

300

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils from the metropolitan area of Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the degree of heavy metal pollution (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and V) in 135 urban topsoil samples from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Pollution indices (PI) were calculated to identify the metal accumulation with respect to the background values. The levels of heavy metals in the analyzed samples show a wide range of variation. Lead,

O. Morton-Bermea; E. Hernández-Álvarez; G. González-Hernández; F. Romero; R. Lozano; L. E. Beramendi-Orosco

2009-01-01

301

SPM levels of an urban area (Patiala City) and its relation to automobile exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM), organic tarry matter (BSPM), ignitable matter (LOI) and lead in the ambient air of an urban area are measured by using a high volume sampler. SPM levels in different zones of the city are reported. Organic tarry matter measured as benzene soluble particulate matter (BSPM) constitutes about 4–9% of the SPM. BSPM in

S. K. Mittal; Samarjit Goyal

2004-01-01

302

ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN: INFLUENCE OF THE CHICAGO/GARY URBAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative importance of the Chicago/Gay urban area was investigated to determine its impact on atmospheric mercury (Hg) concentrations and wet deposition in the Lake Michigan basin. Event wet-only precipitation, total particulate, and vapor phase samples were collected for ...

303

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman  

E-print Network

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman that the performance of insulators in cold climates is an important issue. Several types of salts are used for deicing. The most common is rock salt (sodium chloride) as it is inexpensive. It lowers the freezing point

304

A method of deriving features of building from LIDAR point clouds in urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper aims at extracting features, especially the plane feature, of building from Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) point clouds in Urban Area, and with these features and information to build the model of object. Unlike modeling object in other fields, such as reverse engineering, surfaces of building usually consist of abundant big and plane surfaces which are significant

Weian Wang; Bo Zheng; Jue Lu; Jiao Lu; Yi Liu

2009-01-01

305

Big Guys Eat Big Cakes: Firm Size and Contracting in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of attention has been devoted to the analysis of different levels of privatization in urban and rural areas. However, until now no empirical study has been conducted on what types of firms are present in different geographical environments. We find that large firms that operate on a national basis dominate the contracts in the most populated and

Germà Bel; Xavier Fageda

2011-01-01

306

Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations1 Performance in Urban Areas2  

E-print Network

Techniques to Visualize and Monitor Transit Fleet Operations1 Performance in Urban Areas2 3 4 5 6 7Met is the transit4 provider in the Portland metropolitan region and its Bus Dispatch System (BDS) has been in this study can aid transit agency managers and operators to identify operational problems,12 better

Bertini, Robert L.

307

AIR QUALITY MODELING AT COARSE-TO-FINE SCALES IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban air toxics control strategies are moving towards a community based modeling approach, with an emphasis on assessing those areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This approach will require information that accurately maps and...

308

21 March 2002 FUTURE WORLD POPULATION GROWTH TO BE CONCENTRATED IN URBAN AREAS OF WORLD  

E-print Network

(more) POP/815 21 March 2002 FUTURE WORLD POPULATION GROWTH TO BE CONCENTRATED IN URBAN AREAS OF WORLD According to New Report Issued by United Nations Population Division NEW YORK, 21 March (DESA) -- Virtually all the population growth expected at the world level during the next 30 years

Huang, Youqin

309

Sensible Heat Fluxes over an Urban Area--Vancouver, B.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the eddy correlation technique is demonstrated for the measurement of sensible heat transfer in an urban area. The problems of time and space sampling (in the horizontal and vertical) are investigated. Based on 27 summer days of observations from a roof-top site in the central built-up part of Vancouver, the diurnal variation of sensible heat transfer above

D. Yap; T. R. Oke

1974-01-01

310

INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL PARTICULATE MATTER ON SELECTED URBAN AREAS ACROSS THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the next few years, states will be required to develop state implementation plans for reducing concentrations of fine particles in air where, PM2.5 annual and or daily standards are exceeded. It is now well recognized that high concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas are in p...

311

Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas  

E-print Network

exist in incidence and survival rates in oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in rural and urban areas. Methods: Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data from 17 registries for the years 2000-2005 was used for this analysis. A Poisson...

Womack, Catherine Marie

2008-01-01

312

Managing urban growth and development in the Riyadh metropolitan area, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines public sector management of urban growth and development in the Riyadh Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia. The focus of the paper is on institutional capacity building and development intervention. The paper traces changes in public sector management structures and development activities over the history of the city with the aim of assessing development impact and identifying forces that

Shaibu Bala Garba

2004-01-01

313

Data Fusion Using Spot and Sar Images for Bridge and Urban Area Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is dedicated to bridge detection and urban area extraction from remotely sensed scenes. Taking into account the best potentialities, but also the limits of each sensor, our objective is to make an architecture that improves the performance and the reliability of scene analysis, compared to an architecture using a single sensor. For bridge detection, we first segment water

Stephane HOUZELLE; Gerard GIRAUDON

1991-01-01

314

Reification of emergent urban areas in a land-use simulation model in Reunion Island  

E-print Network

Reification of emergent urban areas in a land-use simulation model in Reunion Island Daniel David1 for users and developers of simulation models. But the potential reification of these phenomena raises many that such a reification can be considered as an effective way to refine simulation models in which direct modifications

Boyer, Edmond

315

Flow Across an Urban Area Determined from Double-Theodolite Pilot Balloon Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-theodolite pilot balloon observations at 6 min intervals at two stations upwind and two stations downwind of Oklahoma City provide new information concerning the influence, at heights up to 700 m, of an isolated urban area on a strong (12 m s1 daytime air flow. Constant volume balloons (tetroons) flown along the line of the pilot balloon stations provide vertical

J. K. Angell; A. B. Bernstein

1975-01-01

316

Microwave propagation characteristics depending on base-station antenna height in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted propagation experiments assuming the environment of low base station antenna height and, hence, microcells in an urban area and have reported their results. In this report, we report the results of a propagation experiment in the microwave band that is conducted with transmission base station antennas installed at height sufficiently higher or lower than the surrounding building

K. Sakawa; H. Masui; M. Ishii; H. Shimizu; T. Kobayashi

2001-01-01

317

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

318

Biodiversity within urban areas: A case study on bryophytes of the city of Cologne (NRW, Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the urban bryophyte flora of the city of Cologne (W. Germany) was studied. A total of 143 bryophyte taxa (17 hepatics and 126 mosses) were recorded within the metropolitan area of Cologne. Three species were newly recorded for North Rhine?Westphalia: Hannediella heimii, Schistidium helveticum and Tortula schimperi. Thirteen species red?listed in NRW were recorded, among them hardly

M. Sabovljevi?; A. Sabovljevi?

2009-01-01

319

Slum Upgrading: The Muungano Wa Wanavijiji (MWW) Vision Ezekiel Rema  

E-print Network

, landless and with no property and means of livelihood because the projects have always involved corruption to secure and to protect land rights of people leaving in slum communities? Muungano has employed various

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this hard-to-reach population. Moreover, this technology may also be suitable for injury-specific research given that there were few differences with respect to injury-related variables in mobile phone ownership and usage. PMID:25157308

Swahn, Monica H.; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

2014-01-01

321

Understanding Peri-Urban Maize Production through an Examination of Household Livelihoods in the Toluca Metropolitan Area, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rates of urban growth globally continue to rise, especially in small and intermediary cities and peri-urban areas of the developing world. Communities in these settings share characteristics with rural areas, in terms of continued connections with agriculture, yet with an increasing reliance of non-agricultural employment which poses…

Lerner, Amy M.; Eakin, Hallie; Sweeney, Stuart

2013-01-01

322

Comparison of conceptually based and regression rainfall-runoff models, Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado, and potential applications in urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multievent, conceptually based models and a single-event, multiple linear-regression model for estimating storm-runoff quantity and quality from urban areas were calibrated and verified for four small (57 to 167 acres) basins in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The basins represented different land-use types - light commercial, single-family housing, and multi-family housing. Both types of models were calibrated using the same data set for each basin. A comparison was made between the storm-runoff volume, peak flow, and storm-runoff loads of seven water quality constituents simulated by each of the models by use of identical verification data sets. The models studied were the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II) (a runoff-quantity model designed for urban areas), and a multievent urban runoff quality model (DR3M-QUAL). Water quality constituents modeled were chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total lead, total manganese, and total zinc. (USGS)

Lindner-Lunsford, J. B.; Ellis, S.R.

1987-01-01

323

Crossing-scale hydrological impacts of urbanization and climate variability in the Greater Chicago Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses past hydrological records in Northeastern Illinois to disentangle the combined effects of urban development and climatic variability at different spatial scales in the Greater Chicago Area. A step increase in annual precipitation occurred in Northeastern Illinois during 1965-1972 according to climate records. Urbanization has occurred as a gradual process over the entire Greater Chicago Area, both before and after the abrupt annual precipitation increase. The analysis of streamflow trends at each gaging station is supplemented by the comparison of the evolution of streamflow indicators in a group of urban and agricultural watersheds, thanks to an original use of the Mann-Whitney test. Results suggest that urban expansion in the Greater Chicago Area has led to widespread increases in a wide variety of streamflow metrics, with the exceptions being spring flows and some of the peak flow indicators. The increases detected in small (<100 km2) urban watersheds are mitigated in large (>200 km2) ones, over which the changes in streamflow are relatively homogeneous. While the impacts of land-use change are identified across a wide range of flow indicators and spatial scales, there are indications that some of these effects are mitigated or made negligible by other factors. For example, while impervious surfaces are found to increase flooding, stormwater management facilities, an adaptation to increased flooding, mitigate their impacts at a wide range of scales. While impervious surfaces are known to reduce infiltration and baseflow, a low flow increase was triggered by water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, as a response to a rising water demand which made on-site groundwater extraction unsustainable. Our analysis thus highlights the impacts of adaptive planning and management of water resources on urban hydrology.

Rougé, Charles; Cai, Ximing

2014-09-01

324

Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n?=?412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

2013-01-01

325

Numerical study on the impacts of heterogeneous reactions on ozone formation in the Beijing urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO?NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Wei

2006-12-01

326

Ray tracing algorithm for accurate solar irradiance prediction in urban areas.  

PubMed

A ray tracing algorithm has been developed to model solar radiation interaction with complex urban environments and, in particular, its effects, including the total irradiance on each surface and overall dissipated power contribution. The proposed model accounts for multiple reflection and diffuse scattering interactions and is based on a rigorous theory, so that the overall power balance is satisfied at the generic surface element. Such approach is validated against measurements in the present work in simple reference scenarios. The results show the importance of multiple-bounce interactions and diffuse scattering to obtain reliable solar irradiance and heat dissipation estimates in urban areas. PMID:25321121

Vitucci, Enrico M; Falaschi, Federico; Degli-Esposti, Vittorio

2014-08-20

327

Comparative analysis of the urban noise between two different areas in the city of Curitiba, PR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to analyze the urban noise perception comparatively in the inhabitants of a residential area (neighborhood) and a mixed area (center), in the city of Curitiba, PR, in order to characterize two different situations: (1) acoustically ideal urban environment; and (2) acoustically polluted urban environment. For that, subjective and objective evaluations were accomplished, where an aleatory sample of each area was submitted to a survey. In the objective evaluation, the medium equivalent sound levels calculated were 53.50 dB(A) and 72.90 dB(A) for the neighborhood and center, respectively. The parameters used for comparison of the calculated medium equivalent sound levels where the values of 55.00 dB(A) (Municipal Law No. 10.625) and 65.00 dB(A) (WHO), in the period of the day for residential areas. The interpretation of the subjective results verified that the central zone inhabitants have an annoyance perception bigger than the residential zone inhabitants. The interpretation of the objective results classified the neighborhood and center areas as acoustically control zone and acoustically polluted zone, respectively, according to the adopted parameters. Starting from the comparison between these two areas, it was defined that both can be classified as reference factor for other evaluations.

Paz, Elaine C.; Ferreira, Andressa C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

2001-05-01

328

Increased atmospheric deposition of mercury in reference lakes near major urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric deposition of Hg is the predominant pathway for Hg to reach sensitive ecosystems, but the importance of emissions on near-field deposition remains unclear. To better understand spatial variability in Hg deposition, mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediment cores from 12 lakes with undeveloped watersheds near to (<50 km) and remote from (>150 km) several major urban areas in the United States. Background and focusing corrected Hg fluxes and flux ratios (modern to background) in the near-urban lakes (68 ?? 6.9 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 9.8 ?? 4.8, respectively) greatly exceed those in the remote lakes (14 ?? 9.3 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 3.5 ?? 1.0) and the fluxes are strongly related to distance from the nearest major urban area (r 2 = 0.87) and to population and Hg emissions within 50-100 km of the lakes. Comparison to monitored wet deposition suggests that dry deposition is a major contributor of Hg to lakes near major urban areas. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Van Metre, P.C.

2012-01-01

329

Recharge assessment in an urban area: a case study of La Plata, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leakage from water mains, storm drainage and sewer systems in urban areas constitutes a source of recharge that is difficult to identify and quantify at a regional scale. The objective of this work is to apply a methodology that would make it possible to evaluate urban recharge at a regional scale, taking as a case study the city of La Plata (Argentina). In the study area, population growth and an increase in water demand has caused the intensive exploitation of groundwater with resulting alteration in groundwater flow. The methodology used was developed on the basis of a water balance and the simulation of the temporal evolution of the cones of depression and the volumes of water extracted from the aquifer. The method consists of adjusting the piezometry resulting from the numerical modelling to the measured piezometry, by means of the variation of the recharge parameter in the urban area. The results obtained make it possible to identify and quantify urban recharge, which in this case represents a volume of water similar to the recharge from precipitation.

Kruse, Eduardo; Carol, Eleonora; Mancuso, Malva; Laurencena, Patricia; Deluchi, Marta; Rojo, Adolfo

2013-08-01

330

Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

331

Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

2013-05-01

332

Reconstructing peak discharges of historic flood levels in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For historic settlement areas numerous flood level descriptions from times before the installation of river gauges are passed on, most of them are even dated. Typically, these written descriptions are qualitative such as "the water level peaked at 2 feet above the floor of the church" or "the water level topped the bridge before it failed". Furthermore, historic flood water levels are frequently marked at buildings and constructions. Such descriptions of flood water levels are used to determine periods of increased flood frequencies but are rarely transferred into palaeodischarge numbers due to methodological problems. One major problem is the estimation of the cross section area due to missing information on the topography and hydraulic roughness of the floodplain and the river channel in historic times. For the historic flood level records from the cities of Cologne (River Rhine) and Prague (River Vltava) an approach to estimate peak discharge is developed. Based on historic etchings, paintings and descriptions it is possible to reconstruct the characteristics of the river channel and floodplains to estimate cross-section areas during flood events. The reconstruction made use of all available data and estimations regarding channel incision as well as anthropogenic modification of the river and its floodplain. The mean flow velocity at the time of the historic flood events is estimated by the Manning-equation, based on the reconstructed river channel and floodplains. The slope of the water level is assumed to be comparable to recent values, while the estimation of the hydraulic roughness is a challenge as no studies on the hydraulic roughness of settled floodplains have been carried out so far. Sensitivity studies with different n-values within a reliable range of values are made to estimate the influence of this uncertainty. Finally, the reconstructed data are tested by estimating peak discharges of recent floods by the application of the described method and comparing the results with measured discharge data from the gauges located at Cologne and Prague. Herget, J. & H. Meurs (2009): Reconstructing peak discharges of historic flood levels in the citiy of Cologne, Germany. Global and Planetary Change (accepted)

Herget, J.; Elleder, L.; Meurs, H.; Nießen, A.; Roggenkamp, T.

2009-04-01

333

Spatial distribution of mercury in the surface soils of the urban areas, Arak, Iran.  

PubMed

This study assessed the baseline concentrations and spatial distribution of total mercury (Hg) in urban soils of the city of Arak, Iran. Concentrations of Hg were determined in soil collected from urban areas, and the spatial distribution was analyzed using the semivariogram approach in geostatistical technology. Mercury in soil ranged from 66.3 to 581 µg/kg. The experimental variogram of soil mercury concentrations was best-fitted by a spherical model. A spatial distribution map revealed that Hg concentration showed decreasing trends from south to north, west to east and center to suburb. Overall, the results showed that Hg concentrations in urban soils of Arak may be considered medium or low. PMID:25344748

Solgi, Eisa; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza

2014-12-01

334

An attractiveness-based model for shopping trips in urban areas GONZALEZ-FELIU, Jesus; ROUTHIER, Jean-Louis; RAUX, Charles  

E-print Network

An attractiveness-based model for shopping trips in urban areas GONZALEZ-FELIU, Jesus; ROUTHIER-BASED MODEL FOR SHOPPING TRIPS IN URBAN AREAS Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu, Laboratoire d'Economie des Transports, 14 section of a given urban area. Second, a catchment area model relates the shopping trip destinations

Boyer, Edmond

335

High-resolution rainfall estimation for Helsinki urban area using Helsinki radar network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution precipitation data is a crucial factor for hydrological applications in urban areas. Small fluctuations in precipitation fields are of great importance considering the fast response of urban catchments due to the dominance of impervious surfaces. High resolution precipitation observations are needed in order to characterize these fluctuations. Weather radar provides high spatial resolution precipitation estimations. However, the quality of its observations in an urban environment is significantly degraded, among other things, by ground clutter and beam-blockage. A solution for this problem is to use a radar network, where the data gaps of one radar will be filled by using observations from the others. Very few cities have dedicated weather radar networks. In some cities, like Helsinki, there are several weather radars covering the metropolitan area, but they are operated by different organizations. In this study, we show how such systems can be used to build a network and what is the advantage of using radarnetworks for estimating precipitation in urban catchments. The urban Helsinki area is covered by observations from three individual-purpose C-band weather radars (Helsinki University's Kumpula (KUM), Vaisala Oy's Kerava (KER) and Finnish Meteorological Institute's Vantaa (VAN)). We used the data from these radars to form a network and we design a similar task which runs at the same time in each radar couple of times per day. Nonetheless, it is challenging to make them observe at the same area at exactly the same time, which could lead to fast changing, short precipitation events being missed. Hence, synchronization and temporal resolution are the main concerns when building a network. Consequently, to decrease the impact of these restrictions in the Helsinki radar network we propose the use of the optic flow interpolation algorithm to retrieve information in between two radar observations and use the retrieved dataset from the three radars to estimate rainfall. The accuracy of this method is studied by comparing the composite rainfall estimation with both single radar observations and ground measurements.

Rojas, Laura; Nordling, Kalle; Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

2014-05-01

336

Echinococcosis (zoonotic hydatidosis) in street dogs in urban and rural areas, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

A total of one hundred and ninety street dogs were captured from urban area, Mansoura district and three hundreds and fifty from rural area, Met El-Korama and adjacent villages (Manshet El-Badawy, Talka Center). The overall prevalence of Echinoccocus granulosus was 5%, with a worm burden ranging from 4 to 1010 (mean = 421). The prevalence was 6% in rural locality and 3.2% in urban locality. E. granulosus in dogs was significantly higher in rural areas but, without significant difference in puppies and males. The overall sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity was 97.5%. Apart from E. granulosus, dogs were also, infected with Taenia sp., Diplydium caninum, Toxocara canis, Trichurus vulpis and Ancylostoma caninum. The major cross-reactions were with Taenia sp., and D. caninum. Significantly, no correlation was found between ELISA on dogs' sera and E. granulosus burden. PMID:17580584

Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Abdel Tawab, Ahmed H; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-04-01

337

Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.  

PubMed

Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

2014-01-01

338

Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

2014-01-01

339

Inequality and polarization analysis of urban water use in the Yangtze River Delta area, China.  

PubMed

Inequality and polarization are terms usually used to describe the overall dispersion of income distribution and the phenomenon of a divided society with a disappearing middle class and increasing rich and poor populations. However, these terms have seldom been used in water sciences. In this paper, the concepts of inequality and polarization are employed to analyze the distribution of urban water use of different cities. Using for reference the conception of Gini coefficient, the EUWU (Equality of Urban Water Use) model is built to analyze the equality of urban water use. And, the PUWU (Polarization of Urban Water Use) model based on exponential functions, which can limit the index of polarization to the range (0, 1) effectively, is built to analyze the polarization of urban water use. Inequality and polarization of resident, industrial and commercial water use in 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta, the fastest growing region of China, are evaluated using the EUWU model and PUWU model, respectively. The results show that inequality of residential, industrial and commercial water use has decreased by 6.5%, 11.2% and 8.4%, while the index of polarization has increased by 3.9%, 3.8% and 0.1% in Yangtze River Delta area from 2001 to 2006. PMID:20651433

Zhang, Zhiguo; Shao, Yisheng

2010-01-01

340

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

341

Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.  

PubMed

There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

2014-08-01

342

Storm runoff as related to urbanization in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of equations was developed to provide a better method of determining flood frequencies in the Portland-Vancouver urban area than is now available. The resulting regression equations can be used to compute peak discharge and storm runoff with a standard error of estimate of approximately 30 percent. Basins used to define the regression equations ranged in size from 0.2 to 26 square miles. Those physical basin parameters that proved to be significant are: drainage area, effective impervious area, storage, rainfall intensity, basin slope, and soil infiltration. The equations indicate that total urbanization of an undeveloped basin can increase peak discharge as much as 3? times and almost double the volume of storm runoff. Impervious area, as delineated by mapping techniques, proved to be an inadequate physical parameter for use in the regression equations because builders and planners have devised many methods of routing storm runoff from impervious areas to the main channel (in effect, speeding up or slowing down the response to the storm). In some parts of the study area, storm runoff was diverted into dry wells and never entered the main channel. To define the effect of this rerouting, the digital model was used to find an effective impervious area that would 'best fit' the rainfall-runoff data. Field estimates to verify the effectiveness of the impervious area for two of the basins showed that optimizations were within 20 percent of those shown by the digital model. Users of these data who may find the effective impervious area a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming parameter to obtain have an alternative. The combination of land-use type I (parks, forests, and vacant lots) and Type II (agriculture) proved to be an excellent inverse indicator of impervious area. Land-use types I and II, coupled with the street-gutter density, an indication of effective routing, provide the user with alternative indices of urbanization.

Laenen, Antonius

1980-01-01

343

Storm runoff as related to urbanization in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of equations was developed to provide a better method of determining flood frequencies in the Portland-Vancouver urban area than is now available. The resulting regression equations can be used to compute peak discharge and storm runoff with a standard error of estimate of approximately 30 percent. Basins used to define the regression equations ranged in size from 0.2 to 26 square miles. Those physical basin parameters that proved to be significant are: drainage area, effective impervious area, storage, rainfall intensity, basin slope, and soil infiltration. The equations indicate that total urbanization of an undeveloped basin can increase peak discharge as much as 3? times and almost double the volume of storm runoff. Impervious area, as delineated by mapping techniques, proved to be an inadequate physical parameter for use in the regression equations because builders and planners have devised many methods of routing storm runoff from impervious areas to the main channel (in effect, speeding up or slowing down the response to the storm). In some parts of the study area, storm runoff was diverted into dry wells and never entered the main channel. To define the effect of this rerouting, the digital model was used to find an effective impervious area that would 'best fit' the rainfall-runoff data. Field estimates to verify the effectiveness of the impervious area for two of the basins showed that optimizations were within 20 percent of those shown by the digital model. Users of these data who may find the effective impervious area a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming parameter to obtain have an alternative. The combination of land-use type I (parks, forests, and vacant lots) and Type II (agriculture) proved to be an excellent inverse indicator of impervious area. Land-use types I and II, coupled with the street-gutter density, an indication of effective routing, provide the user with alternative indices of urbanization.

Laenen, Antonius

1980-01-01

344

Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to observe weak seismic events (M<2) in areas close to potential nuclear-waste repositories or nuclear power plants, in order to analyze the underlying seismo-tectonic processes and estimate their seismic hazard. We are therefore densifying the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We analyze the test measurement with respect to noise amplitude in different frequency bands, transient noise events and earthquake first arrivals. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs.

Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

2012-04-01

345

Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

2011-08-01

346

A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

1997-01-01

347

Determination of Ventilation Channels In Urban Area: A Case Study of Wroc?aw (Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are among the roughest landscapes in the Earth and its aerodynamical properties are responsible for a lot of processes and phenomena of urban climate, such as surface drag and pollutant dispersion. These properties can be quantitatively expressed by various parameters, with zero plane displacement height ( z d) and roughness length ( z 0) as the most frequently applied. Based on remotely gathered (LIDAR scan) height data and morphometric methods of roughness calculations, the comprehensive procedure to determine ventilation channels in urban area is proposed and implemented on the example from Wroc?aw, Poland. Morphometric analysis of urban structure allowed establishing a proper database of aerodynamic parameters of the city. Then a series of maps of the city showing the distribution of two roughness parameters were prepared. GIS tools were used to carry out the analysis of roughness data, assuming various directions of wind flow. It enabled to determine the locations of potential ventilation paths in the city which, if combined, form large ventilation channels. They may have a significant role in improving air quality and be a valuable source of information for local government responsible for the appropriate development of the city.

Suder, Arkadiusz; Szymanowski, Mariusz

2014-06-01

348

Phthalates and nonylphenols in urban runoff: Occurrence, distribution and area emission factors.  

PubMed

The urban water system is believed to be an important sink for the nonpoint-source pollutants nonylphenols and phthalates. The presence of nonylphenols (NPs), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and eight phthalates was analyzed in urban stormwater and sediment from three catchment areas in Sweden. Emission loads for these substances were then calculated for a specific urban catchment area. In addition, substance distribution in road runoff passing through a sedimentation facility was modeled using a modified QWASI-model for chemical fate. High concentrations of DEHP, DIDP and DINP (area emission factors from an urban highway environment revealed that as much as 2.1 kg of total phthalates and 200 g of NP and NPEOs may be emitted per hectare and year. The results indicate that all monitored phthalates, branched NPs and lower NPEOs are present in Swedish urban water systems. The long-chain phthalates DIDP and DINP are believed to occur at higher concentrations than other phthalates because of their higher environmental persistence and their increasing use in Sweden. PMID:19457546

Björklund, Karin; Cousins, Anna Palm; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Malmqvist, Per-Arne

2009-08-01

349

Ensemble simulations of the urban effect on a summer rainfall event in the Great Beijing Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA), located in North China, is one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world. In this study, ensemble simulations are conducted to investigate the urban effects on a summertime heavy rainfall event in the GBMA. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that couples with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used for the ensemble simulation. Results show that the ensemble simulation with a realistic land-use representation of urban areas (i.e. control run) can well reproduce the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the rainfall event. The simulated total precipitation agrees well with observation. Compared with the sensitivity ensemble simulation, in which the urban area is replaced by cropland, the control run generates more precipitation over the southwest of Beijing, while less rainfall is found in the area to the northeast of Beijing. This result suggests that the underlying urban surface and urban canopy physics in the surface layer have remarkable impacts on precipitation. The stronger upward motion along with larger convergence and more moisture transportation caused by the urban dynamic and thermodynamic effects directly contribute to the differences in rainfall distribution between the control run and the sensitivity run. In addition, the urban effects are found to slow the cold front movement due to the intense warm air over the urban area, leading to a delayed occurrence of the peak rainfall. However, the slow-moving cold front over the urban area enhances the maximum precipitation intensity. The evolution of the rainfall pattern during the intensification period of the precipitation event is dependent on the movement of the cold front in both the control and sensitivity experiments, indicating that urban effects tend to modify the precipitation distribution and influence the temporal variation of the rainfall process.

Zhong, Shi; Yang, Xiu-Qun

2015-02-01

350

Endless Urban Growth? On the Mismatch of Population, Household and Urban Land Area Growth and Its Effects on the Urban Debate  

PubMed Central

In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990–2000 and 2000–2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these “double-declining” cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number “automatically” solve the global problem of land consumption. PMID:23840501

Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

2013-01-01

351

Detection of flooded urban areas in high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar images using double scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a particular hazard in urban areas worldwide due to the increased risks to life and property in these regions. SAR sensors are often used to image flooding because of their all-weather day-night capability, and now possess sufficient resolution to image urban flooding. The flood extents extracted from the images may be used for flood relief management and improved urban flood inundation modelling. A difficulty with using SAR for urban flood detection is that, due to its side-looking nature, substantial areas of urban ground surface may not be visible to the SAR due to radar layover and shadow caused by buildings and taller vegetation. While most flooding along roads perpendicular to the satellite direction of travel may be detected successfully, a good deal of the flooding along roads parallel to it will remain unseen. Considering the latter, an area of flooded road in front of the wall of a building on the farther side of a road from the satellite track may be allocated to the same range bin as the wall, causing layover which generally results in a strong return, and a possible misclassification of flooded ground as un-flooded. This paper investigates whether urban flooding can be detected in layover regions using double scattering [1]. If the road in a layover region is flooded, backscatter due to the double scattering from sensor to road to wall to sensor (or vice versa) should be stronger than if the road is not flooded. The method estimates double scattering strengths using a SAR image in conjunction with a high resolution LiDAR height map of the urban area. A SAR simulator is applied to the LiDAR data to generate maps of layover and shadow, and estimate the positions of double scattering curves in the SAR image. Observations of double scattering strengths were compared to the predictions from an electromagnetic scattering model, for both the case of a single image containing flooding, and a change detection case in which the flooded image was compared to an un-flooded image of the same area acquired with the same radar parameters. The method proved successful in detecting double scattering due to flooding in the single-image case, for which flooded double scattering curves were detected with 100% classification accuracy (albeit using a small sample set) and un-flooded curves with 91% classification accuracy. The same measures of success were achieved using change detection between flooded and un-flooded images. Depending on the particular flooding situation, the method could lead to improved detection of flooding in urban areas. 1. Mason DC, Giustarini L, Garcia-Pintado J (2014). Detection of flooded urban areas in high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar images using double scattering. Int. J. Applied Earth Observation and Geoscience, 28C (May 2014), 150-159.

Mason, David; Giustarini, Laura; Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Cloke, Hannah

2014-05-01

352

Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining, urban and industrial areas was fractionated in organometallic forms; mobile; semi-mobile; and non-mobile forms as well as HCl-extractable Hg. The in vitro bioaccessibility of Hg was obtained by extracting soils with (1) a simulated human gastric fluid (pH1.5), and (2) a simulated human lung fluid (pH7.4). Total soil Hg concentrations ranged from 0.72 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) (urban areas), 0.28 to 94 mg kg(-1) (industrial area) and 0.92 to 37 mg kg(-1) (mining areas). Both organometallic Hg as well as 0.1M HCl extractable Hg were lower (<0.5% of total Hg) than Hg extracted by gastric fluid (up to 1.8% of total Hg) and lung fluid (up to 12% of total Hg). In addition, Hg extracted by lung fluid was significantly higher in urban and industrial soils (average 5.0-6.6% of total Hg) compared to mining soils. Such differences were related to levels of mobile Hg species in urban and industrial soils compared to mining soils. These results strengthen the need to measure site-specific Hg fractionation when determining Hg bioaccessibility. Results also show that ingestion and/or inhalation of Hg from soil particles can contribute up to 8% of adult total Hg intake when compared to total Hg intake via consumption of contaminated fish and animal products from contaminated areas. PMID:25034206

Rodrigues, S M; Coelho, C; Cruz, N; Monteiro, R J R; Henriques, B; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M; Pereira, E

2014-10-15

353

Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings  

PubMed Central

Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching isolated rural areas. PMID:23759062

2013-01-01

354

Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.  

PubMed

Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range?=?0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to predict fatalities in the broader landscape. PMID:23326420

Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

2013-01-01

355

Towards Change Detection in Urban Area by SAR Interferometry and Radargrammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change detection in urban area is an active topic in remote sensing. However, well-dealt subject in optical remote sensing, this research topic is still at an early stage and needs deeper investigations and improvement in what concerns SAR and InSAR remote sensing. Due to their weather and daylight-independency, SAR sensors allow an all-time observation of the earth. This is determining in cases where rapid change detection is required after a natural - or technological - disaster. Due to the high resolution that can be achieved, the new generation of space-borne radar sensors opens up new perspectives for analysing buildings in urban areas. Moreover, due to their short revisiting cycle, they give rise to monitoring and change detection applications. In this paper, we present a concept for change detection in urban area at building level, relying only on SAR- and InSAR data. In this approach, interferometric and radargrammetric SAR data are merged in order to detect changes. Here, we present the overall workflow, the test area, the required data as well as first findings on the best-suited stereo-configurations for change detection.

Dubois, C.; Thiele, A.; Hinz, S.

2013-04-01

356

Long-term effects of land use/land cover change on surface runoff in urban areas of Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present a case study to derive land use/land cover (LULC) maps and investigate the long-term effects of LULC change on surface runoff in the fast urbanizing Beijing city. The LULC maps were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery (acquired in 1992, 1999, 2006, and 2009) using support vector machine method. A long-term hydrologic impact assessment model was applied to assess the impact of LULC change on surface runoff. Results indicated that the selected study area experienced rapid urbanization from 1992 to 2009. Because of urbanization, from 1992 to 2009, modeled runoff increased 30% for the whole area and 35% for the urban portion. Our results also indicated that the runoff increase was highly correlated with urban expansion. A strong relationship (R2=0.849) was observed between the impervious surface percent and the modeled runoff depth in the study area. In addition, a strong positive relationship was observed between runoff increase and percentage of urban areas (R=0.997 for the whole area and R=0.930 for the urban portion). This research can provide a simple method for policy makers to assess potential hydrological impacts of future urban planning and development activities.

Sun, Zhongchang; Li, Xinwu; Fu, Wenxue; Li, Yingkui; Tang, Dongsheng

2014-01-01

357

Using Smart Planning to Mitigate Drought in Urban Areas: A Seasonal Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation in the Indianapolis Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis region exhibits a precipitation distribution indicative of urban weather modification: negative bias upwind and positive bias downwind. The causes for such a distribution within an urban area arise from a combination of land-surface heterogeneity and urban aerosol-cloud interaction. This study investigates the causes of the precipitation distribution with a 120-day simulation using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with the Town Energy Budget (TEB) model. Using a nested grid with a maximum resolution of 500m, a seasonal simulation of May through August, 2008 is conducted. Land surface conditions are varied, removing, expanding, and intensifying the Indianapolis urban area. Aerosol conditions are scaled by a three-dimensional combination of MODIS and CALIPSO observations, and varied in concentration and plume extent. Results from the study demonstrate the paradigm of urban precipitation modification on a seasonal time scale. The boundary between the rural and urban land surfaces weakens approaching systems upwind, decreasing precipitation in the city center. A larger urban extent diminishes the systems further. The aerosol plume downwind increases cloud lifetimes via cloud-nucleating aerosol, then invigorates precipitation via large drizzle-invigorating aerosols. The overall effect reproduces the observed negative precipitation bias upwind and positive bias downwind of the urban center. A lower concentration of aerosols leads to a higher proportion of stratiform rain over a larger area, whereas a higher concentration of aerosols leads to more convective rain and heavy rain events. This manifests in a weekly cycle of precipitation with rain most likely on weekends, and with less frequent but heavier rain events most likely during midweek, when aerosol concentrations are the highest. More intense urbanization, via both land surface and aerosol effects, creates more frequent heavy rainfall events and exacerbates dry-periods, potentially leading to premature drought onset. The wetter than average May, June, and July received more total rainfall from the heavy rainfall events, while the dry August became drier due to lack of stratiform precipitation. Smart planning solutions can partially mitigate the urban precipitation problem. In a simulation where a more intense urban Indianapolis is surrounded by a greenbelt and green roofs are implemented in the city, the urban precipitation bias becomes less significant. Upwind, the greenbelt provides surface moisture and mitigates how much precipitation systems weaken. Downwind, the greenbelt slows the transport of drizzle-invigorating aerosol, reducing the heavy rain events. The green roofs reduce the urban-rural gradient and slow the initial weakening of systems.

Schmid, P. E.; Niyogi, D.

2012-12-01

358

Linking nitrogen cycling and export with variable source area dynamics in forested and urbanizing catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the Baltimore Urban LTER site is to investigate how interactions between ecological processes and urban land use effect ecosystem functions, such as the cycling and export of nutrients. As part of this project, nitrogen export from Pond Branch, a 41 hectare forested catchment in Baltimore County, has been monitored since 1998 and is compared with nitrogen export from neighboring agricultural and urbanizing catchments. To better understand the spatial structure of nitrogen cycling and export processes in this region, a GIS and physically based, hydro-ecological model is used to investigate the interactions between soil water levels, flowpath dynamics and nitrogen cycling and export in Pond Branch. Rates of key ecosystem processes including vegetation uptake, litterfall, decomposition, mineralization, nitrification and denitrification vary in regular spatial and temporal patterns in response to meteorologically driven variations in soil water, temperature and biological activity as well as decadal level variations in canopy composition and extent. Alteration in the distribution of nitrogen sinks and sources in the landscape are particularly manifest in the dynamics of riparian areas that result in peak nitrogen export during the active growing season in this catchment. Urbanization effects can be added to the simulation by altering irrigation and fertilization rates, vegetation patterns and by altering hydrologic flowpaths through the construction of roads and sewer networks. The model is used to investigate current nitrogen cycling and export patterns and scenarios for urbanization of the Pond Branch catchment. Variation in the pattern of land cover change and infrastructure development with respect to the existing pattern of vegetation and topographic controls on nitrogen cycling is shown by the model to influence the impact of urbanization on nitrogen export.

Band, L. E.; Tague, C. E.; Groffman, P.; Belt, K.

2001-05-01

359

ENERGY AND MASS FLUX SIMULATIONS IN URBAN AREA USING THE ACASA MODEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Population who lives in urban areas is increasing and the exchanges of water, energy and carbon into and out of cities are key to the sustainable design of cities. In this context, it is important to provide quantitative estimate of the urban metabolism components using both observations and modeling of physical flows. Today, Eddy Covariance technique and accurate models are available to simulate the energy and mass flux exchanges in urban environment with a good spatial resolution. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model, developed by University of California, Davis (UCD), is one of the most sophisticated models for estimating energy and mass fluxes between surface and the atmosphere. ACASA was recently modified to simulate energy and mass fluxes in urban environment. ACASA treats the surface and associated fluxes as an interconnected system The atmosphere, the urban surface and the soil are represented as a multilayer system. ACASA incorporates higher-order closure principles for turbulent statistics to predict the effects that higher-order turbulent kinetic and thermodynamic processes have on the surface microenvironment and associated fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and carbon. It allows counter-gradient transport that simpler models are unable to describe. Using a set of governing equations, ACASA creates vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, mean wind, and CO2 concentration. ACASA was run for the city of Florence (Italy), which is a case study of the European project “Bridge”. The simulations were compared with in situ measurements taken continuously from 2006 using an eddy covariance system located in the city centre. Different measurement periods were used to parameterize and validate the model. From the preliminary results, good agreement was obtained between simulated and observed fluxes with small differences for most of the fluxes.

Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Sirca, C.; Miglietta, F.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

2009-12-01

360

Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area  

PubMed Central

Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located. PMID:24646863

Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

2014-01-01

361

Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.  

PubMed

Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

2013-01-01

362

Numerical solution to a two-dimensional hypersingular integral equation and sound propagation in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of sound propagation from a noise source in urban areas is constructed. The exterior Neumann problem\\u000a for the scalar Helmholtz equation is reduced to a system of hypersingular integral equations. A numerical method for solving\\u000a the system of integral equations is described. The convergence of the quadrature formulas underlying the numerical method\\u000a is estimated. Numerical results are

V. A. Gutnikov; V. Yu. Kiryakin; I. K. Lifanov; A. V. Setukha; S. L. Stavtsev

2007-01-01

363

Land use change scenarios and associated groundwater impacts in a protected peri-urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use changes in peri-urban areas are usually associated with significant impacts on groundwater resources due to alteration\\u000a of the recharge regime as well as through the establishment of pollution sources. Quantifying the aforementioned impacts and\\u000a assessing the vulnerability of the groundwater resources is an important step for the better management and protection of\\u000a the aquifers. In the present study,

Elias Dimitriou; Elias Moussoulis

364

Potential of very high resolution SAR for persistent scatterer interferometry in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) has matured to an established method for detection of large-scale and small-scale deformation phenomena in urban areas and of man-made infrastructure. Deformation regimes originating from oil, gas, or water extraction, storage of gas underground, CO2 sequestration, loading of dams and dykes, and mining activities are prominent examples for investigations that have been carried out successfully applying

S. Gernhardt; N. Adam; Michael Eineder; Richard Bamler

2010-01-01

365

Growth Standards for Urban Infants in a High Altitude Area of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to establish up-to-date growth standards for use in assessing the adequacy of children's growth in every population, especially those with peculiar environmental chal- lenges. The purpose of this study is to update growth reference values for the normal population of urban infants (0-24 months) from the high altitude area of Southwestern Saudi Arabia, and to compare

Mohammed A. Al-Shehri; Mostafa A. Abolfotouh; Mohammed Yunis Khan; Luke O. Nwoye

2005-01-01

366

Heavy Metals and Organochlorine Residues in Water, Sediments, and Fish in Aquatic Ecosystems in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals and organochlorine residues were determined in water, sediment, fish muscle, and freshwater shrimps from aquatic\\u000a environments in urban and peri-urban areas in Morogoro, Tanzania. Most of the water samples had heavy metal concentrations\\u000a below WHO acceptable water quality guidelines. All sediment samples had comparable heavy metal concentrations that suggest\\u000a natural rather than anthropogenic origin. Hexachlorobenzene, ?-hexachlocychlohexane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlordane,

R. H. Mdegela; M. Braathen; A. E. Pereka; R. D. Mosha; M. Sandvik; J. U. Skaare

2009-01-01

367

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2014-06-01

368

Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

2014-09-01

369

Spectrometry for urban area remote sensing--Development and analysis of a spectral library from 350 to 2400 nm  

E-print Network

land cover types (i.e. specific roof and road types) spectral- resolution remote sensing for detailedSpectrometry for urban area remote sensing--Development and analysis of a spectral library from 350 of urban land cover identified specific spectral features that is a strong indication that current

370

Impacts of flooding and climate change on urban transportation: A systemwide performance assessment of the Boston Metro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is likely to affect urban infrastructure through sea level rise and increased frequency of extreme events. This paper assesses the potential impact of climate change on the system-wide performance of transportation networks using the Boston Metro Area as a case study. The methodology integrates projected changes in land use, demographic and climatic conditions into the urban transportation

Pablo Suarez; William Anderson; Vijay Mahal; T. R. Lakshmanan

2005-01-01

371

Investigation of the Interactive, Intimidating Relation Between Urbanization and the Environment in an Arid Area Based on Grey System Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking the Hexi Corridor in western China as an example, this paper studies the interactive intimate i relation between urbanization and the environment in arid areas based on the grey system theory. The results show that the grey relational degree between urbanization and the environment is low in the agriculture-oriented cities, modest in the tourism-oriented cities and great in the

Biao QIAO; Chuang-lin FANG; Mao-sheng BAN

2006-01-01

372

Road de-icing salt as a potential constraint on urban growth in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

North America's fifth most populated municipality — the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) — is undergoing rapid urban development with serious questions being raised regarding the long-term impacts of urban growth on the quality and quantity of ground and surface water. Degradation of groundwater quality by NaCl de-icing salt is the primary concern since there are no cost effective alternatives to

Ken W. F. Howard; Herb Maier

2007-01-01

373

Experimental characterization and modelling of the nighttime directional anisotropy of thermal infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of  

E-print Network

a simplified 3D representation of the urban canopy with 2 energy transfer models, TEB and SOLENEExperimental characterization and modelling of the nighttime directional anisotropy of thermal infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of Toulouse (France) J.-P. Lagouarde a, , A. Hénon b

Ribes, Aurélien

374

Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 ?S/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical data shows that the HCO 3- and NO 3- concentrations have the highest factor loadings on factor 1 and factor 2, respectively. Factors 1 and 2 represent major contributions from natural processes and human activities, respectively. The results of the factor analysis indicate that the levels of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, Cl - and SO 42- derive from both pollution sources and natural weathering reactions.

Jeong, Chan Ho

2001-11-01

375

Pesticides in wells in agricultural and urban areas of the Hudson River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two herbicides (atrazine and prometon), and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine). Samples from the urban/residential water-supply well network contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), and three herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor, and prometon). Pesticides were detected in samples from depths of less than 2 to more than 70 m. Pesticides were detected in samples with nitrate concentrations ranging from less than the detection limit of 0.05 mg/L to 16 mg/L. These results indicate that pesticides are detected most frequently in shallow ground water beneath agricultural areas, and that pesticides can be detected in wells with a wide range of depths and nitrate concentrations.

Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Ryan, C.M.

2000-01-01

376

Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.

2002-01-01

377

Urban PDE dynamics: Situating PRIPODE research in  

E-print Network

complexity Workers often move fluidly between formal and informal sectors Problems: Lack of labor protections urban policymakers 1. Water & sanitation 2. Waste disposal 3. Slum & Informal settlements 4. Air pollution #12;9 Water & Sanitation Source: UN Statistics Division 2005 Total House Connections MDG Target 10

Columbia University

378

Anthropologies of the Urban Periphery: Salvador, Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian slums and squatter settlements have acquired a generally unattractive public image that often obscures differences between peripheral urban situations. Based on research in a socially stigmatised neighbourhood of the city of Salvador, Bahia, this paper begins with a broad structural view of the processes that have shaped the situations of its poor residents, from the conservative modernisation led by

Maria Gabriela Hita; John Gledhill

2009-01-01

379

Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland  

PubMed Central

Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

2014-01-01

380

Modeling of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1,3-butadiene is an important pollutant in terms of public health and important driver for photochemical processes influencing ozone formation in the area of Houston. Ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) including the SAPRC99-extended mechanism and the results were compared to spatially and temporally resolved observations of 1,3-butadiene for an episodic period during Summer 2006. Relative contributions of different type of emissions and chemical reactions to 1,3-butadiene concentrations were examined, the highest contribution was found to be from industrial emission sources. 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios in the urban area were found to be lower than in the industrial area. Although emissions of 1,3-butadiene peak during daytime its mixing ratios are lower during daytimes as compared to nighttime. 1,3-butadiene is removed from the surface through vertical upward transport (?90%) and chemical reactions (?10%). During daytime 1,3-butadiene reacts mainly with the OH radical (90%), during nighttime this reaction pathway is still significant in the industrial area (57% of all reaction pathways). Reaction with NO3 during nighttime contributes 33% in industrial and 56% in urban areas, where high NOx emissions occur. Reaction with ozone contributes 10% and 13% in industrial and urban areas, respectively. Analysis of measured data revealed that episodically very high emissions spikes of 1,3-butadiene occur. CMAQ often underpredicts 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios when sites are exposed to sporadic releases from industrial facilities. These releases are not accounted for in the emission inventory. It also appears that emissions of 1,3-butadiene from point sources have much more variability than those listed in the emission inventory.

Czader, Beata H.; Rappenglück, Bernhard

2015-02-01

381

Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

2013-04-01

382

Generation of 3D Model for Urban area using Ikonos and Cartosat-1 Satellite Imageries with RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban design is a subject that is concerned with the shape, the surface and its physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements. Although urban design is a practice process and needs much detailed and multi-dimensional description. 3D city models based spatial analysis gives the possibility of solving these problems. Ahmedabad is third fastest growing cities in the world with large amount of development in infrastructure and planning. The fabric of the city is changing and expanding at the same time, which creates need of 3d visualization of the city to develop a sustainable planning for the city. These areas have to be monitored and mapped on a regular basis and satellite remote sensing images provide a valuable and irreplaceable source for urban monitoring. With this, the derivation of structural urban types or the mapping of urban biotopes becomes possible. The present study focused at development of technique for 3D modeling of buildings for urban area analysis and to implement encoding standards prescribed in "OGC City GML" for urban features. An attempt has been to develop a 3D city model with level of details 1 (LOD 1) for part of city of Ahmedabad in State of Gujarat, India. It shows the capability to monitor urbanization in 2D and 3D.

Rajpriya, N. R.; Vyas, A.; Sharma, S. A.

2014-11-01

383

Leptospira interrogans survey by PCR in wild rodents coming from different urban areas of Palermo, Italy.  

PubMed

DNA extracted from the kidneys of rodents captured in different urban areas of Palermo, Italy, had been analysed for the presence of pathogenic L. interrogans sensu latu DNA. PCR analysis had shown that in rodents captured close to green areas and small river up to 40 % animals give positive PCR results. Not many cases of human leptospirosis are reported in Sicilian island in which hot season is usually dry. But considering climate change toward subtropical aspect in Sicily, with hot humid summer and sudden thunderstorm, screening for L. interrogans sensu latu prevalence can be useful for leptospirosis risk analysis on human population. PMID:23427420

Vitale, Maria; Di Bella, Carobelo; Agnello, Stefano; Curro, Victoria; Vicari, Domenico; Vitale, Fabrizio

2007-01-01

384

Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.  

SciTech Connect

The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

2007-11-01

385

Material versus social deprivation and health: a case study of an urban area.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic factors are one of the main determinants of health inequalities. However, which component of socioeconomic status affects health most and how that relationship should be measured remains an open question. The aim of this study was to compare material and social deprivation indexes in order to determine which better explains health inequalities within an urban area. Following a review of the literature on small area deprivation indexes, a case study of the Italian city Genoa is presented. The city of Genoa is split into 71 small areas [urbanistic units (UU)], each of which has about 9,500 inhabitants. For each small area, socioeconomic indicators were extracted from the 2001 Census, whereas health indicators were computed from the death registry for 2001-2003. Factorial analyses was used to choose the deprivation variables, which were utilised to create two distinct deprivation indexes referring to material and social deprivation, respectively. Both deprivation indexes are positively correlated with health status proxied by standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) under 65. The material index, however, correlates more highly with SMRs than the social index, and thus the material index is the more suitable measure to explain variations in premature mortality within an urban area. Moreover, the two indexes must be kept distinct. PMID:19018580

Testi, Angela; Ivaldi, Enrico

2009-07-01

386

Epidemiology of hypertension in Yemen: effects of urbanization and geographical area  

PubMed Central

Although globalization can contribute to increased blood pressure by spreading unhealthy behaviors, it also provides powerful means to tackle hypertension. The dissemination of information about and advice on cardiovascular prevention and facilitated contact with health services are valuable resources. To investigate the effects of urbanization, geographical area, and air temperature on hypertension burden and kidney damage, a survey was performed in 2008 with a door-to-door approach among urban and rural adult dwellers of three geographic areas (capital, inland, coast) of Yemen. Subjects (n=10?242) received two visits several days apart to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Proteinuria (dipstick test ?+1) was used as a marker of kidney damage. Prevalence rates were weighted to represent the Yemen population aged 15–69 years in 2008. Rates of hypertension and proteinuria progressively increased from the capital (6.4% 95% confidence level (CI) 5.8–7.0 and 5.1% 4.4–5.9, respectively), to inland areas (7.9% 7.0–8.7 and 6.1% 5.1–7.1), to the coastal area (10.1% 8.9–11.4 and 8.9% 7.3–10.4). When compared with urban dwellers, rural dwellers had similar hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 1.03; 95% CI 0.91–1.17) but higher proteinuria rates (adjusted ORs 1.55; 1.31–1.85). Overall, home temperature was associated with a lower hypertension rate (adjusted OR 0.98; 0.96–0.99). This large population study reveals that the highest burden of hypertension and kidney damage is detectable in remote areas of the country. PMID:23486167

Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Rapi, Stefano; Massetti, Luciano; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

2013-01-01

387

The case for pension plan and university endowment equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to present a case for institutional equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas. Pension plans and university endowments are the primary institutional investors ...

Larsen, Tamara C. (Tamara Candace), 1977-

2003-01-01

388

Modeling urban growth and land use/land cover change in the Houston Metropolitan Area from 2002 - 2030  

E-print Network

spatially explicit cellular automata model, to simulate future (2002-2030) urban growth in the Houston metropolitan area, one of the fastest growing metropolises in the United States during the past decades. The model is calibrated with historical data...

Oguz, Hakan

2005-08-29

389

Genetic epidemiology and pathology of raccoon-derived Sarcoptes mites from urban areas of Germany.  

PubMed

The raccoon, Procyon lotor (Carnivora: Procyonidae), is an invasive species that is spreading throughout Europe, in which Germany represents its core area. Here, raccoons mostly live in rural regions, but some urban populations are already established, such as in the city of Kassel, or are starting to build up, such as in Berlin. The objective of this study was to investigate Sarcoptes (Sarcoptiformes: Sarcoptidae) infections in racoons in these two urban areas and to identify the putative origin of the parasite. Parasite morphology, and gross and histopathological examinations of diseased skin tissue were consistent with Sarcoptes scabiei infection. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped individual mites from five raccoons and compared them with Sarcoptes mites derived from fox, wild boar and Northern chamois, originating from Italy and Switzerland. The raccoon-derived mites clustered together with the fox samples and were clearly differentiated from those of the wild boar and chamois samples, which suggests a fox origin for the raccoon mange infection. These results are evidence of the cross-transmission of S.?scabiei among wild carnivores. Although our results cannot elucidate whether raccoons became infected by frequent interaction with endemically or epidemically infected foxes or whether these cases resulted from occasional contacts among these animal species, they do nevertheless show that pathogens can be shared among urban populations of native and invasive carnivores. PMID:25171612

Rentería-Solís, Z; Min, A M; Alasaad, S; Müller, K; Michler, F-U; Schmäschke, R; Wittstatt, U; Rossi, L; Wibbelt, G

2014-08-01

390

Evaluation of the DisTrad thermal sharpening methodology for urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the DisTrad sharpening technique for deriving land surface temperatures over urban areas. While the original DisTrad technique is based on the correlation between land surface temperature and NDVI, this study evaluates the performance of DisTrad over different land covers by analysing the correlation between land surface temperature and 15 different indices: BASVI, R, B, NDWI, NDBaI, SVI, SAVI, NDBI, NDSI, UI, FC, VC, V, IBI, NDVI. In addition, we have analysed the correlation between land surface temperature and impervious percentage. These indices and land surface temperature were derived from a Landsat 7 ETM+ image of 2001 covering the city of Dublin. It is concluded that for most indices selecting 25% of the pixels with the lowest coefficient of variance increases the correlation between the index and the land surface temperature. Results show that the DisTrad technique in combination with impervious percentage sharpens urban areas at 30 m resolution most successfully. Although vegetation cover was high during acquisition of the image, the use of impervious percentage showed improved results compared to NDVI. This allows an improved estimation of spatial patterns of urban heat islands.

Essa, Wiesam; Verbeiren, Boud; van der Kwast, Johannes; Van de Voorde, Tim; Batelaan, Okke

2012-10-01

391

Mapping dustfall distribution in urban areas using remote sensing and ground spectral data.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to utilize remote sensing and ground-based spectral data to assess dustfall distribution in urban areas. The ground-based spectral data denoted that dust has a significant impact on spectral features. Dusty leaves have an obviously lower reflectance than clean leaves in the near-infrared bands (780-1,300 nm). The correlation analysis between dustfall weight and spectral reflectance showed that spectroscopy in the 350-2,500-nm region produced useful dust information and could assist in dust weight estimation. A back propagation (BP) neutral network model was generated using spectral response functions and integrated remote sensing data to assess dustfall weight in the city of Beijing. Compared with actual dustfall weight, validation of the results showed a satisfactory accuracy with a lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6g/m(2). The derived dustfall distribution in Beijing indicated that dustfall was easily accumulated and increased in the south of the city. In addition, our results showed that construction sites and low-rise buildings with inappropriate land use were two main sources of dust pollution. This study offers a low-cost and effective method for investigating detailed dustfall in an urban environment. Environmental authorities may use this method for deriving dustfall distribution maps and pinpointing the sources of pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25433376

Yan, Xing; Shi, Wenzhong; Zhao, Wenji; Luo, Nana

2015-02-15

392

Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

Morell, D; Singer, G

1980-11-01

393

Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time-use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for evaluating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other micro-environments. The population exposure originated from the long range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

2014-04-01

394

The Influence of Local Urban Containment Policies and Statewide Growth Management on the Size of United States Urban Areas &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In an attempt to slow the consumption of urban land for a given population, and the negative outcomes thought by some to be generated by such sprawl, regulations in the form of (i) the local imposition of urban containment policies that restrict or prohibit the amount and/or the type of urban settlement beyond a certain line and (ii) the statewide

Robert W. Wassmer

2006-01-01

395

Analysis of urban area land cover using SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digitally processed SEASAT synthetic aperture raar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado urban area was examined to explore the potential of SAR data for mapping urban land cover and the compatability of SAR derived land cover classes with the United States Geological Survey classification system. The imagery is examined at three different scales to determine the effect of image enlargement on accuracy and level of detail extractable. At each scale the value of employing a simplistic preprocessing smoothing algorithm to improve image interpretation is addressed. A visual interpretation approach and an automated machine/visual approach are employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing a semiautomated land cover classification from SAR data. Confusion matrices of omission and commission errors are employed to define classification accuracies for each interpretation approach and image scale.

Henderson, F. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

396

Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico1  

PubMed Central

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (one- and two-year) effects of the Mexican Oportunidades CCT program on urban children/youth. The program provides financial incentives for children/youth to attend school and for family members to visit health clinics. To participate, families had to sign up for the program and be deemed eligible. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates indicate that the program is successful in increasing school enrollment, schooling attainment and time devoted to homework for girls and boys and in decreasing working rates of boys.

Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-García, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Vélez-Grajales, Viviana

2014-01-01

397

Echinococcosis in dogs in urban and rural areas in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

A sample of one hundred and ninety stray dogs was captured from Mansoura city (urban) and three hundreds and fifty stray dogs were captured from Meet El-Korama, Mansheit El-Badawy villages (rural). The total prevalence of E. granulosus was 5%, with a worm burden ranging from 4 to 1010 (mean = 421). The significant prevalence was 6% in the rural area and 3.2% in the urban one. E. granulosus showed higher prevalence in young than old dogs and in males than females but without significant difference in both variants. The overall Echino-ELISA sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity was 97.5%. The major cross reactivity was with Taenia spp., and Diplydium caninum, but neither with Toxocara canis or Trichurus vulpis nor Ancylostoma caninum. There was a negative correlation between ELISA and Echinococcus granulosus burden in dogs. PMID:17985582

El Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Nagaty, Ibrahiem Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-08-01

398

The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

1979-01-01

399

Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area. In 1975, the program was expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. In 1978, the program was expanded to include a groundwater resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones fault zone. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yeild and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. The major streams in the study area are the Colorado River, Onion Creek, Barton Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek, Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. Water-quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

Slade, R.M.; Dorsey, M.E.; Gordon, J.D.; Mitchell, R.N.; Gaylord, J.L.

1981-01-01

400

Study of vertical wind profiles in an urban area with complex terrain (Tehran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper monthly trends of vertical wind profiles within and above an urban area with complex topography (Tehran) have been investigated using data from a Sodar, a 100-m and two 28-m towers and some surface stations. It includes the occurrence, evolution, dissipation time, peak time and maximum height for katabatic-anabatic winds due to topography, return flow and urban circulation. Vertical distributions of wind and the heat and momentum fluxes up to 600 m were also considered. The vertical wind profiles which have diurnal and seasonal variations show southwesterly daily anabatic wind and northeasterly nocturnal katabatic wind. Daily vertical wind profile structure which has two layers and two jets contains a decrease approximately at 300-400 m which may be due to the return flow and a daily thermal convective flow in the urban convergent terrain. At night the nocturnal wind profile structure, in the majority of months, has two layers and sometimes three layers containing northeasterly flows. In two layers structure, a decrease can be seen between two layers. In three layers structure, the middle layer has a different direction that indicates the return flow and urban circulation more clearly. Katabatic flows also develop in successive phases varying from 1 to 3 phases in different months. Investigation on surface wind demonstrates that in cold months a drainage flow from a valley located in the west of the station can affect wind speed and direction especially at evening transition time. These flow patterns can influence the way air pollutants disperse in this area.

Pegahfar, N.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Zawar-Reza, P.; Farahani, M. M.

2011-10-01

401

Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic development in permafrost regions is accompanied by modification of natural geocryological conditions. Drastic landscape transformations in urbanized areas on permafrost are characterized by changes of heat and moisture exchange in permafrost - atmosphere system, and by engineering and technogenic influence upon the frozen ground, leading to alteration of its physical, thermal and mechanical properties. In northern cities this leads to overall increase of ground temperature relative to undisturbed areas and intensification of hazardous cryogenic processes in areas under engineering development, which together leads to reduction in stability of geotechnical environment. For example, deformations of structures in Norilsk district, Northern Siberia, in the last 15 years, became much more abundant than those revealed throughout the previous 50 years. About 250 large buildings in the local towns were deformed considerably due to deterioration of geocryological conditions, about 100 structures were functioning in emergency state, and almost 50 nine- and five-storey houses, built in the 1960-80s, have been recently disassembled. Increase in accident risk for various facilities (water and oil pipelines, industrial enterprises, etc.) enhances the technogenic pressure on permafrost, leading to the new milestone of changes in permafrost characteristics, i.e. to creation of 'another reality' of geocryological conditions. Social and natural factors dictate clustered spatial pattern of industrial development in permafrost regions. Cryogenic processes within the urban areas on permafrost are seldom similar with those under the natural conditions as intensity, duration and extent of the processes changes under technogenic impacts. Moreover, new cryogenic processes and phenomena may occur, which have not been typical for a given region. This makes mapping and characterization of these processes difficult task. Peculiar natural-technogenic geocryological complexes (NTGC) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

2013-12-01

402

A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

2010-12-01

403

Prioritization of ITS transit strategies in small urban areas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The majority of problems associated with the passenger transportation system in the United States are focused on large metropolitan area highway congestion. However, there is a need to investigate Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) impacts on public transit and smaller urban areas (under 200,000 inhabitants), so that future travel demand and levels of congestion can be positively affected by these new strategies. In order to prioritize these new strategies before capital is allocated from the perspective of the small urban area transit system, a decision methodology is needed and is developed in this study. This decision methodology proceeds through the following steps: cataloging of strategies, initial screening, engineering economic analysis, qualitative analysis, scoring, and conclusions and recommendations. The premise behind the qualitative analysis is the shift from the desire to quantify all qualitative aspects to the approach of gauging the community`s likely accepta