Sample records for urban slum areas

  1. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  3. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  4. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C. N.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619 ?S/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2 mmol/L), HCO3 (11 mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3 mmol/L; average of 2.23 mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2 mmol/L and 6 ?mol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2 mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (< 6 meq/100 g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems.

  5. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area.

    PubMed

    Nyenje, P M; Havik, J C N; Foppen, J W; Muwanga, A; Kulabako, R

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619?S/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2mmol/L), HCO3 (11mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3mmol/L; average of 2.23mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2mmol/L and 6?mol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (<6meq/100g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems. PMID:25016588

  6. Prevalence and correlates of physical spousal violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M; Naved, Ruchira T; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of reported past-year physical spousal violence is 31%. Prevalence of past-year physical spousal violence is higher in slums (35%) than in nonslums (20%). Slapping/arm-twisting and pushing/shaking/ throwing something at the women are the most commonly reported acts of physical abuse. Multivariate analysis shows that the risk of physical spousal abuse is lower among older women, women with post-primary education, and those belonging to rich households and women whose husbands considered their opinion in decision making. Women are at higher risk of abuse if they had many children, believe that married woman should work if the husband is not making enough money, and approve wife-beating norms. This study serves to confirm the commonness of physical spousal abuse in urban Bangladesh, demonstrating the seriousness of this multifaceted phenomenon as a social and public health issue. The present findings suggest the need for comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies that capitalize on the interplay of individual and sociocultural factors that cause physical spousal violence. Our study adds to a growing literature documenting domestic violence against women in urban areas of developing south Asian nations. PMID:21831870

  7. Automated detection of slum area change in Hyderabad, India using multitemporal satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.

  8. A comparative study of common ear morbidity pattern among the primary school children of an urban slum of Kolkata and rural area of Hooghly.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Raktim; Sengupta, Arunabha; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Biswas, Romy; Mukherjee, Sujishnu; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu

    2005-08-01

    A cross-sectional, clinical and epidemiological study was undertaken among 627 primary school children (rural 145, urban 482) to compare the common ear morbidity pattern between an urban slum of kolkata and a rural area of Hooghly. Middle ear pathology was found to be present in 20% and 12.6% among rural and urban students respectively. Cerumen in the external auditory canal was the commonest clinical finding in both the areas and was found to be present in 35.86% of rural and 30.70% of urban population respectively. Smoke nuisance, bathing in open ponds and overcrowding were some of the predisposing factors causing ear diseases, like chronic suppurative otitis media and serous otitis media. PMID:16363198

  9. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. PMID:22361648

  10. Hypertension in a brazilian urban slum population.

    PubMed

    Unger, Alon; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Snyder, Robert E; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Mohr, Sharif; Costa, Vinícius B A; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Reis, Renato B; Santana, Francisco S; Riley, Lee W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2015-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries account for the majority of hypertension disease burden. However, little is known about the distribution of this illness within subpopulations of these countries, particularly among those who live in urban informal settlements. A cross-sectional hypertension survey was conducted in 2003 among 5649 adult residents of a slum settlement in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hypertension was defined as either an elevated arterial systolic (?140 mmHg) or diastolic (?90 mmHg) blood pressure. Sex-specific multivariable models of systolic blood pressure were constructed to identify factors associated with elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the population 18 years and older was 21 % (1162/5649). Men had 1.2 times the risk of hypertension compared with women (95 % confidence intervals (CI), 1.05, 1.36). Increasing age and lack of any schooling, particularly for women, were also significantly associated with elevated blood pressure (p?slum community was lower than reported frequencies in the non-slum population of Brazil and Salvador, yet both disease awareness and treatment frequency were low. Further research on hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases in slum populations is urgently needed to guide prevention and treatment efforts in this growing population. PMID:25920334

  11. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  12. Lifestyle pattern in selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area.

    PubMed

    Basher, M S; Haque, M M; Ullah, M S; Nasreen, S A; Begum, A A; Islam, M N; Akhter, S; Haque, M S

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle is composed of cultural and behavioural patterns and lifelong personal habits that developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyle may be health promotive or detrimental to health. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. Many current day health problems are associated with lifestyle changes. Because of rising urban population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. The mobility of people from rural to urban areas is the main reason of the growing slum population in cities. This Descriptive, cross-sectional study was directed to assess lifestyle pattern in four purposively selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area. Non-Probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study unit. Sample size was one hundred and twenty-three (123) families. Data were collected by interview with one of the adult family members, preferably with the head of the family, with mixed type of interviewer administered questionnaire. There were 494 family members with an average family size of 4.02, while mean age was 24.58 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.79 years. Male-female ratio was 103:100. Of 409 members over 5 years, 174(42.54%) did not have schooling and were illiterate. At least 105(33.02%) members were house-wives, and 99(81.15%) members were smokers. An overwhelming majority (79, 64.23%) families had monthly income between 2000 to 4999 taka. As many as 55(44.72%) families lived in kaccha house, while 40(32.52%) had to live in "Jhupree". In cent per cent families, tube well was the source of water for drinking and other household purposes. A highest majority 121(98.37%) of the families had latrine, while the remaining 2(1.63%) did not have any latrine, and defecate in open air. Of 121 families, 78(64.46%) families had sanitary latrine, while 43(37.54%) did not have sanitary latrine. It was revealed that 86(69.92%) families had cell-phone, while 65(52.85%) families had television, 10(8.13%) families had radio, and 5(4.06%) families had DVD/VCR for recreational facilities. As many as 75(60.98%) respondents had correct knowledge, while the rest 48(39.02%) had incorrect knowledge on hand washing. Of 75, at least 66(88.00%) respondents practiced hand washing, while 9(12.00%) respondents did not practice it. As many as 110(89.43%) members sought medical help for major and minor illness of their family members, whereas the rest 13(10.57%) families did not. Of 110, 62(56.36%) families paid visit to government Hospital, while 22(20.00%) visited to private clinic, 12(10.90%) to pharmacy, 10(9.10%) to qualified doctors and 4(3.64%) to the traditional healers. As many as 58(52.71%) respondents mentioned that they preferred as the facilities cater service free of cost, while 32(29.10%) preferred for better and effective treatment, 16(14.55%) for close to their residence and 4(7.27%) for their belief. Living condition of slum dwellers is considerably low due to low income and inadequate education. Moreover, poor physical environment with unsanitary excreta disposal method is commonplace in slum areas. Existing lifestyle of slum dwellers is unacceptable, and should be improved so that they can contribute to the national development. PMID:22561760

  13. Dietary adequacy of Indian children residing in an urban slum--analysis of proximal and distal determinants.

    PubMed

    Kulsum, Asma; A, Jyothi Lakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    The influences of proximal and distal determinants of dietary adequacy of children from an urban slum in India were analyzed. Children numbering 271 (5-14 years) and their mothers were enrolled for the study. Intake of all nutrients except protein was inadequate in the dietaries of children. Among distal determinants, associations were found between (i) calorie intake and maternal nutritional status; (ii) protein, iron and B-complex intakes and economic status, and (iii) retinol, calcium and fat intakes and family size. Literacy status was not associated with dietary adequacy. Age of children and economic status of family were important determinants of dietary adequacy of children from slum area. PMID:21883060

  14. Sleep and Quality of Life in Urban Poverty: The Effect of a Slum Housing Upgrading Program

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design: Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting: Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants: A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions: Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions: A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity. Citation: Simonelli G; Leanza Y; Boilard A; Hyland M; Augustinavicius JL; Cardinali DP; Vallières A; Pérez-Chada D; Vigo DE. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: the effect of a slum housing upgrading program. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1669-1676. PMID:24179300

  15. Experiential household food insecurity in an urban underserved slum of North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddharth Agarwal; Vani Sethi; Palak Gupta; Meenakshi Jha; Ayushi Agnihotri; Mark Nord

    2009-01-01

    One-third of India’s urban population resides in extreme poverty, in slums and squatters. Food insecurity remains a visible\\u000a reality among this segment. Yet, it is scarcely documented. This paper describes levels and determinants of experiential household\\u000a food insecurity (HFI) in an underserved urban slum of Delhi (India) and reports the internal validity and reliability of the\\u000a measure used to assess

  16. Proportion and factors associated with depressive symptoms among elderly in an urban slum in Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Thirthahalli, Chethana; Suryanarayana, S P; Sukumar, Gautham Melur; Bharath, Srikala; Rao, Girish N; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa

    2014-12-01

    Depression among elderly is emerging as an important public health issue in developing countries like India. Published evidence regarding the magnitude and determinants of depression among elderly hailing from urban slum is currently limited. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess magnitude of the problem and identify factors associated with depression among the elderly in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study was done to cover total of 473 elderly persons from an urban slum in Bangalore, India. They were assessed for depression using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 37.8 (95% CI?=?33.43-42.16). Multivariate analysis revealed that unemployment (self or children) (odds ratio (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-4.72), illness of self (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.45-3.21), female gender (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.19-2.89), conflicts in family (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.03-2.43), and marriage of children or grandchildren (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.02-2.68) as independent risk factors. Depression among elderly is an important health issue of this area. Psychological intervention need to be provided for all elderly persons especially at the time of being diagnosed with any kind of illness. Strategies should be targeted to the females. The stressful life events need to be identified and remedial actions taken. This facility should be made available to them at the primary level of health care. There is a need to include screening of depression in our national health programs. PMID:25163930

  17. Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums

    PubMed Central

    Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life. PMID:25317001

  18. Determinants of diarrhea prevalence in urban slums: a comparative assessment towards enhanced environmental management.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Maroun, R; Quba'a, R; Mawla, D; Sayess, R; Massoud, M A; Jamali, I

    2014-02-01

    This study relies on a comparative assessment of diarrhea occurrence in two urban slums to identify salient factors influencing case prevalence. Primary data were collected from both areas using a structured closed-ended questionnaire coupled with bottled and public water quality sampling and analysis at households reporting diarrhea cases. The water quality analysis showed contamination at the household level due primarily to the location of water storage tanks, as well as in some brands of bottled water due to lack of enforcement of source monitoring. Descriptive statistics and chi-square distribution tests revealed significant difference in diarrhea cases in both study areas which was correlated with the educational level of household head, financial status, type of water storage tank, and corresponding cleaning frequency as well as the adoption of measures to treat water or the use of bottled water. PMID:24078142

  19. Socioeconomic factors associated with contraceptive use and method choice in urban slums of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    This article explores the socioeconomic factors affecting contraceptive use and method choice among women of urban slums using the nationally representative 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to examine the relationship between a set of sociodemographic factors and the dependent variables. Overall, the contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.1%, of which 53.2% were modern methods. Women's age, access to TV, number of unions, nongovernmental organization membership, working status of women, number of living children, child mortality, and wealth index were important determinants of contraceptive use and method preference. Sex composition of surviving children and women's education were the most important determinants of contraceptive use and method choice. Programs should be strengthened to provide nonclinical modern methods free of cost among the slum dwellers. Doorstep delivery services of modern contraceptive methods may raise the contraceptive prevalence rate among the slum dwellers in Bangladesh. PMID:21914707

  20. Sociocultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suneela Garg; Nandini Sharma; Ragini Sahay

    2001-01-01

    This paper attempts to understand the experience of menstruation in the socio-cultural context of an urban Indian slum. Observations were gathered as part of a larger study of reproductive tract infections in women in Delhi, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative phase consisted of 52 in-depth interviews, three focus groups discussions and five key informant interviews. In the

  1. Where are the slums? New approaches to urban regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beniamino Murgante; Giuseppe Las Casas; Maria Danese

    This paper reports about an application of autocorrelation methods in order to produce more detailed analyses for urban regeneration\\u000a policies and programs. Generally, a municipality proposes an area as suitable for a urban regeneration program considering\\u000a the edge of neighbourhoods, but it is possible that only a part of a neighbourhood is interested by social degradation phenomena.\\u000a Furthermore, it is

  2. Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an Urban Slum Community

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Tania; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Pinheiro, Ricardo M; Ribeiro, Cassio Tâmara; Cordeiro, Soraia Machado; da Silva Filho, H. P.; Moschioni, Monica; Thompson, Terry A.; Spratt, Brian; Riley, Lee W.; Barocchi, Michele A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2008-01-01

    Background Inhabitants of slum settlements represent a significant proportion of the population at risk for pneumococcal disease in developing countries. Methods We conducted a household survey of pneumococcal carriage among residents of a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Results Among 262 subjects, 95 (36%) were colonized with S. pneumoniae. Children <5 years of age (OR, 8.0; 95%CI, 3.5-18.6) and those who attended schools (OR 2.7, 95%CI, 1.2-6.0) had significantly higher risk of being colonized. Of 94 isolates obtained from colonized individuals, 51% had serotypes included in the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Overall, 10% (9 of 94 isolates) were nonsusceptible to penicillin and 28% (27 of 94 isolates) were resistant to cotrimoxazole. BOX-PCR, PFGE and MLST analysis found that 44% of the carriage isolates belonged to 14 distinct clonal groups. Strains of the same clonal group were isolated from multiple members of 9 out of the 39 study households. Nineteen carriage isolates had genotypes that were the same as those identified among 362 strains obtained from active surveillance for meningitis. Conclusions The study's findings indicate that there is significant intra and inter-household spread of S. pneumoniae in the slum community setting. However, a limited number of clones encountered during carriage among slum residents were found to cause invasive disease. PMID:18672297

  3. Vulnerability to food insecurity in urban slums: experiences from Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Schofield, L; Wekesah, F; Mohamed, S; Mberu, B; Ettarh, R; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A

    2014-12-01

    Food and nutrition security is critical for economic development due to the role of nutrition in healthy growth and human capital development. Slum residents, already grossly affected by chronic poverty, are highly vulnerable to different forms of shocks, including those arising from political instability. This study describes the food security situation among slum residents in Nairobi, with specific focus on vulnerability associated with the 2007/2008 postelection crisis in Kenya. The study from which the data is drawn was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS), which follows about 70,000 individuals from close to 30,000 households in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The study triangulates data from qualitative and quantitative sources. It uses qualitative data from 10 focus group discussions with community members and 12 key-informant interviews with community opinion leaders conducted in November 2010, and quantitative data involving about 3,000 households randomly sampled from the NUHDSS database in three rounds of data collection between March 2011 and January 2012. Food security was defined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) criteria. The study found high prevalence of food insecurity; 85% of the households were food insecure, with 50% being severely food insecure. Factors associated with food security include level of income, source of livelihood, household size, dependence ratio; illness, perceived insecurity and slum of residence. The qualitative narratives highlighted household vulnerability to food insecurity as commonplace but critical during times of crisis. Respondents indicated that residents in the slums generally eat for bare survival, with little concern for quality. The narratives described heightened vulnerability during the 2007/2008 postelection violence in Kenya in the perception of slum residents. Prices of staple foods like maize flour doubled and simultaneously household purchasing power was eroded due to worsened unemployment situation. The use of negative coping strategies to address food insecurity such as reducing the number of meals, reducing food variety and quality, scavenging, and eating street foods was prevalent. In conclusion, this study describes the deeply intertwined nature of chronic poverty and acute crisis, and the subsequent high levels of food insecurity in urban slum settings. Households are extremely vulnerable to food insecurity; the situation worsening during periods of crisis in the perception of slum residents, engendering frequent use of negative coping strategies. Effective response to addressing vulnerability to household food insecurity among the urban poor should focus on both the underlying vulnerabilities of households due to chronic poverty and added impacts of acute crises. PMID:25172616

  4. Factors Associated with Reported Diarrhoea Episodes and Treatment-seeking in an Urban Slum of Kolkata, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipika Sur; Byomkesh Manna; Alok K. Deb; Jacqueline L. Deen; M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday; Lorenz von Seidlein; John D. Clemens; Sujit K. Bhattacharya

    2004-01-01

    In an urban slum in eastern Kolkata, India, reported diarrhoea rates, healthcare-use patterns, and factors associated with reported diarrhoea episodes were studied as a part of a diarrhoea-surveillance project. Data were collected through a structured interview during a census and healthcare-use survey of an urban slum population in Kolkata. Several variables were analyzed, including (a) individual demographics, such as age

  5. Alternatives for safe water provision in urban and peri-urban slums.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Imran

    2010-12-01

    In response to rapid urbanization throughout the global South, urban and peri-urban slums are expanding at an alarming rate. Owing to inadequate financial and institutional resources at the municipal level, conventional approaches for safe water provision with centralized treatment and distribution infrastructure have been unable to keep pace with rapidly growing demand. In the absence of alternatives to centralized systems, a global public health emergency of infectious water-related diseases has developed. Alternative decentralized water treatment systems have been promoted in recent years as a means of achieving rapid health gains among vulnerable populations. Though much work with decentralized systems, especially in urban environments, has been at the household level, there is also considerable potential for development at the community level. Both levels of approach have unique sets of advantages and disadvantages that, just as with treatment technologies, may make certain options more appropriate than others in a particular setting. Integrating community, government and other relevant stakeholders into the process of systems development and implementation is essential if the outcome is to be appropriate to local circumstances and sustainable in the long term. PMID:20705983

  6. Performance of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are one approach to addressing the health workforce crisis in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, a pioneer in this area, uses female volunteer CHWs as core workers in its health programs. After 25 years of implementing the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through its community-based mother, newborn and child health interventions. However, the program experienced suboptimal performance among CHWs, with a high percentage of them remaining in their positions but becoming "inactive", not truly participating in daily community health activities. This suggests a need to better understand the relative importance of factors affecting their active participation and to recommend strategies for improving their participation. This mixed-method study included a descriptive correlational design to assess factors relating to level of activity of CHWs and focus group discussions to explore solutions to these problems. A sample of 542 current female CHWs from project areas participated in the survey. Financial incentives were the main factor linked to the activity of CHWs. CHWs who thought that running their families would be difficult without CHW income had more than three times greater odds to become active. In addition, social prestige and positive community feedback to the CHWs were important non-financial factors associated with level of activity. In order to improve volunteer CHWs' performance, a combination of financial and non-financial incentives should be used. PMID:22595068

  7. A Study of Spousal Domestic Violence in an Urban Slum of Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prateek S; Shrivastava, Saurabh R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gender-based violence is recognized as a major issue on international human rights agenda. Domestic violence and abuse can happen to anyone, yet the problem is often overlooked, excused, or denied. This is especially true when abuse is psychological, rather than physical. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study of 6 months duration was undertaken with the objective of studying the proportion and different forms of domestic violence, factors influencing it, and to study treatment-seeking behavior of these women. The study participants were married women in the age group 18–45 years residing in an urban slum area of Malwani, Mumbai. Using stratified random sampling, 274 subjects were selected. House to house visits were paid and they were interviewed face to face using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining their informed consent. Rapport was established with the help of a Medical Social Worker. The questionnaire included information pertaining to the sociodemographic parameters and experience of domestic violence in the last 1 year and their treatment-seeking behavior for the same. Utmost care was taken to maintain privacy and confidentiality. Analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1%) followed by physical in 64 (63.4%). Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage. PMID:23412398

  8. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives. PMID:16713890

  9. Correlates of HIV-status awareness among adults in Nairobi slum areas.

    PubMed

    Ettarh, Remare Renner; Kimani, James; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wekesah, Frederick

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV in the adult population in slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya, is higher than for residents in the city as a whole. This disparity suggests that the characteristics of slum areas may adversely influence the HIV-prevention strategies directed at reducing the national prevalence of HIV. The objective of the study was to identify some of the sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of HIV-status awareness among the adult population of two slums in Nairobi. In a household-based survey conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), 4 767 men and women aged between 15 and 54 years were randomly sampled from two slums (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi and data were collected on the social and health context of HIV and AIDS in these settlements. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with HIV-status awareness. The proportion of respondents that had ever been tested and knew their HIV status was 53%, with the women having greater awareness of their HIV status (62%) than the men (38%). Awareness of HIV status was significantly associated with age, sex, level of education, marital status and slum of residence. The lower level of HIV-status awareness among the men compared with the women in the slums suggests a poor uptake of HIV-testing services by males. Innovative strategies are needed to ensure greater access and uptake of HIV-testing services by the younger and less-educated residents of these slums if the barriers to HIV-status awareness are to be overcome. PMID:25860192

  10. School Enrollment among Urban Non-Slum, Slum and Rural Children in Kenya: Is the Urban Advantage Eroding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugisha, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the "urban advantage." This "urban advantage" is associated with increased access to facilities such as…

  11. Survey of Hypertension, Diabetes and Obesity in Three Nigerian Urban Slums

    PubMed Central

    PHEABIAN AKINWALE, Olaoluwa; JOHN OYEFARA, Lekan; ADEJOH, Pius; ADEWALE ADENEYE, Adejuwon; KAZEEM ADENEYE, Adeniyi; ADESOLA MUSA, Zaidat; SOLOMON OYEDEJI, Kolawole; AYOBAMI SULYMAN, Medinat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) exist in slums as the inhabitants adopt an urbanized lifestyle which places them at a higher risk for. Lack of knowledge about the morbidity, complications and the method of control contributes to a large percentage of undetected and untreated cases. Methods This cross-sectional survey polled 2,434 respondents from Ijora Oloye, Ajegunle and Makoko, three urban slums in Lagos metropolis, southwestern Nigeria between June 2010 and October 2012. We investigated the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Respondents signed consent forms and their health conditions were documented based on self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension and family history using a semi-structured questionnaire. Diagnostic tests; weight and height for body mass index, blood glucose, and blood pressure were performed. Results More than one quarter of the participants were suffering from hypertension and only half of this were diagnosed earlier, while a further few were already on treatment. Therefore on screening, it had been possible to diagnose over three hundred more respondents, who were not previously aware of their health status. The respondents’ BMI showed that more than half of them were either overweight or obese and are at risk for diabetes, while 3.3% were confirmed as being diabetic, with their sugar levels greater than the normal range. Conclusion This study therefore revealed the near absence of screening programs for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity in these urban slums. This was further confirmed by the detection of new and undiagnosed cases of hypertension in about one quarter of the respondents.

  12. Impact of nutrition education on health of the mother and newborn belonging to the poor urban slum community.

    PubMed

    Sur, D; Mukhopadhyay, S P; Biswas, R

    1997-07-01

    To find the nutritional knowledge among mothers of one child of the poor community and to relate status of education to the nutritional health of them and the newborn and to get a thorough knowledge on the impact of nutritional education, a comprehensive study was undertaken in an urban slum area. Nutritional grading was done through scoring system. There were 47 mothers (24.1%) out of 195 having normal nutritional grade and 37 mothers (19%) having severe nutritional grade. There were 80 mothers having 'no knowledge' on maternal nutrition. 'Adequate knowledge' was found in 31 cases. Mothers (n = 80) of 'no knowledge' delivered babies of average weight 2.3 kg whereas 'adequate knowledge' mothers gave birth to babies of average weight 2.9 kg. PMID:9425844

  13. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32?034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3?months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  14. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5-6 days/week, but close by 4-5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  15. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  16. The sanitation environment in urban slums: implications for child health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    I examine the effect of improved sanitation on child health in urban Bangladesh to assess the relative importance of household versus neighborhood characteristics and of adult latrine usage versus safe disposal of children's feces. Using fixed-effects regression, I calculate the change in weight-for-height in 153 children as a function of changes in latrine usage in the surrounding community. The use of longitudinal data allows children to act as their own controls, a stumbling point of many other sanitation evaluation studies using cross-sectional or case–control methods. Results provide strong evidence that children's toileting matters more than adult toileting behavior in creating a safe, hygienic environment and reducing diarrheal disease. I conclude that investments in sanitation improvements offer important externalities, and that sanitation programs must encourage the safe disposal of children's feces in order to produce maximum health gains. PMID:25825551

  17. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

  18. The effect of income and length of urban residence on food patterns, food intake and nutrient adequacy in an Amazonian Peri?urban slum population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Christina de Mello Amorozo; Roger Shrimpton

    1984-01-01

    The influence of income and length of urban residence over the dietary patterns, food intakes and nutrient adequacies were investigated in a slum suburb of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The staple diet consisted of cassava flour, bread, rice, fish, meat, sugar and coffee. The consumption of vegetables, pulses and fruits was low. The diet did not

  19. Community-based model for preventing tobacco use among disadvantaged adolescents in urban slums of India.

    PubMed

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Tripathy, Vikal; Nazar, Gaurang P; Juneja, Neeru S; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Reddy, K Srinath

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco consumption in multiple forms presents an emerging, significant and growing threat to the health of Indian adolescents, especially those from low socio-economic communities. Research in two phases was undertaken among economically disadvantaged adolescents in two urban slums of Delhi. In phase I, qualitative research methods such as focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used to explore and understand the determinants influencing tobacco use among these adolescents. Prevalence of tobacco use was higher among boys than girls. Adolescents reported using tobacco in multiple forms, chewing tobacco being the most popular. Peer pressure, easy availability and affordability were important reasons associated with tobacco initiation and continued use. Though they had some knowledge about the harmful effects of tobacco, this was not sufficient to motivate them to abstain or quit. The community-based intervention model developed on the basis of the results of phase I was evaluated in phase II in a demonstration study with two slum communities. One was treated as the intervention and the other as control. A significant difference in current use of tobacco was observed between the study groups (p = 0.048), with the intervention group showing a reduction in use, compared with an increase in use among the control group. Post-intervention, the intervention group reported significantly lower fresh uptake (0.3%) of tobacco use compared with the control group (1.7%). No significant change was found for quit rate (p = 0.282) in the two groups. Community-based interventions can be effective in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use in a low-resource setting such as India. PMID:20190265

  20. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-01-15

    Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. PMID:24388927

  1. Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

  2. Adolescent group empowerment: Group-centred occupations to empower adolescents with disabilities in the urban slums of North India.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonia; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to understand how adolescents with disabilities can assume greater control over their rehabilitation and participation within a community-based rehabilitation programme in the urban slums of North India. A critical ethnographical approach using multiple qualitative and participatory data collection methods was adopted. Fieldwork was conducted from January to May 2005 and October 2006 to March 2007 with 21 adolescents with and 11 adolescents without disabilities (aged 12 to 18 years), and 10 community-based rehabilitation staff members. A conceptual framework called the 'Adolescent Group Empowerment Pyramid' was developed. Four themes informed the framework: group participation, group demonstration, group recognition and the socio-cultural environment's interaction with disability. Group empowerment, achieved through group-centred occupations, encourages adolescents to work together to address their rehabilitation challenges and agendas. Three external support factors and 10 areas for nurturing the group empowerment process also emerged. A limitation of this study is the lack of data on how the familial and local political and economic environment impact adolescents' ability to make decisions about their rehabilitation. Further research might explore group occupations and occupational recognition, and what this means for social change and the personal and collective growth of adolescents in underserviced communities. PMID:20690125

  3. Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Cryptosporidium Infections in Children in a Semi-Urban Slum Community in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Sankaran, Premi; Kannan, Arun; Menon, Vipin K.; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We investigated symptomatic and asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis in 20 children less than two years of age in a semi-urban slum in southern India. All surveillance (conducted every two weeks) and diarrheal samples from 20 children (n = 1,036) with cryptosporidial diarrhea previously identified by stool microscopy were tested by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism for species and subgenotype determination. Thirty-five episodes of cryptosporidiosis were identified in 20 children, of which 25 were diarrheal. Fifteen episodes were associated with prolonged oocyst shedding. Multiple episodes of cryptosporidiosis occurred in 40% of the children. Most infections were with C. hominis, subtype Ia. Children with multiple infections had significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores at 24 months but had scores comparable with children with a single episode by 36 months. Multiple symptomatic Cryptosporidium infections associated with prolonged oocyst shedding occur frequently in this disease-endemic area and may contribute to the long-term effects of cryptosporidiosis on physical growth in these children. PMID:21036847

  4. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. PMID:25169645

  5. Food intake and energy protein adequacy of children from an urban slum in mysore, India - a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulsum, A; Lakshmi, J A; Prakash, J

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the investigation was to analyse energy protein adequacy of the diets of Indian children residing in an urban slum. The subjects numbering 271 between the ages of 4-14 years resided in a slum in Mysore city in South India. Nutritional status of children and mothers were determined by standard procedures. Background information was obtained using questionnaire method. Dietary intake data was collected using the 24-hour recall method and analysed for adequacy of food intake, energy protein ratio of diet, sources of protein in diet and associated factors. Results indicate that intake of cereals and pulses is inadequate in younger children but improves with age. Intake of other vegetables is higher than the recommended levels, but that of green leafy vegetables is extremely low. Consumption of fats, oils and milk is very low while protein is derived from plant sources for the majority of the children. Only 22% of children enjoyed a diet adequate in protein and calories. Protein calorie adequacy is influenced by age and gender of children and significantly by literacy or economic status of mothers. Mother's nutritional status influenced protein energy adequacy of diets significantly. Thus, intervention efforts should not only aim at improving the socio-economic conditions of slum dwellers in general, but should also address nutritional needs of mothers and children. PMID:22691773

  6. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  7. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement123

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Design: Healthy, singleton infants aged 6–11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ?80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Results: Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. Conclusion: A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512. PMID:24225356

  8. Prevalence of Osteoarthritis of Knee Among Elderly Persons in Urban Slums Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivani, Mani; Krishnan, Anand; Aggarwal, Praveen Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of osteoarthritis among elderly is high and it majorly affects the quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis. Timely diagnosis using clinical criteria and effective intervention is of utmost importance. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of osteoarthritis of knee joint among elderly persons residing in an urban slum of Delhi using ACR clinical criteria. Materials and Methods: We did a community-based cross-sectional study among 496 elderly (>= 60 years) persons residing in urban slum of Delhi, India from December 2009 to February 2010. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria was used to clinically diagnose osteoarthritis knee. Statistical Analysis: Bivariate analysis using Chi-square test and multivariate analysis was done to identify the determinants. Sensitivity and specificity of individual factors to diagnose osteoarthritis knee was calculated. Results: The prevalence of osteoarthritis was estimated to be 41.1% (95% C.I., 36.7-45.6). Female sex and age >= 70 y were found to be independent risk factor for osteoarthritis knee. Among those having knee pain, presence of crepitus and tenderness were the most sensitive factors whereas bone overgrowth and bone warmth were most specific factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoarthritis knee was high among this elderly population and increased with age. Overall, individual factors of ACR criteria were both sensitive and specific in diagnosing osteoarthritis knee. In resource constrained setting of urban India, it can be an effective tool in clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis knee. PMID:25386465

  9. Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035

    E-print Network

    Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2010-10-31

    Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035 The 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Monroe Urbanized Area Developed for The Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization and The Louisiana Department of Transportation... of Transportation." Monroe Urbanized Area MTP Update 2035 Page ii Alliance Transportation Group, Inc. DRAFT**Adopt Date TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE MTP PLANNING PROCESS ...............................................1...

  10. Introduction to Urban Studies Area A. Urban Sociology

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Introduction to Urban Studies Area A. Urban Sociology and Political Economy Area B. Urban Histories, Theories and Methods Area C. Urban Planning and Built Environment Area D. Urban Culture and Representation URBS 210: Urban Politics URBS 220: Urban Theory URBS 230: Urban Planning and Design URBS 240: Urban

  11. Detecting Slums from Quick Bird Data in Pune Using AN Object Oriented Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, S.

    2012-07-01

    We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSENT TO HIV TESTING AMONG WIVES OF HEAVY DRINKERS IN AN URBAN SLUM IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, VA; Chandra, PS; Vaddiparti, K; Benegal, V; Cottler, LB

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the influence of socio cultural factors, perception of risk and exposure to violence on consent to HIV testing among at risk women in an urban slum. Married women chosen via a multistage probability sampling in a section of Bangalore, India, between 18 and 44 years, sexually active and considered to be at risk because of their husband’s hazardous drinking were recruited for the study. Written informed consent was obtained and measures of risk behavior and violence were administered. Pretest HIV counseling was then conducted and consent for HIV testing was sought. Factors influencing refusal of and consent to HIV testing were documented. Data collected on 100 participants indicated that over half the sample (58%) refused consent for HIV testing. There were no significant differences between the groups who consented and those who refused on perception of risk and exposure to violence. Reasons women refused testing include the following: spouse/family would not allow it (40%), believed that they were not at risk or would test negative (29%) and underwent HIV testing during an earlier pregnancy (21%). Among those who consented for HIV testing, 79% did so because the testing site was easily accessible, 67% consented because testing was free and because the importance of HIV testing was understood. The findings highlight the role of social, logistic and awareness related factors in utilizing voluntary counseling and testing services by women in the slum community. They have important implications for HIV testing, particularly among at risk monogamous women. PMID:19444670

  13. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  14. Material deprivation and unemployment affect coercive sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi: A multi-level approach

    PubMed Central

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Kazembe, Lawrence N.; Vearey, Jo; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Thomas, Liz

    2015-01-01

    We explore relations among material deprivation (measured by insufficient housing, food insecurity and poor healthcare access), socio-economic status (employment, income and education) and coercive sex. A binary logistic multi-level model is used in the estimation of data from a survey of 1071 young people aged 18–23 years, undertaken between June and July 2013, in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. For young men, unemployment was associated with coercive sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–3.21) while material deprivation (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.75–2.39) was not. Young women in materially deprived households were more likely to report coercive sex (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–2.22) than in non-materially deprived households. Analysis of local indicators of deprivation is critical to inform the development of effective strategies to reduce coercive sex in urban slums in Malawi. PMID:25814337

  15. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of HIV-infected adult patients in urban slums of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Peter, Memiah; Sibhatu, Biadgilign; Meshack, Ndirangu; Lennie, Kyomuhangi

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in access to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) have radically reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with HIV infection in both developed countries and sub-Saharan Africa. Not much is known about survival of patients on ART in slums. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality among adult patients on ART in resource poor, urban, sub-Saharan African setting. A prospective open cohort study was conducted with adult patients on ART at a clinic in Kibera slums, Nairobi, Kenya. The patients’ enrollment to care was between March 2005 and November 2011. Descriptive statistics were computed and Kaplan-Meier (KM) methods used to estimate survival time while Cox's proportional hazards (CPH) model fitted to determine mortality predictors. A total of 2,011 adult patients were studied, 69% being female. Female gender (p = 0.0016), zidovudine-based regimen patients (p < 0.0001), CD4 count >351 patients (p < 0.0001), WHO stage I patients (p < 0.0001) and “Working” functional status patients recorded better survival probability on ART. In CPH analysis, the hazard of dying was higher in patients on Stavudine-based regimen(hazard ratio (HR) =1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; p < 0.0001),CD4 count <50 cells/µl (HR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7;p < 0.0001), WHO Stage IV at ART initiation (HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; p = 0.016) and bedridden patients (HR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4;p < 0.0001). There was increased mortality among the males, those with advanced Immunosuppression, late WHO stage and bedridden patients. The findings further justify the need to switch patients on Stavudine-based regimen as per the WHO recommendations.

  16. Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children. PMID:23243080

  17. Acute diarrhoeal disease in children under 7 years of age in a peri-urban slum of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Araya, M.; Figueroa, G.; Espinoza, J.; Montesinos, N.; Spencer, E.; Brunser, O.

    1985-01-01

    A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7.1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44.2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14.4% with rotavirus, 38.4% with parasites and in 27.9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11.5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected. PMID:4067299

  18. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  19. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support. PMID:25840697

  20. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR?=?9.59, 95% CI?=?5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  1. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  2. Groundwater Contamination in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Kuroda; Tetsuo Fukushi

    Groundwater has been used everywhere in the world for a long time because of its easy accessibility and good quality. In urban\\u000a areas, groundwater as a source of domestic, commercial and industrial water has greatly contributed to the development of\\u000a cities. Groundwater in urban areas is sometimes contaminated with multiple contaminants at higher concentrations than in rural\\u000a areas. For example,

  3. Controlling Bats in Urban Areas 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2008-04-15

    to avoid obstacles and capture insects. Bats also emit audible sounds that may be used for communi- cation. L-1913 4-08 Controlling BATS Damage In urban areas, bats may become a nuisance becauseoftheirsqueaking,scratchingandcrawl- inginattics...

  4. Malnutrition among children in an urban Indian slum and its associations.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S N; Banerjee, N; Yadav, O P

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study in Bhopal, India, mothers and other family members were surveyed by questionnaire, then 1000 randomly selected slum children were clinically examined, to detect nutritional deficiency diseases. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. Malnutrition classification followed the Harvard classification (weight in relation to the age of the child) modified by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The weight of the children was recorded using the Avery personal weighing machine. Of the 1000 children, 520 were males and 480 were females almost matched in age and birth order. The prevalence of various nutritional deficiency diseases comprised: protein calorie malnutrition (63.4%), vitamin A deficiency (23.4%), vitamin B deficiency (16.2%), vitamin C deficiency (2.6%), vitamin D deficiency (9.4%), fluorine deficiency (2.9%), and anemia (7.2%). The prevalence of malnutrition was 65.0% among females compared to 61.9% in males (p 0.05). However, higher grades of malnutrition (III+IV) were 13.12% among females in comparison to 7.87% among males (p 0.05); whereas lower grades of malnutrition (I+II) were 54.04% among males and 51.87% among females (p0.05). The birth order of the children was positively associated with their grades of malnutrition (p 0.05). On the other hand, an inverse relationship was observed between birth interval and grades of malnutrition (p 0.05). The prevalence of malnutrition was significantly higher among those children whose fathers were illiterate (p 0.05). In general, as the literacy status of father increased, the prevalence of malnutrition among children decreased. The prevalence of malnutrition had a positive association (p 0.05) with children's family size: 3 members (47.0%), 4-6 members (63.9%), and 7 members and above (70.6%). On the other hand, an inverse correlation was observed between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of malnutrition (p 0.05). The prevalence of malnutrition was significantly (p 0.05) higher among the children with a history of infection (81.8%) and worm infestation (77.0%) in comparison to those without history of infection (13.1%) and worm infestation (61.9%), respectively. Similarly, nonimmunized children experienced more malnutrition (66.4%) in comparison to immunized children (57.0%). PMID:12288815

  5. Quality of Water the Slum Dwellers Use: The Case of a Kenyan Slum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Wambui Kimani-Murage; Augustine M. Ngindu

    2007-01-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization in a context of economic constraints, the majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa\\u000a live in slums often characterized by a lack of basic services such as water and sewerage. Consequently, the urban poor often\\u000a use inexpensive pit latrines and at the same time may draw domestic water from nearby wells. Overcrowding in slums

  6. Educating the Urban Poor: A Case Study of Running Preschools in Non-Notified Slums of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaijayanti, K.; Subramanian, Mathangi

    2015-01-01

    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recently reported that the world's population is shifting to its cities. India is no exception. Throughout the country, an increasing number of migrants are leaving agricultural lifestyles in search of economic and educational opportunities, often relocating to non-notified slums. Despite the fact that many…

  7. Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Living in Urban Slums: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Nairobi City, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Beguy, Donatien; Mumah, Joyce; Gottschalk, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15–22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007–2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15–22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2. Findings About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69%) have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women. Conclusions Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums. PMID:25080352

  8. High prevalence of enteroparasitosis in urban slums of Belo Horizonte-Brazil. Presence of enteroparasites as a risk factor in the family group

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Frederico F; Busatti, Haendel G N O; Cruz, Valeria L; Santos, Joseph F G; Gomes, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the urban slums of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and the risk of transmitting enteroparasites to the family members of infected individuals. Stool samples were collected and examined at clinical laboratories near each slum. Individuals were identified and classified as positive for parasitosis (IP+), and individuals with negative stool tests were classified as negative for parasitosis (IP?) and enrolled as control patients. We collected samples from 594 patients, of which 20.2% and 79.8% were classified as IP+ and IP?, respectively. In addition, 744 family members (FIPs) effectively participated in the study by providing fecal samples. In total, 1338 participants were evaluated. Of these, 34.6% were tested positive for parasitosis. Blastocystis was the most prevalent parasite, infecting 22.4% of individuals. Among FIPs, the overall prevalence was 46.1%. Of these, 50.6% and 44.7% were classified as FIPs+ and FIPs?, respectively. These results showed that IP+ did not impact the prevalence of infection within the studied communities, not constituting index cases of specific risk behaviors, suggesting that, in fact, these communities are exposed to similar oral–fecal routes of contamination. PMID:24091002

  9. Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034

    E-print Network

    Lake Charles Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2009-08-04

    Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 The 2034 Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Lake Charles Urbanized Area Developed for: The Lake Charles Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization And The Louisiana.... The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the official views or policy of the U.S. Department of Transportation." ? Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 ? Page ii Alliance Transportation Group, Inc. Adopted August 4, 2009 Table...

  10. Urbanization and its consequences on children.

    PubMed

    Mehta, P

    1992-01-01

    Just 26% of the population in India live in urban areas, but the increase in the number of people living in urban areas has risen remarkably (62.4 million in 1951 vs. 217.2 million in 1991). Almost 66% of the urban population live in areas of at least 100,000 people. Maharashtra and Gujarat states are the most urbanized states. Urbanization has led to increased productivity and economic diversification, but also deprivation, poverty, and marginalization. 20-25% of the total population live in slums, often located near factories, power stations, garbage dumps, and busy roads. The increased demand for services and infrastructure has depleted natural resources and caused other environmental problems. Environmental problems include those caused by widespread poverty and those caused by industrialization and a change in consumption patterns. The cumulative impact of these 2 causes has serious effects on urban dwellers, especially poor children. Low incomes, illiteracy, and inaccessibility to development opportunities further complicate problems. Slum dwellings have no ventilation or natural light and are vulnerable to fire. Slum dwellers suffer from dust, smoke, and noise pollution. Piles of garbage, potholes, stray animals, flies, and mosquitoes are common. Urbanization has increased disease-producing agent, e.g., toxic chemicals and car exhaust fumes. Lead emitted from car exhausts or industry causes reduced fine motor coordination, hyperactivity, lower IQs, and perceptual problems in slum children. Few slums have access to potable water and sanitation services. Children in slums are more vulnerable to diseases and deficiencies than their rural and other urban counterparts. Many people in slums are rural migrants. Urban pressures weaken traditional family ties and social control over children. Adult supervision of children is rare. Schools are not always available. Interaction between children and parents, recreation, and cultural stimulation are all lacking. Child labor is common. PMID:12318353

  11. Undernutrition and its correlates among children of 3-9 years of age residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Das, Sai Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3-9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. PMID:25580460

  12. The Return of the Slum: Does Language Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN GILBERT

    2007-01-01

    The 'cities without slums' initiative has resuscitated an old and dangerous term from the habitat vocabulary. Use of the word 'slum' will recreate many of the myths about poor people that years of careful research have discredited. The UN has employed the word in order to publicize the seriousness of urban problems and to improve its ability to attract funding

  13. Understanding chronic poverty in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Mitlin

    2005-01-01

    The problem of chronic poverty in urban areas has been given little attention despite an increasing interest in poverty and some recognition of the growing significance of urban populations. This paper reviews the literature to bring together what we know about the nature and scale of chronic poverty in urban areas. It begins with a consideration of the definition of

  14. Role of probiotic in preventing acute diarrhoea in children: a community-based, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled field trial in an urban slum.

    PubMed

    Sur, D; Manna, B; Niyogi, S K; Ramamurthy, T; Palit, A; Nomoto, K; Takahashi, T; Shima, T; Tsuji, H; Kurakawa, T; Takeda, Y; Nair, G B; Bhattacharya, S K

    2011-06-01

    Acute diarrhoea remains a major public health challenge in developing countries. We examined the role of a probiotic in the prevention of acute diarrhoea to discover if there was an effect directed towards a specific aetiology. A double-blind, randomized, controlled field trial involving 3758 children aged 1-5 years was conducted in an urban slum community in Kolkata, India. Participants were given either a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or a nutrient drink daily for 12 weeks. They were followed up for another 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was the occurrence of first episodes of diarrhoea. We assessed this during 12 weeks of intake of study agent and also for 12 weeks of follow-up. There were 608 subjects with diarrhoea in the probiotic group and 674 subjects in the nutrient group during the study period of 24 weeks. The level of protective efficacy for the probiotic was 14% (95% confidence interval 4-23, P<0·01 in adjusted model). The reduced occurrence of acute diarrhoea in the probiotic group compared to nutrient group was not associated with any specific aetiology. No adverse event was observed in children of either probiotic or nutrient groups. The study suggests that daily intake of a probiotic drink can play a role in prevention of acute diarrhoea in young children in a community setting of a developing country. PMID:20670468

  15. Controlling Tree Squirrels in Urban Areas 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2006-09-06

    In urban areas, tree squirrels can become pests when they eat pecans, berries, bird seed or vegetables from home gardens, or when they nest in attics. This leaflet discusses control of squirrels by fencing, trapping, poisoning and shooting....

  16. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

  17. Appropriate energy technology for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixon, W. R.

    1981-05-01

    Some of the unique characteristics of high density urban areas as they affect the potential use of energy conservation measures and more efficient and renewable energy sources are addressed. Energy related problems of urban areas are presented and the inner city is characterized as an environment with limited potential for applying conservation measures and innovative energy sources of the level of individual buildings. District heating and cooling is presented as one technology, uniquely appropriate for urban areas, that can collect thermal energy from efficient cogeneration plants, municipal incinerators, industrial processes, and renewable natural energy resources and distribute that energy throughout a community to its ultimate consumers. Through district heating, the urban communities can conserve energy and scarce fuels, improve environmental quality, and participate in achieving a more harmonious interface between humanity and the natural environment.

  18. Dispersion within a model urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Yuan; Akula Venkatram

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the data collected in a field study conducted in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, from 17 to 26 July 2001. The experiment was designed to simulate a source in an urban area modeled at a scale of roughly 1:10. The model urban canopy was constructed with 55-gallon drums laid out in a 5 by 9 array. Propylene (C3H6),

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

  20. Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Marta M; Weeks, John R; Engstrom, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

  1. THE TRAFFIC SAFETY PROBLEM IN URBAN AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ARCHER; K. VOGEL

    As the number of people who reside and work in urban areas increases, so, too, do the needs and demands placed on the infrastructure. This has led to severe congestion in many European cities, a situation which affects not only the environment in terms of pollution, but most notably levels of traffic safety. In Europe, tens of thousands of people

  2. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  3. 77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...SUMMARY: The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) delineates urban areas after...population and housing within the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas.\\1\\ The Census Bureau delineates urbanized...

  4. Urban Area Segmentation Using Visual Words Lior Weizman Jacob Goldberger

    E-print Network

    Goldberger, Jacob

    1 Urban Area Segmentation Using Visual Words Lior Weizman Jacob Goldberger Abstract--In this paper we address the problem of urban areas extraction by using a feature-free image representation concept appear mainly in urban areas. The proposed algorithm is based on a new pixel-level variant of visual

  5. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State...

  6. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State...

  7. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State...

  8. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State...

  9. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State...

  10. Appendix H Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment Urban Influence Areas

    E-print Network

    : The purpose of the urban influence areas dataset is to show the extent of the urban and community forestry. This dataset is referred to as the Urban Influence Areas (UIA) 2. Within the UIA, create the areas of high to UTM NAD83 zone 13 (hd30-hd00_utm). d. Mask (hd30-hd00_utm) with the UIA dataset to only include

  11. Combating the growth of slums using for-profit social business models

    E-print Network

    Fusaro, Kurtis C

    2009-01-01

    With 1 billion people living in the slums of cities today and no signs of a decrease in the rate of urbanization and population growth, it is obvious that new approaches to combating poverty and the global housing crisis ...

  12. Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2012-03-02

    Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

  13. MONITORING THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT AREAS BY USING PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Uzun; O. Demir; F. Karsli; M. Atasoy

    The Urban areas have been growing up and developing like living creatures. Development can be regularly or spontaneously. In Turkey, municipalities responsible for planned development of urban as the most of countries are in the world. In urban, which will be categorized in the shape of old and development areas, development plans have been using to direct the development. Planning

  14. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues....

  15. Dispersion within a model urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing; Venkatram, Akula

    This paper analyzes the data collected in a field study conducted in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, from 17 to 26 July 2001. The experiment was designed to simulate a source in an urban area modeled at a scale of roughly 1:10. The model urban canopy was constructed with 55-gallon drums laid out in a 5 by 9 array. Propylene (C 3H 6), the tracer, was released and sampled at 3 receptor arcs both within the barrel array and over flat terrain. Turbulence, velocity, and temperature were measured with sonic anemometers. A comparison of observations made with and without the obstacle array indicated that the obstacle array significantly increased lateral and vertical dispersion. The arc maximum surface concentrations observed within the array were well explained by a dispersion model based on that of Van Ulden [1978. Atmospheric Environment 12, 2125-2129] and modified by Venkatram [2004. Atmospheric Environment 38, 1337-1344] to use on-site measurements of mean wind and turbulence. The major conclusion of this study is that estimating dispersion within the urban canopy requires flow information below the canopy top.

  16. Inequalities in maternity care and newborn outcomes: one-year surveillance of births in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neena Shah More; Ujwala Bapat; Sushmita Das; Sarah Barnett; Anthony Costello; Armida Fernandez; David Osrin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aggregate urban health statistics mask inequalities. We described maternity care in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai, and examined differences in care and outcomes between more and less deprived groups. METHODS: We collected information through a birth surveillance system covering a population of over 280 000 in 48 vulnerable slum localities. Resident women identified births in their own localities and

  17. Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kien, Vu Duy; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Weinehall, Lars; Ng, Nawi

    2014-01-01

    Background A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI) in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Design A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas. PMID:25095780

  18. The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Tang; Hanqiu Xu

    2010-01-01

    The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to

  19. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  20. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  1. Flood Detection in Urban Areas Using TerraSAR-X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Mason; Rainer Speck; Bernard Devereux; Guy J.-P. Schumann; Jeffrey C. Neal; Paul D. Bates

    2010-01-01

    Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high-resolution TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. The study uses a TerraSAR-X image of a one-in-150-year flood near Tewkesbury, U.K., in

  2. Airborne silica levels in an urban area.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, B; Incocciati, E; Massera, S; Gargaro, G; Paoletti, L

    2007-09-01

    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 microg/m3. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 microm, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 microm. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe. PMID:17553550

  3. Geospatial intelligence about urban areas using SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, A. C.; Dekker, R. J.

    2007-10-01

    Radar satellites are important for geospatial intelligence about urban areas and urban situational awareness, since these satellites can collect data at day and night and independently of weather conditions ensuring that the information can be obtained at regular intervals and in time. For this purpose we have applied change detection techniques developed at TNO to Radarsat I fine beam imagery of various dates to find changes in Baghdad during and after the war in 2003. A drawback of SAR imagery is the poor ability to recognize the detected changes in the scene. In this paper we present a workflow for the characterization and classification of changes detected in SAR imagery. We show that these changes can be characterized using complementary data and context information. For this purpose we have used a digital surface model from Ikonos stereo imagery that contains building heights. We also have used so-called temporal features extracted from a multi-temporal data-set of Radarsat data to select the changes and to detect activity between 2003 and 2007, which has been classified with high-resolution optical data.

  4. High Evapotranspiration in Urban Areas - A Case Study in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.; Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization has a significant influence on the local, regional even global hydrologic process, such as runoff generation, drainage, and water consumption. The final water consumption is evapotranspiration into atmosphere, so it is important to estimate the evapotranspiration in urban area. Usually the urban area is considered as an area of low evapotranspiration, but it is challenged by the wet islands effects. In order to make it clear, we estimated the evapotranspiration by water balance based on the hydrology information and water process data of Beijing from 2003 to 2012. The water balance analyses were made in total area and different sub area including mountain area, plain area, urban area and the suburban area. The results show that (1) the average evapotranspiration in Beijing was close to the precipitation so Beijing made limited contribution to the water resources of the Haihe River Basin; (2) the average evapotranspiration in urban area is about 928mm/a, even higher than the evaporation on water surface; (3) the evapotranspiration in urban area controlled by the precipitation and human activities. We can conclude that the evapotranspiration or water consumption in urban area is higher than that in surround area in Beijing.

  5. The effects of urban stream improving the thermal environment in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-hwa

    2012-10-01

    Urban areas create distinctive urban climates by Urban Heat Island (UHI) that is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC) change, concentration of population and increase anthropogenic heat. In general, the study of thermal environment in urban area focused on UHI intensity and phenomenon. Recently, climate improvement has been studied using water and green belt of urban, as interest in UHI phenomenon mitigation or enhancement has been increased. Therefore in this study, effects of urban stream on urban thermal environment were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data acquired on 6 September 2009 were utilized to derive the surface Temperature (Ts) and surface energy balance using Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998). The surface energy budget consists of net radiation at the surface (Rn), sensible heat flux to the air (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G). The net radiation flux is computed by subtracting all outgoing radiant fluxes (K?: shortwave outgoing, L? longwave outgoing) from all incoming radiant fluxes (K? shortwave incoming, L?: longwave incoming). This is given in the surface energy budget equation: Rn = H + LE + G = K? - K? + L? - L?. The result indicates that the Ts of urban stream are1 °C lower than circumjacent urban area, LE flux of urban stream is higher than surrounding urban area. However, land covers of streamside and around stream with concrete, asphalt and barren belt are comprised of hot spot zone that deteriorates urban thermal environment. And urban stream does perform a role of cool spot zone that improves urban thermal environment.

  6. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Urban area pretreatment program. 125.65 Section 125.65 ...Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program. (a) Scope and...

  7. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urban area pretreatment program. 125.65 Section 125.65 ...Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program. (a) Scope and...

  8. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urban area pretreatment program. 125.65 Section 125.65 ...Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program. (a) Scope and...

  9. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urban area pretreatment program. 125.65 Section 125.65 ...Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program. (a) Scope and...

  10. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urban area pretreatment program. 125.65 Section 125.65 ...Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment program. (a) Scope and...

  11. A mechanistic model to study ozone production in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rachel Laird; Paulette Middleton; Richard W. Miksad

    1983-01-01

    A simple box model for studying the influence of emissions changes and meteorological conditions on ozone production in urban areas is presented. Several calculation examples illustrate how the model can be used to investigate the interrelationships of the primary mechanisms which determine ozone concentration levels in urban areas.

  12. Analysing the impact of urban areas patterns on the mean annual flow of 43 urbanized catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati, B.; Oudin, L.; Furusho, C.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-06-01

    It is often argued that urban areas play a significant role in catchment hydrology, but previous studies reported disparate results of urbanization impacts on stream flow. This might stem either from the difficulty to quantify the historical flow changes attributed to urbanization only (and not climate variability) or from the inability to decipher what type of urban planning is more critical for flows. In this study, we applied a hydrological model on 43 urban catchments in the United States to quantify the flow changes attributable to urbanization. Then, we tried to relate these flow changes to the changes of urban/impervious areas of the catchments. We argue that these spatial changes of urban areas can be more precisely characterized by landscape metrics, which enable analysing the patterns of historical urban growth. Landscape metrics combine the richness (the number) and evenness (the spatial distribution) of patch types represented on the landscape. Urbanization patterns within the framework of patch analysis have been widely studied but, to our knowledge, previous research works had not linked them to catchments hydrological behaviours. Our results showed that the catchments with larger impervious areas and larger mean patch areas are likely to have larger increase of runoff yield.

  13. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  14. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs. PMID:24149078

  15. Spectral resolution requirements for mapping urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Herold; Margaret E. Gardner; Dar A. Roberts

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated how spectral resolution of high-spatial resolution optical remote sensing data influences detailed mapping of urban land cover. A comprehensive regional spectral library and low altitude data from the Airborne Visible\\/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) were used to characterize the spectral properties of urban land cover. The Bhattacharyya distance was applied as a measure of spectral separability to determine

  16. Decentralization and Community Control in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcson, Simon

    This is the report of a project executed to assist in developing research policies on urban education. Data was gathered from several large cities, but detailed reports are included from Cleveland, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, and Oakland. Trends in urban education with respect to decentralization and community control are…

  17. Cross-sectional Study to Acknowledge the Independent Association of the Socio-demographic Determinants of Alcohol Use in an Urban Slum of North India

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Rashmi; Bansal, Rahul; Agrawal, Vijender; Goel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Background: To seek pleasure is man's innate nature. In his search for gratification, man has discovered a world of substances that intoxicated him. Those who fell within its trap, their life changed, their families aggrieved and they shrank from company. The addiction remained alone in the end. To many death was a relief. Methods: A community based cross- sectional study was conducted in the Catchment area of UHTC (Urban Health and training Centre) where all males aged ?15 years residing in the study area were included. Data was collected by home visit using WHO questionnaire (AUDIT: Alcohol use disorder identification test) Modified Kuppuswamy scale was used to assess the socio-economic status of the families. Data was analyzed by appropriate test using SPSS 20.0 version. Logistic regression was applied to the positively associated results. Results: According to the AUDIT score, Hazardous, Dependent and harmful drinkers were 7.7%, 9.2% and 2.4% respectively. Age, marital status, education of the head of the family, occupation of the respondent, caste, family history of alcohol use had statistically significant association (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Logistic regression was applied and marital status, family history of alcohol use and caste retained their statistical significance (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Conclusions: It can be concluded that being young, being low educated, being married and having a family history of alcohol use are more at risk to it. This indicates the dire necessity to consider the above factors in order to combat with this evil of alcohol use. PMID:25013695

  18. 75 FR 16229 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular AGENCY...grantees in implementing the Urbanized Area Formula Program (Section 5307) for capital...FTA Circular 9030.1C, Urbanized Area Formula Program: Program Guidance and Grant...

  19. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional...Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the...

  20. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional...Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the...

  1. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional...Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the...

  2. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional...Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the...

  3. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on...systems may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining...highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine functional...

  4. Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujita, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

  5. MODERN WAYS OF DESIGNING ROADS THROUGH URBAN AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í ?arský; Aida Ma?erinskien?

    2003-01-01

    An important part of forming traffic plans is through designing better traffic conducting. The through roads in urban areas are places of great traffic importance and the concentration of traffic can create serious problems. Solving of this problem significantly influences the future position and functions of current through roads in urban road networks as well as creating the possibilities of

  6. The Green Area Ratio: an urban site sustainability metric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Keeley

    2011-01-01

    The Green Area Ratio (GAR) is an urban site sustainability metric which has been used in Berlin, Germany since 1997 to enhance the urban environment by requiring green infrastructure enhancements on private properties. Following an overview of the principles of the GAR instrument, this paper outlines metric development and implementation procedures in Berlin and then analyses how instrument features might

  7. Mesh network model for urban area

    E-print Network

    Chiang, Nhan Tu

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing population, high crime rate, and limited economic opportunities are all symptoms of urban decline. These characteristics are, unfortunately, evident in major cities and small towns. Local municipalities in these ...

  8. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  9. INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas

    E-print Network

    Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

  12. Generalized flood-frequency estimates for urban areas in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gann, Ector Eugene

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating flood-frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.

  13. Seasonal Differences in Atmospheric Nitrous Acid near Mediterranean Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Amoroso; Harry J. Beine; Giulio Esposito; Cinzia Perrino; Maria Catrambone; Ivo Allegrini

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to provide insights to sources and sinks of nitrous acid in urban areas, and their seasonal\\u000a dependency on meteorology, photochemistry and long range transport. With this aim, nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios and other\\u000a compounds were measured in Ashdod (south of Tel Aviv, Israel), a typical Mediterranean urban area. Statistical data analysis\\u000a revealed

  14. Logit Models for Estimating Urban Area Through Travel

    E-print Network

    Talbot, Eric

    2011-10-21

    LOGIT MODELS FOR ESTIMATING URBAN AREA THROUGH TRAVEL A Thesis by ERIC TALBOT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOGIT MODELS FOR ESTIMATING URBAN AREA THROUGH TRAVEL A Thesis by ERIC TALBOT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  15. Modeling sediment in stormwater runoff from urban areas 

    E-print Network

    Haster, Thomas Wayne

    1991-01-01

    MODELING SEDIMENT IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM URBAN AREAS A Thesis by THOMAS WAYNE HASTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering MODELING SEDIMENT IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM URBAN AREAS A Thesis by THOMAS WAYNE HASTER Approved as to style and content by: W P mes (C air of ommittee) Bill Batchelor (Member) Donald L. Reddell (Member) James . . Yao (Head...

  16. The Fuzzy Boundary: The Spatial Definition of Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAO YANG; BILL HILLIER

    Cities seem to have some kind of area structure, usually distinguished in terms of land use types, socio-economic variables, physical appearance or historical and cultural characteristics. Is there any possibility that urban areas could in general be differentiated from the spatial perspective? What is the nature of boundaries between areas in terms of space? These questions could be approached by

  17. Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21. PMID:16989508

  18. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East Africa have been derived (six at CSIR and two at CMCC). That is, a multi-model ensemble of simulations of present-day and future climate has been made available for a number of African regions. This approach is most useful to describe the range of uncertainty associated with future climate. In order to obtain a set of plausible and physically defensible projections that can be used for a broad range of subsequent research questions, the two partners followed two different modelling approaches. The first approach, (by CMCC) uses a single dynamic climate change model: the model gets executed several times using a number of pertubations, e.g. changing initial conditions to account for the non-linear dynamics, perturbations of the boundary conditions to account for the 'imperfect' characterizations of the non-atmospheric components of the climate system or to handle the uncertainty of the driving global model, or perturbations of the model physics to account for the uncertainties inherent in the parameterizations. The second approach, (by CSIR) keeps the boundary conditions static but downscales a number of different global circulation models to account for the uncertainties inherent in the models themselves. In total, CSIR has run six different dynamic models. All runs have been conducted on super computing clusters to be completed within reasonable timeframes. The full data set is currently made available on the web. A number of tools is used to provide maximum user experience for climate change experts, social geographers, city planners and policy decision makers.

  19. Waste Water Treatment From Small Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Mahríková

    This paper describes some actual specific problems by sewage systems in small urban centres. It is dilemma to find compliance\\u000a with measures, which is following the strict requirements of EU by discharging of waste waters in receiving waters with lack\\u000a of funds required for the construction of new sewage systems and WWTPs in small municipalities. In 2002 a new Water

  20. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80... 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan...

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80... 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan...

  2. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80... 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan...

  3. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80... 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan...

  4. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80... 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan...

  5. Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T J

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  6. STORMWATER RUNOFF ON URBAN AREAS OF STEEP SLOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research is conducted to investigate the applicability of commonly used urban storm runoff prediction models to drainage basins with steep slopes. The hydraulics of runoff on steep slope areas is first reviewed and its difference from that for mild slope areas is discussed. Nex...

  7. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  8. Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Bree

    2011-01-01

    The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

  9. URBAN AFFAIRS The Greenspun College of Urban Affairs focuses on improving the quality of life in our urban area. The academic

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    URBAN AFFAIRS College of GREENSPUN HigHligHts The Greenspun College of Urban Affairs focuses on improving the quality of life in our urban area. The academic interests united by this college are diverse, but all contribute to finding ways to better understand, sustain, and improve our urban community. We

  10. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  11. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  12. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  13. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  14. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  15. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  16. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  17. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  18. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  19. 24 CFR 597.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated urban areas. 597.301 Section 597.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  20. 78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...a policy decision on how to define ``urban rodent control,'' as referred to in...APHIS-WS is authorized, except for urban rodent control, to conduct...

  1. A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Hahs, Amy K; McDonnell, Mark J; McCarthy, Michael A; Vesk, Peter A; Corlett, Richard T; Norton, Briony A; Clemants, Steven E; Duncan, Richard P; Thompson, Ken; Schwartz, Mark W; Williams, Nicholas S G

    2009-11-01

    Plant extinctions from urban areas are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide. To minimize this threat, it is critical to understand what factors are influencing plant extinction rates. We compiled plant extinction rate data for 22 cities around the world. Two-thirds of the variation in plant extinction rates was explained by a combination of the city's historical development and the current proportion of native vegetation, with the former explaining the greatest variability. As a single variable, the amount of native vegetation remaining also influenced extinction rates, particularly in cities > 200 years old. Our study demonstrates that the legacies of landscape transformations by agrarian and urban development last for hundreds of years, and modern cities potentially carry a large extinction debt. This finding highlights the importance of preserving native vegetation in urban areas and the need for mitigation to minimize potential plant extinctions in the future. PMID:19723284

  2. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).

    PubMed

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone?UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. PMID:21269746

  3. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

  4. Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature Points and Spatial Voting

    E-print Network

    Ünsalan, Cem

    - gions is an important problem in remote sensing. Very high res- olution aerial and satellite images. Unfortunately, these images cover very large areas. Therefore, their manual inspection is very hard and prone of these difficulties, manually monitoring urbanization using very high resolution aerial and satellite images

  5. Fusion of Texture Measures for Urban Area Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Trianni; Marika Tosi; Fabio Dell' Acqua; Paolo Gamba

    This paper shows an application of textural features for urban area characterization using SAR satellite images. The proposed method is based on the use of a fuzzy ARTMAP classifier whose input is selected, among many possible texture measures, by means of the Histogram Distance Index (HDI). Results validate the choice of HDI as a feature selection index. Moreover, they show

  6. Decay of sandstone in urban areas correlated with atmospheric aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sabbioni; G. Zappia

    1992-01-01

    The decay of sandstone in urban areas has been investigated. Patterns and composition of the damage layers sampled on monuments and historical buildings are described. The elemental concentrations of black surface crusts are reported. Enrichment factors in relation to the sandstone and crustal rock composition have been calculated in order to point out the component due to atmospheric deposition. The

  7. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  8. Caring for Caregivers of People Living with HIV in the Family: A Response to the HIV Pandemic from Two Urban Slum Communities in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Rewa; Purohit, Vidula; Karve, Latika; Bhalerao, Vinod; Karvande, Shilpa; Rangan, Sheela; Reddy, Srikanth; Paranjape, Ramesh; Sahay, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In low resource settings, the vast majority of ‘Person/people Living with HIV’ (PLHIV/s) and inadequate healthcare delivery systems to meet their treatment and care needs, caregivers play a vital role. Home based caregivers are often unrecognized with limited AIDS policies and programs focusing on them. We explored the perceptions and norms regarding care being provided by family caregivers of PLHIVs in India. Methodology A community based qualitative study to understand the issues pertaining to home based care for PLHIV was conducted in urban settings of Pune city, in Maharashtra, India. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among men, women and peer educators were carried out. A total of 44 in-depth Interviews (IDIs) with PLHIVs (20) and their caregivers (24), were conducted using separate guides respectively. Data was analyzed thematically. Results Home based care was perceived as economically viable option available for PLHIVs. ‘Care’ comprised of emotional, adherence, nursing and financial support to PLHIV. Home based care was preferred over hospital based care as it ensured confidentiality and patient care without hampering routine work at home. Women emerged as more vital primary caregivers compared to men. Home based care for men was almost unconditional while women had no such support. The natal family of women also abandoned. Their marital families seemed to provide support. Caregivers voiced the need for respite care and training. Discussion Gender related stigma and discrimination existed irrespective of women being the primary family caregivers. The support from marital families indicates a need to explore care and support issues at natal and marital homes of the women living with HIV respectively. Home based care training and respite care for the caregivers is recommended. Gender sensitive interventions addressing gender inequity and HIV related stigma should be modeled while designing interventions for PLHIVs and their family caregivers. PMID:23028725

  9. Bringing sexual and reproductive health in the urban contexts to the forefront of the development agenda: the case for prioritizing the urban poor.

    PubMed

    Mberu, Blessing; Mumah, Joyce; Kabiru, Caroline; Brinton, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Estimates suggest that over 90 % of population increase in the least developed countries over the next four decades will occur in urban areas. These increases will be driven both by natural population growth and rural-urban migration. Moreover, despite its status as the world's least urbanized region, the urban population in the sub-Saharan Africa region is projected to increase from under 40 % currently to over 60 % by 2050. Currently, approximately 70 % of all urban residents in the region live in slums or slum-like conditions. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) risks for the urban poor are severe and include high rates of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and poor maternal and child health outcomes. However, the links between poverty, urbanization, and reproductive health priorities are still not a major focus in the broader development agenda. Building on theoretical and empirical data, we show that SRH in urban contexts is critical to the development of healthy productive urban populations and, ultimately, the improvement of quality of life. We posit that a strategic focus on the sexual and reproductive health of urban residents will enable developing country governments achieve international goals and national targets by reducing health risks among a large and rapidly growing segment of the population. To that end, we identify key research, policy and program recommendations and strategies required for bringing sexual and reproductive health in urban contexts to the forefront of the development agenda. PMID:24352624

  10. New Orleans Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation Plan FY 2032 

    E-print Network

    New Orleans Urbanized Area Regional Planning Commission

    2007-06-12

    2 0 23 F Y Metropolitan Transportation Plan New Orleans Urbanized AreaNew Regional Planning Commission Jefferson, Orleans Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Parishes, Louisiana June 12, 2007 Metropolitan Transportation Plan New Orleans... in the American experience, with 90,000 square miles of devastation over three states, an area equal to that of Great Britain 3 . Many of these displaced residents have, at this writing, resettled elsewhere within the region, or out of the New Orleans...

  11. Growing up at the ‘margins’: Concerns, aspirations, and expectations of young people living in Nairobi’s slums

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2014-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4033 12-22 year olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with a subset of 75 youth when they were 13-24 years old (45.3% male). We observe that despite the challenges characteristic of urban slums, some youth maintain high aspirations and try to achieve them through education, delinquency, residential mobility, and religion. We note that others adjust their aspirations to account for limited opportunities. Overall, our findings highlight positive youth agency and underscore the need to improve the quality of life in urban slums. PMID:24999299

  12. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  13. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  14. URBAN AIR TRANSECT STUDY TO INVESTIGATE URBAN AREAS AS SOURCES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An urban air transect study was undertaken in Oklahoma City, OK, to investigate whether urban areas represent sources of dioxin-like compounds to the rural environment. This study proposed the hypothesis that the collective human activities characteristic of cities cause urban a...

  15. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  16. A STUDY OF STABILITY CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN AREA

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

    2005-11-01

    Accurate numerical prediction of airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas depends, to a great extent, on the use of appropriate stability conditions. Due to the lack of relevant field measurements or sufficiently sophisticated turbulence models, modelers often assume that nearly neutral conditions are appropriate to use for the entire urban area being simulated. The main argument for such an assumption is that atmospheric stability (as defined by the Richardson number) is determined by both mechanical stresses and buoyant forcing but, for a typical urban setting with a given thermal stability or sensible heat flux, building-induced mechanical stresses can become so dominant to drive the resulting stability toward nearly neutral conditions. Results from our recent simulations of two Joint URBAN 2003 releases, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model - FEM3MP, appear to support partially the assumption that urban areas tend toward neutral stability. More specifically, based on a model-data comparison for winds and concentration in the near field and velocity and turbulence profiles in the urban wake region, Chan and Lundquist (2005) and Lundquist and Chan (2005) observed that neutral stability assumption appears to be valid for intensive operation period (IOP) 9 (a nighttime release with moderate winds) and also appears to be valid for IOP 3 (a daytime release with strong buoyant forcing) in the urban core area but is less valid in the urban wake region. Our model, developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm is based on finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex building geometries and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection scheme and modern iterative solvers developed by Gresho and Chan (1998) for efficient time integration. Physical processes treated in our code include turbulence modeling via Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches described in Chan and Stevens (2000), atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budgets, and vegetative canopies, etc. Predictions from our model are continuously being verified against measured data from wind tunnel and field experiments. Examples of such studies are discussed in Chan et al. (2001, 2004), Chan and Leach (2004), Calhoun et al. (2004, 2005), and Humphreys et al. (2004). In this study, the stability conditions associated with two more of the Joint URBAN 2003 releases are investigated. Through a model-data comparison of the wind and concentration fields, observed buoyancy production in the urban wake region, together with predicted values of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in various regions of the computational domain, a more definitive characterization of stability conditions associated with the simulated releases is presented. In the following, we first discuss briefly the field experiments being simulated, then present sample results from a model-data comparison for both the wind and concentration fields, examine the predicted TKE field and the observed buoyant forcing relative to the total TKE in the urban wake, and finally offer a few concluding remarks including the resulting stability conditions of the simulated releases.

  17. A Participatory Approach to Monitoring Slum Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsion LEMMA; Richard SLIUZAS; Monika KUFFER

    Currently the eradication of slums is on the global agenda. Accordingly one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) has been set to 'achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020'. Even though efforts are made to localise the MDG's, in many developing cities, the scarcity of relevant data, coupled with lack of both

  18. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  19. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28\\u000a urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and\\u000a natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land\\u000a use and natural habitat in surrounding

  20. 47 CFR 90.741 - Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems...in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.741 Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems...220-221 MHz band, in a minimum of 28 of the urban areas listed in the following Table...

  1. Pregnant women's and community health workers' perceptions of root causes of malnutrition among infants and young children in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Sophie M; Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A; Griffiths, Paula L

    2011-07-01

    Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations. PMID:21653248

  2. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    E-print Network

    Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States David J forestry Tree cover Forest inventory a b s t r a c t Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole

  3. [Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P < 0.05). The three nitrogen depositions of ring-road and railway station were higher than other functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area. PMID:24812938

  4. A theory of ventilation estimate over hypothetical urban areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C C

    2015-10-15

    Urban roughness is a major factor governing the flows and scalar transport in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) but our understanding is rather limited. The ventilation and pollutant removal of hypothetical urban areas consisting of various types of street canyons are examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aerodynamic resistance, ventilation efficiency, and pollutant removal are measured by the friction factor f, air exchange rate (ACH), and pollutant exchange rate (PCH), respectively. Two source configurations of passive tracer, ground-level-only (Tracer 0) and all-solid-boundary (Tracer 1) are employed to contrast their transport behavior. It is found that the ventilation and pollutant removal are largely attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, with a consistent support from analytical solution and CFD results, the turbulent ACH is a linear function of the square root of the friction factor (ACH'?f(1/2)) regardless of building geometry. Tracer 0 and Tracer 1 exhibit diversified removal behavior as functions of friction factor so analytical parameterizations have not yet been developed. In view of the large portion of aged air removal by turbulence, it is proposed that the aerodynamic resistance can serve as an estimate to the minimum ventilation efficiency of urban areas. PMID:25901939

  5. Atmospheric deposition and resuspension of suspended particulates in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Hee

    2006-12-01

    Emissions of trace metals to the atmosphere and sub-sequential deposition and resuspension process represent a potential threat to water bodies, ecosystems, and public health throughout coastal Los Angeles. However, few studies have quantified atmospheric deposition in Southern California. This research aims to increase our understanding of the role of atmospheric deposition as a potentially important source of trace metals and the role of subsequent resuspension on aquatic environments in the Los Angeles coastal region. Seasonal measurements of dry deposition were made at six urban and one non-urban site for one year. Dry deposition was significantly higher at urban sites compared with the non-urban site, and the dry atmospheric deposition is dominated by particles larger than 10 mum. The measured concentration and deposition flux at six sites within urban area is spatially uniform, indicating a major role for resuspension in the fate of particles by dispersing particle---associated metals regionally. In addition, atmospheric deposition and runoff measurements (wet and dry) of particle-associated trace metals within an urban catchment made over a year indicates the dominance of dry deposition in Southern California, and shows that atmospheric deposition can potentially account for as much as 57 to 100% of the total trace metal loads in stormwater from the catchment. Furthermore, freeways and other major roads act as a source of locally high deposition rates of copper, lead and zinc, primarily because of increased emissions of particles larger than 6 mum from the freeway. Because of resuspension, these large particles are consistently observed at urban background sites, but as a smaller percentage of the total mass as distance from the emission source increases. A modified Gaussian plume model shows that dispersion may he the most significant process of controlling the spatial variation of concentration and deposition near freeway. Finally, this study demonstrates feasible protocols for a tracer technique involving labeling of porous silica particles with rare earth elements, clearly showing that labeled silica can be detected at dilutions typical of field environments where dilution is a major factor regulating contaminant concentration.

  6. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly dependent on tree density, we modeled transpiration as a function of both species and density to evaluate a likely range of values in irrigated urban forests. The results show that urban forests in irrigated, semi-arid regions can constitute a significant use of water, but water use can be mitigated by appropriate selection of site, management method, and species. PMID:21639035

  7. Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sharmila L

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence. PMID:23568948

  8. A flexible urban health index for small area disparities.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Richard; Weaver, Scott R; Dai, Dajun; Stauber, Christine; Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi

    2014-10-01

    Available urban health metrics focus primarily on large area rankings. Less has been done to develop an index that provides information about level of health and health disparities for small geographic areas. Adopting a method used by the Human Development Index, we standardized indicators for small area units on a (0, 1) interval and combined them using their geometric mean to form an Urban Health Index (UHI). Disparities were assessed using the ratio of the highest to lowest decile and measurement of the slope of the eight middle deciles (middle; 80 %) of the data. We examined the sensitivity of the measure to weighting, to changes in the method, to correlation among indicators, and to substitution of indicators. Using seven health determinants and applying these methods to the 128 census tracts in the city of Atlanta, USA, we found a disparity ratio of 5.92 and a disparity slope of 0.54, suggesting substantial inequality and heterogeneity of risk. The component indicators were highly correlated; their systematic removal had a small effect on the results. Except in extreme cases, weighting had a little effect on the rankings. A map of Atlanta census tracts exposed a swath of high disparity. UHI rankings, ratio, and slope were resistant to alteration in composition and to non-extreme weighting schemes. This empirical evaluation was limited to a single realization, but suggests that a flexible tool, whose method rather than content is standardized, may be of use for local evaluation, for decision making, and for area comparison. PMID:24733190

  9. URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,

    E-print Network

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR P. Gamba , A. Villa , , A. Plaza for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus on the simulation of urban area environment at a low spatial resolution, comparable to the new hyperspectral sensors

  10. The use of economic valuation to create public support for green infrastructure investments in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Vandermeulen; Ann Verspecht; Bert Vermeire; Guido Van Huylenbroeck; Xavier Gellynck

    2011-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has created pressure on land use. Today more and more land in urbanized areas is used for housing, industry, community services or other economic functions. However, green spaces have a proven positive effect on people living in the neighborhood of green spaces, as well as on people working or recreating in the urbanized area. Therefore, green infrastructure investments

  11. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  12. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems. PMID:18657964

  13. CFD model simulation of LPG dispersion in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiggia, Marco; Landucci, Gabriele; Busini, Valentina; Derudi, Marco; Alba, Mario; Scaioni, Marco; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio; Rota, Renato

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing concern related to the releases of industrial hazardous materials (either toxic or flammable) due to terrorist attacks or accidental events in congested industrial or urban areas. In particular, a reliable estimation of the hazardous cloud footprint as a function of time is required to assist emergency response decision and planning as a primary element of any Decision Support System. Among the various hazardous materials, the hazard due to the road and rail transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is well known since large quantities of LPG are commercialized and the rail or road transportation patterns are often close to downtown areas. Since it is well known that the widely-used dispersion models do not account for the effects of any obstacle like buildings, tanks, railcars, or trees, in this paper a CFD model has been applied to simulate the reported consequences of a recent major accident involving an LPG railcar rupture in a congested urban area (Viareggio town, in Italy), showing both the large influence of the obstacles on LPG dispersion as well as the potentials of CFD models to foresee such an influence.

  14. Modeling sediment in stormwater runoff from urban areas

    E-print Network

    Haster, Thomas Wayne

    1991-01-01

    was to determine the rate at which sediments were removed, or washed off, by stormwater runoff. Sediment removal was calculated as a function of time by using Equation (2-42) as shown below, s'(t+4t) -s'(t) e The information needed in calculating sediment...MODELING SEDIMENT IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM URBAN AREAS A Thesis by THOMAS WAYNE HASTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject...

  15. A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  16. A Century of the Evolution of the Urban Area in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946–70, 1988–97, and 2004–10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  17. Is global dimming and brightening limited to urban areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Imamovic, Adel; Folini, Doris; Ohmura, Atsumu; Wild, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Efforts have been put into place for decades around the world to understand the surface energy budget of the Earth. One of the pillars of such activities is the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) project (Ohmura and Lang 1989), which established a database for the measurements of Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) and other parameters around the world. A major finding from the GEBA project is "global dimming and brightening" (Ohmura and Lang 1989; Wild 2009), which refers originally to the secular trend of SSR on the decadal time scale in Europe that had declined till around 1980s and then has been rising ever since. Secular trends have also been found elsewhere in the world, but the strength and the direction of the trend differ across regions (Ohmura 2009; Skeie et al. 2011; Wild et al. 2005). As a number of observations are made in or close to urban areas, speculations have arisen that the observed SSR trends may be influenced by local atmospheric pollution (with the direct aerosol effects being predominant (Kvalevåg and Myhre 2007)) and also by enhanced cloud cover over urban areas (Shepherd 2005). Thus, this raises a question: to what extent the observed global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. To date, only a few studies address this problem including a statistical study based on population data (Alpert et al. 2005) and model studies inspecting SSR trends (e.g. Dwyer et al. 2010; Skeie et al. 2011). Answers are, however, inconclusive and remain debated. We investigate whether the observed global dimming and brightening is a large scale phenomenon or limited to urban areas by using the following two complementary approaches: 1) We focus on a set of selected 14 stations in Japan that yield various high quality measurements since 1961 with three of them being least influenced by urbanization (based on expert elicitation). We look into seasonal time-series of SSR, cloud amount, and sunshine duration (Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency) as well as zenith transmittance and maximum transmittance (A. Ohmura, personal communication, 26 February 2012) separately for the pristine (i.e. least influenced by urbanization) and polluted stations. 2) We deal with several hundreds of stations in Europe, Japan, and China compiled by the GEBA project and look into the SSR data since 1960. To infer the temporal development of the urbanization level at each measurement site, we use the following two datasets: i) the high resolution gridded emission data (0.5 degree) provided by the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) (Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre / Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), and ii) the population data (0.08 degree) obtained from the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) (Klein Goldewijk et al. 2010). To these data, we apply a selection of distance weighting functions to account for the spatial extent of urbanization surrounding each site (Folini et al. 2009). Our preliminary results obtained from these two approaches do not support the claim that the global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. References Alpert P, Kishcha P, Kaufman YJ, Schwarzbard R (2005) Global dimming or local dimming?: Effect of urbanization on sunlight availability. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L17802. Dwyer JG, Norris JR, Ruckstuhl C (2010) Do climate models reproduce observed solar dimming and brightening over China and Japan? Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115, D00K08. Folini D, Kaufmann P, Ubl S, Henne S (2009) Region of influence of 13 remote European measurement sites based on modeled carbon monoxide mixing ratios. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114, D08307. Klein Goldewijk K, Beusen A, Janssen P (2010) Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20, 565-573. Kvalevåg MM, Myhre G (2007) Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era. Journal of Climate, 20, 4874-4883. Ohmura A (2009) Observed decadal v

  18. A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Mustard, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

  19. BUDEM: an urban growth simulation model using CA for Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ying; Shen, Zhenjiang; Du, Liqun; Mao, Qizhi; Gao, Zhanping

    2008-10-01

    It is in great need of identifying the future urban form of Beijing, which faces challenges of rapid growth in urban development projects implemented in Beijing. We develop Beijing Urban Developing Model (BUDEM in short) to support urban planning and corresponding policies evaluation. BUDEM is the spatio-temporal dynamic model for simulating urban growth in Beijing metropolitan area, using cellular automata (CA) and Multi-agent system (MAS) approaches. In this phase, the computer simulation using CA in Beijing metropolitan area is conducted, which attempts to provide a premise of urban activities including different kinds of urban development projects for industrial plants, shopping facilities, houses. In the paper, concept model of BUDEM is introduced, which is established basing on prevalent urban growth theories. The method integrating logistic regression and MonoLoop is used to retrieve weights in the transition rule by MCE. After model sensibility analysis, we apply BUDEM into three aspects of urban planning practices: (1) Identifying urban growth mechanism in various historical phases since 1986; (2) Identifying urban growth policies needed to implement desired urban form (BEIJING2020), namely planned urban form; (3) Simulating urban growth scenarios of 2049 (BEIJING2049) basing on the urban form and parameter set of BEIJING2020.

  20. Latent syphilis among inpatients in an Urban area of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Ying; Zang, Wen-Jing; Yuan, Ling-Ling; Chai, Yong-Li; Wang, ShuQi

    2015-05-01

    We aimed at investigating the epidemiological features of latent syphilis among inpatients in an urban area of China. During the period of Jan 1999 to Dec 2007, 146 inpatients were positive for treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay from 22,454 inpatients who were admitted to the China Meitan General Hospital. The number of latent syphilis increased steadily during this period of time. From the 146 TPPA positive inpatients, 137 inpatients were diagnosed as latent syphilis. The number of male patients with latent syphilis was slightly more than the female, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.01). The number of male patients over 60 years old was 42 (30.66%), which was higher than other age groups (p<0.05). The number of female patients at the age range of 20-29 years was 20 (14.60%), which was higher than other age groups (p<0.05). Our results demonstrated that routine syphilis screening among inpatients proves to be one of the most effective precautionary measures to identify latent syphilis and thus to prevent transmission in urban areas in China. PMID:25948433

  1. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

  2. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

  3. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

  4. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

  5. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation...area. (a) General criteria. For all prospective payment hospitals in...

  6. LES validation for contaminant transport in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, D.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.; Patnaik, G.

    2010-09-01

    Contaminant transport in urban areas poses a major challenge with respect to its simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The use of time-resolved approaches like large-eddy simulation (LES) can provide insight into transient flow and dispersion regimes, which are strongly influenced by the urban geometry. LES models have the potential to resolve the characteristic unsteady flow features and their impact on plume dynamics, whereas standard industrial codes based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations can only yield steady state solutions. However, the potential to simulate the energetically dominating part of an inherently unsteady turbulent flow with LES also sets higher requirements for validation strategies. This includes that the evaluation of the model performance must go beyond comparisons of first and second order statistics which were adequate for RANS models and currently provide the basis for most of the validation metrics used as a standard. With regard to an a posteriori validation of model results for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and dispersion in complex geometry, laboratory data from boundary-layer wind tunnels are of special value. Since inflow and boundary conditions are well-defined, systematic laboratory studies provide high statistical confidence levels of measured quantities. The potential of field measurements - in this regard - is limited due to the natural atmospheric variability. In order to verify the realistic simulation of the spatio-temporal behavior of turbulent eddies, transient flow phenomena have to be characterized in experimental validation data sets as well. This topic is closely linked to structure identification and the characterization of organized motions in ABL flows, for which advanced analysis strategies like wavelet transforms, orthogonal decomposition, or stochastic estimation can be employed. Systematic comparisons of wind-tunnel measurements and LES simulation results are planned for the case of turbulent flow and contaminant dispersion in the inner city of Hamburg, Germany. The reference laboratory measurements of velocity and concentration fields are carried out in a neutrally stratified boundary-layer wind tunnel within an urban model on a scale of 1:350. Numerical results are obtained from simulations of urban contaminant transport with FAST3D-CT. The numerical model is developed and operated by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and is based on the monotone integrated large-eddy simulation (MILES) methodology. The presentation will highlight particular challenges with respect to the validation of time-resolved LES codes in contrast to standard approaches with an emphasis on specific demands of urban flow and dispersion regimes. Furthermore, an introduction to qualified evaluation strategies will be given based on experience from structure identification in experimental data sets and from the first results of the Hamburg campaign.

  7. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  8. Effect of urbanization on the avifauna in a tropical metropolitan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estaban Biamonte; Luis Sandoval; Eduardo Chacón; Gilbert Barrantes

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and unplanned expansion of urban areas is a common pattern in neotropical developing countries. Urbanization has\\u000a eliminated or drastically altered large areas of natural habitats used by the rich neotropical avifauna. In our study area,\\u000a in Costa Rica’s Central Valley, urbanization increased 72% in 33 years with the consequent destruction, fragmentation, and\\u000a isolation of forest tracts, shade plantations,

  9. Gender in urban food production in hazardous areas in Kampala, Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Nabulo; Juliet Kiguli; Lilian N. Kiguli

    Urbanization is an important development process that is linked to land access, food production, and food security. This chapter focuses on a gender-analysis study of urban agriculture, specifi cally of farmers growing food crops in hazardous areas in Kampala city, investigating the division of labour, relationships, constraints, and initiatives within urban farming households. Such a study is important to ensure

  10. AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS Scott C between urban and rural sites. Data are segregated by air mass and by season. Overall, the three "dry" air of the most intense urban/rural differentiations, with overnight temperatures typically 3° C or more above

  11. Developing Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    produce an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is manifest as warmer temperatures compared, Lodz, Poland. [3] Bornstein, R.D., 1968: Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York CityDeveloping Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States Jeff Milne1,2, M

  12. Quality Management on Valuation Reports of Demolition of Houses in the Urban Area of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Yan

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of China economy, the process of urbanization and metropolitan allies are accelerated. In this process, the demolition of houses in the urban area has also developed rapidly. Real estate valuation companies are an indispensable intermediary in urban building demolition. Since the valuation results are important for both parties, the quality and fairness of valuation results assume

  13. Flood risk: proposal of an integrated urban area flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A.; Zuccaro, G.

    2003-04-01

    The recent hydrogeological events have increased the interest of the public opinion and of the Scientific Community towards a more accurate study regarding the phenomena of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model that integrates optimally a model of propagation in riverbed of the flood wave and one of flooding in urban areas. Indeed, to be able to simulate at best the evolution of a flood event it is obvious that, given to their narrow link, the phenomena of outflow in riverbed and overflow must be considered together. When the discharge assumes such a value as to let the water exceed the banks and flood on the surrounding areas, the flow in riverbed both upstream -in case of subcritical flow- and downstream of the overflow point remains influenced by the amount of spilled water. The remaining part continues its course in riverbed until it does not meet another point in which the level of the free surface exceeds that of the banks. In order to delimit the overflowed areas, therefore, it is necessary to precisely calculate the water amount that overflows. Namely, if this value is underestimated, the computed area will be less than the real one in the point of overflow and greater downstream, while, if the value is overestimated, it will be greater in the considered point and inferior downstream. Another phenomenon to be taken into account is the type of propagation of the fluid mass in urban area because of the shape and the presence of obstacles that render such territory poorly adequate for a standard simulation of the outflow with traditionals models and instruments. A further complication not to be neglected is the strongly non stationary behavior of a flood event, as described by the hydrogrammes outgoing from hydrological models relative to events of extreme precipitation. In the present work we consider necessary not only to treat together, but also to integrate thoroughly the modelling of the outflow in riverbed and outside riverbed. To satisfy at best such an objective, we chose to simulate the propagation in riverbed of the flood event with a model solving the equations of De Saint-Venant with the explicit scheme at the finite differences by McCormack. The propagation outside the riverbed was simulated with an algorithm proposed by Gallati et al. This last one is based on a local discretization of the urban territory, which is subdivided in a series of "tanks" and "channels". Each tank is associated to an area of an extension related to the position of the other tanks and the amount of buildings, regarded as unsurmountable obstacles. The period of time associated to the flood event is dicretized in several time intervals. Inside each of them, the exchange of water volumes is evaluated as a function of the piezometric level in every node and these volumes are transferred through the channels using the transport law (in order to estimate the losses of energy) and the equation of continuity. The model performs contemporaneously the simulations: at each instant, the water amount that overflow, depending on the piezometric level in every section, is calculated in function of the dimensions of the weirs (constituted by the banks), assuming its passage through the critical state. Then, it is transferred in the tanks placed in the surroundings of the overflow points. Such points, in fact, constitute the starting nodes for the propagation of the flood because they are connected to the network of tanks with which the surrounding land has been schematized. The model has been realized in Visual Basic and needs, as inputs, the data concerning the flood event, the geometry of the riverbed and the urban territory. Therefore, the graphical interface includes areas that refer to the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the cross-sections, to the upstream and downstream bondary conditions and to the characteristics of the urban atmosphere (it is necessary to know the DEM to fix the position of the tanks). As an output, the model visualizes the entity of the floodable areas as ti

  14. Assessing urbanized area expansion through the integration of Landsat and conventional data /79052/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. B.; Friedman, S. Z.

    1979-01-01

    An image base information system (IBIS) is utilized to integrate Landsat and census data for the purpose of mapping urban land and updating urbanized-area outer lines. IBIS is a subset of the video image communication and retrieval digital image processing system developed at JPL. IBIS is used to analyze three urban areas: Orlando, Florida; Seattle, Washington; and Boston, Massachusetts. In all three applications the primary objective is to map the expansion of urban land cover in the urban fringe. Pertinent tabular reports are produced.

  15. Urban roadway congestion: 1982-1992. Volume 2. Methodology and urbanized area data. Interim research report, September 1982-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schrank, D.L.; Turner, S.M.; Lomax, T.J.

    1995-09-01

    This research report represents the seventh year of a ten-year research effort focused on quantifying urban mobility. The study contains the facility information for 50 urban areas throughout the country. The database used for this research contains information on vehicle travel, system length, and urban area characteristics from 1982 to 1992. Various federal, state, and local agencies provided the information used to update and verify the primary database. The primary database and original source of most of the information is the Federal Highway Administration`s Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS).

  16. Urbanization pressure and modeling of urban growth: example of the Tunis Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Weber; A. Puissant

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization process is a major factor of change in the Mediterranean region where pre-urban cities and new urban settlements have raised over the past decades. Several cities rapidly became regional centres or international nodes according to economic and political pressures. Urbanization (and informal settlement) causes land cover changes which can lead to deeper social, economic and environmental changes. The main

  17. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

  18. External hazards assessment of heating reactor installations in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Audet, M.C.; Adams, A.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River (Canada))

    1991-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is developing the 10-MW Slowpoke Energy System, a small, economically competitive reactor, for conventional district heating systems used at large industrial complexes, hospitals, and universities. This type of reactor would be situated within urban centers and likely adjacent to existing powerhouse complexes (desirable from an operation point of view). These existing complexes pose some interesting challenges in the area of hazards to the reactor facility from sources external to the facility, i.e., external hazards. Because of proximity of the reactor facility to the general public (the exclusion boundary is the reactor building itself), a detailed assessment of the external hazards is important for demonstrating feasibility and acquiring licensing approval. This paper briefly describes the methodology of an external hazards study.

  19. Urban effects on low-level clouds around the Tokyo metropolitan area on clear summer days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tadao; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-03-01

    The frequency distribution of low-level clouds was estimated around the Tokyo metropolitan area on summer days without regional-scale cloud cover using NOAA satellite images from 1200 to 1500 LST during an 11-year period. The urban area is determined by the NDVI obtained by the same satellite. The low-level cloud frequency is higher over this large urban area than over rural areas in the early afternoon, especially over the radially extending urban areas along major highways or railways from the metropolis. We can conclude that the frequency of the low-level clouds is enhanced over the urban area, since the cloud frequency is negatively well correlated with the NDVI and their peaks fit well within a shift of about 2 km. The frequency of low-level clouds, however, is quite low in the coastal zone, even in the urban area, because of sea breezes.

  20. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, R.V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Annual particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.

    2009-10-01

    Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban area in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle number fluxes were highest in the direction of a local road on weekdays, with a daytime median flux of 0.8×109 m-2 s-1. The particle fluxes showed a clear dependence on traffic rates and on the mixing conditions of the boundary layer. The measurement footprint was estimated by the use of both numerical and analytical models. Using the crosswind integrated form of the footprint function, we estimated the emission factor for the mixed vehicle fleet, yielding a median particle number emission factor per vehicle of 3.0×1014 # km-1. Particle fluxes from the vegetated area were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights, the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1×109 m-2 s-1. On an annual scale the highest fluxes were measured in winter, when emissions from stationary combustion sources are also highest. Particle number fluxes were compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes and similarity in their sources was distinguishable. For CO2, the median emission factor of vehicles was estimated to be 370 g km-1.

  2. Remote sensing of exposure to NO2: Satellite versus ground-based measurement in a large urban area

    E-print Network

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    urban area. spatial signature of surface NO2 is well resolved by OMI column measurements. epidemiological impact of urban air pollution. sensing may be a useful tool for exploring spatial variability of air pollution exposure within an urban

  3. NCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF OPERATIONAL TREATMENTS 101 URBAN AREAS

    E-print Network

    , funded and implemented. For the Urban Mobility Report database, the operational treatments were assessed information found and applied within the existing Urban Mobility Report structure, and the delay reduction has for use in the Urban Mobility Report. Exhibit B-2 illustrates the delay reduction percentage for each

  4. NCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF OPERATIONAL TREATMENTS 101 URBAN AREAS

    E-print Network

    and implemented. For the Urban Mobility Report database, the operational treatments were assessed for the delay, the inventory information found and applied within the existing Urban Mobility Report structure, and the delay for use in the Urban Mobility Report. Exhibit B-14 illustrates the delay reduction percentage for each

  5. Indoor radon levels in urban Hyderabad area, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sreenath Reddy, M; Yadagiri Reddy, P; Rama Reddy, K; Eappen, K P; Ramachandran, T V; Mayya, Y S

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon levels in urban areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India were measured by a time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector-based dosemeters. Results show that the radon levels varied widely in the area ranging from 17 to 311 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean value of 52.8 Bq m(-3) (GSD=1.7). Cumulative frequency distribution of radon levels gave a best fit on a log-normal scale. Measurements were carried out for 1 y, segregating the measurement periods in accordance with seasonal changes. Soil samples from the region were also analysed for natural radionuclides to study its effect, if any, on indoor radon levels. Dwellings categorised based on construction types showed that the average radon levels in the order tiles (TLE)>asbestos (ASB)>concrete (RCC) for the roof structures. The estimated radon levels in the study area are relatively higher than the country's average value of 23 Bq m(-3) and global average value of 30 Bq m(-3). PMID:19122001

  6. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

  7. Movin' on up : mainstreaming under-serviced urban communities in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    E-print Network

    Wickrema, Marinne Dhakshike

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers an early look at a radical shift in Sri Lankan urban housing policy regarding slums in the capital city of Colombo. During the 1980s, the Sri Lankan government achieved widespread urban improvements by ...

  8. Aerosol Retrieval over Urban Area in MODIS Dark Target Land Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urban air quality in many parts of the globe has reached at dangerous level (5 to 10 times higher than WHO guidelines) as urbanization and industrialization have amplified many folds during the last few decades. More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas and their number will increase 60% by 2030. Therefore it is very critical to monitor air quality (aerosol or PM) on a daily basis; especially in populated regions (urban areas) around the world. The new version (C6) of MODIS Dark Target Land Aerosol Algorithm (MDT) provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 10km2 and 3km2 spatial resolutions over dark vegetated regions. Initial validation efforts during DISCOVER-AQ field campaign over Baltimore-DC area shows that MDT overestimates AOD over urban areas, mainly because the bright and complex urban surface is not characterized properly. Accurate estimation of the surface signal within satellite-measured radiance is essential for aerosol retrieval. Surface characterization can be challenging and small error (~0.01) can produce large errors in retrieved AOD (~0.1). In this new approach, we have modified the surface characterization for urban areas, using the urban percentage information from the MODIS Land Product. We used the MODIS land surface spectral reflectance product to redefine the relationship between shortwave-IR and visible wavelengths over urban areas. We derived new surface characterization for urban area and used the DRAGON network measurements, during DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, to validate the new AOD retrievals both in 10km and 3km spatial resolution. Initial inter-comparison with AERONET data over US shows significant improvement in AOD retrieval over urban areas. This improved AOD retrieval will be an important step toward utilization of satellite based particulate matter estimation for surface air quality monitoring. We also evaluate whether the new 3km product can enable studies of small-scale gradients in aerosol loading around large urban foot prints around the world.

  9. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...the existence of a densely populated ``core'' containing at least fifty percent of...the delineation of the initial urban area core. Similar to the way block groups were...block level. During the initial urban area core delineation (see section B.1 in...

  10. The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local Exceptionality

    E-print Network

    #12;The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local The factors that explain differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult of economic activity in a city in terms of a production function, together with a scaling perspective

  11. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-print Network

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  12. Urban tree health in the Phoenix metropolitan area Department of Applied Biological Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Urban tree health in the Phoenix metropolitan area Jean Stutz Department of Applied Biological Sciences Arizona State University Urban tree health in the Phoenix metropolitan area Jean Stutz Department of Applied Biological Sciences Arizona State University INTRODUCTION Trees contribute significantly to human

  13. Multiscale Atmospheric Simulations Over Urban Areas: Testing WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, C.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of our study is to simulate realistic flows over specific sites in the NYC metropolitan area. This requires accurate atmospheric simulations at scales ranging from the mesoscales to the small turbulent scales. The meteorological Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model has been extensively tested as a mesoscale simulation tool; however, only limited results have been reported on its performance in simulating the turbulent ABL. In order to use WRF as a multiscale atmospheric simulation tool, we test the recently released version of the WRF model as a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) code. The appeal in using WRF is that the simulations at the various scales can be coupled, providing insight into the dynamics of scale interactions which are especially important over urban areas and under stable atmospheric conditions. In this perspective, the WRF-LES model has been extensively tested at small scales to assess its ability to reproduce the universal turbulent characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the logarithmic vertical wind profile near the surface in neutral conditions and over infinite (periodic boundary conditions) flat idealized surfaces. We present test results with different configuration of sub-grid scale models (1.5 SGS-TKE, Smagorinsky, and horizontal Smagorinsky) and at different resolutions (with and without vertical grid stretching). Streamwise velocity spectra are examined at several vertical levels within the planetary boundary layer. Finally, initial results and challenges from nested simulation are discussed.

  14. Collective Human Mobility Pattern from Taxi Trips in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liò, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

  15. AN URBAN ECONOMIC MODEL OF ILEGAL SETTLEMENTS IN FLOOD PRONE AREAS IN PALANGKARAYA CITY, INDONESIA -A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indrawan PERMANA; Yuzuru MIYATA

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study regarding occupations of flood prone areas by illegal settlements in urban area of Palangkaraya city, Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. Such unusual urban land use pattern has been observed in many urbanized cities particularly in developing countries. However, scientific explanations about the urban phenomena were not formulated yet as well as literatures on that topic

  16. Roadway congestion in major urban areas 1982 to 1987. Interim report, September 1987-February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.W.; Lomax, T.J.

    1989-10-01

    The research report studied 39 urban areas. An assessment of the freeway and major street operating conditions was performed in seven Texas and 32 other urban areas in the continental United States. In addition, the analyses from 1982 to 1986 were updated to include 1987 urban area data. Vehicle-miles of travel and lane-miles of roadway data were collected from a variety of sources to estimate congestion on the freeway/expressway and principal arterial street systems. The values for each system were combined into a roadway congestion index used to rank mobility in each urban area on a relative scale. An analysis of the cost of this congestion was performed using travel delay, increased fuel consumption and increased auto insurance premiums as the economic analysis factors. The economic cost to the urban area, and to the individual resident, was estimated.

  17. Breeding in an urbanizing world: Reproductive adjustments of seasonally breeding birds to urban areas

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Breeding in an urbanizing world: Reproductive adjustments of seasonally breeding birds to urban. For seasonally breeding birds, the timing of breeding (phenology) is a crucial adaptation to local environmental conditions 1. We used a meta-analytical approach to compare the timing of seasonal breeding of urban bird

  18. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process. PMID:12289002

  19. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhao, Kaiguang; Thomson, Allison M.; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2014-05-05

    Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data in five major steps, including data preprocessing, urban cluster segmentation, logistic model development, threshold estimation, and urban extent delineation. Different from previous fixed threshold method with over- and under-estimation issues, in our method the optimal thresholds are estimated based on cluster size and overall nightlight magnitude in the cluster, and they vary with clusters. Two large countries of United States and China with different urbanization patterns were selected to map urban extents using the proposed method. The result indicates that the urbanized area occupies about 2% of total land area in the US ranging from lower than 0.5% to higher than 10% at the state level, and less than 1% in China, ranging from lower than 0.1% to about 5% at the province level with some municipalities as high as 10%. The derived thresholds and urban extents were evaluated using high-resolution land cover data at the cluster and regional levels. It was found that our method can map urban area in both countries efficiently and accurately. Compared to previous threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issues, when mapping urban extent over a large area. More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and temporal dynamics using the DMSP/OLS NTL data in a timely, cost-effective way.

  20. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents of Fe and Mn are also found in these samples. Associations between V, Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn are found in samples collected near garden areas and in green parks. Studies performed on river bottom sediments from the fluvial network in the catchment area shows a significant relative enrichment in the contents of metals, in the most mobile geochemical fractions, in samples collected in the reaches downstream the urban area of Vila Real, suggesting an important contribute from urban generated sediments and associated metals through runoff.

  1. Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

    2002-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

  2. Assessment of environmental quality of Bucharest urban area by multisensor satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    Urban environmental quality is an important part of efficient urban environment planning and management. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. As is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas , often many different indicators can conflict with each other. The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. Based on Landsat TM, ETM, SPOT and SAR data for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania, it was performed a land cover classification based on spectral signatures of different terrain features used to separate surface units of urban and sub-urban area . A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used .

  3. Ventilation of idealised urban area, LES and wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuka?ka, L.; Fuka, V.; Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Ja?our, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In order to estimate the ventilation of vehicle pollution within street canyons, a wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation (LES) was performed. A model of an idealised urban area with apartment houses arranged to courtyards was designed according to common Central European cities. In the wind tunnel, we assembled a set-up for simultaneous measurement of vertical velocity and tracer gas concentration. Due to the vehicle traffic emissions modelling, a new line source of tracer gas was designed and built into the model. As a computational model, the LES model solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was used. In this paper, we focused on the street canyon with the line source situated perpendicular to an approach flow. Vertical and longitudinal velocity components of the flow with the pollutant concentration were obtained from two horizontal grids placed in different heights above the street canyon. Vertical advective and turbulent pollution fluxes were computed from the measured data as ventilation characteristics. Wind tunnel and LES data were qualitatively compared. A domination of advective pollution transport within the street canyon was determined. However, the turbulent transport with an opposite direction to the advective played a significant role within and above the street canyon.

  4. Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

  5. Studying Atmospheric Pollution in Urban Areas Overview of Subproject SATURN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Moussiopoulos

    The structure of SATURN was based on three different clusters. The Local Cluster dealt with microscale and local scale phenomena investigated in the field, but also with wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. The Urban Cluster addressed urban-to-regional scale phenomena (without resolving individual obstacles) with field experimental campaigns and numerical models. Modelling work in both clusters included the development and

  6. Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. E. Ten Veldhuis

    2010-01-01

    Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study reported in this thesis reviews existing approaches to quantitative flood risk analysis and evaluation of

  7. Optimized groundwater drawdown in a subsiding urban mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Duran, Emre; Baumann, Rainer; Finkel, Michael

    2009-02-01

    SummaryThis study establishes the first real-world application of evolution strategies for solving a groundwater management problem. In an urban coal mining area in the Emscher and Rhine Basin of Northwestern Germany the groundwater table rises relative to subsiding ground and threatens local infrastructure and basements of buildings. The active extraction system, which consists of one highly productive horizontal and twelve vertical wells that pump more than 500 m 3/h, is revised by combining groundwater model and algorithmic optimization procedure. By capitalizing on the robustness and self-adaptivity of evolution strategies, both fixed and moving well formulations are solved. It is shown that well layout can be improved by automatic optimization even though it has been previously soundly configured by experts. The total pumping effort can be noticeably reduced while complying with the drawdown targets given at 24 different locations in the study area. Savings increase if new well positions are considered. For example, one additional well yields a 9% reduction of the total extraction rate. We also investigate the relevance of the spatially variable drawdown targets and demonstrate how those targets that mainly control the optimized well layouts can be identified by varying the penalty function. It is revealed that there is huge potential for additionally reducing the extraction rate if one or more of these individual targets could be resigned, for example as a result of technical construction or land use changes. A reduction of more than 25% has been estimated for giving up the most notable constraining target. This way, by testing the significance of given constraints, algorithmic optimization may guide the re-formulation of the original optimization problem in order to conceive new groundwater management scenarios that ultimately lead to an increased efficiency of the well field. This procedure is similar to a chance-constraint approach, efficient with CMA-ES, but can be adopted in any other combined hydrological simulation-optimization problem.

  8. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes: a meta-analysis of safety effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rune Elvik

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of 33 studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of area-wide urban traffic calming schemes. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes are typically implemented in residential areas in towns in order to reduce the environmental and safety problems caused by road traffic. A hierarchical road system is established and through traffic is removed from

  9. Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Particulate Matter (PM10) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%). PMID:22645437

  10. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Goddard, Mark A.; Hicks, Damien M.; Kunin, William E.; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Potts, Simon G.; Robertson, Kirsty M.; Scott, Anna V.; Stone, Graham N.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km2) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators. PMID:25673686

  11. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232...disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal...which has become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in accordance...

  12. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...prospective payment hospital that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232...disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal...which has become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in accordance...

  14. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232...disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal...which has become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in accordance...

  15. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...prospective payment hospital that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of...

  16. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...prospective payment hospital that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of...

  17. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification...prospective payment hospital that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of...

  18. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misi?n?, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation regarding the land use of the Natura 2000 buffer areas is contributing to the degradation of the services provide by these areas. Acknowledgments RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission, for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research) and COST Action IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) References Dasselaar, I.V. (2013) The impact of a buffer zone. The influence of the introduction of buffer zones surrounding Natura 2000 areas on local actors, the case of het Boetelerveld in the Netherlands. Master Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, 69 p. Hansen, A.J. (2007) Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications, 17, 974-978. McDonald, R.I., Kareiva, P., Forman, R.T.T. (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 1695-1703. Pereira, P., Monkevicius, A., Siarova, A. (2014) Public perception of the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of Urban Sprawl in Vilnius. Societal Studies, 6, 256-290. Salvati, L., Sabbi, A. (2011) Exploring long-term land cover changes in an urban region of southern of Europe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18, 273-282.

  19. Results of the round table "Impact of natural and man-made hazards on urban areas"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina; Hostiuc, Constantin; Mihaila, Marina; Gheorghe (Popovici), Diana Alexandra; Anghelache, Mirela Adriana; Dutu, Andreea; Tascu-Stavre, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    On Thursday the 6th of November a round table was organised at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies of the "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic of this session. It included a review of the previous editions, and an outlook to the edition this year. We shared publications, and a publication is in work from the round table itself. The series of round tables at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies is an innitiative of Constantin Hostiuc, the secretary general of the centre. This round table was organised by Maria Bostenaru Dan, and moderated by Cristina Olga Gociman, who currently runs a project on a related topic. From the various ways to approach the effects of hazards, up to the disatrous ones, on urban areas, we consider the most suitable the approach to the impact. From the point of view of natural sciences and of the engineering ones this was approached a number of times, and newly social sciences are included as well. The role of planning and design for a better prevention, and even post-disaster intervention is ignored many times though. The goal of the round table was to bring together multidisciplinary approaches (architecture, urban planning, seismology, geography, structural engineering, ecology, communication sciences, art history) on a problem set from this point of view. Discussed topics were: 1. Assessment and mapping methods of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas (preventive, postdisaster) 2. Visualisation and communication techniques of the assessed impact, including GIS, internet, 3D 3. Strategies for the reduction of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas 4. Suitable methods of urban design for the mitigation of the effects of disasters in multihazard case 5. Partnership models among the involved actors in the decision process for disaster mitigaton 6. Urban planning instruments for risc management strategies (ex. master plan) 7. Lessons learned from the relationship between hazard, vulnerability and impact in recent events 8. Investigation o urban morphology for better estimation of urban vulnerability (interaction between neighbouring buildings, the influence of the position of a building in the historical centre, ...) 9. Investigation of urban morphology to assess postdisaster accesibility of strategical buildings, the role of the urban pattern for emergency vehicles 11. Quantifying models of vulnerability through questionnaires based on point numbers - the role of statistics 12. Interactions between the urban systems which can increase/decrease vulnerability 13. The approach difference in the impact on protected urban areas as compared on common urban areas. 14. Keeping the memory in reconstruction/reshape efforts after disasters, the role of heritage habitat.

  20. Avian Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds in Highly Urbanized Areas

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; Munster, Vincent J.; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B. G.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses. PMID:22761671

  1. Understanding the relationships between radar response patterns and the bio- and geophysical parameters of urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zong-Guo Xia; Floyd M. Henderson

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the relationships between radar response patterns and the bio- and geophysical parameters of urban areas. Specifically, it examines the effects of radar system, ground target, and environmental factors on the intensity and pattern of radar returns from urban features. System parameters considered include radar signal wavelength, polarization, incident angle, and look direction. Ground

  2. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K C Clarke; S Hoppen; L Gaydos

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including

  3. Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    1 Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates (1990, 2000, 2010, 2100://sedac.uservoice.com/knowledgebase/topics/21155 This document outlines the basic methodology and datasets used to construct the Low Elevation Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University. 2012. Low Elevation Coastal Zone: Urban

  4. Pediculosis Capitis among Schoolchildren in Urban and Rural Areas of Eastern Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicja Buczek; Dorota Markowska-Gosik; Dorota Widomska; Iwona Monika Kawa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of head pediculosis in the rural and urban environments of Lublin Province (eastern Poland) in 1996–2000 and to examine socioeconomic factors influencing distribution among schoolchildren. A total of 95,153 schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas were examined twice yearly by school nurses. The overall rate of head pediculosis differs

  5. Human–Black Bear Conflict in Urban Areas: An Integrated Approach to Management Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Don Carlos; Alan D. Bright; Tara L. Teel; Jerry J. Vaske

    2009-01-01

    Human–black bear conflict is a persistent wildlife management problem in North America. Conflicts in urban areas are linked to continued growth and expansion of human populations as well as increased availability of anthropogenic attractants (e.g., garbage, birdfeed). Responding to urban bear conflicts can present difficult and highly publicized management decisions. This challenge highlights the need to understand the basis for

  6. A Multivariate Fuzzy Analysis for the Regeneration of Urban Poverty Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Perchinunno; Francesco Rotondo; Carmelo Maria Torre

    2008-01-01

    Urban poverty, specially in the metropolitan areas, represent one of the most relevant problems to both developed and developing\\u000a countries. The objective of the present work is to identify, based on statistical data, territorial zones characterized by the presence of urban poverty, related to property ownership and the availability of residential services. With this problem in mind, there is an

  7. EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Jenn, David C.

    EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL Lock Wai Lek In an urban environment, the linkage between UAVs and ground control stations are subjected to multipath multipath can result in a nearly complete loss of command signals, which can limit the UAV's operational

  8. BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

  9. AUTOMATIC DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL GENERATION, PROBLEMS AND RESTRICTIONS IN URBAN AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naci YASTIKLI; Karsten JACOBSEN

    Digital elevation models (DEM's) have been used wide range of application in civil engineering, planning, natural resource management, earth science and military studies. DEMs also became an indispensable source for Geographic Information Systems, which is playing a vital role for example in decision-making, urban and town planning. The generation and updating of DEM's in urban areas has to be fast,

  10. Analysis of urban areas combining high- resolution optical and SAR imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Dirk WEGNER; Stefan AUER; Antje THIELE; Uwe SOERGEL

    Modern space borne SAR sensors provide geometric resolution of one meter. Airborne systems acquire imagery with even higher resolution. In data of this kind many features of urban objects become visible, which were beyond the scope of radar remote sensing only a few years ago. However, layover and occlusion issues inevitably arise in undulated terrain and urban areas because of

  11. OYEDOTUN, T. D. T. Urban water usages in Egbeda area of Oyo State,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OYEDOTUN, T. D. T. Urban water usages in Egbeda area of Oyo State, Nigeria Temitope Dare Timothy. 149 households were sampled to evaluate their water usages and needs through the use of prepared a vital medium by which urban water usage can be evaluated in developing countries where there

  12. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate the causes of these underlying differences. ?? North American Benthological Society.

  13. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  14. New Estimates of Quality of Life in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn C. Blomquist; Mark C. Berger; John P. Hoehn

    1988-01-01

    Implicit markets capture compensation for intraurban and interregional differe nces in amenities and yield differences in housing prices and wages. These pecuniary differences become preference-based weights in a qual ity-of-life index. Hedonic equations are estimated using microdata fr om the 1980 Census and assembled county-based amenity data on climati c, environmental, and urban conditions. Ranking of 253 urban counties reveals

  15. Multiscale object-oriented change detection over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianmei; Li, Deren

    2006-10-01

    Urban growth induces urban spatial expansion in many cities in China. There is a great need for up-to-date information for effective urban decision-making and sustainable development. Many researches have demonstrated that satellite images, especial high resolution images, are very suitable for urban growth studies. However, change detection technique is the key to keep current with the rapid urban growth rate, taking advantage of tremendous amounts of satellite data. In this paper, a multi-scale object-oriented change detection approach integrating GIS and remote sensing is introduced. Firstly, a subset of image is cropped based on existing parcel boundaries stored in GIS database, then a multi-scale watershed transform is carried out to obtain the image objects. The image objects are classified into different land cover types by supervised classification based on their spectral, geometry and texture attributes. Finally a rule-based system is set up to judge every parcel one by one whether or not change happened comparing to existing GIS land use types. In order to verify the application validity of the presented methodology, the rural-urban fringe of Shanghai in China with the support of QuickBird date and GIS is tested, the result shown that it is effective to detect illegal land use parcel.

  16. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  17. Wild Ungulates as Disseminators of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Alan B.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Maguire, Hugh; Cichon, Mary K.; Fischer, Justin W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Powell, Amber; Root, J. Jeffrey; Scallan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008, children playing on a soccer field in Colorado were sickened with a strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild Rocky Mountain elk. We addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of STEC infections in humans and whether STEC was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in Colorado. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 483 fecal samples from Rocky Mountain elk and mule deer in urban and non-urban areas. Samples testing positive for STEC were higher in urban (11.0%) than non-urban (1.6%) areas. Elk fecal samples in urban areas had a much higher probability of containing STEC, which increased in both urban and non-urban areas as maximum daily temperature increased. Of the STEC-positive samples, 25% contained stx1 strains, 34.3% contained stx2, and 13% contained both stx1 and stx2. Additionally, eaeA genes were detected in 54.1% of the positive samples. Serotypes O103, and O146 were found in elk and deer feces, which also have the potential to cause human illness. Conclusions/Significance The high incidence of stx2 strains combined with eaeA and E-hyl genes that we found in wild cervid feces is associated with severe human disease, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This is of concern because there is a very close physical interface between elk and humans in urban areas that we sampled. In addition, we found a strong relationship between ambient temperature and incidence of STEC in elk feces, suggesting a higher incidence of STEC in elk feces in public areas on warmer days, which in turn may increase the likelihood that people will come in contact with infected feces. These concerns also have implications to other urban areas where high densities of coexisting wild cervids and humans interact on a regular basis. PMID:24349083

  18. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  19. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

  20. Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0–20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct?=?C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

  1. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Pant, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies from high income countries (HIC) have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally. Method Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013) were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC) or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM) of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data. Results Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC). Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01). Conclusions Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss. PMID:26162093

  2. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an urban core and a surrounding suburban landscape. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present preliminary data from a dense network of temperature sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the TCMA UHI with an emphasis on the contribution of different land use types on the UHI and the influence of wintertime temperature advection on less urbanized areas to the southeast of the TCMA. Finally, we offer evidence of the impact that the TCMA heat island has on energy consumption, human health, and the environment, and propose mitigation strategies that should be considered.

  3. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area. PMID:24604269

  5. APPLICATION OF A DATA-ASSIMILATING PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODEL TO TWO URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we have used a data-assimilating prognostic meteorological model, the Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (SAIMM), ot generate meteorological fields suitable for photochemical modeling of two urban areas; os Angeles, California and the Lower Lake Mich...

  6. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  7. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  8. Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

    2014-12-01

    As urban land expands rapidly across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Little is known about the relative contribution of these individual factors and their interactions to the terrestrial carbon dynamics, however, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of carbon sequestration policies focusing on urban development. This study developed a comprehensive analysis framework for quantifying relative contribution of individual factors (and their interactions) to terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas. We identified 15 factors belonging to five categories, and we applied a newly developed factorial analysis scheme to the southern United States (SUS), a rapidly urbanizing region. In all, 24 numeric experiments were designed to systematically isolate and quantify the relative contribution of individual factors. We found that the impact of land conversion was far larger than other factors. Urban managements and the overall interactive effects among major factors, however, created a carbon sink that compensated for 42% of the carbon loss in land conversion. Our findings provide valuable information for regional carbon management in the SUS: (1) it is preferable to preserve pre-urban carbon pools than to rely on the carbon sinks in urban ecosystems to compensate for the carbon loss in land conversion. (2) In forested areas, it is recommendable to improve landscape design (e.g., by arranging green spaces close to the city center) to maximize the urbanization-induced environmental change effect on carbon sequestration. Urbanization-induced environmental change will be less effective in shrubland regions. (3) Urban carbon sequestration can be significantly improved through changes in management practices, such as increased irrigation and fertilizer and targeted use of vehicles and machinery with least-associated carbon emissions.

  9. Larger broods in the Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis near urban areas in southern Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapio Solonen

    2008-01-01

    I examined if the distance from densely-built (urban) areas is reflected in the brood size of the Northern Goshawk near the southern coast of Finland. The data were collected from 70 nesting territories in 1976-2007, including 270 fledged broods. Within an approxi- mate distance of less than 2.5 km from the nearest urban area, the average brood size was significantly

  10. Numerical simulations of pollutant dispersion in an idealized urban area, for different meteorological conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Milliez; Bertrand Carissimo

    2007-01-01

    In order to estimate the impacts of buildings on air pollution dispersion, numerical simulations are performed over an idealized\\u000a urban area, modelled as regular rows of large rectangular obstacles. The simulations are evaluated with the results of the\\u000a Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST), which is a near full-scale experiment conducted in Utah’s West Desert area: it consists of\\u000a releases of

  11. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters. PMID:21360877

  12. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan; Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of 'disarticulated urbanization' within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  13. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  14. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and promote early child development programs, to emerge as a part and parcel of community owned sustainable development process. PMID:15064509

  15. Urban Area Extent Extraction in Spaceborne HR and VHR Data Using Multi-Resolution Features

    PubMed Central

    Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; da Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro; Gamba, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an “urban area” is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, “urban area” extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

  16. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Thornton; M. E. Farago; C. R. Thums; R. R. Parrish; R. A. R. McGill; N. Breward; N. J. Fortey; P. Simpson; S. D. Young; A. M. Tye; N. M. J. Crout; R. L. Hough; J. Watt

    2008-01-01

    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution\\u000a patterns of “total” metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems.\\u000a Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and\\u000a potential risks to urban population groups. These

  17. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in urban and rural areas of Northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula V. S. Queiroz; Glória R. G. Monteiro; Virgínia P. S. Macedo; Maria A. C. Rocha; Leopoldina M. M. Batista; José W. Queiroz; Selma M. B. Jerônimo; Maria F. F. M. Ximenes

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory profiles of canine leishmaniasis in two distinct areas. Dogs from urban and rural areas were examined. The population studied in the metropolitan area included 54 dogs. Of these, 20 (37%) animals did not present with any signs suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Among these, only eight were confirmed

  18. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  19. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount and...

  20. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount and...

  1. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount and...

  2. Floristic diversity in urban forest area of NEERI Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment. PMID:19192928

  3. Evidences of Significant Nonstationarity in Precipitation Extremes over Urbanizing Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; H, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The statistical assumption of stationarity in hydrologic extreme time/event series has been relied heavily in frequency analysis. However, due to the analytically perceivable impacts of climate change, urbanization and concomitant land use pattern, assumption of stationarity in hydrologic time series will draw erroneous results, which inturn effects the policy and decision-making. Past studies provided sufficient evidences on changes in the characteristics of Indian monsoon rainfall extremes and further it has been attributed to climate change and urbanization, which indicates the presence of significant nonstationary in the Indian monsoon extremes. Therefore, a comprehensive nonstationary frequency analysis must be conducted all over India to obtain realistic return periods. The present study aims to conduct a nonstationary frequency analysis of the precipitation extremes over India at 1o resolution for a period of 1901-2004, with the implementation of the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) parameters. A cluster of 74 GAMLSS models has been developed by considering nonstationary in different combinations of distribution parameters and regression techniques (families of parametric polynomials and nonparametric/smoothing cubic spline), which overcomes the limitations of the previous studies. Further, for identification of urban, urbanizing and rural grids, an population density data has been utilized. The results showed the significant differences in the stationary and nonstationary return periods for the urbanizing grids, when compared to urbanized and rural grids. The results give implications of presence of nonstationary in the precipitation extremes more prominently in urbanizing areas compare to urbanized and rural areas.

  4. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A possible technology which would allow the accomplishment of the proposed targets is the use of a Cross-Flow turbine, arranged according to the scheme of Fig.1, where: - the position of the rotating wall (rw) is set according to the pressure measured at its top, so that a small but constant falling discharge (Q2) is guaranteed. This falling discharge allows the transition of floating objects and hid the all machinery, with an obvious skyline improvement. - the average distance d is set in order to guarantee in the confined channel below the turbine an average velocity V similar to the original one existing in the river. PIC Fig.1 - Scheme of the river Cross-Flow turbine. Observe in Fig.2 the results of a CFX simulation, carried on with the following input data for a large rectangular section per unit width: ho (m) h1(m) h2 (m) d(m) 1.5314 1.99 0.082 0.1021 Q2(m2/s) Q3(m2/s)w (r.p.m.)V0(m/s) 0.04 0.267 27 2.61 Table 1. Input data for the CFD simulation. Simulation have been carried out using ANSYS code, with a computational domain divided using both tetrahedral and prismatic elements. The mechanical power estimated at the rotational shaft was of 4.84 KW/m and the hydraulic power of the water stream was of 7.25 KW/m. Thus the turbine efficiency was of about 49.97 %. PIC Fig.2 - Vectors velocity water field close to the Cross-Flow turbine domain. From the environmental point of view the turbine constitutes nonetheless a physical barrier that moving organisms will have to negotiate on their movements through the blades, particularly larger ones such as fish. Also, the hydraulic environment of the river will be modified, e.g. turbulence, shear stress, pressure and flow patterns, affecting as well the smaller organisms. While developing the turbine, a thorough appraisal of its environmental consequences for aquatic ecosystems has to be done, in order to develop an environmentally-friendly structure, embedding mitigation aspects. Furthermore, the structure itself will be subject to colonization on its surfaces by a biological matrix including microbial organisms but also

  5. Modelling the radiative exchanges in urban areas: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrien Gros; Emmanuel Bozonnet; Christian Inard

    2011-01-01

    In the consideration of building energy performance and urban climate models, irradiation is a key parameter. From the city scale to the detailed building interchange, different approaches and models with various levels of details are explained in this review, and their scope and usefulness considered. The first part of the study deals with solar and longwave sky irradiance models. Six

  6. Future change in wintertime urban heat island due to global climate change in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, M.; Adachi, S. A.; Kusaka, H.; Kimura, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tokyo metropolitan area is one of the largest urban areas all over the world. This study investigates the change in urban heat island intensity of Tokyo metropolitan area in winter season by the effects of global climate change. We performed present and future climate simulations are conducted using a regional climate model (WRF) including an urban canopy sub-model (Kusaka et al., 2001). Future climate simulation was conducted using Pseudo-Global-Warming (PGW) method (Kimura and Kitoh, 2008) assuming the boundary conditions estimated by CMIP3 GCMs under the SRES scenarios. The PGW method is one of the useful methods for future downscaling and adopted for some studies on urban heat island (Kusaka et al., 2012) and winter climate (Hara et al., 2008) over Japan. The simulation results indicated that UHII would be enhanced during night, due to the global climate change.

  7. A numerical study of the effect of urbanization on the climate of Las Vegas metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, S. M.; Huang, H. P.; Myint, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Las Vegas is one of the fastest growing desert cities. Its developed area has doubled in the last 30 years. An accurate prediction of the effect of urbanization on the climate of the city is crucial for resource management and planning. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a land surface and urban canopy model to investigate the effects of urbanization on the regional climate pattern around Las Vegas. High resolution numerical simulations are performed with a 3 km resolution over the metropolitan area. With identical lateral boundary conditions, three land-use land-cover maps, representing 2006, 1992 and hypothetical 1900, are used in multiple simulations. The differences in the simulated climate among those cases are used to quantify the urban effect. The simulated surface air temperature is validated against observational data from the weather station at the McCarran airport. It is found that urbanization affects substantial warming during the night but a minor cooling during the day. Detailed diagnostics of the surface energy budget are performed to help interpret this result. In addition, the emerging urban structures are found to have a mechanical effect of slowing down the climatological wind field over the urban area. The change in wind, in turn, leads to a secondary modification of the temperature structure within the air shed of the city. This finding suggests the need to combine the mechanical and thermodynamic effects to construct a complete picture of the influence of land cover on urban climate. In all cases of the simulations, it is also demonstrated that urbanization influences surface air temperature mainly within the metropolitan area.

  8. Community resource centres to improve the health of women and children in Mumbai slums: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The trial addresses the general question of whether community resource centers run by a non-government organization improve the health of women and children in slums. The resource centers will be run by the Society for Nutrition, Education and Health Action, and the trial will evaluate their effects on a series of public health indicators. Each resource center will be located in a vulnerable Mumbai slum area and will serve as a base for salaried community workers, supervised by officers and coordinators, to organize the collection and dissemination of health information, provision of services, home visits to identify and counsel families at risk, referral of individuals and families to appropriate services and support for their access, meetings of community members and providers, and events and campaigns on health issues. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial in which 20 urban slum areas with resource centers are compared with 20 control areas. Each cluster will contain approximately 600 households and randomized allocation will be in three blocked phases, of 12, 12 and 16 clusters. Any resident of an intervention cluster will be able to participate in the intervention, but the resource centers will target women and children, particularly women of reproductive age and children under 5. The outcomes will be assessed through a household census after 2 years of resource center operations. The primary outcomes are unmet need for family planning in women aged 15 to 49 years, proportion of children under 5 years of age not fully immunized for their ages, and proportion of children under 5 years of age with weight for height less than 2 standard deviations below the median for age and sex. Secondary outcomes describe adolescent pregnancies, home deliveries, receipt of conditional cash transfers for institutional delivery, other childhood anthropometric indices, use of public sector health and nutrition services, indices of infant and young child feeding, and consultation for violence against women and children. Trial registration ISRCTN Register: ISRCTN56183183 Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2012/09/003004 PMID:23782816

  9. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB) knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%); symptoms (46.8%), transmission (54.3%), prevention (34%) and free treatment (35%). Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4) and cure (85.1) was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI) lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P?=?0.004), unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P?=?0.010) and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P?urban-slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV. PMID:22824498

  10. Model estimation of the role of urban areas in global CO{sub 2} dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Krapivin, V.F. [Institute of Ecoinformatics Problems, Fryazino (Russian Federation); Vilkova, L.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rochon, G.L. [Dillard Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Hicks, D.R. [Remote Possibilities, Inc., Auburn, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The proposed Global Carbon Cycle Model (GCCM) considers the atmosphere, oceans and land masses as its main reservoirs. The oceans are subdivided into two reservoirs: a surface layer and deep-water mass sector. Land areas in the GCCM are divided into areas covering four degrees of latitude and five degrees of longitude. Each vegetated area belongs to one of thirty ecosystems, according to the Bazilevich classification, with additional urban and agricultural ecosystems, or is considered unvegetated. Urban areas are considered as part of the earth surface cell and distribution of the carbon excess dynamics of these cells is given in the GCCM input. Within the framework of scenarios of urban area functions, the carbon dioxide kinetics in the atmosphere are estimated.

  11. An alternative basin characteristic for use in estimating impervious area in urban Missouri basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A previous regression analysis of flood peaks on urban basins in St. Louis County, Missouri, indicated that the basin characteristics of percentage of impervious area and drainage area were statistically significant for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-. and 100-yr peak discharges at ungaged urban basins. In this statewide regression analysis of the urban basins for Missouri, an alternative basin characteristic called the percentage of developed area was evaluated. A regression analysis of the percentage of developed area (independent variable), resulted in a simple equation for computing percentage of impervious area. The percentage of developed area also was evaluated using flood-frequency data for 23 streamflow gaging stations, and the use of this variable was determined to be valid. Using nationwide data, an urban basin characteristic known as the basin development factor was determined to be valid for inclusion in urban regression equations for estimating flood flows. The basin development factor and the percentage of developed area were compared for use in regression equations to estimate peak flows of streams in Missouri. The equations with the basin development factor produced peak flow estimates with slightly smaller average standard errors of estimate than the equation with the percentage of developed area; however, this study indicates that there was not enough statistical or numerical difference to warrant using the basin development factor instead of the percentage of developed area in Missouri. The selection of a basin characteristic to describe the physical conditions of a drainage basin will depend not only on its contribution to accuracy of regression equations, but also on the ease of determining the characteristics; the percentage of developed area has this advantage. A correlation analysis was made by correlating drainage area to percentage of impervious area, the percentage of developed area, and the basin development factor. The results of the analysis indicate that the three basin characteristics are independent of drainage area and appropriate to use in multiple-regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  13. Maternal and neonatal health expenditure in mumbai slums (India): A cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolene Skordis-Worrall; Noemi Pace; Ujwala Bapat; Sushmita Das; Neena S More; Wasundhara Joshi; Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom; David Osrin

    2011-01-01

    Background  The cost of maternity care can be a barrier to access that may increase maternal and neonatal mortality risk. We analyzed\\u000a spending on maternity care in urban slum communities in Mumbai to better understand the equity of spending and the impact\\u000a of spending on household poverty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used expenditure data for maternal and neonatal care, collected during post-partum interviews. Interviews

  14. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  15. Intimate partner violence against women during and after pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Mumbai slums

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At least one-third of women in India experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at some point in adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and after delivery in an urban slum setting, to review its social determinants, and to explore its effects on maternal and newborn health. Methods We did a cross-sectional study nested within the data collection system for a concurrent trial. Through urban community surveillance, we identified births in 48 slum areas and interviewed mothers ~6 weeks later. After collecting information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic indicators, and maternal and newborn care, we asked their opinions on the justifiability of IPV and on their experience of it in the last 12 months. Results Of 2139 respondents, 35% (748) said that violence was justifiable if a woman disrespected her in-laws or argued with her husband, failed to provide good food, housework and childcare, or went out without permission. 318 (15%, 95% CI 13, 16%) reported IPV in the year that included pregnancy and the postpartum period. Physical IPV was reported by 247 (12%, 95% CI 10, 13%), sexual IPV by 35 (2%, 95% CI 1, 2%), and emotional IPV by 167 (8%, 95% CI 7, 9). 219 (69%) women said that the likelihood of IPV was either unaffected by or increased during maternity. IPV was more likely to be reported by women from poorer families and when husbands used alcohol. Although 18% of women who had suffered physical IPV sought clinical care for their injuries, seeking help from organizations outside the family to address IPV itself was rare. Women who reported IPV were more likely to have reported illness during pregnancy and use of modern methods of family planning. They were more than twice as likely to say that there were situations in which violence was justifiable (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.7, 3.4). Conclusions One in seven women suffered IPV during or shortly after pregnancy. The elements of the violent milieu are mutually reinforcing and need to be taken into account collectively in responding to both individual cases and framing public health initiatives. PMID:24015762

  16. Gaseous elemental mercury and reactive gaseous mercury in coastal urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soerensen, Anne L.; Skov, Henrik; Johnson, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is both a global and a local pollutant. Anthropogenic emissions are found in the long lived form of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) and the short lived forms of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury. Bromine is believed to be the main oxidant of Hg(0) in the atmosphere. One source of bromine is release from sea spray above the ocean. The difference in meteorological conditions and chemical composition in the marine boundary layer compared to the terrestrial boundary layer combined with mercury emissions from coastal urban areas could cause a different pattern in speciation and deposition of mercury at the coast than seen at inland urban sites. We want to investigate the impact of anthropogenic emissions on mercury concentrations in the immediate environment of coastal urban areas versus long range. This is done to better understand emission loads, speciation, and impact of mercury on air, soil, and water in urban areas. We present results from short duration measurements of Hg(0) and RGM in 15 coastal cities and their marine boundary layer. A closer examination of 3-4 days continuous harbor measurements in three urban areas in the Southern Hemisphere (Sydney (Australia), Christchurch (New Zealand) and Valparaiso (Chile)) was carried out. The speciation and concentration patterns in urban areas close to the coast could be different from inland urban areas due to the effect of e.g. bromine atoms from MBL and high relative humidity at the coast, which is mixed with polluted air from the cities. The dynamics of the observations will be discussed.

  17. GENERATION OF COARSE 3D MODELS OF URBAN AREAS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO SATELLITE IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Lehner; Peter Reinartz

    Commission I, WG I\\/5, ThS-3 ABSTRACT: With the emergence of more and more satellites delivering very high resolution (VHR) imagery with ground sampling distances in the range of one meter or below the generation of three dimensional urban models directly from space may become possible. Such models are required for many applications in areas where no up-to-date detailed urban mapping

  18. Obesity in adults: an emerging problem in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Q Cuong; M J Dibley; S Bowe; T T M Hanh; T T H Loan

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among Vietnamese adults living in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam.Design:This cross-sectional survey was conducted in the local health stations of 30 randomly selected wards, which represent all 13 urban districts of HCMC, over a period of 2 months from March to April 2004.Subjects:A total of 1488 participants

  19. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan. PMID:25876417

  20. The Management of Manpower Programs in Urban Areas; An Information System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Kenneth W.; Siskin, Bernard R.

    This federally funded survey, undertaken to develop a model of a decentralized local area manpower information system for meeting program management needs in urban areas, discusses the need for this system, and the origins and uses of manpower data. Characteristics and parameters of such a system, alternative models of information systems, and a…

  1. Using Quality of Life Criteria to Define Urban Areas in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuela, Vicente; Romani, Javier; Artis, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept and definition of multidimensional urban areas, thereby providing insights into our understanding of the sub-regional structures of household spatial systems. Hence, we propose a framework for strategic planning that considers several areas of household needs. In order to achieve this goal, we…

  2. BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water, and propose predefined variables to analyze some Colombian small communities located in rural areas in order to develop model based in actors and roles. It shows how the government can support this management

  3. Impact of Heat Waves on Urban Areas in the North Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2014-12-01

    We utilize high-resolution numerical simulations to understand the interaction between heat waves and urban heat islands in the North Eastern United States. Urban areas, due to their dense built-surface cover that efficiently stores and dissipate heat and reduced evapotranspiration, experience elevated near surface temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas. This difference between urban and nearby rural temperature is commonly known as the Urban Heat island Intensity (UHI), which amplifies the effects of heat waves in cities. In this work, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is significantly modified in two major ways to study two heat wave episodes in the North East during the Summer of 2006. First, the single layer urban canopy model in WRF is replaced by the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM), which includes representation for sub-facet scale heterogeneity. Second, the dominant land use approach used in the default land surface scheme is substituted with a tile-based approach to suitably capture the variability in the urban surface cover. Our preliminary results show that the magnitude of the UHI increased in New York City by more than 1°C during both the nighttime and daytime periods during the heat wave episodes. In Baltimore and Washington D. C, while the UHI increased during the nighttime period, the daytime UHI was mostly unchanged. This ongoing work will further focus on the role played by moisture availability, available energy, wind direction and magnitude and urban characteristics like population density and urban cover in modulating the UHI during these intense heat wave periods.

  4. EHSMu: a new conceptual model for hourly discharge simulation under ecohydrological framework in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.; Pumo, Dario; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2013-04-01

    A parsimonious conceptual lumped model is presented here with the aim of simulating hourly discharge in urban areas. The EHSMu (EcoHydrological Streamflow Model for urban areas) is able to reproduce the discharge at the outlet of an urban drainage system and, at the same time, soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspirative fluxes over vegetated areas within an urban catchment. In urban areas, rain falling over impervious surfaces is directly transferred towards the drainage system in a time depending on the catchment characteristics, and drainage network geometry. If the rain falls over pervious and vegetated areas the runoff generation is driven by soil moisture content, which in turn is linked to evapotranspiration and leakage. While on one side soil water content determines if rainfall produces saturation excess or a leakage loss, on the other side it constrains the evapotranspirative fluxes, so that, when it approaches to saturation, the actual evapotranspiration tends to the potential one. The hydrological scheme of the urban catchment follows these premises and consists of three interconnected elements: a soil bucket and two linear reservoirs. The soil bucket epitomizes in two distinct classes different conditions within a catchment: the first interprets impervious areas while the second describes pervious and vegetated soils. The soil bucket is linked to the two linear reservoirs: one is responsible for the runoff within the drainage system, while the other is used to delay the entry of subsurface runoff component into the drainage system. The surface reservoir is fed by the rain falling on imperviuos areas, by the saturation excess generated over pervious areas and by the delayed contribution arising from the subsurface reservoir, which is solely supplied by leakage pulses. Soil moisture dynamics in the pervious part of the basin, are simulated by a simple bucket model feed by rainfall and depleted by evapotranspiration. The latter component is calculated as a linear function of soil moisture. The model has been calibrated using Montecarlo simulations on an urban catchment in the United States. This method allows to adapt the conceptual model framework to the catchment characteristics and at the same time to obtain the set of parameters with the higher efficiency in reproducing historical discharge at the outlet. The proposed model gives reliable estimate of runoff, soil moisture traces and evapotranspiration fluxes. Model outputs could be very useful for urban ecohydrology, because they allow for the simulation of vegetation water stress and consequently the design of sustainable urban green spaces. At the same time the model structure allows to simulate the effects of stormwater management best practices for achieving the hydraulic invariance.

  5. Wetland change in the rapidly urbanizing area: take Nanjing as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lianyi; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Mo; Wang, Shen; Liu, Xin

    2007-06-01

    The degradation and loss of the regional wetland of urbanization is a more and more concerned question in the whole world. This paper takes Nanjing as an example, adopting five Nanjing area Landsat MSS and TM data: 1979, 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, combining historical data, land use and field observation, adopting decision tree method to extract Nanjing wetland. We analyze time and space changed characteristic of Nanjing wetland. The result shows: in 1979-2004, the wetlands of Nanjing changed obviously on the time and space. The total amount drops to 363.66 km2 from 397.91 km2, reduce 34.25km2 together. The delta wetland has little change, but it is the largest in proportion of all kinds of Nanjing wetland by 2004. The river wetland in the rural is the greatest one that has changed in every wetland type. In suburban areas, lake and river wetland change frequently because of urban spawl. The wetland area of lake has little change in the urban, but more suburban wetland transferred to urban wetland so the amount of increase in 2000-2004 are greater than 1979-2000. Every stage, there are some Nanjing wetland (except the delta) to transfer to urban construction land and so loss. In the space change characteristic, the rural wetland is continuously substituted by the suburban and urban wetland. It is usually the main area where wetlands are interfered with around new urban area and communication lines. The wetlands are usually interfered by noise, rubbish, and pollution. We should include the development of population and traffic system in the wetland change predicting in future planning. So can we meet wetland management's demands more effectively.

  6. Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

  7. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    PubMed

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration. PMID:26141891

  8. Food Security among Urban Households: A Case Study of Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ibrahim; N. R. Uba-Eze; S. O. Oyewole; E. G. Onuk

    2009-01-01

    Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents

  9. Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example

    E-print Network

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example & Jules Silverman # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract We collected ants from six urban and one forest land-use types in Raleigh, NC to examine the effects of urbanization on species richness

  10. Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

  11. A one-class classifier for identifying urban areas in remotely-sensed data

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); White, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    For many remote sensing applications, land cover can be determined by using spectral information alone. Identifying urban areas, however, requires the use of texture information since these areas are not generally characterized by a unique spectral signature. We have designed a one-class classifier to discriminate between urban and non-urban data. The advantage to using our classification technique is that principles of both statistical and adaptive pattern recognition are used simultaneously. This prevents new data that is completely dissimilar from the training data from being incorrectly classified. At the same time it allows decision boundary adaptation to reduce classification error in overlap areas of the feature space. Results will be illustrated using a LANDSAT scene of the city of Albuquerque.

  12. A one-class classifier for identifying urban areas in remotely-sensed data

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-05-01

    For many remote sensing applications, land cover can be determined by using spectral information alone. Identifying urban areas, however, requires the use of texture information since these areas are not generally characterized by a unique spectral signature. We have designed a one-class classifier to discriminate between urban and non-urban data. The advantage to using our classification technique is that principles of both statistical and adaptive pattern recognition are used simultaneously. This prevents new data that is completely dissimilar from the training data from being incorrectly classified. At the same time it allows decision boundary adaptation to reduce classification error in overlap areas of the feature space. Results will be illustrated using a LANDSAT scene of the city of Albuquerque.

  13. A prediction model of signal degradation in LMSS for urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsudo, Takashi; Minamisono, Kenichi; Karasawa, Yoshio; Shiokawa, Takayasu

    1993-01-01

    A prediction model of signal degradation in a Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) for urban areas is proposed. This model treats shadowing effects caused by buildings statistically and can predict a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of signal diffraction losses in urban areas as a function of system parameters such as frequency and elevation angle and environmental parameters such as number of building stories and so on. In order to examine the validity of the model, we compared the percentage of locations where diffraction losses were smaller than 6 dB obtained by the CDF with satellite visibility measured by a radiometer. As a result, it was found that this proposed model is useful for estimating the feasibility of providing LMSS in urban areas.

  14. The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Conclusions Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post-source contamination during storage in the household, except during the monsoon season, when there was some point-of-source water contamination. This suggests that safe storage and household water treatment interventions may improve water quality in slums. Problems of exorbitant expense, inadequate quantity, and poor point-of-source quality can only be remedied by providing unrecognized slums with equitable access to municipal water supplies. PMID:23442300

  15. Enhanced atmospheric deposition of semivolatile organic contaminants to surface waters adjacent to urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.; Offenberg, J.; Nelson, E.; Bamford, H. [Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.; Eisenreich, S.; Zhang, H.; Simcik, M. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    To test the hypothesis that elevated levels of atmospheric contaminants in urban areas result in enhanced atmospheric deposition to adjacent surface waters, air and precipitation were sampled at three stations along an urban to over-water to rural transect across southern Lake Michigan in 1994 and 1994 and across the northern Chesapeake Bay in 1995 and 1996. Rainwater was collected during several storms from south Chicago, from aboard the R/V Lake Guardian positioned in Lake Michigan 16 kilometers northeast of the Chicago metropolitan area, and from a rural site along the southern shoreline of the lake. PCB concentrations in Chicago precipitation were two to three orders of magnitude higher than the regional background, ranging from 4.1 ng/L in January, 1995 to 13, 190, and 8.2 ng/L during three consecutive storms in July, 1994. Urban precipitation contained significant amounts of particulate-bound PCB congeners, implying PCB enrichment due to efficient scavenging of highly contaminated particulate matter. PCB levels in precipitation falling over southern Lake Michigan were two to as much as 400 times greater than the regional background concentration, indicating that the urban plume of Chicago increases atmospheric deposition of contaminants to Lake Michigan over spatial scales of 10`s of kilometers. Air and precipitation samples collected at an urban site in Baltimore, MD and a down-wind rural site northeast of the city are currently being analyzed to map a similar urban plume signature in the northern Chesapeake Bay.

  16. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the TCMA UHI with an emphasis on the contribution of different land use types on the UHI. We also present a comparison of thermal and radiative properties of two different roofing materials with data collected from the roof of the Science Museum of Minnesota in Saint Paul, MN. The impact of the TCMA UHI on thermal pollution into local water bodies is also investigated.

  17. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  18. The macroecology of airborne pollen in Australian and New Zealand urban areas.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Simon G; Bowman, David M J S; Newnham, Rewi M; Johnston, Fay H; Beggs, Paul J; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J; Davies, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  19. The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  20. Cooperative Dispersed Urban Area Manpower Planning for Nonmetropolitan Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Niles M.

    As Federal economic development and manpower policies have seldom been coordinated, this study presents a critical examination of the effects of these policies on nonmetropolitan areas and suggests ways in which policy might be better integrated in the framework of substate planning and development districts. Examining the problems of rural areas,…

  1. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.; Doefer, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data collected from April through September 1981 from nine Denver Nationwide Urban Runoff Program sites, urban storm-runoff data collected from April 1980 through September 1981 from ten South Platte River Study sites, and rainfall-runoff simulation data from two sites for June 1980 and May 1981 are presented in this report. The Denver Nationwide Urban Runoff Program sites were two single-family residential areas, two multifamily residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multifamily residential area, one natural area (open space), and two detention ponds. The South Platte River Study sites were six tributaries of the South Platte River and four instream sites on the South Platte River. The tributary sites were Bear Creek at mouth, at Sheridan; Harvard Gulch at Harvard Park, at Denver; Sanderson Gulch at mouth, at Denver; Weir Gulch at mouth, at Denver; Lakewood Gulch at mouth, at Denver; and Cherry Creek at Denver. The instream sites were South Platte River at Littleton; South Platte River at Florida Avenue, at Denver; South Platte River at Denver; and South Platte River at 50th Avenue, at Denver. The rainfall-runoff simulation sites were North Avenue at Denver Federal Center, at Lakewood and Rooney Gulch at Rooney Ranch, near Morrison. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality data, and basin characteristics were collected at the urban storm-runoff sites. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semiarid regions. (USGS)

  2. A novel overall approach for sediment-related disaster prevention in urban areas, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Lee, Changwoo; Woo, Choongshik; Jeong, Seonhwan

    2015-04-01

    In South Korea, we had 140 landslides around Mt. Umyeon of Seoul city on July 27, 2011, which caused 16 deaths and more than 150 house damages. These landslides were triggered by a severe rainfall event with the total amount of 365 mm, equivalent to a 100-year-recurrence interval event. The landslide disaster in Mt. Umyeon is the first sediment-related disaster posing the significant serious damages to urban areas in South Korea which requires overall reconsideration about prevention, warning, countermeasure and rehabilitation to sediment-related disasters in urban areas. To meet such demands of society, the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), competent to the sediment-related disasters research, is committed to conducting on a research project of development of a prevention system for sediment-related disasters in urban areas including non-structural countermeasures such as construction of landslide early warning system and structural ones such as development of urban-typed debris flow barriers. Of these countermeasures, a proto-type of landslide early warning system consisting of a variety of sensors such as soil moisture content sensor and tensiometer has been tested in-situ in a point view of system performance maintenance. We have also tried to find the threshold of the sensors by slope failure experiments. Meanwhile, two types of debris flow barriers for urban areas were developed and their functioning abilities have been tested by both of flume test and computational structure analysis. We hope these research results would mitigate potential damages efficiently by sediment-related disasters in urban areas.

  3. Remote sensing of aerosols and atmospheric correction of HJ-1 CCD data over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; Yu, T.; Gu, X.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite aerosol retrieval over urban areas remains a difficult task due to heterogeneity and high reflectance of the urban ground surface. Compared to most moderate/low resolution satellite sensors for aerosol detection, the high spatial resolution of HJ-1 CCD camera (30 m) enables larger opportunities to find spectrally pure pixels over urban areas. In this study, we developed a SPP (spectrally pure pixels) algorithm for urban aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval using HJ-1 CCD data. Pixel Purity Index (PPI) is used to identify the pure pixels on the image. The surface reflectances of the pure pixels are estimated from the multi-temporal CCD measurements of HJ-1A and HJ-1B platforms based on surface BRDF model. Then the aerosol optical depth can be derived from satellite radiation. The comparison with ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) AOD measurements shows good performance of our algorithm. A significant (R=0.84) is obtained with a linear regression slope close to 1 and, however, a relatively large intercept of ~0.057. With the retrieved AOD as input, the atmospheric correction of HJ-1CCD data over urban areas is largely improved.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions across Large Urban Areas in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Song, Y.; Rao, P.; Huang, J.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion represents the single largest net annual flux of carbon into the atmosphere. Even though urban areas cover only 2% of the earth's surface, they contribute about 70% of global carbon emissions. We aim to conduct a comparative analysis of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in three large urban areas across different regions in the U.S. based on our spatially-explicit Hestia approach, called the 'Hestia Project'. This research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all FFCO2 emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. The Hestia method relies on a large swath of input data such as criteria pollutant emissions reporting, stack monitoring, census data, tax assessor parcel data and traffic monitoring. The urban areas quantified with the Hestia approach include Indianapolis, Salt Lake City, and the Los Angeles Basin (encompassing over 80 cities). A comparative analysis will provide a better understanding of how and why FFCO2 emissions differ across time and space. We examine various factors such as heating/cooling degree days, population, GDP, industrial profile and building age. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) How and why do FFCO2 differ across the cities/regions? 2) What drives the different temporal profile of urban emissions? and 3) How do these vary across and within the urban landscape? The results from the study will benefit city planners and other stakeholders in managing urban development and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation.

  5. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  6. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  7. Relating plume spread to meteorology in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Pankratz, David; Yuan, Jing

    This paper examines relationships between dispersion and meteorology measured in a field study conducted in Barrio Logan, a suburb of San Diego, during 5 days of the period 21 August 2001-31 August 2001. The mean building height in Barrio Logan is about 4 m. The tracer, SF 6, was released at a height of 5 m from a shipyard on the shoreline, and the concentrations of the tracer were sampled on 4 arcs at 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 m from the source during ten hours of the day starting at 10 am. The meteorological conditions that governed dispersion were measured using sonic anemometers and a SODAR with a range of 200 m in the vertical. It turned out that ground-level concentrations at the receptors used in this study were governed by the meteorological variables in the urban boundary layer above the urban roughness sublayer (RSL). In this region between 15 and 150 m above ground-level, the horizontal and vertical turbulent intensities were relatively uniform. This uniformity in turbulent intensities allowed the formulation of simple expressions for horizontal and vertical plume spreads that could be used in a Gaussian dispersion model. These expressions are similar to those proposed by Briggs (ERL, ARL USAEC Report ATDL-106, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1975) and Hanna et al. (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 5069) to model dispersion in St. Louis and Salt Lake City, respectively. However, the application of these dispersion curves requires information on the meteorology of the boundary layer. It might be possible to use measurements above the average building height (4 m in our case) to infer these boundary layer properties. The dispersion model based on boundary layer meteorological information explained about 63% of the variance of the maximum observed concentrations on each sampling arc, and 60% of these concentrations was within a factor of two of the corresponding model estimates. It was necessary to account for initial plume spread caused by building effects to explain concentrations on the 200 and 500 m arcs.

  8. How Government Cares for Urban Economic Growth: the Impact of Different Fiscal Grant Schedules in the German Federal States on the Development of Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin T. W. Rosenfeld; Gerhard Heimpold; Birger Nerre

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in the public discussion on (regional) economic policy, the importance of urban districts or cities for regional and for national economic growth has been strongly emphasized. It is an usual assumption that agglomeration economies may be found inside urban areas. For making best use of agglomeration economies, there have been proposals for changing the traditional scheme of

  9. Estimating residential water demand in urban areas of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McGuckin, T.; King, J.P. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A major concern for the water-short western US is appropriate conservation policies for urban water use. An obstacle in analysis of such policies has been the statistical and theoretical problems of estimating demand when water users face a variable price structure, such as increasing block rates. A further problem is limited data. More specifically, to properly estimate demand, it is necessary to have the percentage (number) of water users in each rate block, the distribution of users by rate classes (DURC). This research has focused on estimating DURC to fill this data void. The contention is that DURC can be estimated from aggregate revenue, consumption and price data that are generally available from the utilities. The model developed here asks the question, What distribution of water users in rate classes best explains observed revenues collected by the utility? Using optimization techniques, the model estimates the DURC that best predicts historical revenues. The model has been used to predict revenues and water consumption in the cities of Las Cruces, Farmington, Albuquerque, and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Results have been extremely positive in that the model has predicted revenues and quantity of consumption with 97% correlation or accuracy. Ultimately, the results of this research will indicate the potential effectiveness of water conservation policies in reducing residential demand on regional water supplies.

  10. Environmental assessment in slum improvement programs: Some evidence from a study on infrastructure projects in two Dhaka slums

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Farhat Jahan [SEA-UEMA Project, Urban Environmental Management, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: farhat@ait.ac.th; Amin, A.T.M. Nurul [Urban Environmental Management, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: amin@ait.ac.th

    2006-08-15

    This paper reports findings from a study on slum improvement projects to show the difference that environmental assessment (EA) can make in such interventions and to suggest mechanisms for its integration into such projects. The findings are based on a field survey that was carried out in two slums of Dhaka where infrastructure projects were implemented. In one slum, the EA process was considered in designing and locating infrastructure and in the other it was not. The survey results traced the severe problems that existed in both slums before the implementation of infrastructure improvement projects and reveal that after the intervention the situation has considerably improved in the slum where EA was conducted. In contrast, some problems still persist in the other slum where EA was not considered. To make it worse, the newly built infrastructures have even given rise to a set of new problems. In order to avoid such negative outcomes from development interventions, the paper finally develops the mechanism for integration of EA into slum improvement project.

  11. Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: The case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aníbal Pauchard; Mauricio Aguayo; Eduardo Peña; Roberto Urrutia

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization is increasingly homogenizing the biota of less developed countries. Even though urban sprawl is a worldwide problem, most studies on the effects of urbanization, and the conceptual models have focused on developed countries. South America has not escaped urbanization, and here we discuss the potential impacts of urban sprawl with respect to three ecosystems in the metropolitan area of

  12. Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption. PMID:24914598

  13. Sediment Transport from Urban, Urbanizing, and Rural Areas in Johnson County, Kansas, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    1. Studies have commonly illustrated that erosion and sediment transport from construction sites is extensive, typically 10-100X that of background levels. 2. However, to our knowledge, the affects of construction and urbanization have rarely been assessed (1) since erosion and sediment controls have been required at construction sites, and (2) at watershed (5-65 mi2) scales. This is primarily because of difficulty characterizing sediment loads in small basins. Studies (such as that illustrated from Timble, 1999) illustrated how large changes in surface erosion may not result in substantive changes in downstream sediment loads (b/c of sediment deposition on land-surfaces, floodplains, and in stream channels). 3. Improved technology (in-situ turbidity) sensors provide a good application b/c they provide an independent surrogate of sediment concentration that is more accurate at estimating sediment concentrations and loads that instantaneous streamflow.

  14. Upstream structural management measures for an urban area flooding in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozo?lu, B.; Sürer, S.; Mumcu, H.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, flooding has become an increasing concern across many parts of the world of both the general public and their governments. The climate change inducing more intense rainfall events occurring in short period of time lead flooding in rural and urban areas. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is performed. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2-dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1 × 1000-1 scaled maps with the buildings for the urbanized area and 1 × 5000-1 scaled maps for the rural parts are used to obtain DTM needed in the flood modelling. The bathymetry of the river is obtained from additional surveys. The main river passing through the urbanized area has a capacity of 500 m3 s-1 according to the design discharge obtained by simple ungauged discharge estimation depending on catchment area only. The upstream structural base precautions against flooding are modelled. The effect of four main upstream catchments on the flooding in the downstream urban area are modelled as different scenarios. It is observed that if the flow from the upstream catchments can be retarded through a detention pond constructed in one of the upstream catchments, estimated Q100 flood can be conveyed by the river without overtopping from the river channel. The operation of the upstream detention ponds and the scenarios to convey Q500 without causing flooding are also presented. Structural management measures to address changes in flood characteristics in water management planning are discussed.

  15. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  16. Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

  17. Peculiarities of soil structure in urban, industrial and mining areas and their effects on soil functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BURGHARDT Wolfgang

    In part the soil structure of urban, industrial and mining areas has been strongly changed. Numerous peculiar structures occure. The reasons are transport and deposition of substrates, young age of the soils, lack of bio-turbation, man-made materials, compaction, mixing and stratification of soils, skeleton content, crystallization. From import of sand and stones soils with single grain structure are wide spread

  18. Sustainable future urban mobility: using 'area development negotiations' for scenario assessment and participatory strategic planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Loukopoulos; Roland W Scholz

    2004-01-01

    An examination of how land-use planning can proceed while emphasising sustainability in transport objectives is presented in the authors' view. It is vital that citizen preferences are assessed, and the 'area development negotiation' method for obtaining such preferences is detailed within a case study framework. The method permits evaluations by various stakeholder groups of future urban mobility scenarios by means

  19. A large-scale vehicular mobility dataset of the Cologne urban area

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A large-scale vehicular mobility dataset of the Cologne urban area Sandesh Uppoor1 and Marco Fiore of vehicular networks lies in the mobility of users, which is the result of the interaction of complex macroscopic and microscopic dynamics. Notwithstanding the improvements that vehicular mobility modeling has

  20. A Method of Assessing Air Toxics Concentrations in Urban Areas Using Mobile Platform Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlad Isakov; Jawad S. Touma; Andrey Khlystov; Melanie Sattler; Sapna Devanathan; Jill Engel-Cox; Stephanie Weber; Michael McFarland; Arthur Olivas; Sally Atkins; Robert Kennedy; Kalpesh Patel; Marc Pitchford; William Malm; Bret Schichtel; Naresh Kumar; Douglas Lowenthal; Jenny Hand; Charles Blanchard; Shelley Tanenbaum; George Hidy; Yang Liu; Petros Koutrakis; Ralph Kahn; Solene Turquety; Robert Yantosca; W. Knighton; Scott Herndon; Joanne Shorter; Richard Miake-Lye; Mark Zahniser; Kenichi Akiyama; Akio Shimono; Kazuya Kitasaka; Hatsumi Shimajiri; Koichi Sugihara; Zhiliang Yao; Qidong Wang; Kebin He; Hong Huo; Yongliang Ma; Qiang Zhang; Ying-Hsien Yang; Sue-Jane Lin; Charles Lewis; Xiaohong Xu; Jeffrey Brook; Yanshan Guo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an approach to characterize the spatial variability in ambient air concentrations using mobile platform measurements. This approach may be useful for air toxics assessments in Environmental Justice applications, epidemiological studies, and environmental health risk assessments. In this study, we developed and applied a method to characterize air toxics concentrations in urban areas

  1. Private Governments in Urban AreasPolitical Contracting and Collective Action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Baer; Richard C. Feiock

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas are increasingly populated by new organizations called private governments that are created within the boundaries of existing local governments. Examples include homeowner associations, community benefits districts, and business improvement districts. Citizens attempting to form private governments that supply public goods may encounter collective action problems. Utilizing transaction resource theory, the article examines potential collective action problems in forming

  2. Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking

    E-print Network

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    1 Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking Luis Mej of a vision-based feature tracking system for an autonomous helicopter. Visual sensing is used for estimating, autonomous helicopter I. INTRODUCTION Our goal is to build vision-guided autonomous flying robots. Vision

  3. Fusion of Feature-and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Fusion of Feature- and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery on Graph Cuts. The fusion pro- cess exploits the advantages of both information sources and thus yields the complete geometry of the build- ing. The fusion of those sparse features is very fragile as there is no way

  4. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

  5. Building and Sustaining Community-University Partnerships in Marginalized Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allahwala, Ahmed; Bunce, Susannah; Beagrie, Lesley; Brail, Shauna; Hawthorne, Timothy; Levesque, Sue; von Mahs, Jurgen; Spotton Visano, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores and examines the challenges and opportunities of building community-university collaborations in marginalized urban areas. The selection of short essays highlights different experiences of building and sustaining community-university partnerships in a variety of cities as vehicles for enhancing experiential learning in…

  6. Complete Residential Urban Area Reconstruction from Dense Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    D urban models for residen- tial areas from aerial LiDAR scans. The key difference between downtown, making the interior of building structures invisible to laser scans; in contrast, trees do not possess aerial LiDAR scans has been an important topic in both computer graphics and computer vision

  7. Inflation of the Aira Caldera (Japan) detected over Kokubu urban area using SAR interferometry ERS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Remy; S. Bonvalot; M. Murakami; P. Briole; S. Okuyama

    2007-01-01

    Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 descending orbit data acquired over Aira Caldera between June 1995 and November 1998 were used to create 36 differential interferograms. Although the interferograms exhibit a relatively low level of coherence, even for couples sampling short time intervals (6 months), Synthetique Aperture Radar (SAR) observations reveal a distinct range change pattern over Kokubu urban area whose amplitude

  8. The number complexity of the PM vertical profiles in Milan urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Ferrero; Maria Grazia Perrone; Stefania Petraccone; Giorgia Sangiorgi; Zelda Lazzati; Claudia LoPorto; Ezio Bolzacchini

    Atmospheric pollution is a key parameter in quality of life in urban areas. In this way atmospheric particulate matter concentrations are very important and are related to a large number of factors. Meteorology plays an important role cause influences the atmospheric capability to disperse pollutants with height, and so it has a very sensible effect on PM ground concentrations. Vertical

  9. Heat Island Effect in urban Areas and its Impact on the Energy Behaviour of Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Papadopoulos; E.-A. Kalognomou

    2003-01-01

    The net effect of the urban thermal process is to make the city temperatures generally higher than those of the surrounding suburb or rural areas. The phenomenon of heat islands is rather complex, both the modelling and the spot measurements approach providing only a partial description of it, as the energy balance differences that cause this effect depend on the

  10. Urban-Area and Building Detection Using SIFT Keypoints and Graph Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beril Sirmacek; Cem Unsalan

    2009-01-01

    Very high resolution satellite images provide valuable information to researchers. Among these, urban-area boundaries and building locations play crucial roles. For a human expert, manually extracting this valuable information is tedious. One possible solution to extract this information is using automated techniques. Unfortunately, the solution is not straightforward if standard image processing and pattern recognition techniques are used. Therefore, to

  11. Biodiversity within urban areas: A case study on bryophytes of the city of Cologne (NRW, Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sabovljevi?; A. Sabovljevi?

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the urban bryophyte flora of the city of Cologne (W. Germany) was studied. A total of 143 bryophyte taxa (17 hepatics and 126 mosses) were recorded within the metropolitan area of Cologne. Three species were newly recorded for North Rhine?Westphalia: Hannediella heimii, Schistidium helveticum and Tortula schimperi. Thirteen species red?listed in NRW were recorded, among them hardly

  12. Parametric sensitivity analysis of noise impact of multihighways in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutasem El-Fadel; Shady Shazbak; M. Hadi Baaj; Elie Saliby

    2002-01-01

    Traffic noise along highways varies with the projected growth in future traffic use, particularly near developing urban areas, and the conditions of the tire–road surfacing interface. When traffic demand increases and those interface conditions deteriorate, highway noise impacts become significant and mitigation strategies required. This paper presents a leading application of the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)—a newly released Traffic

  13. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  14. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  15. BUILDING DETECTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS IN URBAN AREAS

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michel

    -ground regions are then detected by differences between DEM and DTM. Our processing chain ends with the 3D stereopair (images from the IGN digital camera, resolution about 25cm per pixel, image size is 1700 ¢ 1450BUILDING DETECTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS IN URBAN AREAS Michel JORDAN

  16. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  17. Experts of Probabilistic Flow Subspaces for Robust Monocular Odometry in Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Experts of Probabilistic Flow Subspaces for Robust Monocular Odometry in Urban Areas Christian.curio@tuebingen.mpg.de Abstract-- Visual odometry has been promoted as a funda- mental component for intelligent vehicles. Relying of two components: 1) Partitioning of datasets of video and ground truth odometry data based

  18. Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Conche; Miles Tight

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of

  19. Object-based updating of land-use maps of urban areas using satellite remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Dekker

    2005-01-01

    Geographical information in the form of maps is continuously subjected to change, especially in urban areas. Therefore maps have to be updated, which can be done using satellite remote sensing techniques since many satellites are in orbit today. In this paper several object-based classification and change detection techniques are investigated. An important aspect in map-updating is the translation from land

  20. Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania is…

  1. Road Network and Damaged Buildings in Urban Areas: Short and Long-term Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Goretti; V. Sarli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a model able to analyse the seismic behaviour of road network in urban areas, considering interaction between buildings and roads is presented. Damage to buildings and short-term countermeasures, such as propping, can affect roads and even block them, reducing capacity of the road network. Two successive phases are considered. In the first, immediately after the seismic event,

  2. Automatic relative orientation of large scale imagery over urban areas using Modified Iterated Hough Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman Habib; Devin Kelley

    2001-01-01

    The automation of relative orientation (RO) has been the major focus of the photogrammetric research community in the last decade. Despite the reported progress, there is no reliable (robust) approach that can perform automatic relative orientation (ARO) using large-scale imagery over urban areas. A reliable and general method for solving matching problems in various photogrammetric activities has been developed at

  3. Interpretation of SAR images in urban areas using simulated optical and radar images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyi Tao; Gintautas Palubinskas; Peter Reinartz; Stefan Auer

    2011-01-01

    Because of the all-weather and all-time data acquisition capability, high resolution space borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) plays an important role in remote sensing applications like earth mapping. However, the visual interpretation of SAR images is usually difficult, especially for urban areas. This paper shows a method for visual interpreting SAR images by means of optical and SAR images simulated

  4. Active sensing based cooperative target tracking using UAVs in an urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wang; Fei Su; Huayong Zhu; Lincheng Shen

    2010-01-01

    To the problem of cooperative ground moving target tracking using UAVs in an urban area, a novel method is presented, which based on target state fusion estimation and prediction, as well as on-line trajectory planning. Firstly, based on active sensing, a solving framework was presented, the formal representation and system model of cooperative target tracking using a team UAVs was

  5. INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL PARTICULATE MATTER ON SELECTED URBAN AREAS ACROSS THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the next few years, states will be required to develop state implementation plans for reducing concentrations of fine particles in air where, PM2.5 annual and or daily standards are exceeded. It is now well recognized that high concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas are in p...

  6. AIR QUALITY MODELING AT COARSE-TO-FINE SCALES IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air toxics control strategies are moving towards a community based modeling approach, with an emphasis on assessing those areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This approach will require information that accurately maps and...

  7. Using Solar Cookers and Gardens to Improve Health in Urban and Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dow; C. R. Dow

    1999-01-01

    Although health benefits of vegetables have been scientifically documented and well publicized, food habits and cost frequently limit vegetable consumption. Our work in Latin America in varied climates, in urban and rural areas, with different populations--especialy those with limited resources--has global applications. In Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, and in Central America we found that often fresh vegetables are readily available but

  8. Cardiovascular risk levels in general practice patients with type 2 diabetes in rural and urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wan; Mark F. Harris; Gawaine Powell-Davies; Upali W. Jayasinghe; Jeff Flack; Andrew Georgiou; Joan R. Burns; Danielle L. Penn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of cardiovascular risk factor from 2000 to 2002 in general practice patients with type 2 diabetes in urban and rural areas, and the association between cardiovascular risk (both single risk factors and coronary heart disease absolute risk (CHDAR)) and rurality in three years. Methods: In total, 6305 patients were extracted from 16 Divisions (250 practices).

  9. An urban transport emission model for the Antwerp area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Mensink; I De Vlieger; J Nys

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling approach which provides hourly emissions of CO, NOx, VOC, PM, SO2 and Pb for individual streets and road segments in the Antwerp area (20km×20km). The hourly emissions are computed as a function of road type, vehicle type, fuel type, traffic volume, vehicle age, trip length distribution and the actual ambient temperature. The traffic volumes are

  10. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF NOX IN AN URBAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the Regional Air Pollution Study are surveyed to delineate the experience with NO and NO2 concentrations in St. Louis, a metropolitan area in the central United States. Two-year time series are produced for the daily maximum 1-h average in the monitoring network and the...

  11. EXTRACTION OF URBAN GREEN AREA BASED ON OBJECT-ORIENTED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Yao; Weidong Song

    At present , with the rapid development of remote sensing technology especially the improvement of remote sensing image processing , many cities of in china and overseas have applied remote sensing to greenland information extraction ,in order to find out green area cover dynamicand optimize the spatial structure of green space.This paper takes high-resolution remote sensing image as the data

  12. Roads as sources of heavy metals in urban areas. The Covões Catchment experiment, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Soares, Daniel; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities are the home to 50% of the human specie [UN 2011 Ramalho & Hobbs 2012], whose wellbeing, way of life and exposure to hazard situations are directly related to the built environment. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. A major issue in what concerns the threats to human and ecosystem health in urban areas is the presence of heavy metals, and the related processes that govern their source, transport and fade r uptake by the vegetation. In this work, we present an analysis of heavy metal sources and transport processes at various types of roads within the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban experimental catchment in central Portugal. The surveyed heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead, Coper, and Zinc) show significant differences as a result of the type of rainfall event, the length of the antecedent dry spell, the traffic volume and the heavy metals sources. For some locations, namely for the roads with heavy traffic volume, the heavy metal concentrations exceed the limits established by law, which has severe implications to the downstream ecosystems and to the possible use of the water from roads to close the resources loop in urban areas, namely in what concerns their use to water the urban green infrastructure or to irrigate the urban agriculture fields.

  13. Flood Hydrograph Restoration in Increasingly-urbanized Area Based on Low Elevation Greenbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, Cheng; Yang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In increasingly urbanized area, water surface ratio descends and storage capacity of water decreases rapidly associated with lakes, branches, wetlands and floodplains buried. In addition, land surface impermeability enlarges runoff coefficients and runoff velocity. Urban flood, with higher peak discharge, larger volume and shorter concentration time, brings higher risk than rural area. Flood hydrograph restoration is to restore the flood hydrograph after urbanization by specific strategies, by compensating water surface ratio (WSR) and pervious surface proportion (PSP) for peak attenuation, volume reduction and concentration time increase. This paper presents the equivalent effect of low elevation greenbelt- a type of low impact development practices and WSR, PSP by the model SWMM, based on which, the corresponding compensative water surface ratio (CWSR) and compensative pervious surface proportion (CPSP) were obtained according to the equal peak discharge, volume of flood and concentration time- the three parameters determining the flood hydrograph. Then a relationship was found out between the ratio of low elevation greenbelt and WSR, PSP. Finally, the just ratio of low elevation greenbelt and the amount of rainwater resource utilization can be got by comparison of flood hydrograph with the one before urbanization for the restoration based on the three parameters to reduce effect of urbanization on flood hydrograph.

  14. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pueyo Anchuela; A. Soriano; A. Casas Sainz; A. Pocoví Juan

    2009-01-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction.

  15. Development of urban area geospatial information products from high resolution satellite imagery using advanced image analysis techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron K. Shackelford

    2004-01-01

    The latest generation of commercial satellite imaging sensors have a number of characteristics (e.g. high spatial resolution, multispectral bands, and quick revisit time), that make them ideal data sources for a variety of urban area applications. The goal of this doctoral research was to develop advanced automated and semi-automated image analysis and classification techniques for the extraction of urban area

  16. The influence of Cracow urban pollution on small forest areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sawicka-Kapusta; J. Gdula-Argasinska; D. Budka; M. Zakrzewska; K. Szpakowska

    2003-01-01

    The impact of Cracow conurbation on small forest ecosystems was studied during the last four years (1998-2001). Seven sites located at different distances from the city and from busy road were selected. Lichen Hypogymnia physodes from unpolluted areas were transplanted 10 each of investigated sites for 6-month period (winter 1998\\/1999, 1999\\/2000, summer 2000). The quantity of litter fall with percentage

  17. Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

  18. New urban area flood model: a comparison with MIKE11-quasi2d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A.; Zuccaro, G.

    2005-08-01

    Recent hydrogeological events have increased both public interest and that of the Scientific Community in a more accurate study of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model which offers an optimal integration of two models, one for flood wave propagation in riverbeds and the other for flooding in urban areas. We consider it necessary to not only treat the modelling of the outflow in riverbeds and outside riverbeds.together but to integrate them thoroughly. We simulate the propagation in riverbed of the flood event with a model solving the equations of De Saint Venant with the explicit scheme at the finite differences by McCormack. The propagation outside the riverbed is simulated using an algorithm proposed by Braschi et al. (1990). This algorithm is based on a local discretization of the urban territory, divided in a series of "tanks" and "channels". Each tank is associated with an area of an extension related to the position of the other tanks and the quantity of buildings, modelled as insurmountable obstacles. The model facilitates the simultaneous performance of the two simulations: at each instant, the quantitiy of water overflow, depending on the piezometric level in every section, is calculated as a function of the dimensions of the weirs (the banks), assuming it passes through the critical state. Then, it is transferred to the tanks placed in the surroundings of the overflow points. Those points are the starting nodes for the propagation of the flood because they are connected to the network of tanks in which the surrounding land has been schematised. In this paper, we present a comparison of one of the most powerful models of inundation simulation in urban and no-urban areas. The field area is the city of Albenga (SV, Italy) and the simulated event is the inundation of the 1994 (return period of about 25 years).

  19. Effects of Urbanization on Floods in the Houston, Texas Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Steven L.; Sayre, Douglas M.

    1973-01-01

    Rainfall and runoff data from drainage basins in the Houston metropolitan area and a 60-year rainfall record for the National Weather Service station, Houston-City, were used to simulate 60 annual flood peaks at 26 sites. Selected frequency characteristics, based on these simulated annual peaks, are related to drainage area and percentage of impervious area. These relations, which may be used to estimate the flood characteristics at ungaged sites, indicate that in the Houston metropolitan area, complete urbanization increases the magnitude of a 2-year flood nine times and increases the magnitude of a 50-year flood five times.

  20. Ray tracing algorithm for accurate solar irradiance prediction in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Vitucci, Enrico M; Falaschi, Federico; Degli-Esposti, Vittorio

    2014-08-20

    A ray tracing algorithm has been developed to model solar radiation interaction with complex urban environments and, in particular, its effects, including the total irradiance on each surface and overall dissipated power contribution. The proposed model accounts for multiple reflection and diffuse scattering interactions and is based on a rigorous theory, so that the overall power balance is satisfied at the generic surface element. Such approach is validated against measurements in the present work in simple reference scenarios. The results show the importance of multiple-bounce interactions and diffuse scattering to obtain reliable solar irradiance and heat dissipation estimates in urban areas. PMID:25321121

  1. Development of Sub-Daily Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on daily rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-daily (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared daily rain gage station data obtained from Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded daily rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to daily for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.

  2. Reconstructing peak discharges of historic flood levels in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herget, J.; Elleder, L.; Meurs, H.; Nießen, A.; Roggenkamp, T.

    2009-04-01

    For historic settlement areas numerous flood level descriptions from times before the installation of river gauges are passed on, most of them are even dated. Typically, these written descriptions are qualitative such as "the water level peaked at 2 feet above the floor of the church" or "the water level topped the bridge before it failed". Furthermore, historic flood water levels are frequently marked at buildings and constructions. Such descriptions of flood water levels are used to determine periods of increased flood frequencies but are rarely transferred into palaeodischarge numbers due to methodological problems. One major problem is the estimation of the cross section area due to missing information on the topography and hydraulic roughness of the floodplain and the river channel in historic times. For the historic flood level records from the cities of Cologne (River Rhine) and Prague (River Vltava) an approach to estimate peak discharge is developed. Based on historic etchings, paintings and descriptions it is possible to reconstruct the characteristics of the river channel and floodplains to estimate cross-section areas during flood events. The reconstruction made use of all available data and estimations regarding channel incision as well as anthropogenic modification of the river and its floodplain. The mean flow velocity at the time of the historic flood events is estimated by the Manning-equation, based on the reconstructed river channel and floodplains. The slope of the water level is assumed to be comparable to recent values, while the estimation of the hydraulic roughness is a challenge as no studies on the hydraulic roughness of settled floodplains have been carried out so far. Sensitivity studies with different n-values within a reliable range of values are made to estimate the influence of this uncertainty. Finally, the reconstructed data are tested by estimating peak discharges of recent floods by the application of the described method and comparing the results with measured discharge data from the gauges located at Cologne and Prague. Herget, J. & H. Meurs (2009): Reconstructing peak discharges of historic flood levels in the citiy of Cologne, Germany. Global and Planetary Change (accepted)

  3. Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer system, Cheyenne urban area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Crist, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    The Cheyenne area is on broad tablelands that form part of the High Plains aquifer. Surficial deposits, along with the Ogallala Formation and the White River Group, are included in the High Plains aquifer in the study area, and both unconfined and confined ground-water conditions exist within 100 feet of land surface. During wet years, shallow ground-water problems affect urban development. The High Plains aquifer is considered an aquifer system in the Cheyenne area. Water-yielding sandstone and conglomerate units are surrounded by sequences of clay and silt; although the water-yielding units under confined conditions may be areally extensive, they are not easily identified. Urban development has modified the High Plains aquifer system locally as indicated by the mapped potentiometric surfaces, the perched water zones, and the surface-drainage patterns. That part of the system in the shallow zones is affected by excavations and by structures that penetrate the saturated zones. (USGS)

  4. Flood frequency and storm runoff of urban areas of Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques are presented for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges and storm runoff on stream in urban areas of Memphis, Tennessee. Comprehensive analyses were made in which physical characteristics of streams are related to snythetic flood characteristics at gaging stations. Equations derived from analyses provide estimates of peak discharges with recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years on streams that have drainage areas less than 20 square miles. The regression analyses indicated that size of drainage area and condition of channel (paved or unpaved) are the most significant basin characteristics affecting the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban streams. Data from 27 gaging stations with 8 years of record were used in the analyses. Flood frequency at each gaging station was computed from calibrated parameters in a rainfall-runoff model. Techniques are also presented for estimating discharge hydrographs for individual floods by using the unit hydrograph, lag time, and rainfall excess. (USGS)

  5. Farmers’ perceptions and knowledge in using wastewater for irrigation at twelve peri-urban areas and two sugar mill areas in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Mojid; G. C. L. Wyseure; S. K. Biswas; A. B. M. Z. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    By interviewing farmers in twelve peri-urban and two sugar mill areas information was collected on the use of urban wastewater. In all cases, untreated sewage water was used without primary treatment. The domestic polluted water originated from household kitchen, cloth wash, bathroom shower, and other municipal sources (e.g., supermarkets, restaurants, offices). Moreover it was often diluted by urban storm-water drainage.

  6. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  7. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-12-01

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  8. Hydrologists in the City: Re-envisioning How We Manage Water in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    As the footprint of our urban areas expands, so does our manipulation of the hydrology. For decades we have channeled runoff into storm sewers, wreaking havoc on downstream water bodies with pulses of polluted stormwater. Recently, there has been a push for 'green infrastructure' to replace this hard, grey infrastructure, where green infrastructure- from rain gardens to green roofs to restored riparian areas- would detain stormwater and promote pollutant removal, in addition to a plethora of other ecosystem services. Primarily, it has been landscape architects, engineers, and urban planners who have jumped on the green infrastructure bandwagon. I believe there is also a niche for hydrologists and biogeochemists in re-envisioning how we manage stormwater in urban areas. Developed areas may not be as enticing as a remote mountain field site and their hydrology may be a lot more complicated to model than that of a forest hillslope, but these areas are where the majority of people live and where we could have a great impact on informing better water management practices. In collaboration with more applied fields like landscape architecture and engineering, we can provide crucial insight on existing hydrology as well as how certain green infrastructure or other alternative considerations could support a more sustainable and resilient city, particularly in the face of climate change. Our knowledge on landscape hydrological processes and biogeochemical cycling- combined with the expertise of these other fields- can inform design of truly multi-functional green infrastructure that can effectively manage storm runoff in addition to providing wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved aesthetics, and even an opportunity to engage with citizens. While there are certainly some hydrologists that have recognized this opportunity, I hope to see many more pursuing research and seeking solutions for better management of water in urbanized areas.

  9. Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

  10. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Abrahmsén, Markus; Persson, Ylva; Kanyima, Benon Mbabazi; Båge, Renée

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an extensive problem in the dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of SCM in dairy cattle in the urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to gain information about pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted as a field study in 18 smallholder dairy farms in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. All cows at the farms were physically examined, and cows with signs of clinical mastitis were excluded. Cows (n?=?195) were tested with California Mastitis Test (CMT), and udder quarters with CMT score ?3 (scale 1-5) were milk sampled for bacteriological analysis. To allow further sub-analysis of the results, the stage of lactation, parity, milk production, production type, udder hygiene, and cow breed were recorded. Results indicate that 86.2 % (n?=?168) of the tested cows had SCM in one or more quarters. The most common bacteriological outcome was infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci (54.7 %), followed by negative growth (24.9 %) and streptococci (16.2 %); all of which (n?=?34) were sensitive to penicillin. Of the tested staphylococci (n?=?17), the majority (58.9 %) were positive for penicillinase production. Factors with significant impact on the prevalence of SCM at cow level were the stage of lactation, parity, and production type. The results suggest that the prevalence of SCM in Uganda is substantially higher than reported in previous studies and in other comparable developing countries. This implies that SCM deserves more attention and that improvement in dairy cow husbandry in terms of hygiene and management is necessary. PMID:23955012

  11. The influence of Cracow urban pollution on small forest areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka-Kapusta, K.; Gdula-Argasinska, J.; Budka, D.; Zakrzewska, M.; Szpakowska, K.

    2003-05-01

    The impact of Cracow conurbation on small forest ecosystems was studied during the last four years (1998-2001). Seven sites located at different distances from the city and from busy road were selected. Lichen Hypogymnia physodes from unpolluted areas were transplanted 10 each of investigated sites for 6-month period (winter 1998/1999, 1999/2000, summer 2000). The quantity of litter fall with percentage cmposition of each species was estimated, also the input of litter and heavy metals to the forest floor were evaluated. Metal concentration (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe) in Hypogymnia physodes, leaves of common oak, hornbean and litter fall were determined in IL 251 flame AAS. Acute injuries of lichen thalli as well as concentrations of Pb, Zn, Fe and S were higher after winter transplantation and in sites located close to Cracow conurbation. High concentration of heavy metals were noticed in tree leaves from eastem transect as the effect of steel works emission as well as in those sites from southem transect situated nearby the city. Although air pollution har generally declined in the Malopolska district over the last few years the metal concentration and input to the forest flow in 2001 remains at the same level than in the previous years.

  12. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Saavedra, Farides; Otth, Carola; Domancich, Ljubica; Hott, Melissa; Padula, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV), with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%). A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3%) and slums (1.5%) compared with farms (0.5%). Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011), low education level (p = 0.006) and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student) (p = 0.016). No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed. PMID:25912713

  13. The impact of landslides on urban areas and infrastructure in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Spizzichino, Daniele; Iadanza, Carla

    2010-05-01

    Landslide risk in Italy is particularly high since in addition to the geological, geomorphological, seismic and structural settings which render it susceptible to frequent and widespread landslide phenomena, the Italian territory is also densely populated and highly urbanized. In terms of landslide hazard, 485,004 landslides occurred between A.D. 1116 and 2006 within Italy, with a landslide area of 20,721 km2 equal to 6.9% of the national territory. 5,708 municipal districts are affected by landslides (70.5% of the total), of which 2,940 with extremely high levels of criticality due to landslides affecting urban centres. This data emerges from the IFFI Project (Italian Landslide Inventory) which, set up by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental Protection and Research/Geological Survey of Italy and the Regions and self-governing Provinces, identifies landslide phenomena across Italy in accordance with standardized methods of data collection, recording and mapping. With regard to exposure and vulnerability, urban areas in Italy account for 17,929 km2, equal to 5.9% of the national territory. In the past 50 years, urban areas in Italy underwent a dramatic increase, whose surface has more than doubled. Often building areas did not benefit from any form of proper land use planning and management or detailed landslide hazard assessment. Moreover unauthorized building has reached levels as high as 60% in regions of Southern Italy. This study assesses the incidence of landslide phenomena and their impacts within urban areas of Italian provincial capitals in terms of number of landslides, surface area and type of movement. The people exposed to landslide risk at national level and critical points along highways, railways and road network has been also estimated. Landslides have been classified in two main categories: rapid and slow movements. The rapid phenomena are strictly correlated to the people safety, while the slow ones concern mainly losses and usability of buildings and infrastructures. Consequently different strategies for planning and emergency management must be adopted. The assessment has been implemented within a GIS platform by overlapping landslide data derived by the IFFI Project with urban areas, populations census data and main Italian transportation network. More in detail analyses have been performed on some of these urban centres, in reference to which it has been possible to assess the extent of urban expansion from the post war period up until now and the corresponding increase in landslide risk. Related to population, the analysis allowed to estimate the number of people exposed to landslide risk in terms of safety of human life and socio-economic consequences. In order to reduce the impact of landslides within urban areas and along transport infrastructure, different measures should be adopted. In addition to engineering works and delocalization plans, the instrumental monitoring networks and emergency plans assume a fundamental role in landslide risk management. It is within this context that the IFFI Project, due to its highly detailed landslide maps and its complete coverage of the national territory, represents a useful tool for land use planning, emergency planning and mitigations measures.

  14. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban sources, and the main source of transport for the other pesticides could not be determined because of concentrations less than the method detection limit.

  15. Detection and tracking of gas clouds in an urban area by imaging infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, Samer; Rusch, Peter; Gerhard, Jörn-Hinnrich; Harig, Roland

    2013-05-01

    The release of toxic industrial compounds in urban areas is a threat for the population and the environment. In order to supply emergency response forces with information about the released compounds after accidents or terrorist attacks, monitoring systems such as the scanning imaging spectrometer SIGIS 2 or the hyperspectral imager HI 90 were developed. Both systems are based on the method of infrared spectroscopy. The systems were deployed to monitor gas clouds released in the harbor area of Hamburg. The gas clouds were identified, visualized and quantified from a distance in real time. Using data of two systems it was possible to identify contaminated areas and to determine the source location.

  16. An anthropometric and hematological comparison of sickle cell disease children from rural and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Nikhar, H. S.; Meshram, S. U.; Shinde, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disorder in India and the rural and urban areas experience distinctly different healthcare facilities. In view of this, a comparative study of SCD-SS pattern children of age 8–15 years from rural and urban areas of Wardha district of Central India was carried out using anthropometric and hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data were collected using standard methods and the results showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the mean values for body weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood corpuscles (WBC). Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS 18.0 software. Individuals were screened by solubility test method. Sickle cell patterns (AS and SS) were determined by using electrophoresis technique. RESULT: The SCD-SS children from rural were significantly underweight than those from the urban area of Wardha district. BMI is a good indicator of nutritional status and BMI values of SCD children have less than desired. CONCLUSION: The study highlights an urgent need to conduct integrated investigations for SCD population of rural areas covering clinical, nutritional, and social aspects. PMID:22754219

  17. Spatial Vulnerability to Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Area During a 7-Year Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Assunção, Renato Martins; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the vulnerability of the urban area of the City of Belo Horizonte to dengue. A total number of 89,607 cases registered in the surveillance system from 1996 to 2002 were analyzed. Seven epidemic waves were identified during this period. Cases were grouped into 2,563 census areas, and three risk categories were proposed based on how many times each area reached a threshold established for each epidemic wave. The association between the risk categories and the socioeconomic, demographic and urban-infrastructure characteristics was evaluated. Analysis included Kruskal–Wallis test variance comparisons and multivariate regression using multinomial models. Incidence rates differed significantly among the three risk categories in most of the epidemic waves. The factors that best characterized the areas were low educational level (?4 years of schooling), low income of the head of the family (?2 minimum wages per household), household density, and proportion of children and elderly women. Information related to basic sanitation was not enough to discriminate levels of susceptibility to dengue, and study of population density and concentration of establishments considered vulnerable to vector infestation yielded questionable results. It is important to consider different levels of exposure of the population to explain the heterogeneous pattern of distribution of dengue cases in an urban setting. Understanding the dynamics of dengue fever is essential for surveillance purposes, to improve control measures and to avoid epidemics of this disease. PMID:17243024

  18. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range?=?0–52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to predict fatalities in the broader landscape. PMID:23326420

  19. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching isolated rural areas. PMID:23759062

  20. Human exposure to respirable manganese in outdoor and indoor air in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Bolté, Sébastien; Normandin, Louise; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2004-03-26

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), is an additive in gasoline, and its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles, which increase atmospheric metal concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the level of outdoor and indoor respirable Mn (MnR) in Montreal, Canada, where MMT has been used since 1976. Ten women were involved in this study: five living in an urban area, near an expressway with high traffic density, and five residing in a rural area characterized by low traffic density. Outdoor and indoor air samples were collected each week (5 in total) during 3 consecutive days; blood samples were collected at the end of the air sampling period. The average concentration of outdoor MnR in the urban area was 0.025 microg/m3, which is significantly different from the average of 0.005 microg/m3 found in the rural area. The average indoor MnR concentration was also significantly different from teh average MnR indoor concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the urban area (0.017 microg/m3) and the rural area (0.007 microg/m3). The average outdoor MnR concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. Data suggest that a high outdoor atmospheric MnR leads to a high indoor MnR, but not to an increase in blood Mn levels. PMID:15000130

  1. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located. PMID:24646863

  2. Using Smart Planning to Mitigate Drought in Urban Areas: A Seasonal Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation in the Indianapolis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, P. E.; Niyogi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Indianapolis region exhibits a precipitation distribution indicative of urban weather modification: negative bias upwind and positive bias downwind. The causes for such a distribution within an urban area arise from a combination of land-surface heterogeneity and urban aerosol-cloud interaction. This study investigates the causes of the precipitation distribution with a 120-day simulation using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with the Town Energy Budget (TEB) model. Using a nested grid with a maximum resolution of 500m, a seasonal simulation of May through August, 2008 is conducted. Land surface conditions are varied, removing, expanding, and intensifying the Indianapolis urban area. Aerosol conditions are scaled by a three-dimensional combination of MODIS and CALIPSO observations, and varied in concentration and plume extent. Results from the study demonstrate the paradigm of urban precipitation modification on a seasonal time scale. The boundary between the rural and urban land surfaces weakens approaching systems upwind, decreasing precipitation in the city center. A larger urban extent diminishes the systems further. The aerosol plume downwind increases cloud lifetimes via cloud-nucleating aerosol, then invigorates precipitation via large drizzle-invigorating aerosols. The overall effect reproduces the observed negative precipitation bias upwind and positive bias downwind of the urban center. A lower concentration of aerosols leads to a higher proportion of stratiform rain over a larger area, whereas a higher concentration of aerosols leads to more convective rain and heavy rain events. This manifests in a weekly cycle of precipitation with rain most likely on weekends, and with less frequent but heavier rain events most likely during midweek, when aerosol concentrations are the highest. More intense urbanization, via both land surface and aerosol effects, creates more frequent heavy rainfall events and exacerbates dry-periods, potentially leading to premature drought onset. The wetter than average May, June, and July received more total rainfall from the heavy rainfall events, while the dry August became drier due to lack of stratiform precipitation. Smart planning solutions can partially mitigate the urban precipitation problem. In a simulation where a more intense urban Indianapolis is surrounded by a greenbelt and green roofs are implemented in the city, the urban precipitation bias becomes less significant. Upwind, the greenbelt provides surface moisture and mitigates how much precipitation systems weaken. Downwind, the greenbelt slows the transport of drizzle-invigorating aerosol, reducing the heavy rain events. The green roofs reduce the urban-rural gradient and slow the initial weakening of systems.

  3. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

  4. Modeling Rainfall Variability over Urban Areas: A Case Study for Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Almedeij, Jaber

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of monthly total rainfall data obtained from weather stations located in the urban areas of Kuwait. The rainfall data are analyzed by considering statistics on a seasonal basis and by means of periodogram technique to reveal the periods responsible for the variable pattern. The results demonstrate similarity implying that a point estimate of rainfall data can be considered spatially representative over the urban areas of Kuwait. A sinusoidal model triggering the influence of the detected periods is developed accordingly for the time duration from January 1965 to December 2009. The model is capable of describing the rainfall data with some discrepancies between the actual and calculated values resulting from hidden periods that have not been taken into account. This finding suggests that the ability to construct a more reliable model would require a wider range of historical data to detect the other periods affecting the rainfall pattern. PMID:22645498

  5. Chemical and micromorphological properties of TSP and PM10 particles: case study in Bucharest urban area.

    PubMed

    Olaru, Elena-Alina; Offer, Zvi Y; Ruta, Florin; Udrea, Ion

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine some aspects of micromorphology of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM(10)) and their major elemental components in order to highlight the main characteristics of the atmospheric particles from an urban environment, having a case study in the urban area of Bucharest. The sampling of PM(10) and TSP were conducted in the close vicinity of a high traffic road for 72 h per sample and also priority pollutants in air: Pb and Cd were quantified and correlations between their concentrations and local wind directions were also found. The parameters characterizing the micromorphology of particle-roughness of the particle surface and area of particle-were correlated with wind direction. PMID:21881897

  6. Analysis of seven years of SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT CO2 retrievals over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Schneising, Oliver; Reuter, Maximilian; Heymann, Jens; Burrows, John P.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas and causes global climate change. A large fraction of the anthropogenic CO2 is emitted in and around highly populated urban areas including mega-cities. Seven years (2003-2009) of global satellite nadir measurements in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR) spectral region have been used to retrieve column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2, denoted XCO2. This new multi-year global XCO2 data set will be presented and it will be discussed to what extent and under which conditions regionally elevated XCO2 resulting from urban area anthropogenic CO2 emissions can be detected from space using data from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument onboard ENVISAT.

  7. ENERGY AND MASS FLUX SIMULATIONS IN URBAN AREA USING THE ACASA MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Sirca, C.; Miglietta, F.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Population who lives in urban areas is increasing and the exchanges of water, energy and carbon into and out of cities are key to the sustainable design of cities. In this context, it is important to provide quantitative estimate of the urban metabolism components using both observations and modeling of physical flows. Today, Eddy Covariance technique and accurate models are available to simulate the energy and mass flux exchanges in urban environment with a good spatial resolution. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model, developed by University of California, Davis (UCD), is one of the most sophisticated models for estimating energy and mass fluxes between surface and the atmosphere. ACASA was recently modified to simulate energy and mass fluxes in urban environment. ACASA treats the surface and associated fluxes as an interconnected system The atmosphere, the urban surface and the soil are represented as a multilayer system. ACASA incorporates higher-order closure principles for turbulent statistics to predict the effects that higher-order turbulent kinetic and thermodynamic processes have on the surface microenvironment and associated fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and carbon. It allows counter-gradient transport that simpler models are unable to describe. Using a set of governing equations, ACASA creates vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, mean wind, and CO2 concentration. ACASA was run for the city of Florence (Italy), which is a case study of the European project “Bridge”. The simulations were compared with in situ measurements taken continuously from 2006 using an eddy covariance system located in the city centre. Different measurement periods were used to parameterize and validate the model. From the preliminary results, good agreement was obtained between simulated and observed fluxes with small differences for most of the fluxes.

  8. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  9. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  10. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  11. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  12. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  13. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  14. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  15. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  16. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  17. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's...requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  18. Physical and Spatial Characteristics of Slum Territories Vulnerable to Natural Disasters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Physical and Spatial Characteristics of Slum Territories Vulnerable to Natural Disasters Rosa and their positive impact in relation to risk and natural disasters. Rapoport has also praised the environmental of conception which, in the case of slums, is naturally impossible. 2. Taking Possession of Slum Territory

  19. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers, PMID:25690459

  20. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  1. On using petri nets for representing and controlling signalized urban areas: New model and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Di Febbraro; Nicola Sacco; Davide Giglio

    2009-01-01

    A microscopic model of signalized urban areas and its representation by means of stochastic-timed Petri nets are described in this paper, where a traffic-responsive control strategy, whose objective is the optimization of green duration of each stage, is also proposed. The Petri net representation here proposed is the new version of a previously proposed one, which was based on deterministic-timed

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in human milk in women from urban and rural areas in northern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Ju Sun; Jian-Hong Zhao; Minoru Koga; Yu-Xia Ma; Dian-Wu Liu; Masafumi Nakamura; Huai-Jun Liu; Hyogo Horiguchi; George C. Clark; Fujio Kayama

    2005-01-01

    Human milk specimens from 55 women in Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural areas in Hebei Province in northern China were collected and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, such as p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), and dioxins. We administered a questionnaire to milk donors at collection time, asking about lifestyle factors that potentially influence organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in human

  3. Assessment of satellite-based rainfall estimates in urban areas in different geographic and climatic regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo Suk Han; Steven J. Burian; J. Marshall Shepherd

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the 3B42 research version rainfall product from NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission\\u000a Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). The study provides new results of TMPA data accuracy in urban areas and highlights\\u000a trends associated with the climatological indicators of temperature and relative humidity in cities. Ten years (1998-2007)\\u000a of TMPA data were analyzed for three case

  4. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

    2006-01-01

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to

  5. Identifying the Public’s Knowledge and Intention to Use Human Cloning in Greek Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia Tzamalouka; Pelagia Soultatou; Maria Papadakaki; Sevasti Chatzifotiou; Basil Tarlatzis; Joannes El. Chliaoutakis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The understanding of the public’s knowledge on human cloning (HC) and its acceptability are considered important for the development of evidence-based policy making. The aim of this research study was to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic variables that affect the public’s knowledge and intention to use HC in urban areas of Greece. Additionally, the possible association of religiousness with

  6. Forum on Geologic mapping applications in the Washington-Baltimore urban area; proceedings; Reston, Virginia, April 23, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Cleaves, Emery T.

    1997-01-01

    The Forum on Geologic mapping applications in the Washington-Baltimore urban area was convened on April 23, 1997, at Reston, Virginia. The forum was cosponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Maryland Geological Survey, with assistance from the Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. Spatial earth science information in the Washington-Baltimore area provides a scientific framework for environmental assessment, urban planning, and future resource and hazard investigations in this area of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which has sustained three centuries of urban growth.

  7. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  8. Local Area Forcing of Urban-to Regional-Scale Atmospheric Dispersion: Exchanging Fluxes in A Multiscale Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W P Dannevik; S T Chan; M J Leach; A A Mirin

    2003-01-01

    Urban areas are likely locations for release of toxic material into the atmosphere, whether by accident or terrorist act. Both the Department of Energy, through the Chemical and Biological National Security Program, and the Department of Defense, through the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, are supporting simulation and experimental efforts to develop urban modeling capabilities. These developed tools would be used

  9. Expansion of Urban Area in Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin, 1996 - 2006: A Map Series

    E-print Network

    Leigh, Eric; Barroso, M.; Fipps, G.

    The border region of Texas is experiencing rapid urban growth which is expected to have a continuing and increasing impact on the irrigation districts of the region. This report presents an analysis of the expansion of urban area during the ten year...

  10. The study on earthquake disaster estimation in urban areas Institute of Geophysics, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing 100081, China

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    The study on earthquake disaster estimation in urban areas F.X. Zhao Institute of Geophysics, China on urban earthquake risk assessment which has undertaken by China Seismological Bureau and United Nations Seismological Bureau, Beijing 100081, China Z.J. Han Institute of Geology, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing

  11. Women's health status and use of health services in a rapidly growing peri-urban area of South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hoffman; W. M. Pick; D. Cooper; J. E. Myers

    1997-01-01

    Women's health in South Africa and particularly women living in peri-urban areas is being influenced by three major factors. These include the political transition that is occurring in the country, urbanization and the international interest in women's health. Changes in the delivery of health care to the population, and in particular to women are being planned. It is therefore important

  12. Impacts of flooding and climate change on urban transportation: A systemwide performance assessment of the Boston Metro Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Suarez; William Anderson; Vijay Mahal; T. R. Lakshmanan

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is likely to affect urban infrastructure through sea level rise and increased frequency of extreme events. This paper assesses the potential impact of climate change on the system-wide performance of transportation networks using the Boston Metro Area as a case study. The methodology integrates projected changes in land use, demographic and climatic conditions into the urban transportation

  13. Mutagenicity of particulate matter fractions in areas under the impact of urban and industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Coronas, Mariana Vieira; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2012-11-01

    Organisms in the environment are exposed to a mixture of pollutants. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyze the mutagenicity of organic and inorganic responses in two fractions of particulates (TSP and PM2.5) and extracts (organic and aqueous). The mutagenicity of organic and aqueous particulate matter extracts from urban-industrial and urban-residential areas was evaluated by Salmonella/microsome assay, through the microsuspension method, using strain TA98 with and without liver metabolization. Additionally, strains YG1021 and YG1024 (nitro-sensitive) were used for organic extracts. Aqueous extracts presented negative responses for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity was detected in 50% of the samples. In these extracts the presence of potential bioavailable metals was identified. All organic extracts presented mutagens with a higher potential associated with PM2.5. This study presents a first characterization of PM2.5 in Brazil, through the Salmonella/microsome assay. The evaluation strategy detected the anthropic influence of groups of compounds characteristically found in urban and industrial areas, even in samples with PM values in accordance with quality standards. Thus, the use of a genotoxic approach in areas under different anthropic influences will favor the adoption of preventive measures in the health/environment relation. PMID:22795069

  14. Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

  15. Urban Area Extraction Using Airborne X-Band Fully Polarimetric PI-SAR2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, J.; Kishimoto, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to extract urban areas from X-band fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. It is known that very high resolution (VHR) SAR can extract buildings, but it requires more processes to map urban areas that should include other objects. The proposed method is mainly composed of two classifications. One classification uses total power of scattering and volume scattering derived by using four component decomposition method with correction of the polarization orientation angle (POA) effect. The other classification uses polarimetric coherency between SHH and SVV . The two results are intersected and final urban areas are extracted after post-classification processing. We applied the proposed method to airborne X-band fully polarimetric SAR data of Polarimetric and Interferometric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System (Pi-SAR2), developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan. The validation show that the results of the proposed method were acceptable, with an overall accuracy of approximately 80 to 90% at 100-m spatial scale.

  16. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for estimating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other microenvironments in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The population exposure originating from the long-range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure in Helsinki. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  17. Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

    2014-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

  18. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  19. The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Gon

    2004-06-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves. PMID:15253907

  20. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric urban area: monitoring on various types of sites.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Solène; Raynaud, Christine; Meybeck, Mariam; Della Massa, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    The air quality over the Toulouse urban area (France) is recorded daily by the regional "Midi-Pyrénées" atmospheric pollution measurements network (ORAMIP). Relevant data is collected from about 100 analysers spread over more than thirty stations. The regulations covering major indicators of atmospheric pollution (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide) have been updated in recent years to include additional compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The ORAMIP, in partnership with the ENSIACET has undertaken background PAH average concentration measurements over the urban agglomeration of Toulouse during spring 2006 for various types of sites (traffic, urban, industrial). The sampling was performed using a low volume air sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters and polyurethane foams For the two urban sites, total atmospheric concentrations between 12 and 20 ng/m(3) have been obtained, whereas for the industrial site the values averaged 22 ng/m(3). In addition, and regardless of site, the average concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, at present the only regulated PAH, were always less than the 1 ng/m(3) limit. PMID:18210206

  2. Associations of residential density with adolescents' physical activity in a rapidly urbanizing area of Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Li, JieQuan; Liang, YaQiong; Wang, ZhiYong; Hong, Xin; Ware, Robert S; Leslie, Eva; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville

    2010-01-01

    In the context of recent social and economic transitions in China, lack of physical activity among adolescents is an emerging health risk, particularly so in rapidly expanding urban areas. Evidence from Western countries suggests that built environment attributes can influence the physical activity participation of young people, but whether or not this is the case for China is unknown. We recruited high school students from ten urban districts in Nanjing, Mainland China (n = 2,375; mean age = 13.9 +/- 1.0 years old; 46% boys; survey response rate = 89%). The outcome variable was self-reported recreational physical activity time; the primary explanatory variable was the residential density of the urban districts. Analysis was conducted using mixed-effects logistic regression models. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, including sedentary behavior and green space, there was a consistent and graduated association between residential density and physical activity; residential density was significantly negatively associated with recreational physical activity time for students from the higher tertile of residential density (OR; 95% CI = 0.64; 0.42 to 0.97) compared to those from the lower tertile. The direction and magnitude of the negative association between residential density and physical activity was similar for boys and girls. It should be a public health priority to identify the particular urban environment attributes that can encourage and support young people's participation in physical activity. PMID:19949994

  3. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  4. 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial areas and its role in photochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czader, Beata; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    1,3-butadiene is an important pollutant in terms of public health and important driver for photochemical processes influencing ozone formation in the area of Houston. Ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) including the SAPRC99-extended mechanism and the results were compared to spatially and temporally resolved observations of 1,3-butadiene for an episodic period during Summer 2006. Relative contributions of different type of emissions and chemical reactions to 1,3-butadiene concentrations were examined, the highest contribution was found to be from industrial emission sources. 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios in the urban area were found to be lower than in the industrial area. Although emissions of 1,3-butadiene peak during daytime its mixing ratios are lower during daytimes as compared to nighttime. 1,3-butadiene is removed from the surface through vertical upward transport (~90%) and chemical reactions (~10%). During daytime 1,3-butadiene reacts mainly with the OH radical (90%), during nighttime this reaction pathway is still significant in the industrial area (57% of all reaction pathways). Reaction with NO3 during nighttime contributes 33% in industrial and 56% in urban areas, where high NOx emissions occur. Reaction with ozone contributes 10% and 13% in industrial and urban areas, respectively. Analysis of measured data revealed that episodically very high emissions spikes of 1,3-butadiene occur. CMAQ often underpredicts 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios when sites are exposed to sporadic releases from industrial facilities. These releases are not accounted for in the emission inventory. It also appears that emissions of 1,3-butadiene from point sources have much more variability than those listed in the emission inventory.

  5. Marital status and risk of HIV infection in slum settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Kimani, James K; Ettarh, Remare; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Yatich, Nelly

    2013-03-01

    Kenya still faces major challenges due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the association between marital status and risk of HIV infection in urban slums of Nairobi. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population-based survey nested in an ongoing Demographic Surveillance System in two urban slums in Nairobi. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to assess the association between marital status and risk of HIV infection. HIV prevalence among married men and women was 10.4% and 11.1% and among divorced/separated/widowed men and women was 14.9% and 27.9%. Multivariate results showed the risk of acquiring HIV was significantly associated with being married, divorced/separated/widowed, being in the older age groups and the Luo ethnic group. There is urgent need for appropriate HIV prevention interventions targeted at the urban poor to address the high risk of HIV infections in this population. PMID:24069739

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics of visibility impairment by airborne pollen in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung W.

    The number of airborne pollen produced from plants is visible as a haze mixed with urban air pollution in an urban area when atmospheric conditions are proper for pollination of pollen from April to May in Korea. The big loading of airborne pollen can cause further visibility degradation in an urban area. In order to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of visibility impairment by airborne pollen, chemical aerosol measurements, optical aerosol monitoring, and scenic monitoring were performed during the intensive monitoring period from April 19 to May 2, 2005 in the urban area of Seoul, Korea. The particles collected on filters were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) interfaced with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis to characterize size, elemental composition, and count of airborne pollen. During the airborne pollen period, the daily averaged number concentrations of airborne pollen; P and P were calculated to be 8.4±6.9 and 113.7±91.1 m -3, respectively. The daily averaged light extinction coefficient ( bext), light scattering coefficient for open path ( bscat), light scattering coefficient for dry particle in the fine regime ( bscat,fine), and light absorption coefficient in the fine regime ( babs,fine) were measured to be 459±267, 357±214, 263±165, and 44±30 Mm -1, respectively. And mass concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured to be 46.5±29.1 and 97.0±41.7 ?g m -3. The average light absorption coefficient by airborne pollen was estimated to be about 30 M m -1 and the average light scattering coefficient by airborne pollen was estimated to be 67±57 Mm -1. During the airborne pollen period the average contribution of airborne pollen to visibility impairment was roughly estimated to be 19-25%.

  7. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. The Influence of Thermally-Induced Mesoscale Circulations on Turbulence Statistics Over an Idealized Urban Area Under a Zero Background Wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Wang

    2009-01-01

    The influence of mesoscale circulations induced by urban-rural differential surface sensible heat flux and roughness on convective\\u000a boundary-layer (CBL) flow statistics over an isolated urban area has been examined using large-eddy simulation (LES). Results\\u000a are analyzed when the circulations influence the entire urban area under a zero background wind. For comparison, the CBL flow\\u000a over an infinite urban area with

  9. The gated community: residents' crime experience and perception of safety behind gates and fences in the urban area 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Suk Kyung

    2006-10-30

    The primary purpose of the study is to explore the connections between residents' perception of safety and their crime experience, and the existence of gates and fences in multi-family housing communities in urban areas. For cultivating discussions...

  10. The case for pension plan and university endowment equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Tamara C. (Tamara Candace), 1977-

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to present a case for institutional equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas. Pension plans and university endowments are the primary institutional investors ...

  11. Epidemiology of hypertension in Yemen: effects of urbanization and geographical area

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Rapi, Stefano; Massetti, Luciano; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

    2013-01-01

    Although globalization can contribute to increased blood pressure by spreading unhealthy behaviors, it also provides powerful means to tackle hypertension. The dissemination of information about and advice on cardiovascular prevention and facilitated contact with health services are valuable resources. To investigate the effects of urbanization, geographical area, and air temperature on hypertension burden and kidney damage, a survey was performed in 2008 with a door-to-door approach among urban and rural adult dwellers of three geographic areas (capital, inland, coast) of Yemen. Subjects (n=10?242) received two visits several days apart to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Proteinuria (dipstick test ?+1) was used as a marker of kidney damage. Prevalence rates were weighted to represent the Yemen population aged 15–69 years in 2008. Rates of hypertension and proteinuria progressively increased from the capital (6.4% 95% confidence level (CI) 5.8–7.0 and 5.1% 4.4–5.9, respectively), to inland areas (7.9% 7.0–8.7 and 6.1% 5.1–7.1), to the coastal area (10.1% 8.9–11.4 and 8.9% 7.3–10.4). When compared with urban dwellers, rural dwellers had similar hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 1.03; 95% CI 0.91–1.17) but higher proteinuria rates (adjusted ORs 1.55; 1.31–1.85). Overall, home temperature was associated with a lower hypertension rate (adjusted OR 0.98; 0.96–0.99). This large population study reveals that the highest burden of hypertension and kidney damage is detectable in remote areas of the country. PMID:23486167

  12. Heat Waves Assessment in Urban Areas Through Remote Sensing Image-Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Climate change and extreme climate events are the great environmental concerns facing mankind in the twenty first century. Surface temperatures are expected to continue to increase globally and major changes are likely to occur in the global hydrological and energy cycles.Extreme climate events like heat waves are a key manifestation of complex systems, in both the natu-ral and human world.It was estimated that during last years regional surface warming caused the frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves to increase over Europe. During last pe-riod global warming was intensified because the global mean surface temperature has increased since the late 19th century.As urbanization has become an important contributor for global warming, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, will be sure to influence the regional climate, envi-ronment, and socio-economic development.Much more, extreme climatic events as heat waves will amplify the UHI effect with severe urban ecosystem health consequences. Remote sensing is a key to mesoscale modeling through specification of land cover distributions and creating spatial products of moisture, reflectance, and surface temperatures. Because the knowledge of urban surface energy budgets and urban heat islands is significant to assess urban climatology, global environmental change, and human-environment interactions important for planning and management practices, is very important to study land surface temperatures and urban energy budget characteristics using the technology of satellite remote sensing imagery. In this study MODIS and IKONOS satellite remote sensing images for 1989 to 2008 period have been se-lected to retrieve the urban biogeophysical parameters and brightness temperatures in relation with changes of land use/cover types over Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania. The spatial distribution of heat islands has been changed from a mixed pattern, where bare land, semi-bare land and land under development were warmer than other surface types, to extensive UHI. Our analysis showed that higher temperature in the UHI was located with a scattered pattern, which was related to certain land-cover types. In order to analyze the relationship between UHI and land-cover changes, this study attempted to employ a quantitative approach in exploring the relationship between temperature and several indices, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) and Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI). It was found that correlations between NDVI, NDWI, NDBaI and temperature are negative when NDVI is limited in range, but positive correlation is shown between NDBI and temperature.Spectral/climatic modelling of extreme high temperature events in urban areas are providing a scientific base for heat wave hazard assessment.Heat waves events of 2003 and 2007 summers have been correlated with UHI effect for Bucharest metropolitan area.

  13. Genetic epidemiology and pathology of raccoon-derived Sarcoptes mites from urban areas of Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Z; Min, A M; Alasaad, S; Müller, K; Michler, F-U; Schmäschke, R; Wittstatt, U; Rossi, L; Wibbelt, G

    2014-08-01

    The raccoon, Procyon lotor (Carnivora: Procyonidae), is an invasive species that is spreading throughout Europe, in which Germany represents its core area. Here, raccoons mostly live in rural regions, but some urban populations are already established, such as in the city of Kassel, or are starting to build up, such as in Berlin. The objective of this study was to investigate Sarcoptes (Sarcoptiformes: Sarcoptidae) infections in racoons in these two urban areas and to identify the putative origin of the parasite. Parasite morphology, and gross and histopathological examinations of diseased skin tissue were consistent with Sarcoptes scabiei infection. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped individual mites from five raccoons and compared them with Sarcoptes mites derived from fox, wild boar and Northern chamois, originating from Italy and Switzerland. The raccoon-derived mites clustered together with the fox samples and were clearly differentiated from those of the wild boar and chamois samples, which suggests a fox origin for the raccoon mange infection. These results are evidence of the cross-transmission of S.?scabiei among wild carnivores. Although our results cannot elucidate whether raccoons became infected by frequent interaction with endemically or epidemically infected foxes or whether these cases resulted from occasional contacts among these animal species, they do nevertheless show that pathogens can be shared among urban populations of native and invasive carnivores. PMID:25171612

  14. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  15. Implementation of sustainable sanitation in existing urban areas: long-term strategies for an optimised solution.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, I; Meyer, T; Kalsch, M; Schmitt, T G; Hamacher, H W

    2007-01-01

    If technologies for decentralised sanitation and reuse (DESAR) and for natural stormwater management should at least partially replace existing systems, then intensive reconstruction work becomes essential. A conversion can only be realised successively over a long period due to high construction and financial expenses and requires new strategies. This paper presents the development and practical implementation of a mathematical tool to find an optimised strategy for the realisation of alternative and more decentralised drainage and sanitation concepts in existing urban areas. The succession of construction measures (e.g. the implementation of decentralised greywater recycling) for the whole period of consideration is determined based upon a mathematical optimisation model on the condition that the favoured future state is known. The model describes the complex interdependencies of the urban water and nutrient cycle and enables the minimisation of both financial efforts and ecological impacts on the way toward the future state. The results of the implementation for a rural area in Germany show that the mathematical optimisation is an adequate instrument to support decision-making processes in finding strategies for the realisation of sustainable urban water management. PMID:17881844

  16. Mapping dustfall distribution in urban areas using remote sensing and ground spectral data.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wenzhong; Zhao, Wenji; Luo, Nana

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study was to utilize remote sensing and ground-based spectral data to assess dustfall distribution in urban areas. The ground-based spectral data denoted that dust has a significant impact on spectral features. Dusty leaves have an obviously lower reflectance than clean leaves in the near-infrared bands (780-1,300 nm). The correlation analysis between dustfall weight and spectral reflectance showed that spectroscopy in the 350-2,500-nm region produced useful dust information and could assist in dust weight estimation. A back propagation (BP) neutral network model was generated using spectral response functions and integrated remote sensing data to assess dustfall weight in the city of Beijing. Compared with actual dustfall weight, validation of the results showed a satisfactory accuracy with a lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6g/m(2). The derived dustfall distribution in Beijing indicated that dustfall was easily accumulated and increased in the south of the city. In addition, our results showed that construction sites and low-rise buildings with inappropriate land use were two main sources of dust pollution. This study offers a low-cost and effective method for investigating detailed dustfall in an urban environment. Environmental authorities may use this method for deriving dustfall distribution maps and pinpointing the sources of pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25433376

  17. Observations of organic aerosol mass (OA) growth downwind of urban and industrial source in Houston Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Ervens, B.; Warneke, C.; Degouw, J. A.; Decarlo, P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Brioude, J.; Brock, C. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. R.; Trainer, M. K.; Wollny, A. G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2008-12-01

    During TexAQS-2006 field study, organic aerosol mass (OA)downwind of Houston urban center and the petrochemical industries along the Houston Ship Channel was measured aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft, using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS). We have used on-board measurements of CO, benzene, and SO2 to identify the different plumes transected on several days in order to characterize the growth of OA with transport downwind of the sources. The results show that the OA growth in urban plume is similar to other urban centers in NE U.S. However, the observed growth in OA downwind of Houston Ship Channel exceeds those observed downwind of urban centers. We also present results from a chemical box model that was developed to simulate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the urban and industrial plumes, using absorbing- mass dependent and the most recent NOx dependent aerosol formation yields. Furthermore, we used a transport model, FLEXPART, along with the EPA BEIS biogenic emission inventory, to estimate isoprene and monoterpene surface contributions to the air masses sampled on two flights. Using constant aerosol formation yields, the amount of OA that could be formed from these biogenic precursors was estimated to be less than 1.5 ug m-3, even during a flight to the north of Houston where high biogenic emissions are observed. The tight correlation between the observed OA and CO on this flight also indicates that anthropogenic sources play the dominant role in OA formation in Houston area.

  18. ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

    2007-12-01

    Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between 1.48 × 109 and 8.76 × 109 or between 3.98 × 109 and 16.7 × 109, depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities ( q i ) of TEC. Changes in q i resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation.

  19. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico1

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-García, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Vélez-Grajales, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (one- and two-year) effects of the Mexican Oportunidades CCT program on urban children/youth. The program provides financial incentives for children/youth to attend school and for family members to visit health clinics. To participate, families had to sign up for the program and be deemed eligible. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates indicate that the program is successful in increasing school enrollment, schooling attainment and time devoted to homework for girls and boys and in decreasing working rates of boys. PMID:25705094

  20. Determinants of racial fertility differentials in some urban areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-Dan, O

    1994-01-01

    Results of a survey of some urban areas in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereenining region show differential impacts of proximate and socioeconomic factors on the fertility of urban blacks and whites. Timing of starting and ending of childbearing and the reproductive behaviour of women who have never been married account for the major differences in fertility levels. White women confine their childbearing career to the 20-39 age range, while black women utilise the entire 15-49 age range. The fertility level is quite high among black women who have never been married (in contrast to never married white women). With the exception of breast-feeding, racial patterns in other proximate determinants of fertility do not suggest the observed racial differentials in fertility. PMID:8200879

  1. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  2. Two Phase Temporal-Spatial Autocorrelation of Urban Patterns: Revealing Focal Areas of Re-Urbanization in Tel Aviv-Yafo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idan Porat; Maxim Shoshany; Amnon Frenkel

    A new two-phase temporal-spatial analysis technique is presented for exploring core areas of re-urbanization in complex patterns\\u000a of urban change. The Local Autocorrelation of Pearson (LAoP) technique first computes temporal Pearson correlations between\\u000a time series of data for each sub-area and the city’s average time series and then computes the local Moran autocorrelation\\u000a (LISA) of these temporal correlations. This technique

  3. Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Economic development in permafrost regions is accompanied by modification of natural geocryological conditions. Drastic landscape transformations in urbanized areas on permafrost are characterized by changes of heat and moisture exchange in permafrost - atmosphere system, and by engineering and technogenic influence upon the frozen ground, leading to alteration of its physical, thermal and mechanical properties. In northern cities this leads to overall increase of ground temperature relative to undisturbed areas and intensification of hazardous cryogenic processes in areas under engineering development, which together leads to reduction in stability of geotechnical environment. For example, deformations of structures in Norilsk district, Northern Siberia, in the last 15 years, became much more abundant than those revealed throughout the previous 50 years. About 250 large buildings in the local towns were deformed considerably due to deterioration of geocryological conditions, about 100 structures were functioning in emergency state, and almost 50 nine- and five-storey houses, built in the 1960-80s, have been recently disassembled. Increase in accident risk for various facilities (water and oil pipelines, industrial enterprises, etc.) enhances the technogenic pressure on permafrost, leading to the new milestone of changes in permafrost characteristics, i.e. to creation of 'another reality' of geocryological conditions. Social and natural factors dictate clustered spatial pattern of industrial development in permafrost regions. Cryogenic processes within the urban areas on permafrost are seldom similar with those under the natural conditions as intensity, duration and extent of the processes changes under technogenic impacts. Moreover, new cryogenic processes and phenomena may occur, which have not been typical for a given region. This makes mapping and characterization of these processes difficult task. Peculiar natural-technogenic geocryological complexes (NTGC) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

  4. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. The fate and impact of radiocontaminants in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Roed, J; Andersson, K G; Lange, C

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident made it clear that the contaminants released after a severe nuclear accident may spread over large areas, and thereby form a significant external radiation hazard in areas of high population density. Since then, the weathering effects on the deposited radiocontaminants (essentially radiocaesium) have been followed on different types of surface in urban, suburban and industrial areas in order to enable an estimation of the long-term impact of such events. Analytical expressions have been derived for the typical behaviour of radiocaesium on the different surfaces, and dose measurements and calculations for different urban environments have pinpointed which surfaces generally contribute most to the dose and consequently are most important to clean. At this point, after nearly a decade, the dose rate from horizontal pavements has decreased by at least a factor of 10, whereas the dose rate from an area of soil or a roof has generally only been halved. The contamination on walls is the most persistent: it has only decreased by 10-20%. PMID:9339313

  5. Phosphorus transport and retention in a channel draining an urban, tropical catchment with informal settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-03-01

    Urban catchments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are increasingly becoming a major source of phosphorus (P) to downstream ecosystems. This is primarily due to large inputs of untreated wastewater to urban drainage channels, especially in informal settlements (or slums). However, the processes governing the fate of P in these catchments are largely unknown. In this study, these processes are investigated. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda, and from a tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.54 km2). The samples were analysed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP), suspended solids (SS) and hydrochemistry. We also collected channel bed and suspended sediments to determine their geo-available metals, sorption characteristics and the dominant phosphorus forms. Our results showed that the catchment exported high fluxes of P (0.3 kg km2 d-1 for PO4-P and 0.95 for TP), which were several orders of magnitude higher than values normally reported in literature. A large proportion of P exported was particulate (56% of TP) and we inferred that most of it was retained along the channel bed. The retained sediment P was predominantly inorganic (> 63% of total sediment P) and consisted of mostly Ca and Fe-bound P, which were present in almost equal proportions. Ca-bound sediment P was attributed to the adsorption of P to calcite because surface water was near saturation with respect to calcite in all the events sampled. Fe-bound sediment P was attributed to the adsorption of P to iron oxides in suspended sediment during runoff events given that surface water was undersaturated with respect to iron phosphates. We also found that the bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P by mineralisation and desorption. During rain events, there was a flushing of PP which we attributed to the resuspension of P-rich bed sediment that accumulated in the channel during low flows. However, first-flush effects were not observed. Our findings provide useful insights into the processes governing the fate and transport of P in urban slum catchments in SSA.

  6. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    A water and/or waste disposal system serving an area which was formerly a rural area as defined in § 1942.17(b)(2)(iii) and (iv) of subpart A of part 1942 of this chapter, but which has become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in accordance with this...

  7. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  8. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are changing from urban to rural as a result...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Hospitals located in areas that are changing from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...Hospitals located in areas that are changing from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. An urban hospital that was part of an MSA,...

  9. Those that Urbanization Left Behind: A Case Study of Spatial Disparities and Rising Dependency in Coastal Areas in Mindanao, the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmeli Marie Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Urban-rural disparities are exacerbated by failed livelihood projects, declining fishing incomes, and rising poverty levels in coastal areas in Mindanao, the Philippines. This has spurred the out-migration of young adults from the rural to urban areas. Faced with collapsing fisheries and a lack of income opportunities, families are compelled to abandon fishing and farming occupations for urban services jobs that

  10. The implementation of Satellite images and associated digital image processing in addition to GIS modelling for urban mapping in Amman area, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EYAD H. R. FADDA; MAHER KAKISH; TARIQ A. AL AZAB

    Thematic maps and geo-spatial database are important tools that can be used for many purposes, such as mapping urban features, agricultural area and road network; they are also useful in urban planning and city planning. Many urban features were depicted from topographic maps and satellite digital images covering west of Amman area. GIS, remote sensing and associated digital image processing

  11. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the recently developed urban areas. Five arsenic sample concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter adopted in 2001. Measurements that exceeded USEPA or California Department of Health Services recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels include manganese, iron, chloride, total dissolved solids, and specific conductance. These exceedances are probably a result of natural processes. Variations in stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) may indicate different sources or a mixing of recharge waters to the urban ground water. These variations also may indicate recharge directly from surface water in one well adjacent to the Sacramento River. Tritium concentrations indicate that most shallow ground water has been recharged since the mid-1950s, and tritium/helium-3 age dates suggest that recharge has occurred in the last 2 to 30 years in some areas. In areas where water table depths exceed 20 meters and wells are deeper, ground-water recharge may have occurred prior to 1950, but low concentrations of pesticides and VOCs detected in these deeper wells indicate a mixing of younger and older waters. Overall, the recently urbanized areas can be divided into two groups. One group contains wells where few VOCs and pesticides were detected, nitrate mostly was not detected, and National and State maximum contaminant levels, including the USEPA MCL for arsenic, were exceeded; these wells are adjacent to rivers and generally are characterized by younger water, shallow (1 to 4 meters) water table, chemically reducing conditions, finer grained sediments, and higher organics in the soils. In contrast, the other group contains wells where more VOCs, pesticides, and elevated nitrate concentrations were detected; these wells are farther from rivers and are generally characterized by a mixture of young and old waters, intermediate to deep (7 to 35 meters) wate

  12. A small-area analysis of inequalities in chronic disease prevalence across urban and non-urban communities in the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, Mikiko; Rainham, Daniel G C; Levy, Adrian R

    2014-01-01

    Background Small-area studies of health inequalities often have an urban focus, and may be limited in their translatability to non-urban settings. Using small-area units representing communities, this study assessed the influence of living in different settlement types (urban, town and rural) on the prevalence of four chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes and stroke) and compared the degrees of associations with individual-level and community-level factors among the settlement types. Methods The associations between community-level and individual-level characteristics and prevalence of the chronic diseases were assessed using logistic regression (multilevel and non-multilevel) models. Individual-level data were extracted from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007–2011). Indices of material deprivation and social isolation and the settlement type classification were created using the Canadian Census. Results Respondents living in towns were 21% more likely to report one of the diseases than respondents living in urban communities even after accounting for individual-level and community-level characteristics. Having dependent children appeared to have protective effects in towns, especially for males (OR: 0.49 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.90)). Unemployment had a strong association for all types of communities, but being unemployed appeared to be particularly damaging to health of males in urban communities (OR: 2.48 (95% CI 1.43 to 4.30)). Conclusions The study showed that those living in non-urban settings, particularly towns, experience extra challenges in maintaining health above and beyond the socioeconomic condition and social isolation of the communities, and individual demographic, behavioural and socioeconomic attributes. Our findings also suggest that health inequality studies based on urban-only settings may underestimate the risks by some factors. Ways to devise meaningful small-area units comparable in all settlement types are necessary to help plan effective provision of chronic disease-related health services and programmes on a regional scale. PMID:24823673

  13. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings From NHANES (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and physical activity correlates of obesity across rural and urban residence are examined. Methods Analysis of body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity from 7,325 urban and 1,490 rural adults in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Findings The obesity prevalence was 39.6% (SE = 1.5) among rural adults compared to 33.4% (SE = 1.1) among urban adults (P = .006). Prevalence of obesity remained significantly higher among rural compared to urban adults controlling for demographic, diet, and physical activity variables (odds ratio = 1.18, P = .03). Race/ethnicity and percent kcal from fat were significant correlates of obesity among both rural and urban adults. Being married was associated with obesity only among rural residents, whereas older age, less education, and being inactive was associated with obesity only among urban residents. Conclusions Obesity is markedly higher among adults from rural versus urban areas of the United States, with estimates that are much higher than the rates suggested by studies with self-reported data. Obesity deserves greater attention in rural America. PMID:23083085

  14. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; G?ód-Nawrocka, Marta; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

    2012-03-23

    An unhealthy lifestyle among young people is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of young people from rural and urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare eating habits and physical activity of young adults according to their body weight, gender and place of residence. The study involved a group of 18-year-olds from rural and urban environments. The study included 50% girls and 50% of boys in each group, selected by simple random sampling (SRS). The author-designed questionnaire evaluating the nutrition habits and physical activity was provided. It was found that in the group of boys the value of BMI was markedly higher than in girls. Compared to the normal weight, young overweight adults ate meals more frequency, the majority preferred meat dishes, more often ate under the stress, and had lower physical activity. It was found that gender had a significant impact on the studied parameters. The girls ate meals more frequent during the day, the majority preferred fruit and vegetable, but had lower physical activity than the boys. It was found that the young adults from the rural area preferred fast food and frequently ate sweets. Compared to the subjects from the urban environment, the young adults living in the countryside consumed fewer meals daily and were more physical active. About a half of the studied adults were not satisfied with their weight, and nearly 40% of the subjects in both groups admitted that they had made effective or ineffective attempts to lose weight. The lifestyles of young people in rural and urban areas were slightly different; however, dietary factors which predispose to weight gain were comparable in both groups. In the rural areas, the most frequent nutritional faults were a preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets, and few meals during the day. A positive aspect of the lifestyle of young people in the rural areas was a relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on excessive consumption. PMID:22462458

  15. Assessing the Utility of Satellite Imagery with Differing Spatial Resolutions for Deriving Proxy Measures of Slum Presence in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Stoler, Justin; Daniels, Dean; Weeks, John R.; Stow, Douglas A.; Coulter, Lloyd L.; Finch, Brian Karl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on how differing spatial resolutions or classification techniques affect image-driven identification and categorization of slum neighborhoods in developing nations. This study assesses the correlation between satellite-derived land cover and census-derived socioeconomic variables in Accra, Ghana to determine whether the relationship between these variables is altered with a change in spatial resolution or scale. ASTER and Landsat TM satellite images are each used to classify land cover using spectral mixture analysis (SMA), and land cover proportions are summarized across Enumeration Areas in Accra and compared to socioeconomic data for the same areas. Correlation and regression analyses compare the SMA results with a Slum Index created from various socio-economic data taken from the Census of Ghana, as well as to data derived from a “hard” per-pixel classification of a 2.4 m Quickbird image. Results show that the vegetation fraction is significantly correlated with the Slum Index (Pearson’s r ranges from ?0.33 to ?0.51 depending on which image-derived product is compared), and the use of a spatial error model improves results (multivariate model pseudo-R2 ranges from 0.37 to 0.40 by image product). We also find that SMA products derived from ASTER are a sufficient substitute for classification products derived from higher spatial resolution QB data when using land cover fractions as a proxy for slum presence, suggesting that SMA might be more cost-effective for deriving land cover fractions than the use of high-resolution imagery for this type of demographic analysis. PMID:23847453

  16. CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of critical infrastructures, assessed by the potential consequences of failure or destruction of infrastructures providing essential services to the population. The integration of these two methodologies within a same tool allows the dynamic mapping of human vulnerability according to the characteristics of the flood, and thus produces a precise and reliable evaluation of human risk related to a potential or an ongoing flood. The methodology was successfully applied to two rivers sections exposed to flooding on the suburbs of Quebec City (Canada), which present a diversified land use (industrial areas, residential areas, public facilities, etc.).

  17. Experiences of a health team working in a new urban settlement area in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Bulut, A; Uzel, N; Kutluay, T; Neyzi, O

    1991-10-01

    A project aiming at creating a model for comprehensive maternal and child health care for urban underdeveloped areas was started in a new settlement area of migrants in the vicinity of Istanbul. The project had an impact on health care status, particularly among infants and children, but the results indicated that more effort was needed to reach the mothers. It was noted that building space and the appearance of the work place influenced the prestige of the team. Absentee problems could be partly surmounted by repeated home visits. Based on this experience, it was concluded that health services in underdeveloped areas need to be supported by non medical personnel to act as home visitors and as mediators between the community and the health team. It was also concluded that an established recording system to include both clinical data and attendance is needed to define the cases who need special care. PMID:1955576

  18. Study on Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Measurement in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    GPS/GNSS (Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite System) is a 3D positioning system using space satellites for measuring a receiver's current position. Recently, many people use GPS as the navigation system in car and cellular phone, so the positioning accuracy of several meters is required to satisfy the user's need. However the measurement error reaches hundreds of meters in urban areas. One of the reasons is that the receiver fails to measure pseudo range accurately due to multipath from the buildings and so on. The other reason is that the satellite constellation is biased because of the decreasing number of observable satellites. Therefore, we proposed methods for reducing the multipath error and the lack of visible satellites. At the present day, although multipath error is reduced by the choke ring antenna and the correlators, this method has a problem that the antenna is expensive, big or complex. We devise methods to reduce the multipath error by only using measurement data. By these methods, we can reduce the size of the receiver and to use the satellite that contains the multipath error for the measurement. We achieved the improvement from 35.3m to 30.5m in 2drms by this method. We achieved about 69% improvement in 2drms and about 5% increase in measurement rate. We can describe that we succeeded not only in improving the measurement accuracy but also in increasing the measurement rate in urban area. The results show that our proposed method is effective in urban areas measurement.

  19. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  20. Quantifying the emissions of HCN from on-road vehicles in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Li, S.; Brook, J.; Liggio, J.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN), has been considered a marker for biomass burning emissions. Despite its adverse health impacts, estimate of its global sources and sinks are highly uncertain due to a limited number of field and laboratory studies. In particular, HCN emissions from automobile exhaust are not well constrained for modern vehicles, and thought to be relatively small compared to emissions from biomass burning. In the current study, HCN emissions from individual diesel and gasoline vehicles were quantified as a function of engine driving mode, and fuel type. Proton transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure HCN emissions from diesel engines operating on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and various bio-diesel blends including Soy, Tallow, and Canola. Significant emissions of HCN were observed from all vehicles, and enhanced with the use of biodiesel. In addition, ambient measurements of HCN in a traffic dominated urban area in Toronto, Canada demonstrated that a correlation between HCN, and traditional vehicle emissions markers such as benzene and xylenes exists and indicating that HCN has the potential to be a marker of fuel combustion. The ambient data and the calculated emission factors further suggest that vehicular emissions are a major source of HCN even in the presence of biomass burning, and that near roadway conditions may represent the dominant exposure pathway to HCN in urban areas. Results of this study have important implications on HCN global budget, health impacts in urban areas and the effect of alternate fuels on the emissions of this toxic species.