This study explored the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and non-slum areas of urban Bangladesh. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9122 currently married women aged 15–49 selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of reported past-year physical spousal violence was 31%. Prevalence of past-year physical spousal violence was higher in slums (35%) than in non-slums (20%). Slapping/arm-twisting and pushing/shaking/throwing something at the women were the most commonly reported acts of physical abuse. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of physical spousal abuse was lower among older women, women with post-primary education, and those belonging to rich households and women whose husband considered their opinion in decision-making. Women were at higher risk of abuse if they had many children, believed that married woman should work if the husband is not making enough money, and approved wife beating norms. This study serves to confirm the commonness of physical spousal abuse in urban Bangladesh demonstrating the seriousness of this multifaceted phenomenon as a social and public health issue. The present findings suggest the need for comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies that capitalize on the interplay of individual and sociocultural factors that cause physical spousal violence. Our study adds to a growing literature documenting domestic violence against women in urban areas of developing south Asian nations.
Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana
This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…
Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana
This study aims to clarify the quality of life (QOL), mental health, and nutritional status of adolescents in Dhaka city, Bangladesh by comparing non-slum areas and slums, and to find the factors associated with their mental health problems. A sample of 187 boys and 137 girls from non-slum areas, and 157 boys and 121 girls from slums, between 11–18 years
Takashi Izutsu; Atsuro Tsutsumi; Seika Kato; Susumu Wakai; Hiroshi Kurita
Background: Bar girls are unorganized, difficult to reach high-risk group, and an urban phenomenon. Objectives: To study the demographic profile and sexual behavior of bar girls. Materials and Methods: Study setting is an urban slum area situated in the northwest part of Mumbai. Study design is a community-based cross-sectional study. Study duration was from January 2003 to January 2005. Phase I: Identification of key informants was done. Phase II: Mapping of bar girls in the study area was done with the help of key informants. Sampling: Out of the estimated 800-1200 bar girls, 120 bar girls who were willing to participate in the study were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Confidentiality of names and locations was assured to both key informants and study subjects. Information was gathered about demographic profile, educational status, and their sexual behavior by conducting one to one interview with the use of predesigned, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the bar girls were in the age group of 21–25 years 52 (43.3%). None of them were educated above secondary level. Most of the subjects belong to West Bengal state 58 (48.4%). Majority of the subjects 88 (73.3%) reported that they have ever practiced commercial sex, and money was the criteria of selection of customers 53 (60.22%). Condom usage was reported less with regular customer as compared with that of nonregular customers (?2 = 6.02, P < 0.02). Conclusions: Need to emphasize condom use with each and every sexual act irrespective of type of customers.
Nirgude, Abhay; Solanki, Mridula J; Shinde, Ratnendra R; Naik, Poonam
The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.
Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.
The world is rapidly urbanizing with over half the population now living in urban areas. As the urban population grows, so does the proportion of these persons living in slums where conditions are deplorable. These conditions concentrate health hazards leading to higher rates of morbidity and mortality. This growing problem creates a unique challenge for policymakers and public health practitioners. While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) aim to address these conditions and standards for water and sanitation as well as pertinent health outcomes, little evidence on interventions exists to guide policymakers. Upgrades in slum household water and sanitation systems have not yet been rigorously evaluated to demonstrate whether there is a direct link to improved health outcomes. This study aims to show that slum upgrading as carried out in Ahmedabad, India, led to a significant decline in waterborne illness incidence. We employ a quasi-experimental regression model using health insurance claims (for 2001-2008) as a proxy for passive surveillance of disease incidence. We found that slum upgrading reduced a claimant's likelihood of claiming for waterborne illness from 32% to 14% and from 25% to 10% excluding mosquito-related illnesses. This study shows that upgrades in slum household infrastructure can lead to improved health outcomes and help achieve the MDGs. It also provides guidance on how upgrading in this context using microfinance and a public-private partnership can provide an avenue to affect positive change. PMID:20599311
Butala, Neel M; VanRooyen, Michael J; Patel, Ronak Bhailal
Deteriorating environmental quality is the source of a variety of grave problems facing urban residents. This article reports slum residents' perceptions and responses to air and water pollution, noise, garbage, crowding, and traffic. The respondents were 280 male and female slum dwellers in Old Delhi, New Delhi, and Allahabad in India. Results showed that slum dwellers of Delhi reported greater
Roomana N. Siddiqui; Janak Pandey
Rapid population growth in urban areas of Bangladesh ,including Khulna the third largest city, caused by a heavy influx of migrants from rural areas, has led to mushrooming of slums and squatters in urban areas without any basic service facilities. As a part of urban poverty reduction and to improve the living environment of the urban poor basic services have
Bushra Shamsad; Sadah Shamsad
BackgroundLeptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment.Methods and FindingsA survey
Elves A. P. Maciel; Ana Luiza F. de Carvalho; Simone F. Nascimento; Rosan B. de Matos; Edilane L. Gouveia; Mitermayer G. Reis; Albert I. Ko
BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major
Aklimunnessa Khan; Alexander Kraemer; Mitsuru Mori
The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.
Urban poor areas of Kampala, Uganda see severe outbreaks of cholera, malaria, typhoid, bilharzia and other fatal water-borne diseases on an all too regular basis. Many people in the slums still lack safe drinking water and a sanitary living environment and despite efforts, the conditions have not reached or even come close to reaching international or national goals. This research
Noelle A. Fogg
Urban slum dwellers are not only prone to develop communicable diseases but also to non-communicable disease (NCDs). The extent and magnitude of NCDs among slum dwellers is largely unknown in Nigeria. A total of 964 adults aged 20-81 years (male 330 and female 634) residing in the urban slum of Ajegunle in Lagos State, Nigeria were studied to determine the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 38.2 %. Of the 368 respondents identified as having hypertension, only 50 (5.2 %) respondents were previously aware of their diagnosis. Of the 50 known hypertensive patients, 48(96 %) had poor control of their high blood pressure. The socio-demographic factors significantly associated with hypertension status were age, sex, education, religion, BMI, and marital status. The study concludes a high prevalence of hypertension among urban slums dwellers in Lagos. The need for government to develop policies for the control of hypertension, improve access to early diagnosis and provide an enabling socioeconomic environment while promoting healthy living. PMID:23440487
Daniel, Olusoji James; Adejumo, Olusola Adedeji; Adejumo, Esther Ngozi; Owolabi, Rotimi Samuel; Braimoh, Rotimi Williams
Background: Beedi rollers are exposed to unburnt tobacco dust through cutaneous and pharyngeal route. They are not aware of their rights. Studies have been conducted on beedi workers but not many studies are carried out in urban areas. Thus, study was carried out to understand working condition and health hazards in beedi workers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai and to know whether beedi roller are in better condition in urban areas. Aim: To study working condition and health hazard in beedi rollers in the urban slums. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, community based study was carried in the urban slums of Mumbai with population of 8985 from April 2011 to June 2011. With snow balling sampling technique, 52 beedi workers were interviewed regarding their socio-economic status, working conditions and health problems after informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS windows version 14.0 software. Results: The mean age was 45 years with SD of 12 years. All were Hindu females. Around 42.31% were illiterate. Mean years of service were 30 years and they work on an average for eight hours. Children were not involved in beedi rolling. Most common morbidity was fatigue. None were aware of the benefits provided for them. Awareness regarding health hazard and safety measures was poor. Conclusions: The working condition of beedi rollers in the urban areas is not favourable.
Sabale, Rupali V.; Kowli, Shobha S.; Chowdhary, Padmaja H.
Background Leptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting. Methods and Findings We performed a community-based survey of 3,171 slum residents from Salvador, Brazil. Leptospira agglutinating antibodies were measured as a marker for prior infection. Poisson regression models evaluated the association between the presence of Leptospira antibodies and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys and indicators of socioeconomic status and exposures for individuals. Overall prevalence of Leptospira antibodies was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0–16.8). Households of subjects with Leptospira antibodies clustered in squatter areas at the bottom of valleys. The risk of acquiring Leptospira antibodies was associated with household environmental factors such as residence in flood-risk regions with open sewers (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.14–1.75) and proximity to accumulated refuse (1.43, 1.04–1.88), sighting rats (1.32, 1.10–1.58), and the presence of chickens (1.26, 1.05–1.51). Furthermore, low income and black race (1.25, 1.03–1.50) were independent risk factors. An increase of US$1 per day in per capita household income was associated with an 11% (95% CI 5%–18%) decrease in infection risk. Conclusions Deficiencies in the sanitation infrastructure where slum inhabitants reside were found to be environmental sources of Leptospira transmission. Even after controlling for environmental factors, differences in socioeconomic status contributed to the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that effective prevention of leptospirosis may need to address the social factors that produce unequal health outcomes among slum residents, in addition to improving sanitation.
Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Andreia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marilia S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.
Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.
Background & objectives: The prevalence of anaemia has been well studied particularly on etiology of nutritional anaemia in children of age group 5-10.9 yr in India. The present study was carried out to find out the prevalence and etiology of nutritional anaemia among 5 to 10.9 yr old corporation school children from urban slums. Methods: Urban Delhi slums were divided
Sunil Gomber; Nishi Madan; Avtar Lal; Kusum Kela
Provision of sanitation solutions in the world's urban slums is extremely challenging due to lack of money, space, access and sense of ownership. This paper presents a technology selection method that was used for the selection of appropriate sanitation solutions for urban slums. The method used in this paper takes into account sustainability criteria, including social acceptance, technological and physical
A. Y. Katukiza; M. Ronteltap; A. Oleja; C. B. Niwagaba; F. Kansiime; P. N. L. Lens
Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…
Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David
BackgroundLeptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting.Methods and FindingsWe performed
Renato B. Reis; Guilherme S. Ribeiro; Ridalva D. M. Felzemburgh; Francisco S. Santana; Sharif Mohr; Astrid X. T. O. Melendez; Adriano Queiroz; Andréia C. Santos; Romy R. Ravines; Wagner S. Tassinari; Marília S. Carvalho; Mitermayer G. Reis; Albert I. Ko
Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design: Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting: Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants: A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions: Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions: A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity. Citation: Simonelli G; Leanza Y; Boilard A; Hyland M; Augustinavicius JL; Cardinali DP; Vallières A; Pérez-Chada D; Vigo DE. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: the effect of a slum housing upgrading program. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1669-1676.
Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martin; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Vallieres, Annie; Perez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E.
In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence.
J. Madise, Nyovani; Ziraba, Abdhalah K.; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A.; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M.; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu
This paper reports a study of Impact of Work and Environment on the Women living in slum areas of Jammu City. The sample for the study consisted of 100 working women from four different slum areas of Jammu City. The results revealed that there is a strong relationship between women's work lives and health. Lack of education, compelled women to
Nidhi Kotwal; Neelima Gupta; Shashi Manhas
For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his\\/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the “urban advantage”. This “urban advantage” is associated with increased access to facilities such as schools in urban areas.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of India: Ninth Gopalan Oration; Invisible Fats Revisited; Symposia on: Interaction of Nutrition with Drugs and other Xenobiotics and Nutrition in Urban Slums; and Proceedings of the Annual Meetings.
The proceedings include papers from two symposia: the first dealing with interactions of food nutrients with drugs and other xenobiotics; the second dealing with nutrition and diet in urban slum areas. Also included are special papers concerning invisible...
Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality globally and in India. The magnitude and the pattern of tobacco consumption are likely to be influenced by the geographical setting and with rapid urbanization in India there is a need to study this differential pattern. Aim: The aim was to study the rural, urban, and urban-slum differences in patterns of tobacco use. Settings: The study was conducted in Ballabgarh block, Faridabad district, Haryana, and was a community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in years 2003-2004 using the WHO STEPS approach with 7891 participants, approximately equal number of males and females, selected using multistage sampling from urban, urban-slum, and rural strata. Statistical Analysis: The analysis was done using the SPSS 12.0 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Direct standardization to the WHO world standard population was done to and chi-square and ANOVA tests were used for comparison across three study settings. Results: Self-reported tobacco use among males was as follows: urban 35.2%; urban-slums 48.3%; and rural 52.6% (P value <0.05). Self-reported tobacco use among females was as follows: Urban 3.5%; urban-slums 11.9%; and rural 17.7% (P value <0.05). More males reported daily bidi (tobacco wrapped in temburini leaf) smoking (urban 17.8%, urban-slums 36.7%, rural 44.6%) than cigarette use (urban 9.6%, urban-slums 6.3%, rural 2.9%). Females using smoked tobacco were almost exclusively using bidis (urban 1.7%, 7.9%, 11% in rural). Daily chewed tobacco use had urban, urban-slum, and rural gradients of 12%, 10.5%, and 6.8% in males respectively. Its use was low in females. Conclusion: The antitobacco policies of India need to focus on bidis in antitobacco campaigns. The program activities must find ways to reach the rural and urban-slum populations.
Gupta, Vivek; Yadav, Kapil; Anand, K
In developing countries, poor families in urban slums often do not receive municipal services including water. The objectives of our study were to characterize families who purchased drinking water and to examine the relation between purchasing drinking water and child morbidity and mortality in urban slums of Indonesia, using data collected between 1999 and 2003. Of 143,126 families, 46.8% purchased
Richard D. Semba; Saskia de Pee; Klaus Kraemer; Kai Sun; Andrew Thorne-Lyman; Regina Moench-Pfanner; Mayang Sari; Nasima Akhter; Martin W. Bloem
Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities.
Navegantes de Araujo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Reis, Renato B.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Hagan, Jose E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Costa, Federico
Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15–19, was
Sabina Faiz Rashid
The present study examines the influence of external debt on the change in the proportion of the total population living in urban slum conditions in the less developed countries between 1990 and 2010, drawing from a political economy of the world-system theoretical perspective. Ordinary least squares panel regression illustrates external debt as a percent of gross national income has a
James Rice; Julie Steinkopf Rice
In response to rapid urbanization throughout the global South, urban and peri-urban slums are expanding at an alarming rate. Owing to inadequate financial and institutional resources at the municipal level, conventional approaches for safe water provision with centralized treatment and distribution infrastructure have been unable to keep pace with rapidly growing demand. In the absence of alternatives to centralized systems, a global public health emergency of infectious water-related diseases has developed. Alternative decentralized water treatment systems have been promoted in recent years as a means of achieving rapid health gains among vulnerable populations. Though much work with decentralized systems, especially in urban environments, has been at the household level, there is also considerable potential for development at the community level. Both levels of approach have unique sets of advantages and disadvantages that, just as with treatment technologies, may make certain options more appropriate than others in a particular setting. Integrating community, government and other relevant stakeholders into the process of systems development and implementation is essential if the outcome is to be appropriate to local circumstances and sustainable in the long term. PMID:20705983
Ali, Syed Imran
This paper attempts to re-imagine ubiquitous computing for populations in low-income and information- challenged environments. We examine information infrastructures in mid-sized urban slums of Mumbai and Bangalore in three ways—1) highlighting technologies supporting social networks, 2) examining underlying notions of trust and privacy in building information networks, and 3) discussing protocols and practices around shared access. We then discuss our
Nithya Sambasivan; Nimmi Rangaswamy; Edward Cutrell; Bonnie A. Nardi
Background: The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition. Materials and Methods: All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants’ awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ?126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110–125 mg/dL. Results: Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3–21.5). It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3–23.7). It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women. Conclusions: Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.
Singh, Arvind Kumar; Mani, Kalaivani; Krishnan, Anand; Aggarwal, Praveen; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar
Rapid urbanization and accompanying lifestyle changes in India lead to transition in non-communicable disease risk factors. A survey was done in urban, urban slum and rural population of Haryana, India, in a sample of 4129 men and 3852 women using WHO STEPS questionnaire. A very high proportion of all the three populations reported inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Rural men reported five times physical activity as compared with urban and urban slum men and rural women reported seven times physical activity as compared with women in the other two settings. Mean body mass index (BMI) was highest among urban men (22.8 kg m(-2)) followed by urban slum (21.0 kg m(-2)) and rural men (20.6 kg m(-2)) (P-value < 0.01). Similar trend was seen for women but at a higher level than men. Prevalence of obesity (BMI >/= 30 kg m(-2)) was highest for urban population (male = 5.5%, female = 12.6%) followed by urban slum (male = 1.9%, female = 7.2%) and rural populations (male = 1.6%, female = 3.8%). Urbanization increases the prevalence of the studied non-communicable disease risk factors, with women showing a greater increase as compared with men. Non-communicable disease control strategy needs to address urbanization and warrants gender sensitive strategies specifically targeting women. PMID:18627500
Yadav, K; Krishnan, A
Aim: Study of the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in children aged 5 to 14 years in a health post area of an urban slum. Objectives: (1) To study frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in the study population, (2) To study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in one of the five health posts of an urban slum, which is a field practice area of the teaching medical institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sample size was estimated by using 20% as a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity which was obtained from previous studies done in developing countries. Household was used as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was used for selecting household. Total 257 children aged 5 to 14 years were included in the study. A pre-designed, semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule based on DSM-IV criteria was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests of significance used were Chi-square and Logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in this study was 14.8%. Non-organic enuresis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder, and Mental retardation were identified as the common mental health problems. Conclusions: Factors like nuclear family, parents not living together, large family size, and positive family history of psychiatric disorder were associated with psychiatric morbidity in children.
Patil, Rakesh N.; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N.; Shah, Nilesh B.; Bhat, Tushar S.
Research Question Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among women of child-bearing age living in slums. We investigated relationships between consumption of these foods and socio-demographic variables. Methodology A 91-item Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to women (n=1651) aged 16-40 yrs living in a Mumbai slum. We identified associations between categorical demographic variables and consumption frequency of these foods using chi-square tests. Associations with age and body mass index were investigated using one-way ANOVAs. Results A quarter of women ate fruit and green leafy vegetables < 3 times per week, Apart from in tea, median consumption of milk and milk products was < twice a week, 16% never consumed non-vegetarian foods. Median consumption of non-vegetarian foods was 4.5 times per week. Women employed in unskilled jobs and those whose husbands had skilled occupations ate green leafy vegetables more frequently. Participants educated to tertiary level consumed fruit and milk most frequently (p<0.05).
Chopra, Harsha; Chheda, Purvi; Kehoe, Sarah; Taskar, Vijaya; Brown, Nick; Shivashankaran, Devi; Subbulakshmi, G; Rao, Shobha; Gandhi, Meera; Muley-Lotankar, Priyadarshini; Potdar, Ramesh; Margetts, Barrie; Fall, Caroline
In the past, immunization programmes have focused primarily on rural areas. However, with the recognition of the increasing numbers of urban poor, it is timely to review urban immunization activities. This update addresses two questions: Is there any need to be concerned about urban immunization and, if so, is more of the same kind of rural EPI activity needed or are there specific urban issues that need specific urban strategies? Vaccine-preventable diseases have specific urban patterns that require efficacious vaccines for younger children, higher target coverage levels, and particular focus to ensure national and global eradication of poliomyelitis. Although aggregate coverage levels are higher in urban than rural areas, gaps are masked since capital cities are better covered than other urban areas and the coverage in the poorest slum and periurban areas within cities is as bad as or worse than that in rural areas. Difficult access to immunization services in terms of distance, costs, and time can still be the main barrier in some parts of the city. Mobilization and motivation strategies in urban areas should make use of the mass media and workplace networks as well as the traditional word-of-mouth strategies. Use of community health workers has been successful in some urban settings. Management issues concern integration of the needs of the poor into a coherent city health plan, coordination of different health providers, and clear lines of responsibility for addressing the needs of new, urbanizing areas.
Atkinson, S. J.; Cheyne, J.
THE DELHI PILOT PROJECT IN URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, DESIGNED TO STIMULATE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION, INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP, AND SELF- HELP ACTIVITIES TO ALLEVIATE SLUM CONDITIONS, WAS INITIATED BY THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (AIDED BY FORD FOUNDATION GRANTS) IN 1958. SLUM DWELLERS WERE ORGANIZED INTO--(1) VIKAS SUBHAS (ZONE COUNCILS) OF 15-100…
CLINARD, MARSHALL B.
For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the "urban advantage." This "urban advantage" is associated with increased access to facilities such as…
I examine the effect of improved sanitation on child health in urban Bangladesh to assess the relative importance of household\\u000a versus neighborhood characteristics and of adult latrine usage versus safe disposal of children’s feces. Using fixed-effects\\u000a regression, I calculate the change in weight-for-height in 153 children as a function of changes in latrine usage in the surrounding\\u000a community. The use
Alison M. Buttenheim
Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32?034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3?months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births.
Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay
Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year) was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year). Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens.
This paper presents the processes and findings of a three-year action research project implemented in a small number of urban slums in the city of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the state of West Bengal in Eastern India. The project involved partnership between an established institute for cerebral palsy in Kolkata, two…
Sen, Reena; Goldbart, Juliet
This paper examines what motivates the participation of African slum(1) dwellers in urban social movement activities. This issue is analyzed through a case study of grassroots mobilization around evictions in Kurasini ward, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper uses an analytic narrative approach to account for patterns in participatory behaviour, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered through interviews
Michael Hooper; Leonard Ortolano
This paper examines the embedding of information and communication technology (ICT) tools in everyday practices among underserved populations in urban India. Using ethnographic investigations of PC-aided micro- and small enterprises (MSEs) in a low-income slum neighborhood in Mumbai, it pursued three broad research goals: first, to etch out organic ICT immersions in underserved technology environments; second, to articulate a new
Nimmi Rangaswamy; Sumitra Nair
The study examined the influence of socio cultural factors, perception of risk and exposure to violence on consent to HIV testing among at risk women in an urban slum. Married women chosen via a multistage probability sampling in a section of Bangalore, India, between 18 and 44 years, sexually active and considered to be at risk because of their husband's
Veena A. Satyanarayana; Prabha S. Chandra; Krishna Vaddiparti; Vivek Benegal; Linda B. Cottler
Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended.
Background It has been almost a decade since HIV was declared a national disaster in Kenya. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision has been a mainstay of HIV treatment efforts globally. In Kenya, the government started ART provision in 2003 with significantly scale-up after 2006. This study aims to demonstrate changes in population-level HIV mortality in two high HIV prevalence slums in Nairobi with respect to the initiation and subsequent scale-up of the national ART program. Methods We used data from 2070 deaths of people aged 15–54 years that occurred between 2003 and 2010 in a population of about 72,000 individuals living in two slums covered by the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Only deaths for which verbal autopsy was conducted were included in the study. We divided the analysis into two time periods: the “early” period (2003–2006) which coincides with the initiation of ART program in Kenya, and the “late” period (2007–2010) which coincides with the scale up of the program nationally. We calculated the mortality rate per 1000 person years by gender and age for both periods. Poisson regression was used to predict the risk of HIV mortality in the two periods while controlling for age and gender. Results Overall, HIV mortality declined significantly from 2.5 per 1,000 person years in the early period to 1.7 per 1,000 person years in the late period. The risk of dying from HIV was 53 percent less in the late period compared to the period before, controlling for age and gender. Women experienced a decline in HIV mortality between the two periods that was more than double that of men. At the same time, the risk of non-HIV mortality did not change significantly between the two time periods. Conclusions Population-level HIV mortality in Nairobi’s slums was significantly lower in the approximate period coinciding with the scale-up of ART provision in Kenya. However, further studies that incorporate ART coverage data in mortality estimates are needed. Such information will enhance our understanding of the full impact of ART scale-up in reducing adult mortality among marginalized slum populations in Kenya.
Objectives Rapid urbanisation has often meant that public infrastructure has not kept pace with growth leading to urban slums with poor access to water and sanitation and high rates of diarrhoea with greater household costs due to illness. This study sought to determine the monetary cost of diarrhoea to urban slum households in Kaula Bandar slum in Mumbai, India. The study also tested the hypotheses that the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure may be surpassed by the cumulative costs of diarrhoea for households in an urban slum community. Design A cohort study using a baseline survey of a random sample followed by a systematic longitudinal household survey. The baseline survey was administered to a random sample of households. The systematic longitudinal survey was administered to every available household in the community with a case of diarrhoea for a period of 5?weeks. Participants Every household in Kaula Bandar was approached for the longitudinal survey and all available and consenting adults were included. Results The direct cost of medical care for having at least one person in the household with diarrhoea was 205 rupees. Other direct costs brought total expenses to 291 rupees. Adding an average loss of 55 rupees per household from lost wages and monetising lost productivity from homemakers gave a total loss of 409 rupees per household. During the 5-week study period, this community lost an estimated 163?600 rupees or 3635 US dollars due to diarrhoeal illness. Conclusions The lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure is expensive for urban slum households in this community. Financing approaches that transfer that cost to infrastructure development to prevent illness may be feasible. These findings along with the myriad of unmeasured benefits of preventing diarrhoeal illness add to pressing arguments for investment in basic water and sanitation infrastructure.
Patel, Ronak B; Stoklosa, Hanni; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Ridpath, Alison; Patil-Deshmuk, Anita
Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752
Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A
This article examines the intra-city distribution of women's nutritional status across eight Indian mega-cities with a specific focus on slum-non-slum divide. The analysis is based on the National Family Health Survey (2005-06) of India and highlights the dual burden of malnutrition among urban women. The results show that one in every two women in mega-cities is malnourished (either undernourished or overnourished), but a biased, analytical focus on citywide averages conceals the nature of the problem. Overnutrition among women is notably higher in non-slum areas whereas underweight persists as a key concern among slum dwellers. Cities located in the Central India (Nagpur and Indore) have the highest proportion of underweight women whereas the cities in South India (Chennai and Hyderabad) show a high prevalence of overweight women across both slum and non-slum areas. The intensity of income-related inequalities in underweight outcome is much greater for non-slum areas, whereas inequalities in overweight outcomes are higher among slums. Furthermore, regression analysis indicates that place of residence as such has no significant impact on women's nutritional status and that this elementary association is primarily a ramification mediated through other key socioeconomic correlates. Results suggest that, it would be rational to develop a comprehensive urban nutritional plan that focuses on dietary planning and behaviour change to address both type of malnutrition at the same time. PMID:23219849
Gaur, Kirti; Keshri, Kunal; Joe, William
Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR?=?1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR?=?1.13, 95% CI?=?1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. Conclusion Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs.
Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected by simple random sampling. Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) was used to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the social predictors of the condition, health-seeking behavior, and its impact on educational status of the children. Maternal depression was evaluated using patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Eighty-three (22.43%) children had an abnormal score on at least one domain of SDQ. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender (odds ration (OR) = 5.51), under-nutrition (OR = 2.74), low socioeconomic status (OR = 3.73), nuclear family (OR = 1.89), working status of the mother (OR = 2.71), younger age of the mother at the birth of the child (OR = 3.09), disciplinary method (OR = 2.31), financial problem at home (OR = 13.32), alcoholic father (OR = 11.65), conflicts in family (OR = 7.29), and depression among mother (OR = 3.95) were significant predictors. There was a significant impact on educational performance (p = 0.008) and parents had little awareness regarding the condition. The high frequency of emotional and behavioral problems, its impact on educational performance of the children, associated adverse social factors, poor knowledge, and treatment-seeking behavior of the parents in an urban slum warrants immediate attention. The interrelation of all these factors can be utilized to plan a continuum of comprehensive services that focus on prevention, early identification, and effective intervention strategies with community involvement. PMID:22783928
Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N; Valsangkar, Sameer; Saraf, Abhay
OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status
S Awasthi; R Awasthi; V K Pande; R C Srivastav; H Frumkin
Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…
This study aimed to understand how adolescents with disabilities can assume greater control over their rehabilitation and participation within a community-based rehabilitation programme in the urban slums of North India. A critical ethnographical approach using multiple qualitative and participatory data collection methods was adopted. Fieldwork was conducted from January to May 2005 and October 2006 to March 2007 with 21 adolescents with and 11 adolescents without disabilities (aged 12 to 18 years), and 10 community-based rehabilitation staff members. A conceptual framework called the 'Adolescent Group Empowerment Pyramid' was developed. Four themes informed the framework: group participation, group demonstration, group recognition and the socio-cultural environment's interaction with disability. Group empowerment, achieved through group-centred occupations, encourages adolescents to work together to address their rehabilitation challenges and agendas. Three external support factors and 10 areas for nurturing the group empowerment process also emerged. A limitation of this study is the lack of data on how the familial and local political and economic environment impact adolescents' ability to make decisions about their rehabilitation. Further research might explore group occupations and occupational recognition, and what this means for social change and the personal and collective growth of adolescents in underserviced communities. PMID:20690125
Gulati, Sonia; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca
Background: The immunization coverage is not uniform in India. In Karnataka, except for Uttar Kannada District (very high immunization coverage of 95%) and 14 districts that have shown a better immunization coverage (>85% coverage), the remaining 15 districts (including Bijapur District) have poor coverage. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2002 report on Bijapur district shows that only a little over one fourth of the children were fully immunized (25.8%). The state’s fully vaccinated figure was more than two and a half times higher than that of the district. In this prevailing scenario, it becomes the need of the hour to find factors which influence routine immunization in Bijapur district, which will help the planners in implementing the immunization programme in a better way, to achieve >85% coverage. Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of respondents among guardians of children aged 12-23 months with respect to immunization. Material and Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban slums of Bijapur city, India. Out of the 20 enlisted slums, 7 slums were chosen by using convenience sampling. House to house survey was done. After obtaining oral consents, information regarding knowledge, attitude and practices was collected by using a semi-structured proforma. Results: A total of 155 mothers/ responsible guardians of children in the age group of 12 to 23 months were included in the study. Children of 54 out of 155 respondents (34.84%) were fully immunized, 97 (62.58%) were partially immunized and 4 (2.58%) were unimmunized. The main reason for partial and non-immunization was found to be lack of information. Conclusion: Immunization coverage in the urban slums of Bijapur is still way short of the 85% coverage mark. A lack of information and motivation among the parents is the main reason for this dismal scenario, that needs to be rectified at the earliest.
Angadi, M.M.; Jose, Arun Pulikkottil; Udgiri, Rekha; Masali, K.A.; Sorganvi, Vijaya
Illness in infants in the first two months of life can take a precipitous life-threatening course, and requires timely and appropriate medical assessment and management. We conducted a focused ethnographic study of illness in young infants and associated careseeking practices in an urban slum in New Delhi, India, in order to identify the constraints in securing effective care for severe illness in this age group. The findings suggest that maternal recognition of illness is not a limiting factor in the use of health care services for sick young infants in this setting. Mothers respond to a number of important signs of illness, including changes in the young infant's sleeping or feeding behavior, and they are usually prompt in seeking care outside the home. They are not able, however, to discriminate among the many sources of health care available in this setting, and give preference to local unqualified private practitioners. Most practitioners, including qualified medical practitioners, display critical failures in the assessment and management of sick young infants. The continuity and effectiveness of care is further compromised by the caretakers' expectations of rapid cure, which result in discontinued treatment courses and frequent changes in practitioners, and by their reluctance to seek hospital care. The implications of these findings for the design of programs to reduce young infant mortality are discussed. In particular, the feasibility and acceptability of hospital referrals according to current program guidelines are called into question. PMID:10075250
de Zoysa, I; Bhandari, N; Akhtari, N; Bhan, M K
Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…
El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher
We have investigated and determined the potentiality of different water sources, both for drinking and domestic purposes, in diarrheal disease transmission in diarrhea endemic foci of urban slums in Kolkata, India in a one and half year prospective study. Out of 517 water samples, collected from different sources, stored water (washing) showed higher prevalence of fecal coliforms (58%) (p < 0.0001) in comparison with stored (drinking) samples (28%) and tap/tubewell water (8%) respectively. Among different sources, stored water (washing) samples had the highest non-permissible range of physico-chemical parameters. Fecal coliform levels in household water containers (washing) were comparatively high and almost 2/3 of these samples failed to reach the satisfactory level of residual chlorine. Interestingly, 7% stored water (washing) samples were found to be harboring Vibrio cholerae Improper usage of stored water and unsafe/poor sanitation practices such as hand washing etc. are highlighted as contributory factors for sustained diarrheal episodes. Vulnerability of stored water for domestic usage, a hitherto unexplored source, at domiciliary level in an urban slum where enteric infections are endemic, is reported for the first time. This attempt highlights the impact of quality of stored water at domiciliary level for fecal-oral contamination vis-à-vis disease transmission. PMID:22699333
Palit, Anup; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Kanungo, Suman; Sur, Dipika
This paper reflects on the findings of an impact assessment of slum upgrading programmes in three cities in India. The study was commissioned by the donor that had funded them, the UK Government’s Department for International Development, to consider their effectiveness in reducing poverty. The paper documents the approach taken, including formal survey work and extensive consultation with households in
Continued population growth and increasing urbanization have led to the formation of large informal urban settlements in many developing countries in recent decades. The high prevalence of poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation observed in these settlements-commonly referred to as "slums"-suggests that slum residence constitutes a major health risk for children. In this article, we use data from 191 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 73 developing countries to investigate this concern empirically. Our results indicate that children in slums have better health outcomes than children living in rural areas yet fare worse than children in better-off neighborhoods of the same urban settlements. A large fraction of the observed health differences appears to be explained by pronounced differences in maternal education, household wealth, and access to health services across residential areas. After we control for these characteristics, children growing up in the slums and better-off neighborhoods of towns show levels of morbidity and mortality that are not statistically different from those of children living in rural areas. Compared with rural children, children living in cities (irrespective of slum or formal residence) fare better with respect to mortality and stunting but not with respect to recent illness episodes. PMID:24895049
Fink, Günther; Günther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth
Misconceptions about epilepsy may explain the considerable stigma accompanying it. We aimed to identify such fallacies through questionnaire-based interviews of 487 adult residents of a slum area in Karachi, Pakistan. Of those interviewed, 25% believed that epilepsy was caused by evil spirits, black magic and envy by others - those without a school education were more likely to hold these views (P < 0.05). Perceived complications included impotence and cancer. Shoe-sniffing was considered a treatment modality by 13%. It appears that misconceptions abound regarding epilepsy's causes, complications and methods of treatment. However, those who had received a school education were less likely to link epilepsy with supernatural phenomena. PMID:18302862
Shafiq, Majid; Tanwir, Mansoor; Tariq, Asma; Saleem, Ayesha; Zafar, Monaa; Khuwaja, Ali Khan
We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.
The study examined the influence of socio cultural factors, perception of risk and exposure to violence on consent to HIV testing among at risk women in an urban slum. Married women chosen via a multistage probability sampling in a section of Bangalore, India, between 18 and 44 years, sexually active and considered to be at risk because of their husband's hazardous drinking were recruited for the study. Written informed consent was obtained and measures of risk behavior and violence were administered. Pretest HIV counseling was then conducted and consent for HIV testing was sought. Factors influencing refusal of and consent to HIV testing were documented. Data collected on 100 participants indicated that over half the sample (58%) refused consent for HIV testing. There were no significant differences between the groups who consented and those who refused on perception of risk and exposure to violence. Reasons women refused testing include the following: spouse/family would not allow it (40%), believed that they were not at risk or would test negative (29%) and underwent HIV testing during an earlier pregnancy (21%). Among those who consented for HIV testing, 79% did so because the testing site was easily accessible, 67% consented because testing was free and because the importance of HIV testing was understood. The findings highlight the role of social, logistic and awareness related factors in utilizing voluntary counseling and testing services by women in the slum community. They have important implications for HIV testing, particularly among at risk monogamous women. PMID:19444670
Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna; Benegal, Vivek; Cottler, Linda B
Humanity is increasingly urban, but continues to depend on Nature for its survival. Cities are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits, but also benefit from internal urban ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ecosystem services generated by ecosystems within the urban area. ‘Ecosystem services’ refers to the benefits human populations derive from ecosystems. Seven
Per Bolund; Sven Hunhammar
Gender in two slum cultures considers the lives of women through comparing and contrasting two Asian slum areas in Bangkok and Colombo. It examines their lives through focusing on gender struggle and the conflicts between men and women and considers the reasons for the women's different experiences in each of the two areas.
The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…
Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
The two interlinked networks of hydrological pathways in urban areas are described with particular reference to the links with groundwater. As well as reducing direct recharge, urbanization creates new pathways and sources of water for recharge, including leaking water mains, sewers, septic tanks and soakaways. The net effect is often to increase recharge to pre-urbanization rates, or higher in dry climates and cities with high densities and large imported water supplies.
Lerner, David N.
Background The cost of behavior change communication (BCC) interventions has not been rigorously studied in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to assess the implementation costs of a BCC intervention in a maternal, neonatal and child health program (Manoshi) run by BRAC, which has been operating in the urban slums of Dhaka since 2007. The study estimates the costs of BCC tools per exposure among the different types of BCC channels: face-to-face, group counseling, and mass media. Methods The study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in the Dhaka urban slum area. A micro-costing approach was applied using primary and secondary data sources to estimate the cost of BCC tools. Primary data were collected through interviews with service-providers and managers from the Manoshi program, observations of group counseling, and mass media events. Results Per exposure, the cost of face-to-face counseling was found to be 3.08 BDT during pregnancy detection, 3.11 BDT during pregnancy confirmation, 12.42 BDT during antenatal care, 18.96 BDT during delivery care and 22.65 BDT during post-natal care. The cost per exposure of group counseling was 22.71 BDT (95% CI 21.30-24.87) for Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) meetings, 14.25 BDT (95% CI 12.37-16.12) for Women Support Group meetings, 17.83 BDT (95% CI 14.90-20.77) for MNCH committee meetings and 6.62 BDT (95% CI 5.99-7.26) for spouse forum meetings. We found the cost per exposure for mass media interventions was 9.54 BDT (95% CI 7.30-12.53) for folk songs, 26.39 BDT (95% CI 23.26-32.56) for street dramas, 0.39 BDT for TV-broadcasting and 7.87 BDT for billboards. Considering all components reaching the target audience under each broader type of channel, the total cost per exposure was found to be 60.22 BDT (0.82 USD) for face-to-face counseling, 61.40 BDT (0.82 USD) for group counseling and 44.19 BDT (0.61 USD) for mass media. Conclusions The total cost for group counseling was the highest per exposure, followed by face-to-face counseling and mass media. The cost per exposure varied substantially across BCC channels due to differences in cost drivers such as personnel, materials and refreshments. The cost per exposure can be valuable for planning and resource allocation related to the implementation of BCC interventions in low resource settings.
Groundwater has been used everywhere in the world for a long time because of its easy accessibility and good quality. In urban\\u000a areas, groundwater as a source of domestic, commercial and industrial water has greatly contributed to the development of\\u000a cities. Groundwater in urban areas is sometimes contaminated with multiple contaminants at higher concentrations than in rural\\u000a areas. For example,
Keisuke Kuroda; Tetsuo Fukushi
Information about rapidly changing slum areas may support the development of appropriate interventions by concerned authorities. Often, however, traditional data collection methods lack information on the spatial distribution of slum-dwellers. Remote sensing based methods could be used for a rapid inventory of the location and physical composition of slums. (Semi-) automatic detection of slums in image data is challenging, owing
Divyani Kohli; Richard Sliuzas; Norman Kerle; Alfred Stein
Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children),each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea. PMID:18553022
Melo, Maria Clotildes N de; Taddei, José A A C; Diniz-Santos, Daniel R; Vieira, Camilo; Carneiro, Nadya B; Melo, Rita Franca; Silva, Luciana R
The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children. PMID:3188158
Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R
This article reports on the problem of obtaining reproductive histories from women in the slums of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Access to women in these slums is controlled by several gatekeepers. The gatekeeper problem is common in all field research, but the problem is particularly difficult when the research involves interviewing young Muslim women on the sensitive issue of
Sabina Faiz Rashid
In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide. PMID:22829981
Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M
Maternal practices regarding children's health care have been recognized as an important factor associated with mortality rates among children < 5 years of age. We focused on health care-seeking practices of primary caretakers of children < 5 years of age with diarrheal disease in Kolkata. We interviewed caretakers of 1,058 children in a baseline survey and 6,077 children on six subsequent surveys. The prevalence of diarrhea during the preceding 2 weeks was 7.9% in the baseline survey and 5.7% (lowest 3.5% to highest 7.8%) in subsequent surveys. Multivariate logistic regression showed that formal education of primary caretakers was associated with seeking care outside the home (odds ratio [OR] = 15.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.5–85.7]; P = 0.002). Multinomial logistic regression showed that formal education of the primary caretaker (OR = 21.4; 95% CI [3.2–139.0]; P = 0.002) and presence of dry mouth during diarrhea (OR = 17.3; 95% CI [2.7–110.9]; P = 0.003) were associated with seeking care from licensed providers compared with the children for whom care was not sought outside of the home. This health care utilization and attitudes survey (HUAS) can serve as a tool to identify the factors that influence a better health care-seeking pattern in urban slums of Kolkata.
Manna, Byomkesh; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kanungo, Suman; Roy, Subhasis; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.; Sur, Dipika
Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged >?=?15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.
Chockalingam, Kolappan; Vedhachalam, Chandrasekaran; Rangasamy, Subramani; Sekar, Gomathi; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Swaminathan, Soumya; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan
During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in AIDS awareness, knowledge about risky HIV behaviour, information about correct condom use, and acceptance of lower-risk, alternative ritual blood practices and decreases (P < 0.001) in prejudicial attitudes related to HIV transmission were found among mobilized healers as compared to 100 untrained controls. Respected Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS. PMID:9204729
Nations, M K; de Souza, M A
To evaluate the nutritional impact of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 205 pre-school (PSC) and 487 school-aged children (SAC) randomly selected from the surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Kibera slum in Kenya. Hemoglobin, iron deficiency (ID), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), inflammation, malaria, anthropometry, and STH ova were measured. Poisson regression models evaluated associations between STH and malnutrition outcomes and controlled for confounders. Approximately 40% of PSC and SAC had STH infection, primarily Ascaris and Trichuris; 2.9% of PSC and 1.1% of SAC had high-intensity infection. Malnutrition prevalence among PSC and SAC was anemia (38.3% and 14.0%, respectively), ID (23.0% and 5.0%, respectively), VAD (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively), and stunting (29.7% and 16.9%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, STH in PSC was associated with VAD (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.6) and ID (PR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.6) but not anemia or stunting. No associations were significant in SAC. Integrated deworming and micronutrient supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population. PMID:24343884
Suchdev, Parminder S; Davis, Stephanie M; Bartoces, Monina; Ruth, Laird J; Worrell, Caitlin M; Kanyi, Henry; Odero, Kennedy; Wiegand, Ryan E; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M
Objectives: The intra-country rural to urban migrant populations undergo radical socio-economic and lifestyle changes in a developing country. Therefore, it is an interesting sample in which to study nutrition pattern, anthropometry and metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to assess nutrient profile and its association with the anthropometry, percentage body fat (%BF) and blood lipids in the urban
A Misra; R Sharma; RM Pandey; N Khanna
This paper focuses on the effects of forced evictions on the health of the people living in the slum areas of Mumbai, India. The media has remained silent on issues regarding the refugee crisis in the developing world, which concerns mainly, the forced eviction of people to make way for development projects. These projects included many urban development schemes, which displace 10 million people a year in less developed countries. In Mumbai, there has been a systematic program of slum clearance. Slum dwellers in Ambedkar Nagar epitomize the plight of the slum dwellers in Mumbai. Over the past 10 years, these slum dwellers have faced eviction 45 times and the repeated evictions have had profound effects on the health of the residents, some of which are protracted deprivation, widespread infections, hypovitaminosis, and wasting. Evictions in India have continuously been carried out despite Article 21 of the Constitution, which recognizes the right to life. However, despite the legal framework, it is evident that the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, in its efforts to achieve a vision of modern Mumbai, is ignoring the plight of the poor. PMID:10509519
Emmel, N D; D'Souza, L
Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT) is an important strategy in its control. Tracking of blood pressure (BP) has been found useful in identifying persons with potential HT, particularly in youngsters. A cohort of 756 subjects (with baseline information as a cross-sectional study in 2002) was followed up in 2006 to comment on the distribution of BP and its attributes. Objectives: To track BP distribution in a cohort of adolescents and young adults, and assess the persistence of high/low normotensives; to measure the incidence of HT and study the relationship of BP with age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, physical exercise, salt intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: The baseline study cohort (2002) of 756 subjects (19-24 years) in urban field area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, was followed up between May and November 2006 by house visits for measurement of sociodemographic variables, anthropometry, salt intake, physical activity and BP. Results: A total of 555 subjects from the 2002 cohort were contacted (73.4%), in that 54.5% subjects who were below 5th percentile, 93.6% subjects between 5th and 95th percentiles and 72% of those above 95th percentile previously persisted in the same cut-offs for systolic blood pressure (SBP). The corresponding figures for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 46.2, 92.2 and 74.1%, respectively. Shift from one cut-off to another was not significant for both SBP and DBP, proving the tracking phenomenon. Annual incidence of HT was 9.8/1000. Baseline BP was the significant predictor of current BP for the entire cohort; BMI and salt intake were significant predictors only in certain sections of the study cohort. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of hypertension even among adolescents/young adults is an important preventive measure, as tracking exists in the population.
Soudarssanane, MB; Mathanraj, S; Sumanth, MM; Sahai, Ajit; Karthigeyan, M
Background While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this reversal movement is critical in sustainable sanitation services and should be a concern for all actors.
The Indo-Dutch Environmental & Sanitary Engineering Project under the Ganga action Plan in Kanpur and Mirzapur is being executed within the Indo-Dutch bilateral development cooperation framework. The project aims to integrate physical, social and health related improvements. It is expected that the development approach and methodology can be replicated in other urban settlements in India. The project is being supplemented
Abhay Shukla; Satish Kumar; F. G. Öry
SUCCESSFUL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS FROM LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN DEPRESSED NEIGHBORHOODS OF THE URBAN NORTH ARE COMPARED WITH AVERAGE AND FAILING PUPILS FROM IDENTICAL SETTINGS. THE AIM OF THE 3 YEAR PROJECT IS TO DOCUMENT DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND TO RELATE THESE PATTERNS TO SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE. EMPHASIS IS ON…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Inst. of Urban Studies.
Background Leptospirosis has emerged as an urban health problem as slum settlements have rapidly spread worldwide and created conditions for rat-borne transmission. Prospective studies have not been performed to determine the disease burden, identify risk factors for infection and provide information needed to guide interventions in these marginalized communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled and followed a cohort of 2,003 residents from a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Baseline and one-year serosurveys were performed to identify primary and secondary Leptospira infections, defined as respectively, seroconversion and four-fold rise in microscopic agglutination titers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate risk exposures for acquiring primary and secondary infection. A total of 51 Leptospira infections were identified among 1,585 (79%) participants who completed the one-year follow-up protocol. The crude infection rate was 37.8 per 1,000 person-years. The secondary infection rate was 2.3 times higher than that of primary infection rate (71.7 and 31.1 infections per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Male gender (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40–5.91) and lower per capita household income (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30–0.98 for an increase of $1 per person per day) were independent risk factors for primary infection. In contrast, the 15–34 year age group (OR 10.82, 95% CI 1.38–85.08), and proximity of residence to an open sewer (OR 0.95; 0.91–0.99 for an increase of 1 m distance) were significant risk factors for secondary infection. Conclusions/Significance This study found that slum residents had high risk (>3% per year) for acquiring a Leptospira infection. Re-infection is a frequent event and occurs in regions of slum settlements that are in proximity to open sewers. Effective prevention of leptospirosis will therefore require interventions that address the infrastructure deficiencies that contribute to repeated exposures among slum inhabitants.
Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Costa, Federico; Reis, Renato B.; Hagan, Jose E.; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Fraga, Deborah; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; dos Santos, Balbino L.; Silva, Adriano Q.; Santos, Andreia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marilia S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.
In many megacities of the global south, the combination of rapid population growth and high pressure on space for housing, results in urban growth taking place in areas particularly prone to natural hazards. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is no exception to this rule. Many marginal settlements or slums are located on low-lying land at high risk of flooding. This
Boris BraunTibor; Tibor Aßheuer
Global urban population and number of urban areas have been increasing at an unprecedented pace during the last few decades. Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies examining observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases in the number of heat waves during the period 1973-2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes for urban and (nearby) non-urban stations differed, while changes in precipitation-related extremes were generally similar for urban and nearby non-urban stations.
Lettenmaier, Dennis; Mishra, Vimal; Ganguly, Auroop; Nijssen, Bart
Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586
The present study evaluates the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the urban slums of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and the risk of transmitting enteroparasites to the family members of infected individuals. Stool samples were collected and examined at clinical laboratories near each slum. Individuals were identified and classified as positive for parasitosis (IP(+)), and individuals with negative stool tests were classified as negative for parasitosis (IP(-)) and enrolled as control patients. We collected samples from 594 patients, of which 20·2% and 79·8% were classified as IP(+) and IP(-), respectively. In addition, 744 family members (FIPs) effectively participated in the study by providing fecal samples. In total, 1338 participants were evaluated. Of these, 34·6% were tested positive for parasitosis. Blastocystis was the most prevalent parasite, infecting 22·4% of individuals. Among FIPs, the overall prevalence was 46·1%. Of these, 50·6% and 44·7% were classified as FIPs(+) and FIPs(-), respectively. These results showed that IP(+) did not impact the prevalence of infection within the studied communities, not constituting index cases of specific risk behaviors, suggesting that, in fact, these communities are exposed to similar oral-fecal routes of contamination. PMID:24091002
Gil, Frederico F; Busatti, Haendel G N O; Cruz, Valeria L; Santos, Joseph F G; Gomes, Maria A
This paper describes the WaterAid-supported programme of water, sanitation and hygiene education implemented by local NGOs in the “slums” of Bangladesh’s two largest cities, Dhaka and Chittagong. This includes descriptions of the design and management of community-managed water points and sanitation blocks. The paper also summarizes the findings of an external evaluation of their effectiveness and discusses the difficulties of
Suzanne Hanchett; Shireen Akhter; Mohidul Hoque Khan; Stephen Mezulianik; Vicky Blagbrough
The present study was conducted in pre-schoolers (2-6 years) from ten different slums of Udaipur City in Rajasthan with the aim to their nutritional status. From the data collected and observations recorded was observed that majority of the subjects were from nuclear family with monthly family income of less than Rs.1500/-. Developmental pattern of these subjects indicated that the height with age of bothe male and female subjects increased, however, their body weight did not increase. More than 50% of these pre-schoolers showed symptoms of protein energy malnutrition and anaemia, while 22% had pigeon chest deformity due to vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Classification for degree of malnutrition as per IAP showed that majority of these subjects (66%) were under weight (Grade I and II). Waterlow's classification revealed that majority of these pre-schoolers were wasted (30%) or wasted and Stunted (42%). This malnutrition was either of PCM (past chronic) or CLM (current long duration) type as per Seoane and Latham's classification. PMID:17193758
Tripathi, M S; Sharma, V
Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings.
In Brazil in the last decade there has been an increase in the susceptibility of young women to HIV. This study explored the link between autonomy, or control over major domains of economic, social and sexual life, and susceptibility to HIV infection among poor young women living in an urban slum area of Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out
Alessandra Sampaio Chacham; M. B. Maia; M. Greco; A. P. Silva; D. B. Greco
On December 26, 2004, a tsunami struck coastal areas in the Bay of Bengal. Among the communities affected were Pallavan Nagar and Anju Kudasai slums in Chennai India. These communities have been collaborating, with some success, on a project to manage the urban environment for human health that employs an adaptive ecosystem approach framework, and is heavily influenced by participatory
Martin J. Bunch; Beth Franklin; David Morley; T. Vasantha Kumaran; V. Madha Suresh
To assess the knowledge and attitudes about dengue and practice of prevention followed by the residents of a rural area and an urban resettlement colony of East Delhi, an interview based cross sectional KAP study was undertaken in Jan 97 to Feb 97, a few months after the dengue epidemic in rural area and urban areas of East Delhi. A pre-structured and pre-tested format containing the relevant questions was administered to the subjects. A total of 687 subjects (334 rural and 353 urban) were interviewed. Nearly four fifth (82.3%) of these were aware of Dengue. Audiovisual media was the most common source of information in both the areas. Knowledge about the disease was fair to good. Fever was the commonest symptom of the disease known to 92% urban and 83% rural respondents followed by symptoms of bleeding and headache. Mosquito was known to spread the disease to 71% rural and 89% urban respondents. More than two third respondents in urban and two fifth in rural areas had used some method of mosquito control or personal protection during the epidemic. PMID:9914677
Gupta, P; Kumar, P; Aggarwal, O P
Incorporating public transport into urban area development is important since it involves more than better accessibility. Despite the difficulties, there are certainly opportunities to give public transport a more ambitious role. The aspects of public transport in urban area development have been studied by the authors during several projects and recent assignments. The lessons learned here have been described based
R van der Bijl; F de Zeeuw
Urban mental health programmes in developing countries remain in their infancy. To serve low-income communities, research needs to consider the impact of common life experience in slums, including poverty, bad living conditions, unemployment, and crowding. Our study in the Malavani slum of Mumbai examines afflictions of the city affecting the emotional well-being and mental health of women and men with
SHUBHANGI R. PARKAR; JOHNSON FERNANDES; MITCHELL G. WEISS
The output from regular mapping and monitoring of urban areas provides an important source of information for urban planners and decision makers. The use of remotely sensed data to provide this information has been successful in particular environments but has had only limited success in tropical zone countries where cloud and rain often restrict the useful acquisition of visible\\/infrared image
Bruce Forster; Catherine Ticehurst; Yunhan Dong
The urban heat island as the thermal influence caused by buildings is studied in this paper, in which the analyses of the structure of the heat island effect and the numerical method used to calculate the temperature distribution over the city, are descri...
Background The early childhood development is most crucial and the mother’s care and attention is essential. The inevitable changes like women entering the work field have an effect on the child care and development. Aim To study the selected anthropometric indices of the children of employed and unemployed women. Settings and Design This study was done in the urban slums of Guntur city by using a cross sectional, descriptive design. Methods and Material This study was conducted during January – April 2011 with a sample of 312 children of non working women and 311 children of working women, who were selected through the systemic random quota sampling method in 6 randomly selected slums. The data was collected through questionnaires who were named as the Mother’s schedule and the Child schedule, which consisted of close-ended questions which were coded for an easy data entry. The Mother’s schedule looked at the information regarding the mother, like the caretaker during the mother’s absence, the time which was spent with her child each day, etc. The Child schedule looked for information like whether the child was exclusively breast fed, its age in months when the weaning started, whether the government sponsored crèche services (Anganwadi center) were utilized, etc. It also included the anthropometrical measurements of the child like its current weight, current height and mid arm circumference, which were obtained by using standardized tools. Statistical Analysis For each schedule, a separate table was created in a relational basis in MS Access, with suitable key fields to connect the information for the analysis. Results The children of the unemployed mothers weighed significantly higher than the children of the employed mothers. The children of the unemployed mothers also stood significantly taller than the children of the employed mothers. Conclusion In the absence of the mothers who are at work, a childcare service is essential and this should be facilitated through legislation, NGO efforts, etc. Breast feeding and the bonding time with children are to be encouraged for the employed mothers.
Yeleswarapu, Bharani Krishna; Nallapu, Samson Sanjeeva Rao
The education of children of urban slum dwellers is adversely affected by the poor educational and economic conditions of their parents. Any attempt to improve the education of these children must deal first with parental attitudes, educational motivation, and illiteracy. (SK)
This study examines the health, nutritional status, and health care seeking behaviour of a community based sample of 122 postpartum women from an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It describes a physically impoverished environment in which malnutrition is serious, and non-trivial morbid episodes as a consequence of childbirth are very common. Malnutrition was found to be widespread: about one-quarter of
Amatul Uzma; Peter Underwood; David Atkinson; Rose Thackrah
The fog climatology of the Sacramento, California, urban area is examined through hourly meteorological records from four Sacramento area airports for the six winter fog seasons of December 1979–January 1980 through December 1984–January 1985. It is hypothesized that winter fogs are more frequent over cities than the surrounding countryside. An assessment of moderate to dense fog (visibility 5\\/8 mile [1
Philip W. Suckling; Martin D. Mitchell
SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.
Pontes, Zelia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araujo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira
Landsat digital enhancements and classification maps are shown to be useful for updating the urban expansion of standard metropolitan statistical areas on a macro scale. Automated procedures for detecting nonurban to urban land coverage change using multitemporal Landsat data are investigated for five metropolitan areas, showing an overall delineation similar to that obtained from large scale aerial photography. The evaluated change detection procedures include image differencing, principal component transformation prior to differencing, and post classification comparison. Results show that image differencing techniques in MSS band 5 provide the most accurate land cover change detections.
Toll, D. L.; Royal, J. A.; Davis, J. B.
Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and urbanization have become issues in big cities like Greater Cairo (GC). As a consequence of explosive growth, the living conditions of Cairo Metropolis deteriorate. Development trends of the last twenty years have increased general wealth and modernization, this sets out how GC megacity is creating an increased demand for land combined with environmental degradation. Planning a sustainable development of mega cities requires understanding of physical change of the main environmental drivers. However, this talk will be concerned with monitoring and analysis of dynamic environment changes to capture and refine the urban patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolis on the basis of pixel-based and object-based classifications. Satellite images (TM, ETM+, & Spot) of different dates and resolutions, and ground truth data collected from available maps, field observation, and personal experience were used to execute the image segmentation analysis to reveal urban patterns and expansions. By using Erdas Imagine, and eCognition Developer software, land use/land cover image classifications were constructed, which detect regimes and trends in land changes. Two main types of urban patterns could be detected (passing from centre to periphery). The first one is informal and the second one is formal building. The informal type mainly comprises slums and urban encroachment on arable land. The formal one mostly consists of new cities and legal houses. Moreover, a rate of land cover changes in Greater Cairo during the last three decades could be described as a rapid progression. In contrast, the combination between field observations and classification analyses showed that the high urban densities based on classification of satellite images does not reflect the real densities of population in urban areas in Greater Cairo.
Hassan, A. A. M.
The industrial revolution led to a rapid development of urban areas. This has continued unremittingly over the last 200 years or so. In most urban areas the surface properties are heterogeneous, which has significant implications for energy budgets, water budgets and weather phenomena within the part of the earth's atmosphere that humans live. In this paper I discuss the structure of the planetary boundary layer, confining our analysis to the region above the rooftops (canopy layer) up to around the level where clouds form. It is in this part of the atmosphere that most of the weather impacting our lives occurs, and where the buildings of our cities impact the weather.In this review, observations of the structure of the urban atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In particular the use of Doppler lidar provides measurements above the canopy layer. The impact of high-rise buildings is considered.Urban morphology impacts energy fluxes and airflow leading to phenomena such as the urban heat island and convective rainfall initiation. I discuss in situ surface-based remote sensing and satellite measurements of these effects. Measurements have been used with simple and complex numerical models to understand the complexity and balance of the interactions involved. Cities have been found to be sometimes up to 10 degC warmer than the surrounding rural areas, and to cause large increases in rainfall amounts. However, there are situations in which urban aerosol may suppress precipitation.Although much progress has been made in understanding these impacts, our knowledge remains incomplete. These limitations are identified. As city living becomes even more the norm for large numbers of people, it is imperative that we ensure that urban effects on the weather are included in development plans for the built environment of the future.
Collier, C. G.
In this paper, the performance of different texture measures for detection of urban areas from SAR data is evaluated. The used texture measures are categorized into two groups, the first group include the SAR specific textures and the second one considers the general texture measures. ffmax is selected from the first category and LISA, SRPD, Wavelet measures and fractal dimensions are used as general texture measures. For a better discrimination, all texture measures are calculated and a PCA rotation is applied to them and the first PC is multiplied by the urban inhomogeneity parameter and the obtained image is segmented. The obtained results of this procedure comparing with the K-Means clustering algorithm show the better performance of this algorithm for urban area detection.
Aghababaee, H.; Niazmardi, S.; Amini, J.
This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of low frequency sound propagation in regular urban areas, under the assumption of a periodic distribution of buildings. Although the radiation losses above the urban canyons are generally significant, our results show that the effects of the periodicity still occur. Band diagrams are notably characterized, both numerically and experimentally, to investigate the effect of the radiation above the periodic structure. The problem is tackled using a coupled modal-finite elements method. The main idea is to turn the original unbounded domain into an equivalent waveguiding structure, with PML bounding the originally open region. The experimental study is performed in a scale model of urban area. Numerical and experimental results on both the band diagrams and the wavefield propagating through the lattice are in good agreement.
Molerón, Miguel; Félix, Simon; Pagneux, Vincent; Richoux, Olivier
Background Bangladesh has about 5.7 million people living in urban slums that are characterized by adverse living conditions, poor access to healthcare services and health outcomes. In an attempt to ensure safe maternal, neonatal and child health services in the slums BRAC started a programme, MANOSHI, in 2007. This paper reports the causes of maternal and neonatal deaths in slums and discusses the implications of those deaths for Maternal Neonatal and Child Health service delivery. Methods Slums in three areas of Dhaka city were selected purposively. Data on causes of deaths were collected during 2008-2009 using verbal autopsy form. Two trained physicians independently assigned the cause of deaths. Results A total of 260 newborn and 38 maternal deaths were identified between 2008 and 2009. The majority (75%) of neonatal deaths occurred during 0-7 days. The main causes of deaths were birth asphyxia (42%), sepsis (20%) and birth trauma (7%). Post partum hemorrhage (37%) and eclampsia (16%) were the major direct causes and hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis was the most prevalent indirect cause (11%) of maternal deaths. Conclusion Delivery at a health facility with child assessment within a day of delivery and appropriate treatment could reduce neonatal deaths. Maternal mortality is unlikely to reduce without delivering at facilities with basic Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC) and arrangements for timely referral to EOC. There is a need for a comprehensive package of services that includes control of infectious diseases during pregnancy, EOC and adequate after delivery care.
One-half of the world’s population lives in cities and towns; this is expected to increase to 70% by 2050. One in three urban dwellers lives in slums. As the urban population grows, so does the number of urban poor. Out of a billion children living in urban areas, approximately 300 million are suffering from exclusion or are at risk of exclusion. Urban poor children are devoid of basic rights of survival, development and protection and are marginalised in challenging conditions in overcrowded settlements. Rapid urbanisation and the consequent increase in urban population is one of the biggest challenges that developing countries, including India are facing. Thirty per cent (that is, 367.5 million) of India’s population of 1.23 billion live in urban areas. Moreover, this figure is increasing rapidly and is expected to reach 432 million (40%) by 2021. Rapid urbanisation has unfortunately outpaced development, and a large proportion (43 million) live in substandard conditions in slums. Now is the time to pay attention to the basic rights of the urban poor, especially the urban poor children, the most vulnerable group at the launching of 12th Five-Year Plan & National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in India.
Gaur, Ajay; Gupta, Richa; Patel, GS
RTK GPS is provided with cm accuracy and real time surveying system. For providing this conditions, the reference is necessary for high accuracy position. Because this sta- tion is transmitted the corrections to the other receivers. At the some time this system is required common satellites on the receiver to compute integer ambiguity solution. In addition to the conditions, the data transmission device's range is very important. Although RTK GPS technique has a lot of advantages, many problems meet in prac- tice. One of the most important problem in RTK system, which is very useful and reliable in the rural areas, uses in the urban areas. We search this article, how influence RTK GPS applications on satellite numbers, multipath, data transmission device's range capability and etc. in the urban areas.
Pirti, A.; Ata, E.
Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.
Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.
Slums are examples of localized communities within third-world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana, by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The study objectives are
Marta M. Jankowska; Ryan Engstrom
This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use
Rukmini Potdar; Kristin Mmari
This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use
Rukmini Potdar; Kristin Mmari
This paper examines the linkages of poverty and environment at the household level in Philippine slums. Rapid urbanization and the inadequate infrastructure and basic services in large towns and cities have led to the proliferation of slums and informal settlements in the country. While poverty incidence of the population in key metropolitan centers is on average 17 percent compared to
Marife M. Ballesteros
Aim of this article is to address the issue of citizen participation and democratic engagement within a specific area—slum\\u000a upgrading—presenting and theoretically discussing the approach of an international network called Shack\\/Slum Dwellers International\\u000a (SDI), which represents member federations of urban poor and homeless groups from about 30 countries in Asia, Africa, and\\u000a Latin America. The article addresses the model of
Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores.
Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan
Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues....
Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.
Background & objectives An outbreak of symptomatic viral hepatitis in children less than 10 yr of age in Vellore, south India, was investigated and the disease pattern studied using serological and epidemiological methods, supplemented by geographic information systems (GIS) mapping. Methods Three cases of hepatitis A were identified during routine surveillance in a birth cohort House-to-house visits were undertaken to identify other symptomatic cases and samples collected for anti- HAV IgM, ELISA testing. All cases and controls were mapped and geo-referenced using Arc View GIS 3.3. Spatial clustering was investigated using SaTScan 7.0.1 software. Drinking water sources were tested for coliform counts with the most probable number technique. Results Of the 965 children surveyed, 26 (2.78%) had jaundice between February to July 2006. From the 26 patients, 11 (42.3%) blood samples were obtained and tested for anti-HAV IgM; 10 (90.9%) were found to be positive. Water analysis showed high coliform counts in all samples. No spatial clustering of cases could be detected. Interpretation & conclusions The outbreak was identified because of the symptomatic presentation of the cases. Our study highlighted the increasing detection of symptomatic children with hepatitis A virus infection. Water sources in the area were contaminated and may have served as the source of infection. The lack of clustering in GIS analysis could be due to the common water source.
Sowmyanarayanan, Thuppal V.; Mukhopadhya, Ashis; Gladstone, B.P.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep
The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296
Jensen, F P; Fenger, J
The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Jensen, F P; Fenger, J
Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711
Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad
The radio relay system Pharaon Urbain has been conceived to realize the interconnection between switching and transit centers in urban areas. The first practical use of this system is planned in the urban zone of Paris, using the Maine-Montparnasse tower as a nodal point. This paper describes the system conception and the equipment of this first French urban radio relay
M. Liger; P. Magne; J. Poitevin
Slums are universal and a ubiquitous part of the urban landscape. Dharavi, the biggest slum in the whole of Greater Bombay,\\u000a encompasses 4.0 sq.km. of reclaimed land with 3.50 lakh inhabitants and 75,000 hutments. Majority of the slums of Indian cities,\\u000a being structurally small with high density of dwellings and uniform building material, seldom give subtle ’spectral signature’\\u000a on the
V. Raghavswamy; N. C. Gautam; J. Krishnamurthy
Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497
Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M
Indoor air pollution is potentially a very serious environmental and public health problem in India. In poor communities, with the continuing trend in biofuel combustion coupled with deteriorating housing conditions, the problem will remain for some time to come. While to some extent the problem has been studied in rural areas, there is a dearth of reliable data and knowledge about the situation in urban slum areas. The microenvironmental model was used for assessing daily-integrated exposure of infants and women to respirable suspended particulates (RSP) in two slums of Delhi - one in an area of high outdoor pollution and the other in a less polluted area. The study confirmed that indoor concentrations of RSP during cooking in kerosene-using houses are lesser than that in wood-using houses. However, the exposure due to cooking was not significantly different across the two groups. This was because, perhaps due to socioeconomic reasons, kerosene-using women were found to cook for longer durations, cook inside more often, and that infants in such houses stayed in the kitchen for longer durations. It was observed that indoor background levels during the day and at nighttime can be exceedingly high. We speculate that this may have been due to resuspension of dust, infiltration, unknown sources, or a combination of these factors. The outdoor RSP levels measured just outside the houses (near ambient) were not correlated with indoor background levels and were higher than those reported by the ambient air quality monitoring network at the corresponding stations. More importantly, the outdoor levels measured in this study not only underestimated the daily-integrated exposure, but were also poorly correlated with it. PMID:12743616
Saksena, Sumeet; Singh, P B; Prasad, Raj Kumar; Prasad, Rakesh; Malhotra, Preeti; Joshi, Veena; Patil, R S
An innovative learning technique that originated in a slum in India's capital, New Delhi, sets the stage for "Q&A" that is now the Oscar winning movie, "Slumdog Millionaire". In an interview, Dr. Sugata Mitra, the creator of this new educational pedagogy termed Minimally Invasive Education (MIE), explains how it can help bridge the digital divide…
Urban slum communities throughout the Indian subcontinent face critical challenges including inadequate access to safe water and environmental degradation, resulting in significant public health impacts. A research collaboration between Queen’s University and the Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) has been established on water, environment, and public health in slums, aiming to develop and evaluate technological and policy alternatives for sustainable
S. I. Ali; K. R. Hall; K. Aronson; L. Philip
Despite the success of some antipoverty programs, it is not evident that conditions in poverty areas have improved; in fact, some indicators show that living conditions in the slums are worsening. One of the biggest difficulties is a lack of data on the nature of, and solutions to, the problems of these areas. Frequently revised data at least as…
Levine, Louis; Norton, John Herbert
...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual...of Amendments to 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) 2011 National Transit Database (NTD) Urbanized Area Annual...
This report summarizes a thematic research program 'Advanced transit systems' performed at Chalmers University of Technology during the years 1994-97. The program aims to investigate if Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) may be a suitable system for urban areas...
A method is presented for estimating flood,--frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.
Gann, E. E.
Research to ascertain the influence of superimposed concentrated footing loads of buildings on shallow, buried rigid pipes in urban areas in the event of an earthquake is summarized. Static analyses using the finite element technique are performed for var...
J. C. Parekh S. C. Anand
Summary - The overall purpose of this study is the presentation of an urban roughness mapping method in a large study area in Szeged. With this roughness mapping procedure we can locate the ventilation paths in the city. The supposed ventilation paths could play a significant role in the development of the urban heat island circulation and as a result
T. GÁL; Z. SÜMEGHY
The European Community has noticed relatively early, that the regional policy could not only drift for reducing the economic disparities existing between certain regions, but should support some other important goals. One part of the financial instruments of the regional policy supported expansions in rural development, but the regeneration of urban areas and the sustainable urban development has gradually appeared
The major objective of this paper is to provide insights to sources and sinks of nitrous acid in urban areas, and their seasonal\\u000a dependency on meteorology, photochemistry and long range transport. With this aim, nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios and other\\u000a compounds were measured in Ashdod (south of Tel Aviv, Israel), a typical Mediterranean urban area. Statistical data analysis\\u000a revealed
Antonio Amoroso; Harry J. Beine; Giulio Esposito; Cinzia Perrino; Maria Catrambone; Ivo Allegrini
We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21. PMID:16989508
Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl
Based on the TM remote sensing information of 1984, 1995, 2000 and 2003, this paper quantitatively analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamic changes of pedodiversity in Suzhou area under quickly growing urbanization. The results showed that in this area, clay loamy typic-hapli-stagnic anthrosol and fine sand clay loamy typic-hapli-stagnic anthrosol were the predominant soil types, but their distribution area decreased 5.11% and 3.14%, respectively, in latest 20 years. Jinchang, Pingjiang and Canglang Districts were the focuses of urbanization in Suzhou area, where pedodiversity changed furiously. During 1984 approximately 2003, more than 90% of the clay loamy typic-hapli-stagni gleyosol in Pingjiang District and sandy calcaric-mottlic-udi-orthic primosol in Taicang City were almost disappeared, and changed into residential area. Statistical analysis showed that urbanization had a significant impact on pedodiversity, and was the prime driving force on the pedodiversity in Suzhou area. PMID:16471339
Sun, Yanci; Zhang, Xuelei; Chen, Jie
Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East Africa have been derived (six at CSIR and two at CMCC). That is, a multi-model ensemble of simulations of present-day and future climate has been made available for a number of African regions. This approach is most useful to describe the range of uncertainty associated with future climate. In order to obtain a set of plausible and physically defensible projections that can be used for a broad range of subsequent research questions, the two partners followed two different modelling approaches. The first approach, (by CMCC) uses a single dynamic climate change model: the model gets executed several times using a number of pertubations, e.g. changing initial conditions to account for the non-linear dynamics, perturbations of the boundary conditions to account for the 'imperfect' characterizations of the non-atmospheric components of the climate system or to handle the uncertainty of the driving global model, or perturbations of the model physics to account for the uncertainties inherent in the parameterizations. The second approach, (by CSIR) keeps the boundary conditions static but downscales a number of different global circulation models to account for the uncertainties inherent in the models themselves. In total, CSIR has run six different dynamic models. All runs have been conducted on super computing clusters to be completed within reasonable timeframes. The full data set is currently made available on the web. A number of tools is used to provide maximum user experience for climate change experts, social geographers, city planners and policy decision makers.
Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh
Background: To seek pleasure is man's innate nature. In his search for gratification, man has discovered a world of substances that intoxicated him. Those who fell within its trap, their life changed, their families aggrieved and they shrank from company. The addiction remained alone in the end. To many death was a relief. Methods: A community based cross- sectional study was conducted in the Catchment area of UHTC (Urban Health and training Centre) where all males aged ?15 years residing in the study area were included. Data was collected by home visit using WHO questionnaire (AUDIT: Alcohol use disorder identification test) Modified Kuppuswamy scale was used to assess the socio-economic status of the families. Data was analyzed by appropriate test using SPSS 20.0 version. Logistic regression was applied to the positively associated results. Results: According to the AUDIT score, Hazardous, Dependent and harmful drinkers were 7.7%, 9.2% and 2.4% respectively. Age, marital status, education of the head of the family, occupation of the respondent, caste, family history of alcohol use had statistically significant association (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Logistic regression was applied and marital status, family history of alcohol use and caste retained their statistical significance (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Conclusions: It can be concluded that being young, being low educated, being married and having a family history of alcohol use are more at risk to it. This indicates the dire necessity to consider the above factors in order to combat with this evil of alcohol use.
Katyal, Rashmi; Bansal, Rahul; Agrawal, Vijender; Goel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Varsha
While early sexual experiences are a key marker of the transition from childhood to adulthood, it is widely acknowledged that precocious initiation of sexual activity predisposes adolescents to negative health and psychological outcomes. Extant studies investigating adolescent sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa often rely on cross-sectional data lacking information on the social-psychological underpinnings of adolescent behavior. Through the theoretical lens of the protection-risk conceptual framework, this paper draws on two waves of longitudinal data collected from 2,134 adolescents to examine sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioral predictors of transition to first sex among adolescents living in slum and non-slum settlements in urban Kenya. We employ logistic regression models to examine the effect of antecedent sociodemographic and risk and protective factors measured during the first wave of data collection on transition to first sex by the second wave. We observe that transition to first sex is influenced by age, slum residence, perceived parental monitoring, and peer behavior. We also find evidence for coupling of risk behaviors. Study findings underscore the need to focus on very young adolescents and those growing up in resource poor settings as these young people may be highly vulnerable to negative health outcomes stemming from precocious sexual activity.
Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Undie, Chi-Chi; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi; Ezeh, Alex C.
This work is the result of the current reflections of our professional and academic activities. Over the last 20 years, we\\u000a have been working in several slum dwellers communities located in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, developing urbanization\\u000a projects dealing with social dwelling units and community facilities. Accompanying the poorest population on a daily basis,\\u000a we concluded that
The spatial distribution of the cooling effect of the green area on surrounding urban area in Nagoya, central Japan was examined by applying ASTER data. First, we clarified the correlation between surface temperature and land use in a green area. Second, we also examined the extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area. Third, we extracted the land-use factors that significantly affect the extent of the cooling effect. Finally, we referred to new knowledge about the effect of terrain on the cooling effect. The surface temperature differed with land use in the green area. Surface temperatures for green areas were lower than those for other categories, except ponds. In green areas, the temperature in forest lands was lower than that in lawn and agricultural land, suggesting that the forest contributes strongly to the cooling effect of the green area. The surface temperature differences among the categories were small in October, compared to the other analysed days during summer. The extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area averaged in all directions reached about 200m in the surrounding urban area from July to October. However, the surface temperature difference between the urban area and the green area decreased in October. This phenomenon indicated that the cooling effect of the green area was weaker during autumn than during summer. By examining the spatial distribution of the surface temperature, the cooling effect was shown to stretch in almost all directions of the urban area, and it appears unlikely that wind direction affected the extent of the cooling effect (Fig.1). The cooling effect of Heiwa Park was affected by the roads and buildings. Their effect on the cooling effect depended on their layout and size. It is desirable to have green areas scattered throughout an urban environment rather than concentrated at one spot because the cooling range of a single green area is limited to a few hundred metres. In addition to the land-use factor, it was found that terrain affected the cooling effect of a green area. The green area in the current study site is located on a hill, and the cold air generated over the green area was effectively advected downslope towards the surrounding urban area. The effect of the hill on the cooling effect had not been presumed, and they might be highly significant. Therefore, We suggest accounting for these results during the planning the layout of the urban block and the urban canyon to effectively use the cooling effect of an urban green area.
Hamada, S.; Tanaka, T.
In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.
Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitan, Jesus; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plinio; Ollero, Anibal; Sequeira, Joao; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.
Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.
van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep
This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…
An active MilliMeter Wave (MMW) system exploiting forward squinting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques can provide high resolution imagery. Such a radar offers a compact, all weather, day\\/night solution to the problem of accurate airborne navigation. Interpreting radar imagery of very cluttered urban areas is challenging, thus complicating autonomous navigation within such areas. For example, imagery is subject to effects
Richard A. Corken; Michael A. Evans
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.
Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.
Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; Gonzalez, Marta C.
It is widely accepted that human settlements occupy a small proportion of the landmass and therefore play a relatively small role in the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Most modeling studies focusing on the land carbon cycle use models of varying complexity to estimate carbon fluxes through forests, grasses, and croplands, but completely omit urban areas from their scope. Here, we estimate carbon storage in urban areas within the United States, defined to encompass a range of observed settlement densities, and its changes from 1950 to 2000. We show that this storage is not negligible and has been continuously increasing. We include natural- and human-related components of urban areas in our estimates. The natural component includes carbon storage in urban soil and vegetation. The human related component encompasses carbon stored long term in buildings, furniture, cars, and waste. The study suggests that urban areas should receive continued attention in efforts to accurately account for carbon uptake and storage in terrestrial systems.
Churkina, G.; Brown, D.; Keoleian, G.
This paper describes the formation and development of Slum\\/Shack Dwellers International (SDI), an international people’s organization which represents member federations of urban poor and homeless groups from 11 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It also describes the evolution of these national federations and how they grew to challenge conventional development thinking and to develop new, community-directed precedents for
Sheela Patel; Sundar Burra; Celine D’Cruz
Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) were collected in a semi-residential (AECD) area from June 2001 to June 2002 of Dhaka and in an urban area of Rajshahi, a city in northwestern region of Bangladesh from August 2001 to May 2002. The samples were collected using a ‘Gent’ stacked filter sampler in two fractions of
Bilkis A. Begum; Eugene Kim; Swapan K. Biswas; Philip K. Hopke
RELATIVELY SUCCESSFUL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS FROM LOW INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN DEPRESSED NEIGHBORHOODS OF THE URBAN NORTH WERE COMPARED WITH RELATIVELY AVERAGE AND FAILING PUPILS FROM IDENTICAL SETTINGS. NO ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO ILLUMINATE THE INTERPLAY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL, FAMILIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIOLOGICAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN THE EDUCATION OF…
We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4033 12-22 year olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with a subset of 75 youth when they were 13-24 years old (45.3% male). We observe that despite the challenges characteristic of urban slums, some youth maintain high aspirations and try to achieve them through education, delinquency, residential mobility, and religion. We note that others adjust their aspirations to account for limited opportunities. Overall, our findings highlight positive youth agency and underscore the need to improve the quality of life in urban slums.
Kabiru, Caroline W; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo
The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to improve people's living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built squatter settlements. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia area before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extractions of the thermal-related information of the area, such as the land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between ISA and LST suggested a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), the digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the investigated area from 1986 to 2006. The results showed that after the launch of the reconstruction project of this squatter settlement-dominated area, the UHI effect in the area had been greatly mitigated in the past 20 years, since the URI value had been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006. This owes greatly to the significant decrease in high-density ISAs and the notable increase in vegetation covers. The reconstruction is of benefit to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia area.
Tang, Fei; Xu, Hanqiu
Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone?UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. PMID:21269746
Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire
This report details the development of representative sets of radioactive material shipments into, out of, and through a number of densely populated urban areas. These data represent a large portion of the information required for the assessment of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials in these urban settings. Standard shipment models have been developed for twenty highly populated urban areas, using background data from a 1975 survey of shippers of radioactive materials. These models and the methods and assumptions required for their formulations are presented. Each shipment is specified by the material shipped (nuclide), transport mode, number of shipments per year of that type, size of shipment (curies), transport index (TI), package type, physical form, and material end use (medical/research, industrial, fuel cycle, and waste). 6 refs., 45 tabs.
Herreid, S.F.; Finley, N.C.; Ritchie, L.T.
As part of its last review, EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) sponsored a risk assessment for two urban areas, Philadelphia County and Los Angeles County, to assess the risks associated with then-current PM levels and the effects ...
E. Al-Hussainy E. Neubig E. Post K. Watts
We explore the idea of combining images from optical and SAR (synthetic aperture radar) sensors relative to the same scene on the Earth's surface with special emphasis on applications to urban areas detection. Indeed the images obtained with the two sensors are complementary and an effective image fusion approach may provide a useful tool to achieve a better understanding of
L. Fatone; P. Maponi; F. Zirilli
This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and
Alfredo Iriarte; Xavier Gabarrell; Joan Rieradevall
Propagation in random media is a topic of great interest, whose application fields include, among others, the so-called last mile problem as well as the modeling of dense urban area radio communication channels. A simple scenario for this issue is considered, with an optical-ray propagation across a medium of disordered lossless scatterers. The propagation medium behaves like a percolating lattice
Giorgio Franceschetti; Stefano Marano; Francesco Palmieri
This paper describes a precision positioning technique that can be applied to vehicles in urban areas. The proposed technique mitigates Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath by means of an omnidirectional infrared (IR) camera that can eliminate the need for invisible satellites [a satellite detected by the receiver but without line of sight (LOS)] by using IR images. Some simple GPS
Jun-ichi Meguro; Taishi Murata; Jun-ichi Takiguchi; Yoshiharu Amano; Takumi Hashizume
A study was conducted from April 1993 through April 1994 to describe and compare the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural and a small urban area in Colorado. Twenty-five water samples collected at least monthly at the mouths of two tributary streams of the South Plate River were analyzed for 47 pesticides. The results indicate that both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources for pesticides in streams. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected, and in the urban area, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more samples. Most often, the more frequently detected pesticides in both areas also were some of the more commonly used pesticides. In both areas, pesticide concentrations were higher during the summer (application period) with maximum concentrations generally occurring in storm runoff. The year-round detection of some pesticides in both areas at consistently low concentrations, regardless of season or streamflow volume, could indicate that these compounds persist in the shallow alluvial aquifer year-round.
Kimbrough, R. A.; Litke, D. W.
Concern for natural hazard-triggered technological disasters (Natech disasters) in densely populated and industrialized areas\\u000a is growing. Residents living in urban areas subject to high natural hazard risk are often unaware of the potential for secondary\\u000a disasters such as hazardous materials releases from neighboring industrial facilities, chemical storage warehouses or other\\u000a establishments housing hazardous materials. Lessons from previous disasters, such as
Ana Maria Cruz; Norio Okada
Vehicle traffic and other human activities provide affluent seismic excitation in urban area. We extract Green's function of surface wave from cross correlation of ambient noise recorded by a small array in schoolyard of Peking University. Although non-isotropic source distribution introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction, relative steady phase and group velocity map could be estimated from only days' records. The inverted S structure demonstrates agreement with well logging data. This technique could be introduced to engineering for well location optimizing design in noisy urban environment.
Meng, H.; Chen, Y. J.
The problem that guided this study was that child mortality and morbidity disparities continue to be observed in the era of improved expansion of the provision of health care services. Some areas have low mortality and morbidity while others such as the slums of Nairobi have high. Various factors may account for this scenario. On the one hand, this would
Margaret Nyanchoka Keraka; Wellington Nguya Wamicha
While many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent an ambitious attempt to reduce global poverty and improve the quality of life for the world’s poor, this cannot be said for the goal that concerns urban development. Goal 7 of the MDGs aims to improve the living conditions of 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. However, current estimates suggest that,
A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.
Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi
An urban air transect study was undertaken in Oklahoma City, OK, to investigate whether urban areas represent sources of dioxin-like compounds to the rural environment. This study proposed the hypothesis that the collective human activities characteristic of cities cause urban a...
Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48% - 116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work is extending the investigation to Phoenix, Arizona, an arid U.S. city, and several international cities like Mexico City, Johannesburg, and Brasilia. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.
Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold F.; Negri, Andrew
Introduction Most of northern cities are anthropo-natural systems with domination of anthropogenic components. The environmental framework of the permafrost zone is very insignificant, with green belts being represented by small parks and public gardens. Modern northern cities of Russia represent territories with dense and compact residential buildings having simple configuration to reduce heat loss under severe climatic conditions. In earlier settlements such buildings alternate quite often with private one-storey houses. The typical modern and old cities were investigated for study of its environmental impact. Purpose The goal of this presentation is analysis of main environmental problems in permafrost areas of Northern Russian territories using data of city infrastructure and permafrost and environmental processes monitoring for old and new developing cities. Results It was found that primary anthropogenic changes of cities' environments are following: soil devastation, change of surface water and groundwater, stationary and dynamic loads, pollution, change of thermal state of soils, accumulation of occupation layer, waste dumping. It is practically impossible to preserve natural permafrost conditions. Therefore we can observe in all cities of the permafrost zone degradation or, more rarely, aggradation of permafrost grounds depending on natural and permafrost conditions, construction principles, density and age of constructions, development of the territory and many other factors. The degree of change in various natural components of various permafrost zones varies, depending on the initial natural conditions in which economic activity is carried out, its type and duration. This entails various ecologic situations ranging from normal to crisis or disaster. Conclusion Significant changes of geocryological and an ecological situation are marked only at dense modern multi-storey building city territories. In these cases there is a degradation of permafrost soils irrespective of principles of preparation of the bases and constructions.
Khilimonyuk, D.; Brouchkov, A.
Copper is used as an antimicrobial agent in building materials such as algae-resistant roofing shingles and treated wood products for decks, fences, and utility poles used in urbanized areas. Releases from these materials may pose risks to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Copper exposures in surface water, sediment, and soil were estimated for a hypothetical urban setting using the TREX watershed model. Drainage and soil characteristics were based on an existing watershed. Urban landscape characteristics were developed from data regarding housing densities and copper use in building materials. This setting provides a spatially distributed, upper-bound assessment scenario. Release rates from algae-resistant shingles and treated wood were defined based on surface area and rainfall. Simulations for the urban landscapes were performed for a 10-year period. Simulation results were used to evaluate exceedences of benchmark concentrations for water, sediment, and soil. For algae-resistant shingles, exposures did not exceed benchmarks in any media. For treated wood, exposures did not exceed sediment and soil benchmarks, and surface water benchmarks were exceeded on 2 days in 10 years. Based on this analysis, copper use as an antimicrobial agent in algae resistant shingles and treated wood is not expected to pose significant adverse environmental risks on an individual use basis. PMID:22563808
Velleux, Mark; Redman, Aaron; Paquin, Paul; Santore, Robert; England, John F; Julien, Pierre Y
December 5, 2006 is the date when the world will become predominantly urban according to Carl Haub, a US demographer. The date is based on current UN population projections and will likely change over the next 15 years, but the trend is towards an urban population is still just as significant as the change from hunter gather to settled agriculturalist. The urban growth rate is currently 3.6% in less developed countries (LDC) which accounts for 9/10 of the total urban growth. Out of the 28 cities that the UN projects will have populations over 10 million people by the end of the decade, only 4 are in more developed nations: Los Angeles, Moscow, New York, and Tokyo. People are attracted to urban areas because of increased opportunity. 60% of GNP in LDCs is generated in urban areas, this figure is projected to grown to 80% by the end of the century. The quality of life for urban dwellers in LDCs is quite low. The 3 main areas of environmental degradation are: air pollution, waste management, and drinking water contamination. In many urban areas, the fuel used to power industries as well as the fuel used by urban dwellers to cook and heat often results in excessive air pollution. According to WHO less than 60% of LDC urban dwellers have access to sanitation and only 30% of the buildings are connected to sewer lines, and 90% of the sewage that is collected is discharged untreated. Untreated drinking water contains diseases which infect the poorest urban dwellers. In Bombay, the death rate in the slums is twice as high as in the suburbs. In Manilia the infant mortality rate is 3 times higher in the squatter communities than in the rest of the capital. PMID:12284496
Carty, W P
A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.
Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.
Urban heat islands (UHI) are in the focus of research interest during past decades, as they concern densely populated areas, thus having a great impact on health of citizens, but also on environment and economy of cities. The linkage between urban heat islands and climatic change is of particular importance, especially in areas where - according to future projections - significant warming is expected, as the urban effect amplifies regional warming. The study focuses on the city of Athens and concerns the temporal evolution on the mesoscale of UHI over the period 1975-2010. Although the study of the spatial distribution of the urban heat island in Athens has revealed large differences of the air temperature between the central zone of the city and surrounding rural stations (reaching up to 10 oC in certain cases), it is quite important to study the rates of UHI changes on the mesoscale and extract information on whether UHI is amplified, stabilized or has declined over time. It is mentioned that Athens has undergone dramatic changes during recent decades as regards land use/land cover map and population distribution. The knowledge of the rates of UHI changes will also reveal the 'true' rates of background warming which is observed in the area during the study period. Annual and seasonal values were calculated from daily average, maximum and minimum temperature at seven stations of different characteristics of the area of interest (urban/ suburban/ coastal/rural). From the comparison of the average air temperature between the rural and urban stations, it was found that the intensity of UHI increases by approximately +0.2 oC/decade on an annual basis over the study period, but the results are strongly dependent on the season. In summer and spring, the rate of UHI changes is more pronounced, amounting to +0.4 oC/decade (statistically significant at 0.05 CL). Moreover, it was found that the rate of change is higher in the maximum than in the minimum air temperature. It was also estimated that urban effect accounts almost for the half of the observed warming trends in the area, on an annual base.
Founda, D.; Pierros, F.; Nastos, P. T.; Petrakis, M.
A scanning aerosol lidar, a NIR-VIS radiometer, an ozonemeter and a ground meteorological station were used for observation of the atmosphere over the urban area of the Sofia City. The mixing layer height and the aerosol extinction coefficient and its variation during the convective boundary layer formation are determined using the lidar data. The spectral dependence of the extinction coefficient is estimated by means of the radiometric data.
Iliev, I.; Grigorieva, V.; Kolev, N.; Evgenieva, T.; Kaprielov, B.; Kolev, I.
Introduction In low resource settings, the vast majority of ‘Person/people Living with HIV’ (PLHIV/s) and inadequate healthcare delivery systems to meet their treatment and care needs, caregivers play a vital role. Home based caregivers are often unrecognized with limited AIDS policies and programs focusing on them. We explored the perceptions and norms regarding care being provided by family caregivers of PLHIVs in India. Methodology A community based qualitative study to understand the issues pertaining to home based care for PLHIV was conducted in urban settings of Pune city, in Maharashtra, India. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among men, women and peer educators were carried out. A total of 44 in-depth Interviews (IDIs) with PLHIVs (20) and their caregivers (24), were conducted using separate guides respectively. Data was analyzed thematically. Results Home based care was perceived as economically viable option available for PLHIVs. ‘Care’ comprised of emotional, adherence, nursing and financial support to PLHIV. Home based care was preferred over hospital based care as it ensured confidentiality and patient care without hampering routine work at home. Women emerged as more vital primary caregivers compared to men. Home based care for men was almost unconditional while women had no such support. The natal family of women also abandoned. Their marital families seemed to provide support. Caregivers voiced the need for respite care and training. Discussion Gender related stigma and discrimination existed irrespective of women being the primary family caregivers. The support from marital families indicates a need to explore care and support issues at natal and marital homes of the women living with HIV respectively. Home based care training and respite care for the caregivers is recommended. Gender sensitive interventions addressing gender inequity and HIV related stigma should be modeled while designing interventions for PLHIVs and their family caregivers.
Kohli, Rewa; Purohit, Vidula; Karve, Latika; Bhalerao, Vinod; Karvande, Shilpa; Rangan, Sheela; Reddy, Srikanth; Paranjape, Ramesh; Sahay, Seema
Urban roughness is one of the major factors affecting the flows and turbulence structures in the bottom of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Whereas, our understanding of their relation is limited. In this paper, we attempt to examine the interaction among aerodynamic resistance (friction factor f), ventilation (air exchange rate ACH), and pollutant removal (pollutant removal rate PCH). Using the method of characteristic, analytical solution shows that the turbulent ventilation of a hypothetical urban area is directly proportional to the square root of friction factor (ACH? f1-2) regardless of the building geometry. Next, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity tests are performed to verify the theory. In addition to the commonly employed rectangular building models, seven types of urban roughness elements, in the form of idealized building models, are tested. As a pilot study, the building models are of the same height so a roof level is easily defined across the entire hypothetical urban areas. Two configurations of passive scalar sources, ground-level-only (vehicular emission) and all-solid-boundary (heat dissipation), are employed to contrast their transport behaviors. To look into the mechanism of ventilation and pollutant removal, the ACH and PCH are partitioned into their respective mean and turbulent components. The CFD results show that both the ventilation and pollutant removal are mainly attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, the ACH? and f1-2 calculation from the CFD results agree very well with the analytical solution (correlation coefficient over 0.9). However, the pollutant and heat exhibit different removal behaviors so simple estimates using friction factor have not yet arrived. Because of the substantial aged air removal by ACH? and its linear relation with f1-2, it is proposed to use friction factor, which can be determined by wind tunnel experiments or mathematical modeling, as a parameterization for the (minimum) ventilation of urban areas. Additional tests for urban roughness elements of other geometries and non-uniform height are currently undertaken.
Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C. C.
Bangladesh's urban population is rising fast. In the capital, Dhaka, some 4 million people live in slums. They are lacking in wealth, power and social connections; probably under-counted in national surveys; and under-served by both government and non-government organisations, many of whom still see poverty as a rural issue or see the urban poor…
Many adolescents living in contexts characterized by adversity achieve positive outcomes. We adopt a protection-risk conceptual framework to examine resilience (academic achievement, civic participation, and avoidance of risk behaviors) among 1,722 never-married 12-19 year olds living in two Kenyan urban slums. We find stronger associations…
Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Ndugwa, Robert P.; Zulu, Eliya M.; Jessor, Richard
We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…
Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo
Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only\\u000a under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information\\u000a hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou\\u000a was to assess the nutritional status of
Charles Daboné; Hélène F Delisle; Olivier Receveur
Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in dominant processes and solute pathways.
van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter
This study analyzes economies of scale and density as a rationale for subsidizing transit agencies in small urban areas. A long-run cost model is estimated using data from 2006 to 2009 for 168 transit agencies that directly operated fixed-route bus service in small urban areas. Using vehicle revenue miles as transit output, results show that small urban transit agencies experience
Jeremy Mattson; David Ripplinger
Conducted two needs assessment studies of chronically mentally ill (CMI). Examined differential concentration of CMI persons in areas of Colorado, finding a disproportionate concentration on CMI persons in core urban area of Denver. Comparison of core urban clients to national sample revealed that Denver's core urban CMI population was severely…
Shern, David; Dilts, Stephen L.
Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) were collected in a semi-residential (AECD) area from June 2001 to June 2002 of Dhaka and in an urban area of Rajshahi, a city in northwestern region of Bangladesh from August 2001 to May 2002. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter sampler in two fractions of < 2.5 ?m fine and 2.5-10 ?m coarse sizes. The samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by PIXE. The data sets were then analyzed by positive matrix factorization technique to identify the possible sources of atmospheric aerosols in these areas. The best solutions were found to be six and seven factors for elemental compositions for coarse and fine PM fractions in semi-residential Dhaka and five factors for elemental compositions of each of the coarse and fine PM respectively in the urban area of Rajshahi. The sources are soil dust, road dust, cement, sea salt, motor vehicles and biomass burning. The PMF results show that a large fraction of about more than 50% of the PM 2.5-10 mass at both sites comes from soil dust and road dust. The motor vehicle including two strokes contributes about 48% of the PM 2.5 mass in case of semi-residential area Dhaka. On the other hand, the biomass-burning factor contributes about 50% of the PM 2.5 mass in Rajshahi.
Begum, Bilkis A.; Kim, Eugene; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.
The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district. PMID:14582296
Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J
In this analysis, the weather research and forecasting model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model is used to simulate the climatic impacts of urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, which has experienced significant expansion in its urban areas. Two cases examining current landscapes and the sensitivity test of urban areas replaced by cropland have been carried out to explore the changes in the surface air and atmospheric boundary structure. The impact of urbanization on annual mean surface air temperature has been found to be more than 1 °C in urban areas, and the maximum difference is almost 2 °C. The change in near-surface level temperature is most pronounced in winter, but the area influenced by urbanization is slightly larger in summer. The annual mean water vapor mixing ratio and wind speed are both reduced in the urban area. The effect of urbanization can only heat the temperature inside the urban boundary layer, below 850 hPa. The modeling results also indicate that the underlying surface thermal forces induced by the "urban heat island" effect enhance vertical air movement and engenders a convergence zone over urban areas. The convergence at low level together with the moisture increases in the layer between 850 and 700 hPa triggered the increase of convective precipitation.
Wang, Mingna; Zhang, Xuezhen; Yan, Xiaodong
Efforts have been put into place for decades around the world to understand the surface energy budget of the Earth. One of the pillars of such activities is the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) project (Ohmura and Lang 1989), which established a database for the measurements of Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) and other parameters around the world. A major finding from the GEBA project is "global dimming and brightening" (Ohmura and Lang 1989; Wild 2009), which refers originally to the secular trend of SSR on the decadal time scale in Europe that had declined till around 1980s and then has been rising ever since. Secular trends have also been found elsewhere in the world, but the strength and the direction of the trend differ across regions (Ohmura 2009; Skeie et al. 2011; Wild et al. 2005). As a number of observations are made in or close to urban areas, speculations have arisen that the observed SSR trends may be influenced by local atmospheric pollution (with the direct aerosol effects being predominant (Kvalevåg and Myhre 2007)) and also by enhanced cloud cover over urban areas (Shepherd 2005). Thus, this raises a question: to what extent the observed global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. To date, only a few studies address this problem including a statistical study based on population data (Alpert et al. 2005) and model studies inspecting SSR trends (e.g. Dwyer et al. 2010; Skeie et al. 2011). Answers are, however, inconclusive and remain debated. We investigate whether the observed global dimming and brightening is a large scale phenomenon or limited to urban areas by using the following two complementary approaches: 1) We focus on a set of selected 14 stations in Japan that yield various high quality measurements since 1961 with three of them being least influenced by urbanization (based on expert elicitation). We look into seasonal time-series of SSR, cloud amount, and sunshine duration (Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency) as well as zenith transmittance and maximum transmittance (A. Ohmura, personal communication, 26 February 2012) separately for the pristine (i.e. least influenced by urbanization) and polluted stations. 2) We deal with several hundreds of stations in Europe, Japan, and China compiled by the GEBA project and look into the SSR data since 1960. To infer the temporal development of the urbanization level at each measurement site, we use the following two datasets: i) the high resolution gridded emission data (0.5 degree) provided by the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) (Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre / Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), and ii) the population data (0.08 degree) obtained from the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) (Klein Goldewijk et al. 2010). To these data, we apply a selection of distance weighting functions to account for the spatial extent of urbanization surrounding each site (Folini et al. 2009). Our preliminary results obtained from these two approaches do not support the claim that the global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. References Alpert P, Kishcha P, Kaufman YJ, Schwarzbard R (2005) Global dimming or local dimming?: Effect of urbanization on sunlight availability. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L17802. Dwyer JG, Norris JR, Ruckstuhl C (2010) Do climate models reproduce observed solar dimming and brightening over China and Japan? Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115, D00K08. Folini D, Kaufmann P, Ubl S, Henne S (2009) Region of influence of 13 remote European measurement sites based on modeled carbon monoxide mixing ratios. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114, D08307. Klein Goldewijk K, Beusen A, Janssen P (2010) Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20, 565-573. Kvalevåg MM, Myhre G (2007) Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era. Journal of Climate, 20, 4874-4883. Ohmura A (2009) Observed decadal v
Tanaka, Katsumasa; Imamovic, Adel; Folini, Doris; Ohmura, Atsumu; Wild, Martin
Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946–70, 1988–97, and 2004–10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.
Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan
Global urban populations are increasing day by day and putting continuous pressure on cities. The level of world urbanization rate was 50.6% in the year 2010 and it is forecasted that by 2050 it will be 70% , UN (Habitates, 2010). Rising trend of urbanization creates various urban problems like; urban poverty, environmental hazard, urban slum etc which leads continuous
Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR; Zakir HOSSAIN
This article contests the characterisation of the popular and acclaimed film, Slumdog Millionaire, as a realistic portrayal of India's urban poverty that will ultimately serve as a tool of advocacy for India's urban poor. It argues that the film's reductive view of slum-spaces will more probably reinforce negative attitudes towards slum-dwellers, lending credibility to the sorts of policies that have historically dispossessed them of power and dignity. By drawing attention to the film's celebration of characters and spaces that symbolise Western culture and Northern trajectories of 'development', the article also critically engages with some of the issues raised by the film's enormous success. PMID:20607903
Currently the eradication of slums is on the global agenda. Accordingly one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) has been set to 'achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020'. Even though efforts are made to localise the MDG's, in many developing cities, the scarcity of relevant data, coupled with lack of both
Tsion LEMMA; Richard SLIUZAS; Monika KUFFER
The term slum is a loose definition of the environs and behavior of the poor. Isolated from the remainder of society, slum residents are presumed to live a deviant life either by preference or cultural predisposition, or as a consequence of their deprivation. This synthesis of spatial isolation and social deviance was an inextricable element of changes in attitudes to
With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. In this talk we will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type. We will discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.
Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.
The seropositivities for infection byAscaris lumbricoides andToxocara canis were determined in children (1–15 years old) of a slum area of Caracas, Venezuela, and the levels that indicate the presence of active infection were defined. In children aged from 1 to 3 years, approximately 10% were positive for either parasite, and this figure increased to about 30% in 4- to 6-year-olds.
Neil R. Lynch; Isabel Hagel; Vivian Vargas; Alecia Rotundo; María C. Varela; Maria C. Di Prisco; A. Neill Hodgen
Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations.
Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A.; Griffiths, Paula L.
Coarse particles exposures are expected to be highly heterogeneous in an urban area. However, little data are available to explore the extent of heterogeneity of coarse particles, especially on a local scale. An extensive sampling program for the coarse particles was conducted using University of North Carolina (UNC) passive aerosol samplers. The samplers were deployed for 4-5 week periods during four seasons, fall, winter, spring, and summer at 25 different sites across Syracuse, a small city located in central New York. The substrates from the UNC passive samplers were analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) providing size, shape, and elemental composition in the form of fluoresced X-ray spectra. Adaptive resonance theory (ART-2a) based neural network algorithm was applied with processed X-ray data to identify homogenous particles classes of 25,437 coarse particles from all four seasons. Thirty-four particle classes were identified with similar chemical characteristics. The mass fractions of particles in each identified class were then used to assess the homogeneity of composition and concentration across the measurement domain for each season. Road/soil dust, carbonaceous dust, biological materials, and deicing road salt were identified as the major sources of the urban coarse particles. Spatial and seasonal variations in both composition and concentration were observed and a noticeable heterogeneity between adjacent sites is indicated by the coefficient of divergence and correlation coefficient analysis.
Kumar, Pramod; Hopke, Philip K.; Raja, Suresh; Casuccio, Gary; Lersch, Traci L.; West, Roger R.
The study explores the issues relating to family planning method use by males in urban areas. Key informant interviews were held with men and women residing in selected wards of four randomly chosen zones in the Dhaka City Corporation, representing both slum and non-slum areas. Ward commissioners and a sample of health and family planning service providers in the Government, NGOs, and private sector in these wards were also interviewed in two phases in June-July 1995 and October 1995. The urban population in Dhaka seemed supportive of male contraceptive use in general. However, certain factors interplay that prevent men from assuming responsibility toward actual male method use, even when they approve and support spacing and limiting family size. The discomfort associated with the use of condoms, their unreliability in providing protection from pregnancy, together with misconceptions and perceptions relating to the fear of losing energy and productivity from using condoms and from being vasectomized, were reported. Recommendations to use the media for motivation and to provide privacy and individual counseling measures were given. The perspectives of the key respondents highlight the need to understand urban men and their attitudes, which may pave the way toward developing motivational strategies. An informed public in urban areas represents a setting conducive toward motivating men to improve achievements of a program that largely attributes its past and present success to targeting women. The findings justify exploring ways to expand choices for the urban couple to achieve reproductive health goals. PMID:12291501
Jahan, S A; Thwin, A A; Nasreen, S; Ahsan, R I
The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.
Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.
The manual describes ways that local governments can approach the issues surrounding the implementation of urban runoff retrofit technology even when the control options are limited. It reviews appropriate 'ultra-urban' technologies for situations where m...
The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique, covering the target area with 57 Envisat ASAR images from Ascending Track No. 229 (32) and Descending Track No. 265 (25) captured between years 2002 and 2010. Processing involves Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) a powerful software solution for obtaining differential interferograms and performing PSInSAR methodology. The area of interest to investigate the deformation phenomena is covering approximately 16 by 16 kilometers (256 sqkm). For evaluation of PSInSAR potential to detect and monitor ground displacements, PS derived time series of deformation signal were compared to the field GNSS data from three GNSS stations coded PIL1, BRAT and GKU4. By the detailed look on the deformation maps the investigated urban area of Bratislava is relatively stable with the deformation rates within the few (±5) millimeters. The comparison of PSInSAR derived time series with GNSS data indicates good correlation and confirms achievable precision and applicability of InSAR measurements for ground stability monitoring purposes. Data for this work were provided by European Space Agency within the Category-1 project ID 9981: "Detection of ground deformation using radar interferometry techniques". The authors are grateful to the Tatrabanka Foundation and The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic for the opportunity to work together. Data have been processed by the Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) and visualised in Google Earth. This paper is also the result of the implementation of the project: the National Centre of Earth's Surface Deformation Diagnostic in the area of Slovakia, ITMS 26220220108 supported by the Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF and the grant No. 1/0642/13 of the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA.
Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan
...Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...Solicitation of Project Proposals for the Passenger Ferry Grant...
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in surface sediment samples collected from urban canals or rivers in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Japan. The total PBDE concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.83 to 3140 ng/g dry wt. BDE-209 was predominant, ranging from 43% to 97% of total PBDEs, followed by nona-BDEs and some detectable concentrations of BDEs 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183. Sedimentary PBDE levels in Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines and Thailand were generally higher than those reported for highly industrialized countries. Spatial distribution of PBDEs indicated that inland sources may impact coastal areas. The presence of BDE congeners which are not contained in technical mixtures and the higher proportions of nona-BDEs relative to BDE-209 in the sediments were identified as indicators of debromination. BDE-209 was possibly debrominated under anaerobic conditions in some of the sediment samples. PMID:24120227
Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Rinawati; Santiago, Evangeline C
The national statistics are familiar by now: each year, more than 2 million women are raped and/or physically assaulted; more than one-third of them are injured during their most recent assault. Annually, more than 500,000 women seek medical services as a result of violence-related injuries, often from hospital emergency departments. But national statistics cannot fully capture the extent of violence experienced by women in inner-city areas, nor do they point to modifiable risk factors at a community level. This Issue Brief highlights a new study that investigates the circumstances and correlates of violent injuries among women in one urban, low-income community. PMID:12523342
Grisso, J A; Schwarz, D F; Hirschinger, N; Sammel, M; Brensinger, C; Santanna, J; Lowe, R A; Anderson, E; Shaw, L M; Bethel, C A; Teeple, L
The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Gumma, K. M.; van, Rooijen, D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Aakuraju, R. V.; Amerasinghe, P.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine the factors associated with incomplete vaccination in an urban area in Sao Paulo, Brazil; and to explore whether differences in vaccine coverage in the catchment area of health centres remain after the demographic constitution of the population in these areas is controlled for. DESIGN--The children were selected as controls for a case-control study. 455 children were selected at random (but age matched) from the health centre registries. Data was collected from the health centre records and from home interviews. SETTING--All children were registered in FAISA, a municipal health service comprising a large network of health centres and hospitals. FAISA's services are free at the point of delivery, and over 85% of the city's children are registered. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were selected to represent, except in their age distribution, all children registered in the municipal health service. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected on subjects' vaccine history, year of birth, sex, birth order and birth weight, and health centre of registration; their mothers' age, education, and marital status; and the family's income per capita and history of migration. Analysis was undertaken to identify risk factors for vaccination and whether the differential coverage in health centres' catchment areas remained after demographic characteristics of the population were controlled for. The high coverage for DPT and polio vaccines suggests that low overall coverage was not simply a result of mothers failing to bring children for vaccination. The variable that best predicted vaccine coverage was year of birth. Children born to immigrant mothers or into large families had lower vaccine uptake. The characteristics of children and their mothers did not account for the variation in vaccination coverage in catchment areas of different health centres. CONCLUSIONS--It is likely that in this area vaccination completeness was associated mainly with the health centre's ability to deliver vaccination to the target population.
Barreto, T V; Rodrigues, L C
Background Three million babies are stillborn each year and 3.6 million die in the first month of life. In India, early neonatal deaths make up four-fifths of neonatal deaths and infant mortality three-quarters of under-five mortality. Information is scarce on cause-specific perinatal and neonatal mortality in urban settings in low-income countries. We conducted verbal autopsies for stillbirths and neonatal deaths in Mumbai slum settlements. Our objectives were to classify deaths according to international cause-specific criteria and to identify major causes of delay in seeking and receiving health care for maternal and newborn health problems. Methods Over two years, 2005–2007, births and newborn deaths in 48 slum areas were identified prospectively by local informants. Verbal autopsies were collected by trained field researchers, cause of death was classified by clinicians, and family narratives were analysed to investigate delays on the pathway to mortality. Results Of 105 stillbirths, 65 were fresh (62%) and obstetric complications dominated the cause classification. Of 116 neonatal deaths, 87 were early and the major causes were intrapartum-related (28%), prematurity (23%), and severe infection (22%). Bereavement was associated with socioeconomic quintile, previous stillbirth, and number of antenatal care visits. We identified 201 individual delays in 121/187 birth narratives (65%). Overall, delays in receiving care after arrival at a health facility dominated and were mostly the result of referral from one institution to another. Most delays in seeking care were attributed to a failure to recognise symptoms of complications or their severity. Conclusions In Mumbai’s slum settlements, early neonatal deaths made up 75% of neonatal deaths and intrapartum-related complications were the greatest cause of mortality. Delays were identified in two-thirds of narratives, were predominantly related to the provision of care, and were often attributable to referrals between health providers. There is a need for clear protocols for care and transfer at each level of the health system, and an emphasis on rapid identification of problems and communication between health facilities. Trial registration ISRCTN96256793
The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer-scale microgravity survey was conducted over this area and will be repeated in spring. Efforts to quantify other components of the water cycle include: (1) deployment of an eddy covariance station for ET measurement; (2) mining flow metering records; (3) evaluation of long-term stream-flow data records; and (4) processing precipitation fields. The objective of the precipitation analysis is to obtain rainfall fields at a spatial scale of 1 sq km for the study area. Analyses are based on rain gage observations and radar reflectivity observations from the Sterling, Virginia WSR-88D radar. Radar rainfall analyses utilize the HydroNEXRAD system. Data is being managed using the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model housed on a HIS server. The dataset will be made accessible through web services and the Data Access System for Hydrology.
Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.
Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the urban core. Detailed modelling analyses (WRF-Chem) of a series of convective storms over the New York City metropolitan area, suggest that under certain meteorological conditions, increased concentrations of aerosols can lead to better organization of convection, higher vertical velocities and significantly increased convective rainfall accumulations. Higher vertical velocities were more widespread and reached deeper atmospheric levels when meteorological conditions were favourable, under increased aerosol concentrations. Areas that are downstream of sources of aerosols (i.e. New York City) are more prone to experience convective enhancement.
Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.
Background Globally, it is estimated that people aged 60 and over constitute more than 11% of the population, with the corresponding proportion in developing countries being 8%. Rapid urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), fuelled in part by rural–urban migration and a devastating HIV/AIDS epidemic, has altered the status of older people in many SSA societies. Few studies have, however, looked at the health of older people in SSA. This study aims to describe the health and well-being of older people in two Nairobi slums. Methods Data were collected from residents of the areas covered by the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) aged 50 years and over by 1 October 2006. Health status was assessed using the short SAGE (Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health) form. Mean WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL) and a composite health score were computed and binary variables generated using the median as the cut-off. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with poor quality of life (QoL) and poor health status. Results Out of 2,696 older people resident in the NUHDSS surveillance area during the study period, data were collected on 2,072. The majority of respondents were male, aged 50–60 years. The mean WHOQoL score was 71.3 (SD 6.7) and mean composite health score was 70.6 (SD 13.9). Males had significantly better QoL and health status than females and older respondents had worse outcomes than younger ones. Sex, age, education level and marital status were significantly associated with QoL, while slum of residence was significantly associated with health status. Conclusion The study adds to the literature on health and well-being of older people in SSA, especially those in urban informal settlements. Further studies are needed to validate the methods used for assessing health status and to provide comparisons from other settings. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the potential to conduct such studies and to evaluate health and well-being over time.
Kyobutungi, Catherine; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Ezeh, Alex
Urban vs. rural residence is commonly cited as a risk factor for depression and other mental disorders, but epidemiological evidence for this relationship in the US is inconclusive. We examined three consecutive annual samples (2009-2011) of adolescents (age 12-17, N = 55,583) and adults (age 18 and over, N = 116,459) from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare the prevalence of major depression and other serious mental illness across four categories of urbanicity: 1) large metropolitan areas, 2) small metropolitan areas, 3) semi-rural areas, and 4) rural areas, with and without adjustment for other demographic risk factors. For adolescents, no association was observed between urbanicity and the prevalence of major depression, with or without statistical adjustments. For adults, no differences were found in the prevalence of major depression or serious mental illness between large metropolitan areas and rural areas, but the prevalence of both was slightly higher in the two intermediate urbanicity categories than in large metropolitan areas, with statistically significant odds ratios after adjustment ranging from 1.12 to 1.19. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of mental disorders was not higher in the most urban compared with the most rural areas, suggesting that the move to identify mechanistic explanations for risk associated with the urban environment is premature. Evidence of slightly higher prevalence in small urban and semi-rural areas relative to large urban areas, reported for the first time, requires additional investigation. PMID:24857610
Breslau, Joshua; Marshall, Grant N; Pincus, Harold A; Brown, Ryan A
This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include\\u000a a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau,\\u000a Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired\\u000a from the
Rizwan Ahmed Memon; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Michael K. H. Leung
This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the
Rizwan Ahmed Memon; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Michael K. H. Leung
This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the
Rizwan Ahmed Memon; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Michael K. H. Leung
The "Floodgate Street area" was a notorious slum district in the city of Birmingham in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article presents a case study, drawing on the rich archival sources available for this area, to examine the language that local authority and voluntary workers used to describe the local area, and their…
Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions.
Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye
Urbanization, agricultural intensification and industrialization are contributing to erosion, local and diffuse contamination and sealing of soil surfaces, resulting in soil quality degradation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments and considered good markers of anthropogenic activities such as traffic, industry, domestic heating and agriculture. Although they are subject to biodegradation and photodegradation, once in the soil, they tend to bind to the soil organic fraction. Estarreja is a small coastal town in the Northwestern Portuguese coast, with a close relation with the lagoon of Aveiro which supports a variety of biotopes (channels, islands with vegetation, mudflats, salt marshes and agricultural fields) of important ecological value. It supports an intensive and diversified agriculture, a variety of heavy and light industries and a population of about half a million people which is dependent on this resource. This is a very industrialized area, due to its five decades of chemical industry. This study aims to assess the impact of the urbanization and of the chemical industry in PAHs distribution. The survey and sampling method were based on pre-interpreted maps, aerial photographs, and directly checked in the field, in order to get an overall characterization of the area. Topsoils were collected from 34 sites, considering different land uses. Five land uses were chosen: ornamental gardens, parks, roadsides, forest and agricultural. Parameters such as soil pH (ISO method 10390:1994), total C, N, H, S percentages (microanalyser LECO, CNHS-932), organic matter (LOI at 430°), particle size distribution (Micromeritics® Sedigraph 5100), cation exchange capacity and exchangeable bases, were determined in order to have a general characterization of soil. Determination of the 16 EPA PAHs in soils was performed by GC/MS after a Soxhlet extraction and an alumina clean-up of extracts. Procedure blanks, duplicates and reference material were used in each extraction batch for quality control assessment. In what concerns the general parameters, Estarreja soils were characterized as slightly acid, with a median pHCaCl2 of 5.15, ranging from 3.12 and 6.88. The content in organic matter observed was relatively high, with a median of 4.6% and ranging from 1.8 to 45%. The median concentration of PAHs was 98 µg kg-1, ranging from 27 to 2,016 µg kg-1. The former value was found in an agricultural area and, together with another agricultural soil (with 1121 µgPAHs/kg), were considered heavily contaminated according to the classification given by Maliszewska-Kordybach. Moreover, eight samples were classified as weakly contaminated (PAHs between 200 and 600 µg/kg) and the remaining ones were not contaminated. The relative abundance of individual PAHs in Estarreja soils was evaluated, being the most abundant Fluoranthene and Pyrene followed by Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Phenanthrene and Crysene. These PAHs are the ones usually associated with the combustion of fossil fuel and other burnable materials, being this composition is typical for topsoil of European industrialized countries. Geostatistical methods were used to show the spatial variability of contaminants and the probability of exceeding the risk-based standards. The plots of concentration of PAHs on GIS highlight areas where the highest elements concentrations occur and the land use associated. These soil maps assemble important information for decision-making, allowing identifying possible sources of contamination, assess the suitability of soil to its use and to contribute for land use planning in accordance to soil characteristics. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/38418/2007) and by CESAM
Cachada, A.; Pereira, R.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Duarte, A. C.
The development and maintenance of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role on the distribution of atmospheric constituents, specially in a polluted urban area. In particular, the atmospheric boundary layer has a direct impact on the con- centration and transformation of pollutants. It is therefore very important to obtain an accurate estimation of the boundary layer growth. The ABL growth is driven primarily by the surface fluxes (sensible and latent) and entrainment of warmer air from the free troposphere. It can also be influenced by the presence of mesoscale phenomena such as the sea-breeze or the mountain valley circulation. In order to analyse the different mechanisms which control the boundary layer growth, we have simulated by means of the non-hydrostatic model MM5 several boundary layer observed in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Sensitivity analysis of the modelled ABL are carried out by using various descriptions of the planetary boundary layer. Direct and continuous measure- ments of the boundary layer height taken by a LIDAR are used to evaluate the results obtained by the model. Depending on the LIDAR data availability, we have repeated our study under different meteorological situations. The intercomparison shows that the modelled boundary layer strongly depends on the selected parameterisation. In our presentation, we will show that in general the obser- vations provide the highest value of the maximum of ABL height. Moreover, the more simple parameterisation (Medium Range Forecast) simulates an ABL with values of the inversion height similar to those found with the LIDAR. On the contrary, the pa- rameterisation that solves the TKE prognostic equation (ETA) yields lowest values of the ABL height and does not fit with the observations. One possible source of differ- ences may be the heat and specific humidity surface fluxes calculated by the model. It is therefore advisable to measure surface fluxes in combination with LIDAR obser- vations to fully understand the boundary layer growth in an urban area. In addition, it would be also interesting to make this campaign at different places in the Barcelona area, in order to study the possible breeze effects and the influence of soil conditions in the ABL growth.
Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Comerón, A.; Rocadenbosch, F.
Abstract Although land-use changes such as urbanization have dramatically altered plant-pollinator interactions, little is known about their effects on pollen limitation and floral traits. In this study, we examined pollinator visit frequency, reproductive success, and floral trait measurements in 12 populations of the annual andromonoecious Commelina communis in an urban-rural area. Pollinator and mate availability decreased significantly with developed land area around the study site. Most urbanized populations suffered from significant pollinator-limited male and/or female reproductive success. High fruit set in urbanized populations may suggest the presence of high reproductive assurance by selfing. The stigma height and degree of herkogamy significantly decreased with increased pollinator limitation. Petal length, anther height, and/or the pollen?ovule ratio tended to be low in pollinator- and mate-limited urban populations. One urban population with high pollinator availability had flowers with higher herkogamy and stigma height compared to rural populations. These results suggest that urbanization may provide diverse selective forces that could affect the phenotypic variation in floral traits. PMID:25058285
Ushimaru, Atushi; Kobayashi, Atsumi; Dohzono, Ikumi
Urban ecological networks are defined differently in ecology, urban planning and landscape ecology, but they all have linearity\\u000a and linkage in common. Early urban representations evolved from the constraints of deep ecological structure in the landscape\\u000a to built elements that must work around natural linear obstacles—rivers, coastlines, dunes, cliffs, hills and valley swamps.\\u000a Village commons were linked by roads. The
Maria IgnatievaGlenn; Glenn H. Stewart; Colin Meurk
The paper describes mobile source hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in the Seattle-Tacoma, Washington, Urban area. obile sources have been identified as significant contributors to HAP emissions in urban areas. PA is working in partnership with the Puget Sound Air Pollution...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing...Distributive Shares Â§ 203.426 Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. The provisions of Â§Â§...
This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that...
C. Rosenzweig, D. A. Quattrochi, J. Tarr, M. Ruth, P. Kirshen, P. Romero-Lankao, T. J. Wilbanks, W. Solecki
The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago\\/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in
L. E. Gratz; G. J. Keeler; J. T. Dvonch
Scatterers in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images exhibit high dependence on scatterer-sensor orientations. This phenomenon is prevalent in urban areas. This paper applies hidden Markov model (HMM) to characterize the dependence and model the variations with respect to orientation. Buildings in high resolution SAR images of urban areas are studied. Buildings regions are divided into several discrete classes according to
Wenju He; Marc Jäger; Olaf Hellwich
Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194
Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W
Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation.
Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.
Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary results of a 3D stereo flood.
Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.
An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.
This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…
Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.
In order to estimate the ventilation of vehicle pollution within street canyons, a wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation (LES) was performed. A model of an idealised urban area with apartment houses arranged to courtyards was designed according to common Central European cities. In the wind tunnel, we assembled a set-up for simultaneous measurement of vertical velocity and tracer gas concentration. Due to the vehicle traffic emissions modelling, a new line source of tracer gas was designed and built into the model. As a computational model, the LES model solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was used. In this paper, we focused on the street canyon with the line source situated perpendicular to an approach flow. Vertical and longitudinal velocity components of the flow with the pollutant concentration were obtained from two horizontal grids placed in different heights above the street canyon. Vertical advective and turbulent pollution fluxes were computed from the measured data as ventilation characteristics. Wind tunnel and LES data were qualitatively compared. A domination of advective pollution transport within the street canyon was determined. However, the turbulent transport with an opposite direction to the advective played a significant role within and above the street canyon.
Kuka?ka, L.; Fuka, V.; Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Ja?our, Z.
Information on infant feeding practices was collected from 410 educated, working mothers in a urban area. The mean duration for breast feeding was 4.1 months. Early introduction of supplements was the rule. About 61% of mothers used commercial baby foods, though with certain problems. More than 90% of mothers considered breast milk as the best food for infants. About 63% expressed a desire to have more knowledge on their responsibilities and infant care. Working mothers found it difficult to work outside their homes and at the same time care for their infants, because of several problems. They preferred joint families for better child care. The majority of women wanted well-maintained creches, an incease in number and duration of breaks for nursing their infants, and the option of part-time work to help them give proper care to the children. The problems with commercial baby food concerned the proportion of water to powder, which most mothers (62.1%) found too high for the infant to digest. Creche facilities near the place of work were available to 27.8% of mothers. Only 20% used them. 72% of mothers who had no creche facilities used relatives, neighbors, or servants. PMID:7228187
Thimmayamma, B V; Vidyavati, M; Belavady, B
Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).
Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…
Tedesco, Juan Carlos
Background The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006–2008, among whom 440 (32.6%) were local residents and 908 (67.4%) were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population) had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population), and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.91–0.94, p<0.001), poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR?=?4.12, 95% CI: 2.65–5.72, p<0.001), and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR?=?0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.26, p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants). Conclusions/Significance A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006–2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT).
Shen, Xin; Xia, Zhen; Li, Xiangqun; Wu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yuan; Guo, Juntao; Chen, Jing; Hong, Jianjun; Yuan, Zheng'an; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Sun, Guomei; Gao, Qian; Mei, Jian
The aim of the study discussed here was to determine the associations among the urban heat island (UHI), air quality, and hospital respiratory admissions in the warm center of an urban area. The authors collected and analyzed the data regarding air quality parameters, meteorological parameters, and the daily hospital respiratory admissions in the Taichung metropolis in the autumns of 2003 and 2004. By collecting the vertical meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations via the tethersonde balloon technique, the authors simulated convergence in Dali using The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) for the atmospheric conditions. The authors also examined the hypotheses with Duncan's Multiple Range test, and analyzed spatial patterns vis-à-vis air temperature, air quality, and hospital respiratory admissions with GIS. The results indicated that the UHI phenomenon-which generates convergence and then transports air pollutants to a metropolitan area-increases hospital respiratory admissions in the warm center of an urban area. PMID:20104832
Lai, Li-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li
Urban areas are increasingly admonished to play a prominent role in achieving sustainability at global scale. They host more than 50% of the population worldwide and emit approx. 70% of all greenhouse gases worldwide. Land use and climate change are only two of the prominent processes forced by urbanization. In particular in the light of climate change and rapid urbanization cities require to increase their food security while reducing CO2 emissions related to food supply, such as due to transportation. Using high resolution data of land-use, agricultural yield and population data, we provide an estimate of the current human carrying capacity of peri-urban areas worldwide, for urban areas with more than 500,000 inhabitants. We discuss the application of a novel algorithm to delineate city boundaries in terms of population and built-up area, which allows to characterize urban growth and its impacts on the peri-urban human carrying capacity in further detail. In addition, this algorithm is used to characterize the spatial organization of urban zones at regional scale. Our results show scale-free pattern, e.g. clusters of urban spots, which may distinguish cities in developed and developing countries. Using this benchmarking helps to measure the degree of sustainability of a city.
Garcia Cantu Ros, A.; Kriewald, S.; Rybski, D.; Kropp, J. P.
This paper describes how slums have come to house such a significant proportion of the urban population in virtually all low-and middle-income nations. It then discusses a combination of large-scale land development for housing and more efficient upgrading programmes (with attention to keeping down unit costs and integrating microfinance to support house improvement), and how these approaches can greatly reduce
Bruce Ferguson; Jesus Navarrete
By fA r the most compelling crowds in London’s late-Victorian streets, squares, and public parks were those that never actually materialized. As the state struggled after midcentury to maintain public order in the open spaces of the metropolis, London’s second generation of so-called slum novelists imagined a disturbing and destructive crowd in their fictional depictions of the urban terrain. Writers,
MATTHEW K. MCKEAN
Elevated summertime temperatures in urban ‘heat islands’ increase cooling-energy use and accelerate the formation of urban smog. Except in the city’s core areas, summer heat islands are created mainly by the lack of vegetation and by the high solar radiation absorptance by urban surfaces. Analysis of temperature trends for the last 100 years in several large U.S. cities indicate that,
H. AKBARI; M. POMERANTZ; H. TAHA
Flooding is a particular hazard in urban areas worldwide due to the increased risks to life and property in these regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors are often used to image flooding because of their all-weather day-night capability, and now possess sufficient resolution to image urban flooding. The flood extents extracted from the images may be used for flood relief management and improved urban flood inundation modelling.
Mason, D. C.; Giustarini, L.; Garcia-Pintado, J.; Cloke, H. L.
There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.
Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher
...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized Area Annual...Amendments to the 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) reporting requirements,...
Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization. PMID:23697253
Ujevi?, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Sasa; Neljak, Boris
The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage du métro et les pompages privés. Le bilan entre la recharge de la nappe et sa décharge est proche de l'équilibre. Cependant, les infiltrations d'eaux usées, les décharges abandonnées, les décharges d'ordures et les puits abandonnés portent atteinte à la qualité de l'eau souterraine et à la capacité de contrôler les flux de contaminants. Resumen. La ciudad de Seúl tiene más de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 605 km2. Se bombea aguas subterráneas para abastecimiento urbano y para usos industriales, así como para el drenaje de instalaciones subterráneas y de solares en construcción. Aunque la mayor parte del agua de boca procede del río Han, los ciudadanos de Seúl están muy concienciados por la cantidad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas, ya que su explotación para uso de boca está experimentando un continuo incremento. El presente estudio identifica los factores que más afectan a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas en el área de Seúl y hace una estimación del balance de agua en el territorio urbano. Entre los factores principales que afectan al balance y a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, se incluye el lixiviado de la red municipal de suministro y de la red de alcantarillado, la infiltración de agua de lluvia, las fluctuaciones del nivel del río Han, el sistema de bombeo del metro y los bombeos domésticos. El balance entre la recarga y la descarga en el acuífero está próximo al equilibrio. Sin embargo, la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y la capacidad de controlar los flujos de contaminación están amenazadas por la infiltración de aguas residuales, vertederos abandonados, depósitos de residuos y pozos abanadonados.
Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the top cause of mortality and morbidity in India. People in slums are generally at a higher risk for CHD than Indians living in more affluent areas mostly because of the higher prevalence of major CHD risk factors such as uncontrolled hypertension and tobacco use amongst them. Knowing their CHD risk perceptions and bringing them into line with the actual CHD risk is a prerequisite for effective CHD risk management. Consequently, there is need to develop tailored interventions focusing medication management and tobacco cessation to reduce growing CHD epidemic among slum dwellers and long-term CHD burden in India.
The components and quantities of atmospheric dust fallout have been reported to be the pollution indicator of large urban areas. The multiplicity and complexity of sources of atmospheric dusts in urban regions (e.g. industrial complexes composed of a variety of industrial processes, automobiles, construction activities etc.) has put forward the need of source apportionment of these sources indicating their contribution
S. Pervez; G. Balakrishna; S. Tiwari
Estimates of rates of Magpie predation on Blackbird nests were made using plasticine eggs added to active clutches. Breeding densities of Blackbirds were lower than those recorded at other urban sites while Magpie densities were higher than those previously recorded in urban areas. Fewer than 5% of Blackbird nests produced flegded young. Predation caused most of the failures where a
D. W. Groom
To reduce the environmental burden of urban road traffic, researchers and policy-makers have focused on reducing car use in urban areas, and improving public transport. Current expectations with respect to electric cars are high, not only for environmental reasons, but also because of the expected depletion of fossil fuels. Using a conceptual model for environmental burden caused by cars and
Bert van Wee; Kees Maat; Cees De Bont
The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.
Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji
This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...
Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate the causes of these underlying differences. ?? North American Benthological Society.
Brown, L. R.; Cuffney, T. F.; Coles, J. F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A. H.; May, J. T.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.
Lopes, T. J.; Bender, D. A.
The purpose of the School Trip Safety and Urban Play Areas research project was to develop guidelines for the protection of young pedestrians (5 to 14 yrs.) walking to and from school. The play street is a street temporarily closed to traffic while a vari...
M. L. Reiss A. E. Shinder
In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…
Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda
Particulate Matter (PM10) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%).
Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh
Particulate Matter (PM(10)) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA-APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM(10) contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM(10) at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%). PMID:22645437
Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh
Background In 2008, children playing on a soccer field in Colorado were sickened with a strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild Rocky Mountain elk. We addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of STEC infections in humans and whether STEC was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in Colorado. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 483 fecal samples from Rocky Mountain elk and mule deer in urban and non-urban areas. Samples testing positive for STEC were higher in urban (11.0%) than non-urban (1.6%) areas. Elk fecal samples in urban areas had a much higher probability of containing STEC, which increased in both urban and non-urban areas as maximum daily temperature increased. Of the STEC-positive samples, 25% contained stx1 strains, 34.3% contained stx2, and 13% contained both stx1 and stx2. Additionally, eaeA genes were detected in 54.1% of the positive samples. Serotypes O103, and O146 were found in elk and deer feces, which also have the potential to cause human illness. Conclusions/Significance The high incidence of stx2 strains combined with eaeA and E-hyl genes that we found in wild cervid feces is associated with severe human disease, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This is of concern because there is a very close physical interface between elk and humans in urban areas that we sampled. In addition, we found a strong relationship between ambient temperature and incidence of STEC in elk feces, suggesting a higher incidence of STEC in elk feces in public areas on warmer days, which in turn may increase the likelihood that people will come in contact with infected feces. These concerns also have implications to other urban areas where high densities of coexisting wild cervids and humans interact on a regular basis.
Franklin, Alan B.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Maguire, Hugh; Cichon, Mary K.; Fischer, Justin W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Powell, Amber; Root, J. Jeffrey; Scallan, Elaine
Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an urban core and a surrounding suburban landscape. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present preliminary data from a dense network of temperature sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the TCMA UHI with an emphasis on the contribution of different land use types on the UHI and the influence of wintertime temperature advection on less urbanized areas to the southeast of the TCMA. Finally, we offer evidence of the impact that the TCMA heat island has on energy consumption, human health, and the environment, and propose mitigation strategies that should be considered.
Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.
This paper reports findings from a study on slum improvement projects to show the difference that environmental assessment (EA) can make in such interventions and to suggest mechanisms for its integration into such projects. The findings are based on a field survey that was carried out in two slums of Dhaka where infrastructure projects were implemented. In one slum, the
Farhat Jahan. Chowdhury; A. T. M. Nurul. Amin
23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...
This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...
Understanding the relative magnitudes of recurrent vs. non-recurrent congestion in an urban area is critical to the selection of proper countermeasures and the appropriate allocation of resources to address congestion problems. Small to medium sized citie...
A. J. Sullivan B. R. Kallem V. P. Sisiopiku
This guidebook provides guidelines and tools to help providers of transit in rural and small urban areas make employee compensation decisions. These decisions are critical to the economic health of your organization and can provide the key to good custome...
The project is a conventional urban renewal program proposing to clear and redevelop 141.7 acres of blighted predominantly residential land, close to and southeast of the Central Downtown Business District of Charlotte, North Carolina. The project area wi...
23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...
Like many other urbanizing river basins, the Utah Lake drainage area is faced with serious water quality degradation associated with expanding water use. While the region is not water-short, the downstream water users are encountering water deficiencies. ...
W. R. Walker T. L. Huntzinger G. V. Skogerboe
This report details the development of representative sets of radioactive material shipments into, out of, and through a number of densely populated urban areas. These data represent a large portion of the information required for the assessment of the ri...
S. F. Herreid N. C. Finley L. T. Ritchie
This HUD study discusses the extent of subsidence (land sinking) problems affecting various urban areas, risks from different kinds of subsidence, and their effects on and damage to communities. Three types of subsidence discussed in detail are subsidence...
The study sought to: (1) ascertain the attitudes of educators, students, and parents in slum, suburban, and cross-sectional areas, toward blue-collar occupations and vocational education, (2) identify significant differences between attitudes of groups with union and non-union backgrounds, and (3) identify any existing relationship between general…
Gilliland, Hugh Ronald
Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development\\u000a and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming\\u000a (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use\\u000a suitability assessment and
Yong Liu; Xiaosheng Qin; Huaicheng Guo; Feng Zhou; Jinfeng Wang; Xiaojian Lv; Guozhu Mao
A simulation tool has been developed to model the wind fields, turbulence fields, and the dispersion of Chemical, Biological,\\u000a Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) substances in urban areas on the building to city blocks scale. A Computational Fluid Dynamics\\u000a (CFD) approach has been taken that naturally accounts for critical flow and dispersion processes in urban areas, such as channeling,\\u000a lofting, vertical
W. J. Coirier; D. M. Fricker; M. Furmanczyk; S. Kim
In order to estimate the impacts of buildings on air pollution dispersion, numerical simulations are performed over an idealized\\u000a urban area, modelled as regular rows of large rectangular obstacles. The simulations are evaluated with the results of the\\u000a Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST), which is a near full-scale experiment conducted in Utah’s West Desert area: it consists of\\u000a releases of
Maya Milliez; Bertrand Carissimo
At present, the majority of the world's population is living in urban areas. Cities undergo constant development in their morphology. The latter is always a turned-into-stone representation of the coetaneous social, economical and technical values. The technical developments in recent years of very high-resolution spaceborne earth observation methods enable mapping of large urban areas with a decent level of detail.
Michael Wurm; Hannes Taubenbock; Mathias Schardt; Thomas Esch; Stefan Dech
This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...
This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...
Rainfall brings urban residents both benefits, such as water resources, but also adverse risks such as flooding. Additionally, it has been recognized that wet weather run-off discharges pollutantsand transfers chemicals and pathogen bacteria into the aquatic ecosystem. This causes not only deterioration of water quality but also environmental pollution risk. Both the flood risk and environmental pollution risk are treated
Akira Sakai; Yoshimi Hagihara; Kazuhiro Asada; Zhang Shengping
Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been
Masatoshi Tanaka; Shogo Tokudome
Over the past 20 years, numerous peer reviewed studies have used thermal remote sensing to map urban heat islands. This study examines assumptions made in previous research through comparisons of in situ air temperatures and remotely sensed estimates of surface temperatures. Landsat thermal data collected from 4 heat event days over the summers of2007-2008 are correlated with air temperatures from
The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of 'disarticulated urbanization' within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877
Guedes, Gilvan; Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo
The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region.
Costa, Sandra; Brondizio, Eduardo
Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.
Black, Adam Leland
Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters. PMID:21360877
Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing
The identification of urban area is a basic study on urban economic, social development and urbanization process. Population density is a widely used indicator for urbanized area analysis in most countries such as the United States and Japan, while some countries such like the UK, employ the land use types as a significant difference to distinguish urban and rural areas.
Jian Lin; Feimei Huang; Shuhai Zhang; Jianqun Chu
This paper describes how the NGO Shelter Associates and an organization of women and men slum dwellers worked together to collect information on each household in slum settlements in Pune and Sangli and to map this, along with infrastructure and service provision and each slum’s position within the city. This permitted data on slums to be superimposed on these cities’
Pratima Joshi; Srinanda Sen; Jane Hobson
The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a
K. M. Thiessen; K. G. Andersson; B. Batandjieva; J.-J. Cheng; W. T. Hwang; J. C. Kaiser; S. Kamboj; M. Steiner; J. Tomás; D. Trifunovic; C. Yu
Objective The problem of RTI/STI is of growing concern worldwide, especially in developing countries; where each year 340 million new cases curable STI occur. Out of these 151 million are in South and Southeast Asia (WHO, 2001). The present paper attempts to capture the prevalence of leukorrhea, its knowledge and perceptions among currently married women of the age-group, 15-49 years, in a south Asian urban-slum dwelling community. Materials and methods A total of 400 households were selected from an urban-slum of Delhi and 391 were interviewed in a house to house survey. Results The results showed that the awareness about leukorrhea was almost universal (97 percent), and around 33 percent reported to have experienced the same either at the time of survey or prior to 3 months of the survey date. The perceptions about leukorrhea were varied. Conclusion The study reports a high prevalence of leukorrhea among the slum dwelling women, and it also reports that there was not a marked difference in the perception and knowledge when it comes to respondent's education, occupational status, and husbands’ education.
Tokyo metropolitan area is one of the largest urban areas all over the world. This study investigates the change in urban heat island intensity of Tokyo metropolitan area in winter season by the effects of global climate change. We performed present and future climate simulations are conducted using a regional climate model (WRF) including an urban canopy sub-model (Kusaka et al., 2001). Future climate simulation was conducted using Pseudo-Global-Warming (PGW) method (Kimura and Kitoh, 2008) assuming the boundary conditions estimated by CMIP3 GCMs under the SRES scenarios. The PGW method is one of the useful methods for future downscaling and adopted for some studies on urban heat island (Kusaka et al., 2012) and winter climate (Hara et al., 2008) over Japan. The simulation results indicated that UHII would be enhanced during night, due to the global climate change.
Hara, M.; Adachi, S. A.; Kusaka, H.; Kimura, F.
This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment. PMID:19192928
Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R
Since a few years, positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol mass spectra have become crucial to derive quantitative information on organic aerosol sources or components. This technique was used in several urban data sets and has shown that the contribution of cooking can be a significant source in London, Peking, Zurich, and Toronto. Recently we performed measurements in Barcelona and in Paris where the cooking factor could be clearly identified. Especially in the center of Paris we found very high contributions, averaging to more than 35% of organic mass during cooking time periods leading to very prominent diurnal patterns. The discussion of these recent ambient results will be put in context of on-going cooking emission and aging experiments. Potentially, cooking might explain a considerable fraction of the very non-fossil nature of urban organic carbon in particulate matter.
Prevot, A. S.; El Haddad, I.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Platt, S.; Poulain, L.; Slowik, J.; Baltensperger, U.
Wuchereria bancrofti and the other mosquito-borne parasites that cause human lymphatic filariasis (LF) infect over 120 million people world-wide. Global efforts are underway to stop transmission of the parasites, using annual, single-dose mass drug administrations (MDA) to all at-risk populations. Although most MDA to date have been in rural settings, they are also recommended in urban areas of transmission. It remains unclear whether there is significant urban transmission in West Africa, however, and the need for urban MDA in this region therefore remains a matter of debate.Clinic-based surveillance, for the clinical manifestations of LF, has now been used to identify areas of urban transmission of W. bancrofti in Jos, the major urban population centre of Plateau state, Nigeria. The eight clinics investigated were all located in slum areas, close to vector breeding sites, and were therefore considered to serve at-risk populations. Over a 1-month period, selected providers in these clinics sought hydrocele, lymphoedema, elephantiasis, or acute adenolymphangitis among the patients seeking treatment. The consenting patients who were suspected clinical cases of LF, and a cohort of patients suspected to be cases of onchocerciasis, were tested for W. bancrofti antigenaemia. All the patients were asked a series of questions in an attempt to determine if those found antigenaemic could only have been infected in an urban area. During the study, 30 suspected clinical cases of LF were detected and 18 of these (including two patients who were found to be antigenaemic) lived in urban areas. Of the 98 patients with exclusively urban exposure who were tested for filarial antigenaemia, six (6.1%) were found antigenaemic. Clinic-based surveillance appears to be a useful tool for determining if there is W. bancrofti transmission in an urban setting. PMID:16492364
Terranella, A; Eigiege, A; Gontor, I; Dagwa, P; Damishi, S; Miri, E; Blackburn, B; McFarland, D; Zingeser, J; Jinadu, M Y; Richards, F O
?Pest? control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...
In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.
Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri
Plume dispersion of hazardous materials within urban area resulting from accidental or intentional releases is of great concern to public health. Many researchers have developed local-scale atmospheric dispersion models using building-resolving computational fluid dynamics. However, an important issue is encountered when determining a reasonable domain size of the computational model in order to capture concentration distribution patterns influenced by urban surface geometries. In this study, we carried out Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of plume dispersion within various urban areas with a wide range of obstacle density and building height variability. The difference of centerline mean and r.m.s. concentration distributions among various complex urban surface geometries becomes small for downwind distances from the point source greater than 1.0 km. From these results, it can be concluded that a length of a computational model should be at least 1.0 km from a point source.
Nakayama, H.; Jurcakova, K.; Nagai, H.
The underlying factors affecting the detection and identification of nonurban to urban land cover change using satellite data were studied. Computer programs were developed to create a digital scene and to simulate the effect of the sensor point spread function (PSF) on the transfer of modulation from the scene to an image of the scene. The theory behind the development of a digital filter representing the PSF is given as well as an example of its application. Atmospheric effects on modulation transfer are also discussed. A user's guide and program listings are given.
Maxwell, E. L. (principal investigator); Riordan, C. J.
As international trade increases so does the prominence of urban areas as gateways for exotic forest insects (EFI). Delimiting hot spots for invasions (i.e., areas where establishment is likely) within urban areas would facilitate monitoring efforts. We used a propagule-pressure framework to delimit establishment hot spots of a hypothetical generalist EFI in six U.S. urban areas: Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los
Manuel Colunga-Garcia; Robert A. Haack; Roger A. Magarey; Margaret L. Margosian
With the launch of the German TerraSAR-X system in June 2007, a new generation of high-resolution spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is available, which should facilitate the interpretation of urban environments. Our overall objective in this letter is to provide a semiautomatic tool for urban area interpretation using SAR data. We propose in this letter to fuse different automatic
Houda Chaabouni-Chouayakh; Mihai Datcu
Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0)×(1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1)×(0,1,1)24 has been developed for
C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; S. Cañete; J. Carretero; E. Liger
A data set derived from the United States Historical Climate Network has been compared to two global land-based temperature data sets that have been commonly cited in connection with the detection of the greenhouse effect and in other studies of climate change. Results indicate that in the United States the two global land-based temperature data sets have an urban bias between +6.1°C and +0.4°C over the twentieth century (1901-84). This bias is as large or larger than the overall temperature trend in the United States during this time period, +0.16°C/84 yr. Temperature trends indicate an increasing temperature from the turn of the century to the 1930s but a decrease thereafter. By comparison, the global temperature trends during the same period are between +0.4°C/84 yr and +0.6°C/84 yr. At this time, we can only speculate on the magnitude of the urban bias in the global land-based data sets for other parts of the globe, but the magnitude of the bias in the United States compared to the overall temperature trend underscores the need for a thorough global study.
Karl, Thomas R.; Jones, Philip D.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether incident cases of pertussis cluster in urban census tracts and identified community characteristics that predict high-incidence areas. METHODS: An ecological study design was used. The study population included all persons diagnosed with pertussis from January 1, 1986, through December 31, 1994. Maps of rates were constructed via a geographic information system and clustering was statistically confirmed. Associations between pertussis rates and community characteristics were tested. RESULTS: Mapping and statistical analysis revealed spatial clustering of pertussis. Higher age-adjusted rates of pertussis infection were associated with higher proportions of residents below poverty level. CONCLUSIONS: In urban areas pertussis infection clusters in areas of poverty.
Siegel, C; Davidson, A; Kafadar, K; Norris, J M; Todd, J; Steiner, J
TO IDENTIFY THE EXPRESSED MOTIVES AND PERCEPTIONS WHICH DIFFERENTIATE TEACHERS WHO REMAIN FROM TEACHERS WHO LEAVE SLUM SCHOOLS, 62 WOMEN--42 "STAYERS" AND 20 "LEAVERS" WERE INTERVIEWED. RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE MAIN REASON YOU HAVE REMAINED IN THIS SCHOOL AND (2) WHAT IS THE MOST SATISFYING THING ABOUT THIS…
WAYSON, WILLIAM W.
Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high resolution TerraSAR-X data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. An important application for this would be the calibration and validation of the flood extent predicted by an urban flood inundation model. To date, research on such models has been hampered by lack of suitable distributed validation data. The study uses a 3m resolution TerraSAR-X image of a 1-in-150 year flood near Tewkesbury, UK, in 2007, for which contemporaneous aerial photography exists for validation. The DLR SETES SAR simulator was used in conjunction with airborne LiDAR data to estimate regions of the TerraSAR-X image in which water would not be visible due to radar shadow or layover caused by buildings and taller vegetation, and these regions were masked out in the flood detection process. A semi-automatic algorithm for the detection of floodwater was developed, based on a hybrid approach. Flooding in rural areas adjacent to the urban areas was detected using an active contour model (snake) region-growing algorithm seeded using the un-flooded river channel network, which was applied to the TerraSAR-X image fused with the LiDAR DTM to ensure the smooth variation of heights along the reach. A simpler region-growing approach was used in the urban areas, which was initialized using knowledge of the flood waterline in the rural areas. Seed pixels having low backscatter were identified in the urban areas using supervised classification based on training areas for water taken from the rural flood, and non-water taken from the higher urban areas. Seed pixels were required to have heights less than a spatially-varying height threshold determined from nearby rural waterline heights. Seed pixels were clustered into urban flood regions based on their close proximity, rather than requiring that all pixels in the region should have low backscatter. This approach was taken because it appeared that urban water backscatter values were corrupted in some pixels, perhaps due to contributions from side-lobes of strong reflectors nearby. The TerraSAR-X urban flood extent was validated using the flood extent visible in the aerial photos. It turned out that 76% of the urban water pixels visible to TerraSAR-X were correctly detected, with an associated false positive rate of 25%. If all urban water pixels were considered, including those in shadow and layover regions, these figures fell to 58% and 19% respectively. These findings indicate that TerraSAR-X is capable of providing useful data for the calibration and validation of urban flood inundation models.
Mason, D.; Speck, R.; Devereux, B.; Schumann, G.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.
In this study, an urban roughness mapping method is presented on the example of a large study area in Szeged, Hungary, as an example. With this roughness mapping procedure, the potential ventilation paths of the city can be located. Our calculations of the roughness parameters are based on a 3D building database; however, this new approach using the lot area
T. Gál; J. Unger
The possibility of obtaining integral comparative data for particulate distribution in urban areas from PIXE analysis of tree leaves is discussed in relation to the leaf gross anatomy, to the diffusion of selected tree species in such areas and to the imp...
A. Zucchiati H. J. Annegarm R. Chisci
Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)
Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.
The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.
Gallagher, D. B. (principal investigator)
This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.
Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.
This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.
Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.
In this study, we present the results achieved within the Dragon project, a cooperation program between the Eu- ropean Space Agency (ESA) and the National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC), about monitoring subsidences and landslides in urban areas, analyzing cities growth and measuring the deformation of big man-made structures. Among the pro- cessed areas, we report here the main
Daniele Perissin; Teng Wang
Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,
Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,
The most relevant seismic vulnerability and risk analysis methods are discussed and compared in this article using, as a pilot urban area, the city of Barcelona, Spain, where risk studies have been carried out over the last 15 years in the framework of different research projects. Most of the buildings in Barcelona, which have unreinforced masonry structure or reinforced concrete
Alex H. Barbat; Martha L. Carreño; Lluis G. Pujades; Nieves Lantada; Omar D. Cardona; Mabel C. Marulanda
Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban environments is designated as a priority area within current research. Biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both methodologies able to provide information about the spatial variation of particulate pollutant levels within urban environments. This study evaluates both methods by comparing results of a biomagnetic monitoring campaign at 110 locations throughout Antwerp, Belgium, with modelled pollutant concentrations of PM10 and NO2. Due to the relation of biomagnetic monitoring with railway traffic, analyses were conducted for both all locations (n = 110) and railway traffic excluded locations (n = 67). While the general spatial variation, land use comparison and the relation with traffic intensity were comparable between the two applied methodologies, an overall bad agreement is obtained when the methodologies are correlated to each other. While no correlation was found between SIRM and PM10 results (p = 0.75 for n = 110 and p = 0.68 for n = 67), a significant but low (r ? 0.33) correlation was found between SIRM and NO2 (p < 0.01 for n = 110 and p = 0.04 for n = 67). While biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both able to provide high spatial resolution information about urban pollutant levels, we need to take into account some considerations. While uncertainty in the biomagnetic monitoring approach might arise from the processes that determine leaf particulate deposition and the incorporation of multiple emission sources with diverging magnetic composition, air quality modelling remains an approximation of reality which implies its dependency on accurate emission factors, implication of atmospheric processes and representation of the urban morphology. Therefore, continuous evaluation of model performance against measured data is essential to produce reliable model results. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that in addition to telemetric monitoring networks, the combination of both air quality modelling and biomagnetic monitoring is a valuable approach to provide insights into the variation of atmospheric pollutants in heterogeneous urban environments.
Hofman, Jelle; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nackaerts, Ruben; Nuyts, Siegmund; Mattheyses, Lars; Samson, Roeland
Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research.
The degradation and loss of the regional wetland of urbanization is a more and more concerned question in the whole world. This paper takes Nanjing as an example, adopting five Nanjing area Landsat MSS and TM data: 1979, 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, combining historical data, land use and field observation, adopting decision tree method to extract Nanjing wetland. We analyze time and space changed characteristic of Nanjing wetland. The result shows: in 1979-2004, the wetlands of Nanjing changed obviously on the time and space. The total amount drops to 363.66 km2 from 397.91 km2, reduce 34.25km2 together. The delta wetland has little change, but it is the largest in proportion of all kinds of Nanjing wetland by 2004. The river wetland in the rural is the greatest one that has changed in every wetland type. In suburban areas, lake and river wetland change frequently because of urban spawl. The wetland area of lake has little change in the urban, but more suburban wetland transferred to urban wetland so the amount of increase in 2000-2004 are greater than 1979-2000. Every stage, there are some Nanjing wetland (except the delta) to transfer to urban construction land and so loss. In the space change characteristic, the rural wetland is continuously substituted by the suburban and urban wetland. It is usually the main area where wetlands are interfered with around new urban area and communication lines. The wetlands are usually interfered by noise, rubbish, and pollution. We should include the development of population and traffic system in the wetland change predicting in future planning. So can we meet wetland management's demands more effectively.
Zhou, Lianyi; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Mo; Wang, Shen; Liu, Xin
A parsimonious conceptual lumped model is presented here with the aim of simulating hourly discharge in urban areas. The EHSMu (EcoHydrological Streamflow Model for urban areas) is able to reproduce the discharge at the outlet of an urban drainage system and, at the same time, soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspirative fluxes over vegetated areas within an urban catchment. In urban areas, rain falling over impervious surfaces is directly transferred towards the drainage system in a time depending on the catchment characteristics, and drainage network geometry. If the rain falls over pervious and vegetated areas the runoff generation is driven by soil moisture content, which in turn is linked to evapotranspiration and leakage. While on one side soil water content determines if rainfall produces saturation excess or a leakage loss, on the other side it constrains the evapotranspirative fluxes, so that, when it approaches to saturation, the actual evapotranspiration tends to the potential one. The hydrological scheme of the urban catchment follows these premises and consists of three interconnected elements: a soil bucket and two linear reservoirs. The soil bucket epitomizes in two distinct classes different conditions within a catchment: the first interprets impervious areas while the second describes pervious and vegetated soils. The soil bucket is linked to the two linear reservoirs: one is responsible for the runoff within the drainage system, while the other is used to delay the entry of subsurface runoff component into the drainage system. The surface reservoir is fed by the rain falling on imperviuos areas, by the saturation excess generated over pervious areas and by the delayed contribution arising from the subsurface reservoir, which is solely supplied by leakage pulses. Soil moisture dynamics in the pervious part of the basin, are simulated by a simple bucket model feed by rainfall and depleted by evapotranspiration. The latter component is calculated as a linear function of soil moisture. The model has been calibrated using Montecarlo simulations on an urban catchment in the United States. This method allows to adapt the conceptual model framework to the catchment characteristics and at the same time to obtain the set of parameters with the higher efficiency in reproducing historical discharge at the outlet. The proposed model gives reliable estimate of runoff, soil moisture traces and evapotranspiration fluxes. Model outputs could be very useful for urban ecohydrology, because they allow for the simulation of vegetation water stress and consequently the design of sustainable urban green spaces. At the same time the model structure allows to simulate the effects of stormwater management best practices for achieving the hydraulic invariance.
Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.; Pumo, Dario; La Loggia, Goffredo
In the study, urban-suburban/rural vapour pressure and relative humidity differences at fixed hours in the Belgrade area were analysed and compared. The data from one urban, two suburban and one rural stations (0700, 1400 and 2100 hours LTC), for the period 1976-1980 were used. It has been found, on the basis of the vapour pressure differences that the atmosphere in urban areas is more humid than that in the suburban and rural areas at 0700 and 2100 hours, in the period from September to February, while from February to September the urban atmosphere is drier. At 1400 hours, urban atmosphere is drier throughout the year. However, relative humidity differences indicate that urban air is less humid than the air in suburban and rural areas throughout the year. Relationships between urban-suburban/rural vapour pressure differences and heat island intensity revealed that the local effects could be significant.
Unkaševi?, M.; Jovanovi?, O.; Popovi?, T.
In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990–2000 and 2000–2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these “double-declining” cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number “automatically” solve the global problem of land consumption.
Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret
A prediction model of signal degradation in a Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) for urban areas is proposed. This model treats shadowing effects caused by buildings statistically and can predict a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of signal diffraction losses in urban areas as a function of system parameters such as frequency and elevation angle and environmental parameters such as number of building stories and so on. In order to examine the validity of the model, we compared the percentage of locations where diffraction losses were smaller than 6 dB obtained by the CDF with satellite visibility measured by a radiometer. As a result, it was found that this proposed model is useful for estimating the feasibility of providing LMSS in urban areas.
Matsudo, Takashi; Minamisono, Kenichi; Karasawa, Yoshio; Shiokawa, Takayasu
The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.
Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.
Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256
Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu
Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor PAH air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. PAH extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for PAH air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf PAH concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in PAH contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total PAHs were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The medium molecular weight PAHs showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites. PMID:16182861
De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons for an unusual over-development of flood-prone areas outside the river dyke in Hanoi, while analysing the urban development and disaster management policies, and to suggest policy measures for regulating the rapid urbanization incorporating catastrophic flood risk planning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Urban development and disaster management policies were analyzed and
Hoang Vinh Hung; Rajib Shaw; Masami Kobayashi
Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. In response to general concerns about the degradation of urban streams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national-scale, scientific investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems. Nine metropolitan study areas of the United States were selected—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The studies were conducted in Salt Lake City, Birmingham, and Boston in 1999–2000; in Atlanta, Raleigh, and Denver in 2002–2003; and in Portland, Dallas, and Milwaukee in 2003–2004. The comprehensive investigation of all nine studies focused on three broad questions of interest to decision makers: 1. What are the primary effects of urban development on stream ecosystems? 2. How do the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems vary regionally across the country? 3. Which urban-related stressors are most closely linked to biological community degradation, and how can multiple stressors be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized?
Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.
The city of Salamanca (200000 inhabitants) is located in the mid-western area of Spain. Its growth in recent years has led to the need for a comprehensive knowledge of the geology and geotechnical properties of the area. The best way to achieve this objective is to develop an engineering geological map, where different factors such as geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and
NESPEREIRA JATO; YENES ORTEGA
Long-range planning is paying off for Cities Service Oil Co. in its Prue Sand waterflood in the SE. sector of Oklahoma City. Not too far from downtown, the flood covers 518 acres in an area comprised of light industrial and residential tracts. The flooded area lies on both sides of 2 interstate highways, encompasses land with potential value for warehousing
A simple but physically realistic model is shown to be adequate for estimating long-term average pollutant concentrations due to area sources in cities. In this model, the surface concentration is directly proportional to the local area source strength and inversely proportional to the wind speed. The model performs nearly as well as much more…
Hanna, Steven R.
Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.
Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.
In recent years, there have been few reports in the literature of interventions using a lay health advisor approach in an urban area. Consequently, little is known about how implementation of this type of community health worker model, which has been used extensively in rural areas, may differ in an urban area. This article describes the implementation of the East
Edith A. Parker; Amy J. Schulz; Barbara A. Israel; Rose Hollis
The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden.
Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.
The infrastructure (roads, sidewalk, commercial and residential structures) added during the land development and urbanisation process is designed to collect precipitation and convey it out of the watershed, typically in existing surface water channels, such as streams and rivers. The quality of surface water, seepage water and ground water is influenced by pollutants that collect on impervious surfaces and that are carried by urban storm water runoff. Heavy metals, e.g. lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) and readily soluble salts in runoff, contribute to the degradation of water. An intensive literature search on the distribution and concentration of the surface-dependent runoff water has been compiled. Concentration variations of several pollutants derived from different surfaces have been averaged. More than 300 references providing about 1300 data for different pollutants culminate in a representative concentration matrix consisting of medians and extreme values. This matrix can be applied to long-term valuations and numerical modelling of storm water treatment facilities.
Göbel, P.; Dierkes, C.; Coldewey, W. G.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces. PMID:17628910
Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R
This study investigates the effects of roof emissivity variation of aerial thermogram images. Thermograms have been used to detect heat loss from residential roofs. Emissivity variation among rooftops, however, can lead to a misrepresentation of the temperatures mapped in a thermogram image. The objectives of this study were (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of a technique to use remotely sensed data to calculate surface emissivities, and (2) to use that technique to determine the extent of emissivity variation in urban surfaces. In the first part of the experimental approach a passive technique is developed to calculate emissivity from two-band thermal infrared radiance data. In the second part of the experimental approach the technique was used to measure the emissivity of 1411 roofs within the city limits of Terre Haute, Indiana. Results of this survey indicated that over 98% of the roofs surveyed were confined to a very narrow range of emissivities. It is concluded that the observed variation in rooftop emissivities has a minimal effect on the temperatures depicted in thermograms.
Artis, D.A.; Carnahan, W.H.
The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.
Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.
...Geographic Standards and Criteria Branch, Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau, via...incorporated place. CDPs are the statistical geography counterparts of incorporated places...mountainous areas resulting from census geography primarily being defined along...
Eutrophication is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and, as a result, the ecological integrity of surface waters becomes compromised, fish populations become extinct, toxic cyanobacteria blooms are abundant, and oxygen levels reduce. In this review we establish the relationship between eutrophication of fresh inland surface waters in SSA and the release of nutrients in their mega-cities. Monitoring reports indicate that the population of mega-cities in SSA is rapidly increasing, and so is the total amount of wastewater produced. Of the total amounts produced, at present, less than 30% is treated in sewage treatment plants, while the remainder is disposed of via onsite sanitation systems, eventually discharging their wastewater into groundwater. When related to the urban water balance of a number of SSA cities, the total amount of wastewater produced may be as high as 10-50% of the total precipitation entering these urban areas, which is considerable, especially since in most cases, precipitation is the most important, if not only the 'wastewater diluting agent' present. The most important knowledge gaps include: (1) the fate and transport mechanisms of nutrients (N and P) in soils and aquifers, or, conversely, the soil aquifer treatment characteristics of the regoliths, which cover a large part of SSA, (2) the effect of the episodic and largely uncontrolled removal of nutrients stored at urban surfaces by runoff from precipitation on nutrient budgets in adjacent lakes and rivers draining the urban areas, and (3) the hydrology and hydrogeology within the urban area, including surface water and groundwater flow patterns, transport velocities, dynamics of nutrient transport, and the presence of recharge and discharge areas. In order to make a start with managing this urban population-related eutrophication, many actions are required. As a first step, we suggest to start systematically researching the key areas identified above. PMID:19889445
Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Uhlenbrook, S; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A
Background: The United Nations has predicted that the population of slum dwellers will have grown from one billion people worldwide to 2 billion by 2030. This trend is also predictable in Iran. In the Iranian metropolis of Shiraz, more than 10% of the residents live in slum areas. There are several problems regarding the delivery of social services in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate slums dwellers’ access to and coverage of health care. Methods: This cross-sectional face-to-face study included 380 household of slum dwellers via stratified random sampling. Demographics, accessibility of health services, coverage of health care, and route of receiving health services were recorded through interviews. Results: Approximately, 21.6% of the households had no physical access to health centers. The coverage rate of family planning programs for safe methods was 51.4% (95% CI: 48.86-53.9%). Vaccination coverage among children under 5 years old was 98% (95% CI: 97-99%). Furthermore, 34% of pregnant women had not received standard health care due to a lack of access to health centers. Conclusion: Limited access to health services along with inadequate knowledge of slum residents about health care facilities was the main barrier to the utilization of the health care in the slums.
Joulaei, Hassan; Bhuiyan, Azad R; Sayadi, Mehrab; Morady, Fariba; Afsar Kazerooni, Parvin
The automated classification of urban areas in one of the main topic in the Geomatics domain. Several papers dealing with this topic have been already presented in the last decade. Most of these approaches uses multi-spectral or LiDAR data or both of them as input. In this paper, an algorithm for urban areas classification based only on overlapping RGB images is presented. The integration of radiometric and geometric information derived from aerial images is exploited in order to extract the three main classes of urban areas (i.e. building, vegetation and road) in automated way and without prior information. A photogrammetric Digital Surface Model (DSM) is firstly generated applying dense image matching techniques and this information as well as some spatial features provided by morphological filters are combined to derive a first classification. Subsequently, a thematic classification of the surveyed areas is performed considering the surface's reflectance in the visible spectrum of the used images and the multi-image information provided by the overlapping images. Range and image information are so merged in an algorithm that allows the reciprocal and iterative sharing of information in order to increase the reliability and completeness of the classification process. After a detailed description of the algorithm, the achieved results over dense urban areas are shown and discussed.
Nex, F.; Dalla Mura, M.; Remondino, F.
Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. PMID:17380412
Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim
Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0) x (1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1) x (0,1,1)24 has been developed for the rural area. In both sampling points, predictions of hourly ozone concentrations agree reasonably well with measured values. However, the prediction of hourly ozone concentrations in the rural point appears to be better than that of the urban point. The performance of ARIMA models suggests that this kind of modelling can be suitable for ozone concentrations forecasting. PMID:15975626
Dueñas, C; Fernández, M C; Cañete, S; Carretero, J; Liger, E
The urban heat island (UHI) is a worldwide phenomenon that causes an increase of the temperatures in the centre of the cities. The process of urbanization has developed an intense urban heat island in Madrid, with temperature differences up to 10°C higher than the surrounding rural environment. Such differences may potentially increase the magnitude and duration of heat waves within cities, exacerbating their most negative effects over human health, particularly by night, as it deprives urban residents of the cool relief found in rural areas. In this contribution we study the long term trends on warm extreme temperature episodes in the Madrid metropolitan area, and their impact at local scale, on the onw city of Madrid. For the first task, we have compared maximum and minimum temperatures from rural (Barajas and Torrejón) and urban (El Retiro, Cuatro Vientos, Getafe) stations from 1961-2008; for the second one a local network of automated meteorological stations inside the city provided hourly data from the 2002-2004 years. Finally, the 2003 heat wave is used as an example of the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and ozone concentrations during those extreme episodes. Our results show a regional increase in the frequency and duration of those extreme warm episodes since the end of the 80´s, although their absolute magnitude remains unchanged. The urban environment exacerbates the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures during the night-time hours, as it is shown by the above average number of tropical nights (> 20°C) inside the urban spaces, simultaneous to the increasing trend of maximum temperatures. Besides, the diversity of urban morphologies introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas. The regional meteorological conditions associated to these warm episodes, characterized also by low wind speed and high values of sunshine and solar irradiation, are very favourable to increases of the levels of ozone, thus exacerbating the negative effects of the heat waves.
Fernandez, F.; Rasilla, D.
The development and dispersal of area-wide traffic jams is a matter of considerable social concern. Work at Middlesex University, supported by EPSRC, has enabled the construction of a simulation model with greater geographical scope than most conventional congestion simulation models. Our simulation concentrates on a holistic view of traffic jam formation in a setting of isotropic flow.In the model, traffic
Penina Roberg; Christopher R. Abbess
Distribuicao DOS Espacos Verdes Em Areas Urbanas: Cartografia E Analise Comparative Entre Dados TM/LANDSAT E HRV/SPOT (Distribution of Green Areas in Urban Areas: Cartography and Comparative Analysis of LANDSAT TM and HRV/SPOT Data).
The intense urbanization process that took place during the last decades in Brazil has strongly reduced the vegetation component, thus affecting the quality of life in these urban areas. Currently, the qualitative and quantitative mapping of vegetation wi...
A. L. R. Carrara C. Foresti J. R. Dossantos
This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1978 water year for drainage basins in the Houston, Tex., metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Rainfall-runoff computations are presented for three storm periods during the 1978 water year. (USGS)
Hutchison, J. S.; Weigel, J. F.
Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. PMID:24629411
Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H
Monthly water quality monitoring of streams was begun by Michigan Department of Natural Resources in 1973 to: (1) determine temporal and spatial variability, (2) detect long-term trends, and (3) describe changes in water quality near urban areas. A statistical analysis and summary of data collected from 1973 through 1984 is presented. Concentrations and discharges of nine commonly measured water quality
The study, based on a community health survey of populations in five low-income urban areas, examines the use of selected preventive services of preschool children. It is postulated that there are social differences in access to varying health care facili...
L. C. Gray T. T. H. Wan
To simulate toxic gas dispersion over urban area with consideration of the influence of wind, buildings and other obstacles within the dispersion site, an integrated strategy incorporating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and GIS technologies is investigated. CFD is able to couple wind field with pollutant dispersion process and provide realistic simulation for geometrically complex scenarios, however, inadequate of geometry construction
Maohui Zheng; Simin Jiang; Xiaoqiu Ai; Yuerong Guo
Unusual air pollution episodes, such as when smoke from wildfires covers a large urban area, can be used to attempt to detect associations between short-term increases in particulate matter (PM) concentrations and subsequent mortality without relying on the sophisticated statistical models that are typically required in the absence of such episodes.The objective of this study was to explore whether acute
Sverre Vedal; Steven J. Dutton
The European water framework directive (WFD) requires the identification of significant human pressures and impacts on water bodies. This is part of the wider analysis of river basins required by Article 5 (and Annex II) of the WFD, which must be completed by the end of 2004. The human pressures on surface waters include point and diffuse source pollutions, water abstraction, water flow regulation, morphological alterations and land use patterns. In order to be able to complete the analysis of significant pressures and impacts before the WFD deadline it is necessary to maximise the use of existing information. A method using only existing information for the evaluation of point source pollution at river basin scale, especially the pollution loads from drained urban areas into surface waters was therefore proposed. This method includes an approach to estimate imperviousness in urban areas and to calculate sewer overflow volume at river basin scale. The imperviousness in urban areas is estimated using information on land use in CORINE Landcover or ATKIS (Official Topographic-Cartographic Information System). Data used for the evaluation of sewer overflows, such as rainfall depth, sewer lengths, dry weather flow volume and total volume of combined wastewater discharged to wastewater treatment plants, are available from German Weather Survey, or they are, like in North Rhine-Westphalia, stored in databases. Imperviousness in the Wupper basin and nutrient inputs from urban areas into the Wupper river system were calculated in a case study and compared with the results of other investigations.
Nafo, I. I.; Geiger, W. F.
Concentrations of arsenic (As) were determined in soils of 5 industrial sites in an urban area of Beijing, China. Fifty seven typical surface soils were sampled to determine total concentrations of metals, pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). One hundred and eight deep soils were submitted to a four-step, sequential extraction to assess the relative mobility and bioavailability of As
Wei Luo; Yonglong Lu; Guang Wang; Yajuan Shi; Tieyu Wang; John P. Giesy
Conceptual aspects related to seismic vulnerability, damage and risk evaluation are discussed first, together with a short review of the most widely used possibilities for seismic evaluation of structures. The capacity spectrum method and the way of obtaining seismic damage scenarios for urban areas starting from capacity and fragility curves are then discussed. The determination of capacity curves for buildings
Alex H. Barbat; Luis G. Pujades; Nieves Lantada
The paper deals with a procedure for solving the bus network design problem with elastic demand in a large urban area and its application in a real context (city of Rome). The solution procedure consists of a set of heuristics, which includes a first routine for route generation based on the flow concentration process and a genetic algorithm for finding
Ernesto Cipriani; Stefano Gori; Marco Petrelli
Brianti, E., Drigo, M., Zirilli, V., Poglayen, G. and Giannetto, S., 2007. Use of a Health Information System (HIS) for the\\u000a epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in urban areas. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 213–215
E. Brianti; M. Drigo; V. Zirilli; G. Poglayen; S. Giannetto
Of the many problems facing anm community effective cooperation and communication between social service organizations are of prime concern. This is especially true in considering the problems involved in coordinating community based corrections efforts. This research represents an attempt to assess the extent of the Interorganizational Relations between community based correctional agencies in an urban area. By applying the Interorganizational
William Wakefield; Vincent Webb
Depot-holders are women from the community who promote good health practice and use of clinics. They keep a stock of contraceptives and oral rehydration salts to supply other women and are paid some incentives. In 2003, the NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP) introduced depot-holders in three types of urban area in Bangladesh as a pilot. This evaluation study was carried
Rukhsana Gazi; Alec Mercer; Jahanara Khatun; Ziaul Islam
This research paper aims at extracting features, especially the plane feature, of building from Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) point clouds in Urban Area, and with these features and information to build the model of object. Unlike modeling object in other fields, such as reverse engineering, surfaces of building usually consist of abundant big and plane surfaces which are significant
Weian Wang; Bo Zheng; Jue Lu; Jiao Lu; Yi Liu
A study of household dust composition was conducted in a semi-urban area around Kajang and Bandar Baru Bangi Selangor, Malaysia. Samples of household dust were collected from 31 randomly selected houses using a vacuum cleaner equipped with a changeable dust bag. Parameters analysed were anions (Cl-, SO4 2- , and NO3- ), cations (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), and heavy metals
Mohd Talib Latif; Mohamed Rozali Othman; Chong Lee Kim; Siti Aminah Murayadi; Khairul Nazri Ahmad Sahaimi
We propose a classification method suitable for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images over urban areas. When processing SAR images, there is a strong need for statistical models of scattering to take into account multiplicative noise and high dynamics. For instance, the classification process needs to be based on the use of statistics. Our main contribution is the choice of
Céline Tison; Jean-Marie Nicolas; Florence Tupin; Henri Maître
Acoustic indicators grounded in soundscape perception are needed for predicting the quality of soundscapes in urban outdoor areas. The present paper explores the predictive power of various acoustic indicators. A questionnaire study was conducted in 16 city parks and green open spaces in Stockholm. In total, 1116 respondents answered questions on, inter alia, perceived soundscape quality and road-traffic noise annoyance.
Urban air toxics control strategies are moving towards a community based modeling approach, with an emphasis on assessing those areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This approach will require information that accurately maps and...
The ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to investigate the subsurface in an urban area located in Mesagne (Italy) to obtain a map of the archaeological features in the ground. The GPR survey was undertaken at selected locations placed near (about 50m) to a necropolis dating from the Messapian to the Roman imperial age, using a GSSI Sir System
Giovanni Leucci; Sergio Negri
The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...
This report contains an inventory of urban programs and courses offered by 11 institutions of higher education in the Washington area. Many of the programs focus on the education and cultural enrichment of the poor and provide basic education for inner-city children, and social, recreational and rehabilitation programs as well as higher education,…
Bisconti, Ann S.
Results are presented from an extensive series of wind tunnel tests to investigate the dispersion of a tracer gas emitted from a ground level source on a 1:125th scale model of an urban area typical of those found in the UK. Concentrations of a tracer gas, propane in air, were measured at a number of pedestrian level locations around the
W. Pearce; C. J. Baker
Ground movements caused by the construction of a deep trench through predominantly granular soils for the renewal of storm and foul water sewers in an urban area were investigated. Measurements of both surface and subsurface horizontal ground movements and settlement were made at various distances from the trench at two locations during and after construction. The effects of loading from
A. F. Toombs; C. McCaul; I. F. Symons
Field data are used to evaluate the vertical distribution of suspended particulates at different height levels in an urban area of Hong Kong. Four buildings in different street configurations and street environments were selected. According to the street configuration, they are classified into two groups: street canyon and open street. In street canyon, TSP and PM10 concentration varies with height
L. Y Chan; W. S Kwok
A method was developed to produce hourly updated nowcasts of recommended sun protection factors (SPF) for different photobiological skin types. Actual UV (250-400 nm) measurements and a forecast of the UV index provide the basis of the method. The method, used operationally for the urban area of Vienna, provides a useful tool to inform people about the use of sunscreens,
Alois W. Schmalwieser; Günther Schauberger
The rainfall which in urban areas flows from hardened surfaces comes in contact with pollutants which are present on these surfaces and in sewerage systems. The present report gives a survey of sources of pollution of hardened surfaces and provides data f...
The community WRF-Chem model has been widely used in the coastal urban regions such as the Greater Houston area. In a typical WRF model run, vertical mixing is parameterized within the boundary layer physics. It is assumed that there is a clear scale separation between the resolved and subgrid-scale eddies. This assumption may not be valid when horizontal grid spacing
E. Grell; J. Bao; S. A. Michelson; G. A. Grell; S. A. McKeen; B. Dornblaser
The degradation and loss of the regional wetland of urbanization is a more and more concerned question in the whole world. This paper takes Nanjing as an example, adopting five Nanjing area Landsat MSS and TM data: 1979, 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, combining historical data, land use and field observation, adopting decision tree method to extract Nanjing wetland. We analyze
Lianyi Zhou; Nan Jiang; Mo Zhao; Shen Wang; Xin Liu
The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.
Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.
This study focuses on describing ozone patterns and estimating ozone concentrations in urban settings through the classification of an urban area into homogeneous typologies, according to hourly ozone concentrations, and the development of accurate estimation models for each typology. For these proposals, a hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted in order to define homogeneous subareas, and multiple linear regressions were subsequently applied with the aim of obtaining ozone predictions, employing chemical and meteorological variables as predictors. Seville metropolitan area (Spain) is a densely populated area of the Mediterranean Basin that exhibits environmental problems related to ozone pollution episodes. Ozone exceedances are a consequence of the combination of road traffic and industry emissions with hot temperatures and high solar radiation, mainly during anticyclonic events. Cluster analysis evince that this area can be divided into 3 categories according to hourly ozone concentration in summer. Cluster 1 is comprised of monitoring stations located in the outskirts of the city of Seville; Cluster 2 corresponds to monitoring stations located within the city of Seville; and Cluster 3 is comprised of a monitoring station specialized in traffic emissions. Multiple linear regression shows that the relative weight of meteorological variables decreases when moving from the urban periphery towards the urban center, whereas the weight of chemical variables increases. Coefficients of determination (R2) values were 0.885, 0.890 and 0.830 and root mean squared error (RMSE) were 11.226, 11.874 and 11.260 ?g m?3 for Cluster 1, 2 and 3, respectively.
Pavón-Domínguez, P.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.
This study reports the degree of heavy metal pollution (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and V) in 135 urban topsoil samples from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Pollution indices (PI) were calculated to identify the metal accumulation with respect to the background values. The levels of heavy metals in the analyzed samples show a wide range of variation. Lead,
O. Morton-Bermea; E. Hernández-Álvarez; G. González-Hernández; F. Romero; R. Lozano; L. E. Beramendi-Orosco
The net effect of the urban thermal process is to make the city temperatures generally higher than those of the surrounding suburb or rural areas. The phenomenon of heat islands is rather complex, both the modelling and the spot measurements approach providing only a partial description of it, as the energy balance differences that cause this effect depend on the
A. M. Papadopoulos; E.-A. Kalognomou
The heat island phenomenon, caused by urbanization, is one of the growing problems in Japan. In this study, we have described the radiometric temperature of the ground surface observed by the airborne thermal sensor in the Hiroshima City. The obtained results showed that the river and forest areas had lower temperatures whereas the roads had the highest. The temperatures of
A. Ozawa; B. Babu Madhavan; H. Okada; K. K. Mishra; K. Tachibana; T. Sasagawa
There remains only limited understanding of perceptions of travel behaviour in relation to short journeys in urban areas and, in particular, the perceived role that walking and cycling for personal travel can realistically play in contemporary society. This paper reveals discourses surrounding the practice, performance, identity, conflicts, and visions relating to walking and cycling in English cities. These were derived
Tim Jones; Colin G Pooley; Griet Scheldeman; Dave Horton; Miles Tight; Caroline Mullen; Ann Jopson; Anthony Whiteing
Background The trial addresses the general question of whether community resource centers run by a non-government organization improve the health of women and children in slums. The resource centers will be run by the Society for Nutrition, Education and Health Action, and the trial will evaluate their effects on a series of public health indicators. Each resource center will be located in a vulnerable Mumbai slum area and will serve as a base for salaried community workers, supervised by officers and coordinators, to organize the collection and dissemination of health information, provision of services, home visits to identify and counsel families at risk, referral of individuals and families to appropriate services and support for their access, meetings of community members and providers, and events and campaigns on health issues. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial in which 20 urban slum areas with resource centers are compared with 20 control areas. Each cluster will contain approximately 600 households and randomized allocation will be in three blocked phases, of 12, 12 and 16 clusters. Any resident of an intervention cluster will be able to participate in the intervention, but the resource centers will target women and children, particularly women of reproductive age and children under 5. The outcomes will be assessed through a household census after 2 years of resource center operations. The primary outcomes are unmet need for family planning in women aged 15 to 49 years, proportion of children under 5 years of age not fully immunized for their ages, and proportion of children under 5 years of age with weight for height less than 2 standard deviations below the median for age and sex. Secondary outcomes describe adolescent pregnancies, home deliveries, receipt of conditional cash transfers for institutional delivery, other childhood anthropometric indices, use of public sector health and nutrition services, indices of infant and young child feeding, and consultation for violence against women and children. Trial registration ISRCTN Register: ISRCTN56183183 Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2012/09/003004
Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.
Objectives: Motor vehicle crash fatality rates have been consistently higher in rural areas than in urban areas. However, the explanations for these differences are less clear. In this study the decomposition method was used to explore the factors associated with increased fatal crash involvement rates in rural communities. Design: Using national databases, the fatal crash incidence density was decomposed into the product of three factors: the injury fatality rate, the crash injury rate, and the crash incidence density. Results: As expected, the fatal crash incidence density was more than two times higher in rural than in urban areas. This was driven primarily by the injury fatality rate, which was almost three times higher in rural areas. Conclusions: Further research should examine the relative roles of crash severity and the timely receipt of definitive medical care after a crash.
Zwerling, C; Peek-Asa, C; Whitten, P; Choi, S; Sprince, N; Jones, M
This paper uses past hydrological records in Northeastern Illinois to disentangle the combined effects of urban development and climatic variability at different spatial scales in the Greater Chicago Area. A step increase in annual precipitation occurred in Northeastern Illinois during 1965-1972 according to climate records. Urbanization has occurred as a gradual process over the entire Greater Chicago Area, both before and after the abrupt annual precipitation increase. The analysis of streamflow trends at each gaging station is supplemented by the comparison of the evolution of streamflow indicators in a group of urban and agricultural watersheds, thanks to an original use of the Mann-Whitney test. Results suggest that urban expansion in the Greater Chicago Area has led to widespread increases in a wide variety of streamflow metrics, with the exceptions being spring flows and some of the peak flow indicators. The increases detected in small (<100 km2) urban watersheds are mitigated in large (>200 km2) ones, over which the changes in streamflow are relatively homogeneous. While the impacts of land-use change are identified across a wide range of flow indicators and spatial scales, there are indications that some of these effects are mitigated or made negligible by other factors. For example, while impervious surfaces are found to increase flooding, stormwater management facilities, an adaptation to increased flooding, mitigate their impacts at a wide range of scales. While impervious surfaces are known to reduce infiltration and baseflow, a low flow increase was triggered by water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, as a response to a rising water demand which made on-site groundwater extraction unsustainable. Our analysis thus highlights the impacts of adaptive planning and management of water resources on urban hydrology.
Rougé, Charles; Cai, Ximing
Background At least one-third of women in India experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at some point in adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and after delivery in an urban slum setting, to review its social determinants, and to explore its effects on maternal and newborn health. Methods We did a cross-sectional study nested within the data collection system for a concurrent trial. Through urban community surveillance, we identified births in 48 slum areas and interviewed mothers ~6 weeks later. After collecting information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic indicators, and maternal and newborn care, we asked their opinions on the justifiability of IPV and on their experience of it in the last 12 months. Results Of 2139 respondents, 35% (748) said that violence was justifiable if a woman disrespected her in-laws or argued with her husband, failed to provide good food, housework and childcare, or went out without permission. 318 (15%, 95% CI 13, 16%) reported IPV in the year that included pregnancy and the postpartum period. Physical IPV was reported by 247 (12%, 95% CI 10, 13%), sexual IPV by 35 (2%, 95% CI 1, 2%), and emotional IPV by 167 (8%, 95% CI 7, 9). 219 (69%) women said that the likelihood of IPV was either unaffected by or increased during maternity. IPV was more likely to be reported by women from poorer families and when husbands used alcohol. Although 18% of women who had suffered physical IPV sought clinical care for their injuries, seeking help from organizations outside the family to address IPV itself was rare. Women who reported IPV were more likely to have reported illness during pregnancy and use of modern methods of family planning. They were more than twice as likely to say that there were situations in which violence was justifiable (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.7, 3.4). Conclusions One in seven women suffered IPV during or shortly after pregnancy. The elements of the violent milieu are mutually reinforcing and need to be taken into account collectively in responding to both individual cases and framing public health initiatives.
The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO?NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.
Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Wei
Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM)--similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392
Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B
The rates of urban growth globally continue to rise, especially in small and intermediary cities and peri-urban areas of the developing world. Communities in these settings share characteristics with rural areas, in terms of continued connections with agriculture, yet with an increasing reliance of non-agricultural employment which poses…
Lerner, Amy M.; Eakin, Hallie; Sweeney, Stuart
Help-seeking for emotional problems addressed to priests was compared with help-seeking addressed to general practitioners (GPs), psychiatrists and psychologists in two demographically different areas of Norway. Only small differences were found between the rural and the urban area, and a substantial proportion of people contacted priests for personal\\/emotional problems. This contact was not related to dissatisfaction with the mental health
K. W. Sørgaard; T. Sørensen; J. Sandanger; G. Ingebrigtsen; O. S. Dalgard
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n?=?412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities.
de Araujo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Leticia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assuncao, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariangela
Ambient concentrations of PM10 and their elemental composition in the multi-impacted area of Thessaloniki, N. Greece is presented in this study. High concentrations of PM10 were observed, with 80% exceedances of the proposed daily limit of 50?gm?3. The elemental concentrations were similar to the levels observed in moderately polluted urban areas. Spatial and temporal variation of particle mass and elemental
D Voutsa; C Samara; Th Kouimtzis; K Ochsenkühn
For historic settlement areas numerous flood level descriptions from times before the installation of river gauges are passed on, most of them are even dated. Typically, these written descriptions are qualitative such as "the water level peaked at 2 feet above the floor of the church" or "the water level topped the bridge before it failed". Furthermore, historic flood water levels are frequently marked at buildings and constructions. Such descriptions of flood water levels are used to determine periods of increased flood frequencies but are rarely transferred into palaeodischarge numbers due to methodological problems. One major problem is the estimation of the cross section area due to missing information on the topography and hydraulic roughness of the floodplain and the river channel in historic times. For the historic flood level records from the cities of Cologne (River Rhine) and Prague (River Vltava) an approach to estimate peak discharge is developed. Based on historic etchings, paintings and descriptions it is possible to reconstruct the characteristics of the river channel and floodplains to estimate cross-section areas during flood events. The reconstruction made use of all available data and estimations regarding channel incision as well as anthropogenic modification of the river and its floodplain. The mean flow velocity at the time of the historic flood events is estimated by the Manning-equation, based on the reconstructed river channel and floodplains. The slope of the water level is assumed to be comparable to recent values, while the estimation of the hydraulic roughness is a challenge as no studies on the hydraulic roughness of settled floodplains have been carried out so far. Sensitivity studies with different n-values within a reliable range of values are made to estimate the influence of this uncertainty. Finally, the reconstructed data are tested by estimating peak discharges of recent floods by the application of the described method and comparing the results with measured discharge data from the gauges located at Cologne and Prague. Herget, J. & H. Meurs (2009): Reconstructing peak discharges of historic flood levels in the citiy of Cologne, Germany. Global and Planetary Change (accepted)
Herget, J.; Elleder, L.; Meurs, H.; Nießen, A.; Roggenkamp, T.
Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.
Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice
Leakage from water mains, storm drainage and sewer systems in urban areas constitutes a source of recharge that is difficult to identify and quantify at a regional scale. The objective of this work is to apply a methodology that would make it possible to evaluate urban recharge at a regional scale, taking as a case study the city of La Plata (Argentina). In the study area, population growth and an increase in water demand has caused the intensive exploitation of groundwater with resulting alteration in groundwater flow. The methodology used was developed on the basis of a water balance and the simulation of the temporal evolution of the cones of depression and the volumes of water extracted from the aquifer. The method consists of adjusting the piezometry resulting from the numerical modelling to the measured piezometry, by means of the variation of the recharge parameter in the urban area. The results obtained make it possible to identify and quantify urban recharge, which in this case represents a volume of water similar to the recharge from precipitation.
Kruse, Eduardo; Carol, Eleonora; Mancuso, Malva; Laurencena, Patricia; Deluchi, Marta; Rojo, Adolfo
The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.
Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.
Objectives. We examined the association between slum residence and nutritional status in women in India by using competing classifications of slum type. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) to create our citywide analysis sample. The data provided us with individual, household, and community information. We used the body mass index data to identify nutritional status, whereas the residential status variable provided slum details. We used a multinomial regression framework to model the 3 nutrition states—undernutrition, normal, and overnutrition. Results. After we controlled for a range of attributes, we found that living in a census slum did not affect nutritional status. By contrast, living in NFHS slums decreased the odds of being overweight by 14% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.79, 0.95) and increased the odds of being underweight by 10% (95% CI?=?1.00, 1.22). Conclusions. The association between slum residence and nutritional outcomes is nuanced and depends on how one defines a slum. This suggests that interventions targeted at slums should look beyond official definitions and include current living conditions to effectively reach the most vulnerable.
The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2
Gabriel Gulis; Joshua Anam Amos Mulumba; Olivia Juma; Beatrica Kakosova
The images of the city held by slum dwellers and squatters in an Indian city are reported. The study revealed certain spatial regularities in mental images of the city's slum dwellers. The size with which places were perceived and represented on maps declined with increasing distance from the city center; the detail with which different parts of the city were
P. P. Karan; W. A. Bladen; G. Singh
This article examines how Dharavi is represented to, and interpreted by, tourists participating in walking tours around Mumbai's largest slum. Across the world ‘the slum’ is positioned as space more authentic and realistic than the artifice of the concrete cityscape, as demonstrated by the recent fascination surrounding ‘Slumdog Millionaire’. By first exploring the complex geography and history of Dharavi, this
This article examines how Dharavi is represented to, and interpreted by, tourists participating in walking tours around Mumbai's largest slum. Across the world ‘the slum’ is positioned as space more authentic and realistic than the artifice of the concrete cityscape, as demonstrated by the recent fascination surrounding ‘Slumdog Millionaire’. By first exploring the complex geography and history of Dharavi, this
In urban high-density areas, litter has become an increasingly obvious and pervasive problem. In the present study, repeated measures of the amount of litter on randomly selected yards in an urban low-income housing project were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a series of anti-litter procedures directed at the children residing in the project. Paying children for volume of trash collected resulted in only a small decrease in the number of litter pieces present. Paying them for cleaning assigned yards markedly decreased the level of litter in all sampled yards. Thus, children can be employed to maintain a clean neighborhood in spite of the rapid accumulation of new litter in urban yards.
Chapman, Clyde; Risley, Todd R.
This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;
Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.
High resolution precipitation data is a crucial factor for hydrological applications in urban areas. Small fluctuations in precipitation fields are of great importance considering the fast response of urban catchments due to the dominance of impervious surfaces. High resolution precipitation observations are needed in order to characterize these fluctuations. Weather radar provides high spatial resolution precipitation estimations. However, the quality of its observations in an urban environment is significantly degraded, among other things, by ground clutter and beam-blockage. A solution for this problem is to use a radar network, where the data gaps of one radar will be filled by using observations from the others. Very few cities have dedicated weather radar networks. In some cities, like Helsinki, there are several weather radars covering the metropolitan area, but they are operated by different organizations. In this study, we show how such systems can be used to build a network and what is the advantage of using radarnetworks for estimating precipitation in urban catchments. The urban Helsinki area is covered by observations from three individual-purpose C-band weather radars (Helsinki University's Kumpula (KUM), Vaisala Oy's Kerava (KER) and Finnish Meteorological Institute's Vantaa (VAN)). We used the data from these radars to form a network and we design a similar task which runs at the same time in each radar couple of times per day. Nonetheless, it is challenging to make them observe at the same area at exactly the same time, which could lead to fast changing, short precipitation events being missed. Hence, synchronization and temporal resolution are the main concerns when building a network. Consequently, to decrease the impact of these restrictions in the Helsinki radar network we propose the use of the optic flow interpolation algorithm to retrieve information in between two radar observations and use the retrieved dataset from the three radars to estimate rainfall. The accuracy of this method is studied by comparing the composite rainfall estimation with both single radar observations and ground measurements.
Rojas, Laura; Nordling, Kalle; Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam
There is a need to observe weak seismic events (M<2) in areas close to potential nuclear-waste repositories or nuclear power plants, in order to analyze the underlying seismo-tectonic processes and estimate their seismic hazard. We are therefore densifying the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We analyze the test measurement with respect to noise amplitude in different frequency bands, transient noise events and earthquake first arrivals. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs.
Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.
Concentrations of beryllium-7 ((7)Be), lead-210 ((210)Pb) and caesium-137 ((137)Cs) were measured at two sites in the city of Belgrade (Serbia). One monitoring site was located in the central city area with heavy traffic and the other within the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, in the suburbs. Presented data cover the period 2004-9. Activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 23 %) by standard gamma spectrometry. Activities of (7)Be and (210)Pb exhibit a similar seasonal pattern. The mean monthly concentrations of (7)Be did not exceed 7 mBq m(-3). The maxima are correlated with the seasonal increase in temperature, whereas the minima are linearly correlated with the amount of precipitation. The activity of (210)Pb was below 0.9 mBq m(-3). The activities of both radionuclides were very low in winters and were largely affected by precipitation and snow coverage. Concentrations of (137)Cs were mainly below the limit of detection. PMID:20833680
Todorovic, Dragana; Popovic, Dragana; Nikolic, Jelena; Ajtic, Jelena
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been analyzed using measurements from two sites in Mexico City and five urban areas in Germany. The correlation coefficient between BC and CO is greater than 0.90 for all sites. The average slope of the linear regression line for BC versus CO is 2.2 ?g mg-1 for German sites and 1.1 ?g mg-1 in Mexico City. The most important factors that affect the BC to CO relationship appear to be the ratio of diesel to gasoline usage and the combustion efficiency of vehicles in a particular area. The results of this analysis suggest that CO measurements in urban areas can be used to estimate BC mass when direct measurements are not available.
Baumgardner, Darrel; Raga, G.; Peralta, O.; Rosas, I.; Castro, T.; Kuhlbusch, T.; John, A.; Petzold, A.
Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year
Chang, C.; Liao, K.
There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28?gm(-3) in the mining area; 48?gm(-3) in the rural area and 45?gm(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300?gm(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921
Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D
This study was conducted to determine the composition and source apportionment of surfactant in atmospheric aerosols around urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia based on ionic compositions. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as Disulphine Blue Active Substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrophotometer. Ionic compositions were determined using ion chromatography for cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). Principle component analysis (PCA) combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) were used to identify the source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS. Results indicated that the concentrations of surfactants at both sampling sites were dominated by MBAS rather than DBAS especially in fine mode aerosols during the southwest monsoon. Three main sources of surfactants were identified from PCA-MLR analysis for MBAS in fine mode samples particularly in Kuala Lumpur, dominated by motor vehicles, followed by soil/road dust and sea spray. Besides, for MBAS in coarse mode, biomass burning/sea spray were the dominant source followed by motor vehicles/road dust and building material. PMID:23336924
Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd; Latif, Mohd Talib; Suratman, Suhaimi
A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.
Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi
Use of community health workers (CHWs) has been implemented the same way in urban and rural areas despite differences in availability of health providers and sociodemographic characteristics. A household survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in eastern Uganda, and all children who were febrile in the previous two weeks were assessed for their symptoms, treatment received at home, and when and where they first went for treatment. Rural children were more likely to use CHWs than urban children. Urban children received outside treatment more promptly, and used herbs at home less. Symptoms and proportion of children being taken out for treatment were similar. Children from the poorest households used CHWs less and private providers more than the middle quintiles. Drug shops and private clinics should be included in the community case management to cater for the poorest in rural areas and persons in urban areas.
Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kadobera, Daniel; Katureebe, Sheila; Kalyango, Joan N.; Mworozi, Edison; Pariyo, George
Urban areas are among the roughest landscapes in the Earth and its aerodynamical properties are responsible for a lot of processes and phenomena of urban climate, such as surface drag and pollutant dispersion. These properties can be quantitatively expressed by various parameters, with zero plane displacement height (z d) and roughness length (z 0) as the most frequently applied. Based on remotely gathered (LIDAR scan) height data and morphometric methods of roughness calculations, the comprehensive procedure to determine ventilation channels in urban area is proposed and implemented on the example from Wroc?aw, Poland. Morphometric analysis of urban structure allowed establishing a proper database of aerodynamic parameters of the city. Then a series of maps of the city showing the distribution of two roughness parameters were prepared. GIS tools were used to carry out the analysis of roughness data, assuming various directions of wind flow. It enabled to determine the locations of potential ventilation paths in the city which, if combined, form large ventilation channels. They may have a significant role in improving air quality and be a valuable source of information for local government responsible for the appropriate development of the city.
Suder, Arkadiusz; Szymanowski, Mariusz
Land surface temperature (LST), vegetation index, and other surface characteristics that obtained from remote sensing data have been widely used to describe urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, but through impervious surface area (ISA) to describe the phenomenon has only used in a few study areas in our country. In a high urbanization and high population density region like Jiangsu Province, a wide range of extraction of ISA to study its relationship with UHI is less. In this paper, we use multi-temporal remote sensing images as data sources, and extract ISA from it in a large-scale by using decision tree classifier (DTC) and linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). Then combine the average surface temperature from the sixth band of Landsat TM by mono-window algorithm for spatial analysis, to assess the change of the urban heat island temperature amplitude and its relationship with the urban development density, size and ecological environment. Finally we use statistical methods to analyze the relationship between ISA, LST and UHI. The results show that ISA has a positive correlation with surface temperature. The ratio of ISA is higher and the difference value of the temperature is larger, thus the UHI will be more obvious.
Yang, Yingbao; Pan, Ping
Urban areas are among the roughest landscapes in the Earth and its aerodynamical properties are responsible for a lot of processes and phenomena of urban climate, such as surface drag and pollutant dispersion. These properties can be quantitatively expressed by various parameters, with zero plane displacement height ( z d) and roughness length ( z 0) as the most frequently applied. Based on remotely gathered (LIDAR scan) height data and morphometric methods of roughness calculations, the comprehensive procedure to determine ventilation channels in urban area is proposed and implemented on the example from Wroc?aw, Poland. Morphometric analysis of urban structure allowed establishing a proper database of aerodynamic parameters of the city. Then a series of maps of the city showing the distribution of two roughness parameters were prepared. GIS tools were used to carry out the analysis of roughness data, assuming various directions of wind flow. It enabled to determine the locations of potential ventilation paths in the city which, if combi