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1

Raising the Breast Health Awareness amongst Women in an Urban Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Breast Cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring cancer among Egyptian women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a health education program on raising the knowledge related to BC, its risk factors, and some related preventive practices among women living in an urban slum area in Alexandria. Patients and Methods: A pre-\\/post-test interventional study was conducted during

Ibrahim F. Kharboush; Hanaa M. Ismail; Alaa A. Kandil; Heba M. Mamdouh; Yasmine Y. Muhammad; Omnia G. El Sharkawy; Hassan N. Sallam

2011-01-01

2

Malnutrition in primary school-age children : A case of urban and slum areas of Bahawalpur, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the determinants of malnutrition of primary school-age (five to ten years) children in urban and slum areas. The ultimate objective is to frame policy proposals for children's nutritional welfare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In this empirical study, logit model is applied to 882 observations of primary data. The composite index of anthropometric

Rana Ejaz Ali Khan; Toseef Azid

2011-01-01

3

Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence of smoking cigarettes (53.3%) as compared to those living in non-slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of smoking cigarettes (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22), bidis (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.58–2.29) and any of the two (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13–1.34) among men living in slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of smoking cigarettes were marital status (both areas), birth place (slums), and religion (non-slums). Similarly significant factors for smoking bidis were age (both areas), marital status (slums), religion (non-slums), and birth place (both areas). Conclusion The men living in the urban slums reported higher rates of smoking cigarettes and bidis as compared to men living in the urban non-slums. Some of the significant correlates of smoking e.g. education and division should be considered for prevention activities. Our findings clearly underscore the necessity of interventions and preventions by policy makers, public health experts and other stakeholders in slums because smoking was more prevalent in the slum communities with detrimental health sequelae.

Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru

2009-01-01

4

Deprivation of Education in Urban Areas: A Basic Profile of Slum Children in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper showed the basic educational status of slum children between 5 and 14 years old. The attendance ratio of slum children is much lower than that of children in Delhi as a whole. Parental perception of education and financing education are the major constraints. Even if children are attending schools, the majority of them are over-aged. There are both

Yuko Tsujita

2009-01-01

5

Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.  

PubMed

Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. PMID:22361648

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2012-02-15

6

Urban flood problems in Dhaka, Bangladesh: slum residents' choices for relocation to flood-free areas.  

PubMed

This article applies a stated preference choice model to assess trade-offs that residents of two squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh might consider if they were given choices for relocation to flood-free areas. The respondents were asked to choose repeatedly from a set of choice cards, which displayed different configurations of financial incentives for relocation, such as free or inexpensive land, loans or nonrepayable grants, and provisions for temporary or permanent employment opportunities. The survey results indicated that despite extensive experience with flood problems, many residents of Mirpur and Vasantek found that certain configurations of economic incentives were not attractive enough for them to relocate to flood-free areas. At the same time, they would prefer a reduction in the risk of flooding at their current location. The economic incentives that would best assist in increasing voluntary relocation of residents from their current locations included free land, nonrepayable grants (Taka 20,000), and long-term employment opportunities. Further, differences in geographic location (i.e., Mirpur vs. Vasantek), income levels, and membership in neighborhood communities were linked with the tendency of residents to stay at their current location. PMID:17530330

Rashid, Harun; Hunt, Len M; Haider, Wolfgang

2007-05-24

7

Improving the Living Environment of Khulna City Slum Areas, Bangladesh: Impact of Basic Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population growth in urban areas of Bangladesh ,including Khulna the third largest city, caused by a heavy influx of migrants from rural areas, has led to mushrooming of slums and squatters in urban areas without any basic service facilities. As a part of urban poverty reduction and to improve the living environment of the urban poor basic services have

Bushra Shamsad; Sadah Shamsad

8

Slums, violence and health : a critical discussion of the interactions and effects of violence and slum settings on health and their inclusion in contemporary urban health interventions & recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficult circumstances in slums are often caused by a multitude of factors and actors on different levels. The same is true for violence. The thesis maintains that slum characteristics can potentially promote violence and violence can exacerbate slum circumstances. Together, they have devastating effects on the health outcomes for slum dwellers. How urban health determinants in slums and the dynamics

Weerdt de S

2011-01-01

9

Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major

Aklimunnessa Khan; Alexander Kraemer; Mitsuru Mori

2009-01-01

10

Safe Motherhood Practices Among Women of Urban Slums in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of safe motherhood practices of slum dwelling women of Bangladesh using the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey data. Overall, the utilization of maternal health care services was very low. The binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of skilled services utilization for women with higher education, non-working women,

S. M. Mostafa Kamal

2012-01-01

11

Beliefs and practices during pregnancy and childbirth in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide urbanization has become a crucial issue in recent years. Bangladesh, one of the poorest and most densely-populated countries in the world, has been facing rapid urbanization. In urban areas, maternal indicators are generally worse in the slums than in the urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program at BRAC, a non governmental organization, works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in the urban slums of Bangladesh. This paper describes maternal related beliefs and practices in the urban slums of Dhaka and provides baseline information for the Manoshi program. Methods This is a descriptive study where data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The respondents for the quantitative methods, through a baseline survey using a probability sample, were mothers with infants (n?=?672) living in the Manoshi program areas. Apart from this, as part of a formative research, thirty six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted during the same period from two of the above Manoshi program areas among currently pregnant women who had also previously given births (n?=?18); and recently delivered women (n?=?18). Results The baseline survey revealed that one quarter of the recently delivered women received at least four antenatal care visits and 24 percent women received at least one postnatal care visit. Eighty-five percent of deliveries took place at home and 58 percent of the deliveries were assisted by untrained traditional birth attendants. The women mostly relied on their landladies for information and support. Members of the slum community mainly used cheap, easily accessible and available informal sectors for seeking care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforced this behavior, including home delivery without skilled assistance. Conclusions Behavioral change messages are needed to increase the numbers of antenatal and postnatal care visits, improve birth preparedness, and encourage skilled attendance at delivery. Programs in the urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve social support for key influential persons in the community, particularly landladies who serve as advisors and decision-makers.

2012-01-01

12

Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

2006-01-01

13

Impact of Environment and Social Gradient on Leptospira Infection in Urban Slums  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting.Methods and FindingsWe performed

Renato B. Reis; Guilherme S. Ribeiro; Ridalva D. M. Felzemburgh; Francisco S. Santana; Sharif Mohr; Astrid X. T. O. Melendez; Adriano Queiroz; Andréia C. Santos; Romy R. Ravines; Wagner S. Tassinari; Marília S. Carvalho; Mitermayer G. Reis; Albert I. Ko

2008-01-01

14

Diarrhoea Episodes and Treatment-seeking Behaviour in a Slum Area of North Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visits to household during a census in an impoverished area of north Jakarta were used for exploring the four-week prevalence of diarrhoea, factors associated with episodes of diarrhoea, and the patterns of healthcare use. For 160,261 urban slum-dwellers, information was collected on the socioeconomic status of the household and on diarrhoea episodes of individual household residents in the preceding four

Cyrus H. Simanjuntak; Narain H. Punjabi; Ferry Wangsasaputra; Dazwir Nurdin; Sri Pandam Pulungsih; Ainur Rofiq; Hari Santoso; H. Pujarwoto; Agus Sjahrurachman; Pratiwi Sudarmono; Lorenz von Seidlein; Camilo Acosta; Susan E. Robertson; Mohammad Ali; Hyejon Lee; Jacqueline L. Deen; D. Agtini; John D. Clemens

2004-01-01

15

Indian Americans in Southside Minneapolis: Additional Field Notes From the Urban Slum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey conducted by 8 University of Minnesota students was taken in the urban slum of Minneapolis. The survey was concerned with the contemporary situation of urban American Indians and with the attitudes of local businessmen toward urban Indians. The method used involved recording respondent's answers, and much of the content of the…

Gibbons, Richard P.; And Others

16

Newborn care practices and health seeking behavior in urban slums and villages of Anand, Gujarat.  

PubMed

Health status of neonates in urban slums has not been studied in smaller towns. A questionnaire was administered to 154 families of 10 urban slums of Anand (population - 197351) and 160 families from 6 villages of Anand district. The socioeconomic and education status of the slum dwellers versus rural participants were significantly lower (P<0.001). Antenatal care (79.9 vs 94.4%, P<0.001), hospital delivery (82.5 vs 93.8%, P=0.002), neonatal follow-up (27.9 vs 78.8%, P<0.001), health seeking (56.5 vs 91.3%, P<0.001), essential newborn care and exclusive breastfeeding (6.5 vs 85.6%, P<0.001) were also lower in urban slums, as compared to villages, Care seeking was low in urban slums, Hindus and illiterate mothers. Health care and socioeconomic status of neonates in slums of smaller cities is poorer than in surrounding villages. PMID:23024104

Nimbalkar, Archana S; Shukla, Vivek V; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M

2012-08-05

17

Epidemiological study of measles in slum areas of Kolkata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : An epidemiological study on measles was conducted among the under five children in slum areas of Kolkata to assess the\\u000a incidence of measles.Methods : 20 cluster sampling technique was followed and in each cluster 250 under five children were covered. Paramedical workers\\u000a identified children of the target of age group who had history of measles in past one

Sandip Kumar Ray; Sarmila Mallik; Asim Kumar Munsi; Shyama Prasad Mitra; Baijayanti Baur; Satish Kumar

2004-01-01

18

Use of Population-based Surveillance to Define the High Incidence of Shigellosis in an Urban Slum in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, Shigella causes an estimated 160 million infections and >1 million deaths annually. However, limited incidence data are available from African urban slums. We investigated the epidemiology of shigellosis and drug susceptibility patterns within a densely populated urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya through population-based surveillance. Methods Surveillance participants were interviewed in their homes every 2 weeks by community interviewers. Participants also had free access to a designated study clinic in the surveillance area where stool specimens were collected from patients with diarrhea (?3 loose stools within 24 hours) or dysentery (?1 stool with visible blood during previous 24 hours). We adjusted crude incidence rates for participants meeting stool collection criteria at household visits who reported visiting another clinic. Results Shigella species were isolated from 224 (23%) of 976 stool specimens. The overall adjusted incidence rate was 408/100,000 person years of observation (PYO) with highest rates among adults 34–49 years old (1,575/100,000 PYO). Isolates were: Shigella flexneri (64%), S. dysenteriae (11%), S. sonnei (9%), and S. boydii (5%). Over 90% of all Shigella isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and sulfisoxazole. Additional resistance included nalidixic acid (3%), ciprofloxacin (1%) and ceftriaxone (1%). Conclusion More than 1 of every 200 persons experience shigellosis each year in this Kenyan urban slum, yielding rates similar to those in some Asian countries. Provision of safe drinking water, improved sanitation, and hygiene in urban slums are needed to reduce disease burden, in addition to development of effective Shigella vaccines.

Njuguna, Henry N.; Cosmas, Leonard; Williamson, John; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Olack, Beatrice; Ochieng, John B.; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph O.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Mintz, Eric D.; Breiman, Robert F.

2013-01-01

19

Purchase of drinking water is associated with increased child morbidity and mortality among urban slum-dwelling families in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, poor families in urban slums often do not receive municipal services including water. The objectives of our study were to characterize families who purchased drinking water and to examine the relation between purchasing drinking water and child morbidity and mortality in urban slums of Indonesia, using data collected between 1999 and 2003. Of 143,126 families, 46.8% purchased

Richard D. Semba; Saskia de Pee; Klaus Kraemer; Kai Sun; Andrew Thorne-Lyman; Regina Moench-Pfanner; Mayang Sari; Nasima Akhter; Martin W. Bloem

2009-01-01

20

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Leptospirosis among urban slum residents in Brazil.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities. PMID:23269657

Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Reis, Renato B; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Hagan, José E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Costa, Federico

2012-12-26

21

Social Determinants, Suboptimal Health Behavior, and Morbidity in Urban Slum Population: An Indian Perspective  

PubMed Central

Improving the health of urban residents, particularly those living in slum areas, requires an integrated approach. Appropriate interventions must be based on a well-grounded understanding of health determinants. Social factors are as important as physical factors in determining health status and suggest alternative interventions. Employment, stress, social exclusion, social support, substance use, nutrition, transport, and conditions during childhood are among the most important social determinants of health status identified by the International Center for Health and Society. This paper uses social determinants of health approach to understand morbidity outcomes for people residing in the slums of Surat City, India. To quantify suboptimal health behavior and identify the determinants of health status for this population survey data on household characteristics, health-seeking behavior, socioeconomic status, food and personal habits, social life, and physical activity has been used. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, logistic regression analysis reveals that social exclusion, stress, and lack of social support are significantly associated with morbidity. Thus, understanding of social determinants of health by policy makers is important as the health sector has a crucial role in addressing disparities in social determinants.

Mohan, Palipudi VenkataTrinadaKrishna; Bansal, Rajkumar K.

2008-01-01

22

Selection of sustainable sanitation technologies for urban slums--a case of Bwaise III in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

Provision of sanitation solutions in the world's urban slums is extremely challenging due to lack of money, space, access and sense of ownership. This paper presents a technology selection method that was used for the selection of appropriate sanitation solutions for urban slums. The method used in this paper takes into account sustainability criteria, including social acceptance, technological and physical applicability, economical and institutional aspects, and the need to protect and promote human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Bwaise III; a slum area in Kampala (Uganda). This was through administering of questionnaires and focus group discussions to obtain baseline data, developing a database to compare different sanitation options using technology selection criteria and then performing a multi-criteria analysis of the technology options. It was found that 15% of the population uses a public pit latrine; 75% uses a shared toilet; and 10% has private, non-shared sanitation facilities. Using the selection method, technologies such as Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) and biogas latrines were identified to be potentially feasible sanitation solutions for Bwaise III. Sanitation challenges for further research are also presented. PMID:20943256

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Oleja, A; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2010-10-12

23

An epidemiological study of emotional and behavioral disorders among children in an urban slum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected

Samir D. Bele; Trupti N. Bodhare; Sameer Valsangkar; Abhay Saraf

2012-01-01

24

Virtual mate-seeking in the urban slums of Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents emerging research on young women's participation in virtual heterosexual mate-seeking in two bustees (urban slum communities) in Kolkata. I begin the paper by reviewing the context of online friendship, dating and romance in India. I show how greater educational and social achievements in the bustees are prompting some young Muslim women to pursue online friendship and mate-seeking.

Kabita Chakraborty

2012-01-01

25

High prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this study, a prevalence survey of various atherosclerosis risk factors was carried out on hitherto poorly studied rural–urban migrants settled in urban slums in a large metropolitan city in northern India, with the aim of studying anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of this population in socio-economic transition.DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study.SUBJECTS: A total of 532 subjects

A Misra; RM Pandey; J Rama Devi; R Sharma; NK Vikram; Nidhi Khanna

2001-01-01

26

Factors Associated with Reported Diarrhoea Episodes and Treatment-seeking in an Urban Slum of Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an urban slum in eastern Kolkata, India, reported diarrhoea rates, healthcare-use patterns, and factors associated with reported diarrhoea episodes were studied as a part of a diarrhoea-surveillance project. Data were collected through a structured interview during a census and healthcare-use survey of an urban slum population in Kolkata. Several variables were analyzed, including (a) individual demographics, such as age

Dipika Sur; Byomkesh Manna; Alok K. Deb; Jacqueline L. Deen; M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday; Lorenz von Seidlein; John D. Clemens; Sujit K. Bhattacharya

2004-01-01

27

Innovative Approaches to Slum Electrification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development efforts of the past several decades have focused almost exclusively on the energy needs of the rural poor while largely ignoring those of extremely poor households in urban slums.1 About 40% of the worlds poor living in urban areas lack access...

2004-01-01

28

Level of awareness about tuberculosis in urban slums: Implications for advocacy and communication strategy planning in the National program  

PubMed Central

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains as an important public health problem in India. Awareness about the disease, its diagnosis, and treatment among public will help in controlling the killer disease. This study aims at arriving at an educational diagnosis about TB in an urban poor community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum in South India using a structured, pretested questionnaire. Domains identified were knowledge about TB, symptoms, spread, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TB. Results: A total of 395 households were interviewed. Of them, 370 (94%) respondents had heard about TB. Regarding the symptoms of TB, 82% were aware that cough is a symptom of TB. Among the 79% of study subjects who reported any test to diagnose TB, sputum examination as a method of diagnosis was known to only 40%. However, 84% of the subjects were aware of the free treatment available for TB under National program. Conclusion: Level of awareness about TB among urban poor in a slum area is good. Knowledge about “free treatment” and “duration of treatment” has to be stressed during health education activities.

Chinnakali, Palanivel; Ramakrishnan, Jayalakshmy; Vasudevan, Kavita; Gurumurthy, Jayanthi; Upadhyay, Ravi P.; Panigrahi, Krishna C.

2013-01-01

29

URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND THE INDIAN SLUM, A CASE STUDY (IN SLUMS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, EXPERIMENTS IN SELF-HELP, BY MARSHALL B. CLINARD. NEW YORK, THE FREE PRESS, 1966/139-278).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE DELHI PILOT PROJECT IN URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, DESIGNED TO STIMULATE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION, INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP, AND SELF- HELP ACTIVITIES TO ALLEVIATE SLUM CONDITIONS, WAS INITIATED BY THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (AIDED BY FORD FOUNDATION GRANTS) IN 1958. SLUM DWELLERS WERE ORGANIZED INTO--(1) VIKAS SUBHAS (ZONE COUNCILS) OF 15-100…

CLINARD, MARSHALL B.

30

Growth of Slums, Availability of Infrastructure and Demographic Outcomes in Slums: Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's National Slum Policy was recently formulated against the backdrop of inadequate infrastructure availability in Indian slums. Using a unique nationwide dataset on housing conditions and slum infrastructure from India we shed light on how different the rural, non-slum urban poor are from the poor households residing in the urban slums. We find considerable variations in access to services and

S. Chandrasekhar

31

Determinants of growth failure in 12–24-month-old children in a high-density urban slum community in East London, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study's main objectives were the identification of determinants of growth failure in 12–24-month-old children from an urban slum community attending a day hospital as well as the identification of focus areas for intervention.Design: The research was executed as a case–control study with a one-to-two design. A hypothetical causal model was developed for the undernutrition situation in Duncan Village.

A de Villiers; M Senekal

2002-01-01

32

Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives. PMID:16713890

Rashid, Sabina Faiz

2006-05-01

33

Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.  

PubMed

Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

2013-09-30

34

Impact of nutrition education on health of the mother and newborn belonging to the poor urban slum community.  

PubMed

To find the nutritional knowledge among mothers of one child of the poor community and to relate status of education to the nutritional health of them and the newborn and to get a thorough knowledge on the impact of nutritional education, a comprehensive study was undertaken in an urban slum area. Nutritional grading was done through scoring system. There were 47 mothers (24.1%) out of 195 having normal nutritional grade and 37 mothers (19%) having severe nutritional grade. There were 80 mothers having 'no knowledge' on maternal nutrition. 'Adequate knowledge' was found in 31 cases. Mothers (n = 80) of 'no knowledge' delivered babies of average weight 2.3 kg whereas 'adequate knowledge' mothers gave birth to babies of average weight 2.9 kg. PMID:9425844

Sur, D; Mukhopadhyay, S P; Biswas, R

1997-07-01

35

Community-based health programmes: role perceptions and experiences of female peer facilitators in Mumbai's urban slums  

PubMed Central

Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using qualitative methods we explore their role perceptions and experiences. Our findings focus on how the facilitators understand and enact their role in the community setting, how they negotiate relationships and health issues with peer groups, and the influence of credibility. We contextualize this within broader conceptualizations of peer-led health interventions and offer recommendations for similar community-based health initiatives.

Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

2009-01-01

36

Association of Urban Slum Residency with Infant Mortality and Child Stunting in Low and Middle Income Countries  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15–49 years) and their children (0–59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15–1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63–0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16–1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.

Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

37

Partnership in Action: Introducing family?based intervention for children with disability in urban slums of Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the processes and findings of a three?year action research project implemented in a small number of urban slums in the city of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the state of West Bengal in Eastern India. The project involved partnership between an established institute for cerebral palsy in Kolkata, two United Kingdom (UK) universities and

Reena Sen; Juliet Goldbart

2005-01-01

38

Factors influencing consent to HIV testing among wives of heavy drinkers in an urban slum in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the influence of socio cultural factors, perception of risk and exposure to violence on consent to HIV testing among at risk women in an urban slum. Married women chosen via a multistage probability sampling in a section of Bangalore, India, between 18 and 44 years, sexually active and considered to be at risk because of their husband's

Veena A. Satyanarayana; Prabha S. Chandra; Krishna Vaddiparti; Vivek Benegal; Linda B. Cottler

2009-01-01

39

The PC in an Indian urban slum: enterprise and entrepreneurship in ICT4D 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the embedding of information and communication technology (ICT) tools in everyday practices among underserved populations in urban India. Using ethnographic investigations of PC-aided micro- and small enterprises (MSEs) in a low-income slum neighborhood in Mumbai, it pursued three broad research goals: first, to etch out organic ICT immersions in underserved technology environments; second, to articulate a new

Nimmi Rangaswamy; Sumitra Nair

2012-01-01

40

Displacing the “slum-line”: a narrative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores some discursive constructions of slums and the narrative foundations that sustain them. In such discourses, the distancing function of language demarcates a slum-line that defines and creates a “natural” separation between slums and the rest of urban populations to the extent that some see that the modern concept of slum opens an urban dimension of Orientalism. Slum

Mónica Morales-Moreno

2011-01-01

41

The impact of an immunization programme administered through the Growth Monitoring Programme Plus as an alternative way of implementing Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in urban-slum areas of Lusaka, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-lag study design was used to examine the effects of an immunization programme implemented through an integrated community-based child health approach called the Growth Monitoring Programme Plus (GMP+) in peri-urban areas of Lusaka, Zambia. The immunization coverage and sociodemographic data of eligible children and households were obtained from three repeated surveys in two intervention areas. Logistic regression analysis was

Kumiko Igarashi; Satoshi Sasaki; Yasuyuki Fujino; Naohito Tanabe; Clara Mbwili Muleya; Bushimbwa Tambatamba; Hiroshi Suzuki

2010-01-01

42

The high cost of diarrhoeal illness for urban slum households-a cost-recovery approach: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Rapid urbanisation has often meant that public infrastructure has not kept pace with growth leading to urban slums with poor access to water and sanitation and high rates of diarrhoea with greater household costs due to illness. This study sought to determine the monetary cost of diarrhoea to urban slum households in Kaula Bandar slum in Mumbai, India. The study also tested the hypotheses that the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure may be surpassed by the cumulative costs of diarrhoea for households in an urban slum community. Design A cohort study using a baseline survey of a random sample followed by a systematic longitudinal household survey. The baseline survey was administered to a random sample of households. The systematic longitudinal survey was administered to every available household in the community with a case of diarrhoea for a period of 5?weeks. Participants Every household in Kaula Bandar was approached for the longitudinal survey and all available and consenting adults were included. Results The direct cost of medical care for having at least one person in the household with diarrhoea was 205 rupees. Other direct costs brought total expenses to 291 rupees. Adding an average loss of 55 rupees per household from lost wages and monetising lost productivity from homemakers gave a total loss of 409 rupees per household. During the 5-week study period, this community lost an estimated 163?600 rupees or 3635 US dollars due to diarrhoeal illness. Conclusions The lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure is expensive for urban slum households in this community. Financing approaches that transfer that cost to infrastructure development to prevent illness may be feasible. These findings along with the myriad of unmeasured benefits of preventing diarrhoeal illness add to pressing arguments for investment in basic water and sanitation infrastructure.

Patel, Ronak B; Stoklosa, Hanni; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Ridpath, Alison; Patil-Deshmuk, Anita

2013-01-01

43

Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

Cameron, Stuart

2011-01-01

44

Use of verbal autopsy to determine mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To define mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, in the context of a cholera and typhoid fever project. Methods In a well-defined population that was under surveillance for 18 months, we followed a dynamic cohort of 63?788 residents whose households were visited monthly by community health workers to identify deaths. Trained physicians performed verbal autopsies and experienced senior physicians assigned the primary cause of death according to the International classification of diseases, 10th edition. We tabulated causes of death in accordance with Global Burden of Disease 2000 categories and assessed overall and cause-specific mortality rates per age group and gender. Findings During 87?921 person–years of follow-up, we recorded 544 deaths. This gave an overall mortality rate of 6.2 per 1000 person–years. We assigned a cause to 89% (482/544) of the deaths. The leading causes of death, in descending order, were cardiovascular diseases (especially among adults aged over 40 years), cancer, respiratory ailments and digestive disorders. Most deaths in children under 5 years of age were caused by tuberculosis, respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. Conclusion Although the most common causes of death in children were infectious, non-communicable diseases were predominant among adults. There is a need for continuing interventions against infectious diseases in addition to new and innovative strategies to combat non-infectious conditions.

Kanungo, Suman; Tsuzuki, Ataru; Lopez, Anna Lena; Rajendran, Krisnan; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Kim, Deok Ryun; Gupta, Vinay Kumar; Ochiai, R Leon; Ali, Mohammad; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Clemens, John D

2010-01-01

45

Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol–ether concentration method. The dominant fly

Sisay Getachew; Teshome Gebre-Michael; Berhanu Erko; Meshesha Balkew; Girmay Medhin

2007-01-01

46

Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead toxicity in children from schools and an urban slum in Delhi.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the mean blood lead levels (BLL) and prevalence of lead toxicity in a representative sample of schoolchildren and children residing in an urban slum. In addition, the association of potential environmental risk factors with elevated BLL was studied. Children aged 4-6 years were selected from schools of the South zone of Delhi (n = 125) and from an urban slum (n = 65). Risk factors were recorded using a pre-tested questionnaire and blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were estimated. The mean BLL was 7.8 microg/dl (SD 3.9) and the proportion of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dl was 18.4 per cent. Distance of the residence or school from a main road appeared to be associated with higher blood lead concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. In our setting, vehicular pollution may be a major contributing factor in lead contamination of the environment. PMID:12729296

Kalra, Veena; Chitralekha, K T; Dua, Tarun; Pandey, R M; Gupta, Yogesh

2003-04-01

47

Prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, urban slum of Islamabad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities

Muhammad Zubair; Malik Muhammad Adil; Ali Yawar Alam; Akhtar Ali Qureshi

48

An approach to mitigation of landslide hazards in a slum area in Săo Paulo city, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents engineering geology studies for landslide hazard assessment and to support the project of the mitigation civil works in the Jaguaré slum, located in Săo Paulo city, Săo Paulo State, southeastern region of Brazil. These studies are part of a landslide hazard mitigation program of the city government comprising a total of 192 slums located in Săo Paulo

OSWALDO AUGUSTO FILHO

49

Factors influencing consent to HIV testing among wives of heavy drinkers in an urban slum in India.  

PubMed

The study examined the influence of socio cultural factors, perception of risk and exposure to violence on consent to HIV testing among at risk women in an urban slum. Married women chosen via a multistage probability sampling in a section of Bangalore, India, between 18 and 44 years, sexually active and considered to be at risk because of their husband's hazardous drinking were recruited for the study. Written informed consent was obtained and measures of risk behavior and violence were administered. Pretest HIV counseling was then conducted and consent for HIV testing was sought. Factors influencing refusal of and consent to HIV testing were documented. Data collected on 100 participants indicated that over half the sample (58%) refused consent for HIV testing. There were no significant differences between the groups who consented and those who refused on perception of risk and exposure to violence. Reasons women refused testing include the following: spouse/family would not allow it (40%), believed that they were not at risk or would test negative (29%) and underwent HIV testing during an earlier pregnancy (21%). Among those who consented for HIV testing, 79% did so because the testing site was easily accessible, 67% consented because testing was free and because the importance of HIV testing was understood. The findings highlight the role of social, logistic and awareness related factors in utilizing voluntary counseling and testing services by women in the slum community. They have important implications for HIV testing, particularly among at risk monogamous women. PMID:19444670

Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna; Benegal, Vivek; Cottler, Linda B

2009-05-01

50

VALUING ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS IN URBAN SLUMS. A SPATIAL HEDONIC APPROACH FOR CHILEAN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper pursuit provides a method for assessing the effects of climate change over the price of the social housing located in three urban areas of zones geographically different in climate and environmental issues of Chile. The work uses the method of hedonic prices to analyze the effects of structural attributes and environmental amenities over the price of the

Eugenio Espinoza; Jacint Balaguer

51

Women’s perception about sex selection in an urban slum in Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A strong son preference has been the norm in most of Asian countries. Modern sex-selection technology (although illegal in India) along with traditional methods have led to a skewed sex ratio. Methods: This study attempts to explore slum-dwelling women’s perception regarding the use of sex-selection techniques, both traditional and modern. Forty-two women from three different groups (adolescent, adult and

Neelima Bhagat; Ananya Ray Laskar; Nandini Sharma

2012-01-01

52

Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)|

Glaser, Daniel; And Others

1971-01-01

53

Women's reproductive health in slum populations in India: evidence from NFHS-3.  

PubMed

The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health Survey-3 to provide a national representation of women's reproductive health in the slum population in India. We examined a sample of 4,827 women in the age group of 15-49 years to assess the association of the variable slum with selected reproductive health services. We have also tried to identify the sociodemographic factors that influence the utilization of these services among women in the slum communities. All analyses were stratified by slum/non-slum residence, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the strength of association between key reproductive health services and relevant sociodemographic factors. We found that less than half of the women from the slum areas were currently using any contraceptive methods, and discontinuation rate was higher among these women. Sterilization was the most common method of contraception (25%). Use of contraceptives depended on the age, level of education, parity, and the knowledge of contraceptive methods (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in the two populations based on the timing and frequency of antenatal visits. The probability of ANC visits depended significantly on the level of education and economic status (p < 0.05). We found that among slum women, the proportion of deliveries conducted by skilled attendants was low, and the percentage of home deliveries was high. The use of skilled delivery care was found to be significantly associated with age, level of education, economic status, parity, and prior antenatal visits (p < 0.05). We found that women from slum areas depended on the government facilities for reproductive health services. Our findings suggest that significant differences in reproductive health outcomes exist among women from slum and non-slum communities in India. Efforts to progress towards the health MDGs and other national or international health targets may not be achieved without a focus on the urban slum population. PMID:20148311

Hazarika, Indrajit

2010-02-10

54

Women's Reproductive Health in Slum Populations in India: Evidence From NFHS-3  

PubMed Central

The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health Survey-3 to provide a national representation of women’s reproductive health in the slum population in India. We examined a sample of 4,827 women in the age group of 15–49 years to assess the association of the variable slum with selected reproductive health services. We have also tried to identify the sociodemographic factors that influence the utilization of these services among women in the slum communities. All analyses were stratified by slum/non-slum residence, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the strength of association between key reproductive health services and relevant sociodemographic factors. We found that less than half of the women from the slum areas were currently using any contraceptive methods, and discontinuation rate was higher among these women. Sterilization was the most common method of contraception (25%). Use of contraceptives depended on the age, level of education, parity, and the knowledge of contraceptive methods (p?slum women, the proportion of deliveries conducted by skilled attendants was low, and the percentage of home deliveries was high. The use of skilled delivery care was found to be significantly associated with age, level of education, economic status, parity, and prior antenatal visits (p?slum areas depended on the government facilities for reproductive health services. Our findings suggest that significant differences in reproductive health outcomes exist among women from slum and non-slum communities in India. Efforts to progress towards the health MDGs and other national or international health targets may not be achieved without a focus on the urban slum population.

2010-01-01

55

Mycetes and urban areas.  

PubMed

Mycetes are ubiquitous organisms that can cause mycoses in human and animals. The role of animals in the epidemiology of human mycoses in urban areas is multiform, but here will be discuss only two features: A) animals as vectors of mycoses and B) animal substrates as growth factor of pathogenic fungi. A) Animals as vectors of mycoses: this role is important as zoofilic dermatophytes are very important agents of zoonosis; the urban dermatophytozoonoses are prevalent caused by Microsporum canis which is prevalent in cats and dogs. Cats are often asymptomatic carriers. The pattern of human dermatomycoses has changed in Italy during the past century: at the beginning of the century anthropophilic fungi were prevalent while at present the zoophilic fungi are the most important causes. B) Animal substrata as growth factor of pathogenic fungi: soil "animalization" (i.e., the addition of such debris as hair, skin scales, dropping and other organic matters) creates an optimal substratum for the growth and the multiplication of geophilic or saprophyitic fungi, such as Microsporum gypseum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The present human lifestyle, which favours a an overpopulation of birds, wild animals, domestic mammals and sinanthropic together with man in crowded areas seems to favour the formation of environments adapted to the abundant growth of some pathogenic fungi with consequent infection for man and animals. Finally, an environment heavily populated by fungi can cause allergic pulmonary reactions as well as reactions in other organs and tissues. The control of human and animal fungi, and the efficient use of a monitoring system require ample knowledge of mycological problems both in human and veterinary medicine and of efficient laboratories capable of resolving the needs of both disciplines. Close collaboration between veterinarians, doctors and mycologists is necessary in order to resolve health problems linked to mycosis. PMID:16881412

Tampieri, M P

2006-06-01

56

Gender inequality and bio-social factors in nutritional status among under five children attending anganwadis in an urban slum of a town in Western Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Nutrition for under-5 children is of great importance as the foundation for life-time health, strength, and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. Globally, more than one-third of the child deaths are attributable to under-nutrition. The discriminatory attitudes against female children vary from being implicit to those that are quite explicit. So, the present cross-sectional study aims to assess the nutritional status (gender differences) of 146 under-5 children attending Anganwadis and also to study the bio-socio-demographic factors associated with malnutrition attending three Anganwadis of Adopted Urban slum area, involving anthropometric examination using standardized techniques and interview using predesigned semi-structured questionnaire for the mothers in September-October 2011. Nutritional status grading was done based on weight for age as per Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Classification and using height for age as per Vishveshwara Rao's Classification. 51.4% were males, majority in age group of 2-3 years. 63% children were malnourished, majority in Grade I malnutrition. Out of the total females, 72% were stunted and 43% were severely malnourished having mid arm circumference <12.5 cm. Birth order (P < 0.05), education status of the mother (P < 0.001), socio-economic status (P < 0.05) and type of family (P < 0.05) were found to be significantly associated with malnutrition. PMID:24124435

Patel, Kriti A; Langare, Sanjivani D; Naik, J D; Rajderkar, S S

2013-04-01

57

Determinants of Health Care Seeking for Diarrheal Illness in Young Children in Urban Slums of Kolkata, India  

PubMed Central

Maternal practices regarding children's health care have been recognized as an important factor associated with mortality rates among children < 5 years of age. We focused on health care-seeking practices of primary caretakers of children < 5 years of age with diarrheal disease in Kolkata. We interviewed caretakers of 1,058 children in a baseline survey and 6,077 children on six subsequent surveys. The prevalence of diarrhea during the preceding 2 weeks was 7.9% in the baseline survey and 5.7% (lowest 3.5% to highest 7.8%) in subsequent surveys. Multivariate logistic regression showed that formal education of primary caretakers was associated with seeking care outside the home (odds ratio [OR] = 15.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.5–85.7]; P = 0.002). Multinomial logistic regression showed that formal education of the primary caretaker (OR = 21.4; 95% CI [3.2–139.0]; P = 0.002) and presence of dry mouth during diarrhea (OR = 17.3; 95% CI [2.7–110.9]; P = 0.003) were associated with seeking care from licensed providers compared with the children for whom care was not sought outside of the home. This health care utilization and attitudes survey (HUAS) can serve as a tool to identify the factors that influence a better health care-seeking pattern in urban slums of Kolkata.

Manna, Byomkesh; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kanungo, Suman; Roy, Subhasis; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.; Sur, Dipika

2013-01-01

58

Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR?=?9.59, 95% CI?=?5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs.

Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

2013-01-01

59

Adverse profile of dietary nutrients, anthropometry and lipids in urban slum dwellers of northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The intra-country rural to urban migrant populations undergo radical socio-economic and lifestyle changes in a developing country. Therefore, it is an interesting sample in which to study nutrition pattern, anthropometry and metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to assess nutrient profile and its association with the anthropometry, percentage body fat (%BF) and blood lipids in the urban

A Misra; R Sharma; RM Pandey; N Khanna

2001-01-01

60

In their own words: assessment of satisfaction with residential location among migrants in Nairobi slums.  

PubMed

Using qualitative data collected from a sample of rural-urban migrants over the age of 15 in two Nairobi slums interviewed in 2008, this paper discusses the migrants' extent of satisfaction with their residential location and decision to migrate. The study sheds light on why people continue to migrate to, and stay in, the rapidly growing slum settlements despite the high levels of poverty and poor health conditions in these areas. Tenure status is related to satisfaction for all ages. Environmental factors were frequently mentioned as a source of dissatisfaction. Life cycle and 'age-cohort effects' may also affect satisfaction for different age groups in terms of who is satisfied as well as the issues that are considered for satisfaction. High levels of dissatisfaction with slum life may be responsible for high out-migration in slum areas, although it does not mean that those who remain do so because they are satisfied. At the same time, challenges associated with slum life do not automatically signify dissatisfaction. Perceived success, as well as conditions in the area of origin can be used to explain and understand satisfaction/dissatisfaction with slum life. Satisfaction with migration and residential location may be related not only to the destination place, but also to events in the area of origin. PMID:20809178

Mudege, Netsayi Noris; Zulu, Eliya M

2011-06-01

61

Fractal cartography of urban areas  

PubMed Central

In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

Encarnacao, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedorio, Jose A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

62

Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Urban, Semi Urban and Rural Areas in and around Chennai City, India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged >?=?15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

Chockalingam, Kolappan; Vedhachalam, Chandrasekaran; Rangasamy, Subramani; Sekar, Gomathi; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Swaminathan, Soumya; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan

2013-01-01

63

Quality of Water the Slum Dwellers Use: The Case of a Kenyan Slum  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of rapid urbanization in a context of economic constraints, the majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa\\u000a live in slums often characterized by a lack of basic services such as water and sewerage. Consequently, the urban poor often\\u000a use inexpensive pit latrines and at the same time may draw domestic water from nearby wells. Overcrowding in slums

Elizabeth Wambui Kimani-Murage; Augustine M. Ngindu

2007-01-01

64

Newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a quantitative and qualitative exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background Urbanization is occurring at a rapid pace, especially in low-income countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, is estimated to grow to 50 million by 2015, with 21 million living in urban slums. Although health services are available, neonatal mortality is higher in slum areas than in urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in urban slums in Bangladesh. This paper describes newborn care practices in urban slums in Dhaka and provides program recommendations. Methods A quantitative baseline survey was conducted in six urban slum areas to measure newborn care practices among recently delivered women (n = 1,256). Thirty-six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore newborn care practices among currently pregnant women (n = 18) and women who had at least one delivery (n = 18). Results In the baseline survey, the majority of women gave birth at home (84%). Most women reported having knowledge about drying the baby (64%), wrapping the baby after birth (59%), and cord care (46%). In the in-depth interviews, almost all women reported using sterilized instruments to cut the cord. Babies are typically bathed soon after birth to purify them from the birth process. There was extensive care given to the umbilical cord including massage and/or applying substances, as well as a variety of practices to keep the baby warm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare; most women reported first giving their babies sweet water, honey and/or other foods. Conclusion These reported newborn care practices are similar to those in rural areas of Bangladesh and to urban and rural areas in the South Asia region. There are several program implications. Educational messages to promote providing newborn care immediately after birth, using sterile thread, delaying bathing, and ensuring dry cord care and exclusive breastfeeding are needed. Programs in urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve social support for women, especially first time mothers. These interventions may improve newborn survival and help achieve MDG4.

2009-01-01

65

[Dengue study in a slum area in Rio de Janeiro: preliminary analysis].  

PubMed

This study is part of a program to control and prevent dengue in a slum bordering on the grounds of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results obtained from a questionnaire and entomological survey called attention to problems pertaining to the information transmitted by public health campaigns and its interpretation, since many practices result from misunderstanding or forgetting preventive messages. Dengue-related data include most frequent vector breeding sites, people's knowledge, and dengue-related habits. The study's conclusions in terms of dengue prevention point to the need for drafting messages not only about ideal preventive practices but also teaching possible solutions: disseminating frequent messages throughout the year and not only seasonally and planning health education to join health professionals and the population in the search for sustainable dengue control alternatives. PMID:11035525

Lenzi, M F; Camillo-Coura, L; Grault, C E; Val, M B

66

Serological trail of Brucella infection in an urban slum population in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brucellosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with new cases reported each year in many Latin American countries, but it is mostly under-recognized. This study presents a serological investigation of infection with Brucella abortus and Brucella canis in a poor urban community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Methodology Human sera (n = 180) were randomly selected from 3,171 samples taken from healthy individuals during 2003-2004 and tested with C-ELISA for B. abortus and I-ELISA for B. canis. Results Thirteen percent (24/180) of the individuals were positive for B. abortus and 4.6 % (8/174) were positive for B. canis. Among the variables studied only age (older than 45 years) appeared to be a risk factor for the detection of Brucella antibodies. Conclusion These results indicate the presence of Brucella infection in this settlement and highlight the need to understand the epidemiology of infection under these circumstances to establish the necessary measures for surveillance and control.

Angel, Martha Olivera; Ristow, Paula; Ko, Albert I.; Di-Lorenzo, Cecilia

2013-01-01

67

Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings.

2012-01-01

68

Women-focused development intervention reduces delays in accessing emergency obstetric care in urban slums in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. Results The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in income-generating activities. Conclusions Manoshi program reduces the first delay for life-threatening conditions but not non-life-threatening complications even though providing financial assistance. Programme should give more emphasis on raising awareness through couple/family-based education about maternal complications and dispel fear of clinical care to accelerate seeking EmOC.

2011-01-01

69

Determinants for participation in a public health insurance program among residents of urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. This paper examines the determinants associated with participation in the NHIF among residents of urban slums in Nairobi city. Methods The study used data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System in two slums in Nairobi city, where a total of about 60,000 individuals living in approximately 23,000 households are under surveillance. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with participation in the NHIF program. Results Only 10% of the respondents were participating in the NHIF program, while less than 1% (0.8%) had private insurance coverage. The majority of the respondents (89%) did not have any type of insurance coverage. Females were more likely to participate in the NHIF program (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001), while respondents who were formerly in a union (OR = 0.5; p < 0.05) and who were never in a union (OR = 0.6; p < 0.05) were less likely to have public insurance coverage. Respondents working in the formal employment sector (OR = 4.1; p < 0.001) were more likely to be enrolled in the NHIF program compared to those in the informal sector. Membership in microfinance institutions such as savings and credit cooperative organizations (SACCOs) and community-based savings and credit groups were important determinants of access to health insurance. Conclusions The proportion of slum residents without any type of insurance is high, which underscores the need for a social health insurance program to ensure equitable access to health care among the poor and vulnerable segments of the population. As the Kenyan government moves toward transforming the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to harness the unique opportunities offered by both the formal and informal microfinance institutions in improving health care capacity by considering them as viable financing options within a comprehensive national health financing policy framework.

2012-01-01

70

[Blood donation in urban areas].  

PubMed

Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

Charpentier, F

2013-04-15

71

Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg ?=?1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m?2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China.

Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

2013-01-01

72

Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted. PMID:17658447

Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

2007-06-16

73

Research in Turbulent Environments: Slums in Chennai, India and the Impact of the December 2004 Tsunami on an Ecohealth Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 26, 2004, a tsunami struck coastal areas in the Bay of Bengal. Among the communities affected were Pallavan Nagar and Anju Kudasai slums in Chennai India. These communities have been collaborating, with some success, on a project to manage the urban environment for human health that employs an adaptive ecosystem approach framework, and is heavily influenced by participatory

Martin J. Bunch; Beth Franklin; David Morley; T. Vasantha Kumaran; V. Madha Suresh

2005-01-01

74

Body Mass Index and Chronic Energy Deficiency Among Urban Bengalee Male Slum Dwellers of Kolkata, India: Relationship with Family Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study of 191 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the\\u000a relationships of family income with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency (CED). Results revealed that the mean\\u000a height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were 162.2 cm, 54.0 kg, and 20.5 kg\\/m2, respectively. The overall frequency of CED (BMI?2) was 33.5%. Based

Raja Chakraborty; Kaushik Bose; Samiran Bisai

2006-01-01

75

Integrating public transport into urban area development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating public transport into urban area development is important since it involves more than better accessibility. Despite the difficulties, there are certainly opportunities to give public transport a more ambitious role. The aspects of public transport in urban area development have been studied by the authors during several projects and recent assignments. The lessons learned here have been described based

R van der Bijl; F de Zeeuw

2009-01-01

76

CHAPTER 4 Urbanization, Agglomeration, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund released a report forecasting rapidly rising levels of urbanization over the next two decades, especially in the developing world. It noted that for the fi rst time in history, more than half the world's population resides in urban areas. The same year UN- HABITAT issued a report highlighting the slums and deplorable living

John M. Quigley

77

Health care utilisation under the 30-Baht Scheme among the urban poor in Mitrapap slum, Khon Kaen, Thailand: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001, the Government of Thailand introduced a universal coverage scheme with the aim of ensuring equitable health care access for even the poorest citizens. For a flat user fee of 30 Baht per consultation, or for free for those falling into exemption categories, every scheme participant may access registered health services. The exemption categories include children under 12 years of age, senior citizens aged 60 years and over, the very poor, and volunteer health workers. The functioning of these exemption mechanisms and the effect of the scheme on health service utilisation among the poor is controversial. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of 30-Baht Scheme registration and subsequent self-reported health service utilisation among an urban poor population in the Teparuk community within the Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen city, northeastern Thailand. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the exemption mechanisms in reaching the very poor and the elderly was examined. Factors for users' choice of health facilities were identified. Results Overall, the proportion of the Teparuk community enrolled with the 30-Baht Scheme was high at 86%, with over one quarter of these exempted from paying the consultation fee. User fee exemption was significantly more frequent among households with an above-poverty-line income (64.7%) compared to those below the poverty line (35.3%), ?2 (df) = 5.251 (1); p-value = 0.018. In addition, one third of respondents over 60 years of age were found to be still paying user fees. Self-reported use of registered medical facilities in case of illness was stated to be predominantly due to the service being available through the scheme, with service quality not a chief consideration. Overall consumer satisfaction was high, especially among those not required to pay the 30 Baht user fee. Conclusion Whilst the 30-Baht Scheme seems to cover most of the poor population of Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen, the user fee exemption mechanism only works partially with regard to reaching the poorest and exempting senior citizens. Service utilisation and satisfaction are highest amongst those who are fee-exempt. Service quality was not an important factor influencing choice of health facility. Ways should be sought to improve the effectiveness of the current exemption mechanisms.

Coronini-Cronberg, Sophie; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Gericke, Christian A

2007-01-01

78

A Comparative Study on the Nutritional Status of the Pre-School Children of the Employed Women and the Unemployed Women in the Urban Slums of Guntur  

PubMed Central

Background The early childhood development is most crucial and the mother’s care and attention is essential. The inevitable changes like women entering the work field have an effect on the child care and development. Aim To study the selected anthropometric indices of the children of employed and unemployed women. Settings and Design This study was done in the urban slums of Guntur city by using a cross sectional, descriptive design. Methods and Material This study was conducted during January – April 2011 with a sample of 312 children of non working women and 311 children of working women, who were selected through the systemic random quota sampling method in 6 randomly selected slums. The data was collected through questionnaires who were named as the Mother’s schedule and the Child schedule, which consisted of close-ended questions which were coded for an easy data entry. The Mother’s schedule looked at the information regarding the mother, like the caretaker during the mother’s absence, the time which was spent with her child each day, etc. The Child schedule looked for information like whether the child was exclusively breast fed, its age in months when the weaning started, whether the government sponsored crčche services (Anganwadi center) were utilized, etc. It also included the anthropometrical measurements of the child like its current weight, current height and mid arm circumference, which were obtained by using standardized tools. Statistical Analysis For each schedule, a separate table was created in a relational basis in MS Access, with suitable key fields to connect the information for the analysis. Results The children of the unemployed mothers weighed significantly higher than the children of the employed mothers. The children of the unemployed mothers also stood significantly taller than the children of the employed mothers. Conclusion In the absence of the mothers who are at work, a childcare service is essential and this should be facilitated through legislation, NGO efforts, etc. Breast feeding and the bonding time with children are to be encouraged for the employed mothers.

Yeleswarapu, Bharani Krishna; Nallapu, Samson Sanjeeva Rao

2012-01-01

79

Floods in Urban Areas of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods in three very different urban areas of Brazil are presented in this chapter: Săo Paulo, the largest city of South America; the mountain basins of Santa Catarina State, southeastern Brazil; and the city of Rio Branco (Acre State), a typical medium-sized city of the southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Săo Paulo represents a case of uncontrolled and disorganized urban growth, typical

Jose Candido Stevaux; Edgardo M. Latrubesse; Maria Lucia de P. Hermann; Samia Aquino

2009-01-01

80

Geospatial intelligence about urban areas using SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar satellites are important for geospatial intelligence about urban areas and urban situational awareness, since these satellites can collect data at day and night and independently of weather conditions ensuring that the information can be obtained at regular intervals and in time. For this purpose we have applied change detection techniques developed at TNO to Radarsat I fine beam imagery

A. C. van den Broek; R. J. Dekker

2007-01-01

81

Causes of neonatal and maternal deaths in Dhaka slums: Implications for service delivery  

PubMed Central

Background Bangladesh has about 5.7 million people living in urban slums that are characterized by adverse living conditions, poor access to healthcare services and health outcomes. In an attempt to ensure safe maternal, neonatal and child health services in the slums BRAC started a programme, MANOSHI, in 2007. This paper reports the causes of maternal and neonatal deaths in slums and discusses the implications of those deaths for Maternal Neonatal and Child Health service delivery. Methods Slums in three areas of Dhaka city were selected purposively. Data on causes of deaths were collected during 2008-2009 using verbal autopsy form. Two trained physicians independently assigned the cause of deaths. Results A total of 260 newborn and 38 maternal deaths were identified between 2008 and 2009. The majority (75%) of neonatal deaths occurred during 0-7 days. The main causes of deaths were birth asphyxia (42%), sepsis (20%) and birth trauma (7%). Post partum hemorrhage (37%) and eclampsia (16%) were the major direct causes and hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis was the most prevalent indirect cause (11%) of maternal deaths. Conclusion Delivery at a health facility with child assessment within a day of delivery and appropriate treatment could reduce neonatal deaths. Maternal mortality is unlikely to reduce without delivering at facilities with basic Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC) and arrangements for timely referral to EOC. There is a need for a comprehensive package of services that includes control of infectious diseases during pregnancy, EOC and adequate after delivery care.

2012-01-01

82

Spatial Variability of Temperature Trends in Urbanized and Urbanizing Areas of North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the differences in temperature trends during a 40-year period in urbanized and urbanizing areas in North Carolina. Urbanized sites are in the urban cores of the selected regions; urbanizing sites are in outlying suburban locations characterized by lower devel- opment intensities than their respective urban cores. We examined maximum and minimum temperatures for four seasons represented by

Jason Ortegren; Zhi-Jun Liu; G. J. Lennartson

83

THE TRAFFIC SAFETY PROBLEM IN URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of people who reside and work in urban areas increases, so, too, do the needs and demands placed on the infrastructure. This has led to severe congestion in many European cities, a situation which affects not only the environment in terms of pollution, but most notably levels of traffic safety. In Europe, tens of thousands of people

J. ARCHER; K. VOGEL

84

Rain Induced Pollutant Washing in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in urban areas is the pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. The rain washes and cleanses the air and the land surface and then, as runoff, transports a variety of materials to the nearest receiving water body. The pollution generation in storm runoff is a very complex process. It is an accepted view that a

G. Del Giudice; A. Leopardi; M. Greco

85

Planning flood control projects in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning and design of flood control projects invariably involves a consideration of sociological, economic, political and ecological factors in order to derive maximum benefits from the project. In urbanizing areas, this is often a rule rather than an exception where a project tends to have a variety of interrelated impacts on the environment. This paper presents the details of the

Nageshwar Rao Bhaskar; Vijay P. Singh

1988-01-01

86

The Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator, ILLUDAS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An objective method for the hydrologic design of storm drainage systems in urban areas and for the evaluation of an existing system. The method, based on a digital model known as ILLUDAS, uses storm rainfall and physical basin parameters to predict storm ...

M. L. Terstriep J. B. Stall

1974-01-01

87

Urban poor children.  

PubMed

One-half of the world's population lives in cities and towns; this is expected to increase to 70% by 2050. One in three urban dwellers lives in slums. As the urban population grows, so does the number of urban poor. Out of a billion children living in urban areas, approximately 300 million are suffering from exclusion or are at risk of exclusion. Urban poor children are devoid of basic rights of survival, development and protection and are marginalised in challenging conditions in overcrowded settlements. Rapid urbanisation and the consequent increase in urban population is one of the biggest challenges that developing countries, including India are facing. Thirty per cent (that is, 367.5 million) of India's population of 1.23 billion live in urban areas. Moreover, this figure is increasing rapidly and is expected to reach 432 million (40%) by 2021. Rapid urbanisation has unfortunately outpaced development, and a large proportion (43 million) live in substandard conditions in slums. Now is the time to pay attention to the basic rights of the urban poor, especially the urban poor children, the most vulnerable group at the launching of 12(th) Five-Year Plan & National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in India. PMID:23837083

Ambey, Ravi; Gaur, Ajay; Gupta, Richa; Patel, Gs

2013-06-30

88

Emerging Networks of Organized Urban Poor: Restructuring the Engagement with Government Toward the Inclusion of the Excluded  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this article is to address the issue of citizen participation and democratic engagement within a specific area—slum\\u000a upgrading—presenting and theoretically discussing the approach of an international network called Shack\\/Slum Dwellers International\\u000a (SDI), which represents member federations of urban poor and homeless groups from about 30 countries in Asia, Africa, and\\u000a Latin America. The article addresses the model of

Angelo Gasparre

89

Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

2012-04-01

90

Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

Yinger, John

91

Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

Grinnell, Max

2012-03-02

92

Women’s Reproductive Health in Slum Populations in India: Evidence From NFHS-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section\\u000a of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of\\u000a people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health

Indrajit Hazarika

2010-01-01

93

Sustainable urban-rural relation in rapid urbanization areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been made concerning the problems, characteristics, formation, transformation measures, etc. of urban village\\u000a from sociology, urban planning and geography, etc., which have made insightful analysis. However, most of these studies started\\u000a mainly from the standpoint of the city government, drumming for the landscape-oriented urbanization, namely pulling-down the\\u000a urban village and constructing the splendid residence or business buildings.

Li-hua Wei; Xiao-pei Yan

2005-01-01

94

Sex ratio in the Iranian urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Factors affecting the sex ratio are examined using data for 1,169,489 births occurring in rural and urban districts of Tehran, Iran, between 1971 and 1979. Attention is given to geographic, socioeconomic, psychological, and nutritional factors. It is found that "male births occurred more in Winter and Spring in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Female births occurred more in Fall in both urban and rural areas. Mean sex ratio was 108.20 in rural and 105.44 in urban areas." Reasons for the differentials between urban and rural areas are suggested. PMID:12268183

Farhud, D D; Kamali, M S; Marzban, M; Nevisi, N

1986-06-01

95

Urban Places in Nonmetro Areas: Historic Preservation and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban places during the 20th century faced economic forces causing the decline of their downtowns. Historic preservation, as part of a broader framework, is used for the redevelopment of the urban places' central business districts in nonmetro areas. Whil...

P. L. Stenberg

1995-01-01

96

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues....

97

The air quality in Danish urban areas.  

PubMed Central

The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

1994-01-01

98

The air quality in Danish urban areas.  

PubMed

The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

1994-10-01

99

Inequalities in maternity care and newborn outcomes: one-year surveillance of births in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aggregate urban health statistics mask inequalities. We described maternity care in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai, and examined differences in care and outcomes between more and less deprived groups. METHODS: We collected information through a birth surveillance system covering a population of over 280 000 in 48 vulnerable slum localities. Resident women identified births in their own localities and

Neena Shah More; Ujwala Bapat; Sushmita Das; Sarah Barnett; Anthony Costello; Armida Fernandez; David Osrin

2009-01-01

100

Carbonaceous aerosols in Norwegian urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by volatile and semivolatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT) instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan. Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp) at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10) or even higher (for PM2.5) than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m-3). This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood) accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM=Organic matter+Elemental matter) accounted for 46-83% of PM10 at the sites studied, thus being the major fraction.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Braathen, O.-A.; Simpson, D.; Steinnes, E.

2009-03-01

101

Flood Detection in Urban Areas Using TerraSAR-X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high-resolution TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. The study uses a TerraSAR-X image of a one-in-150-year flood near Tewkesbury, U.K., in

David C. Mason; Rainer Speck; Bernard Devereux; Guy J.-P. Schumann; Jeffrey C. Neal; Paul D. Bates

2010-01-01

102

The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water

O. Starry

2005-01-01

103

Development and validation of a global positioning system-based "map book" system for categorizing cluster residency status of community members living in high-density urban slums in Blantyre, Malawi.  

PubMed

A significant methodological challenge in implementing community-based cluster-randomized trials is how to accurately categorize cluster residency when data are collected at a site distant from households. This study set out to validate a map book system for use in urban slums with no municipal address systems, where classification has been shown to be inaccurate when address descriptions were used. Between April and July 2011, 28 noncontiguous clusters were demarcated in Blantyre, Malawi. In December 2011, antiretroviral therapy initiators were asked to identify themselves as cluster residents (yes/no and which cluster) by using map books. A random sample of antiretroviral therapy initiators was used to validate map book categorization against Global Positioning System coordinates taken from participants' households. Of the 202 antiretroviral therapy initiators, 48 (23.8%) were categorized with the map book system as in-cluster residents and 147 (72.8%) as out-of-cluster residents, and 7 (3.4%) were unsure. Agreement between map books and the Global Positioning System was 100% in the 20 adults selected for validation and was 95.0% (? = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00) in an additional 20 in-cluster residents (overall ? = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.00). With map books, cluster residents were classified rapidly and accurately. If validated elsewhere, this approach could be of widespread value in that it would enable accurate categorization without home visits. PMID:23589586

MacPherson, Peter; Choko, Augustine T; Webb, Emily L; Thindwa, Deus; Squire, S Bertel; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chunda, Treza; Chavula, Kondwani; Makombe, Simon D; Lalloo, David G; Corbett, Elizabeth L

2013-04-14

104

Development and Validation of a Global Positioning System-based "Map Book" System for Categorizing Cluster Residency Status of Community Members Living in High-Density Urban Slums in Blantyre, Malawi  

PubMed Central

A significant methodological challenge in implementing community-based cluster-randomized trials is how to accurately categorize cluster residency when data are collected at a site distant from households. This study set out to validate a map book system for use in urban slums with no municipal address systems, where classification has been shown to be inaccurate when address descriptions were used. Between April and July 2011, 28 noncontiguous clusters were demarcated in Blantyre, Malawi. In December 2011, antiretroviral therapy initiators were asked to identify themselves as cluster residents (yes/no and which cluster) by using map books. A random sample of antiretroviral therapy initiators was used to validate map book categorization against Global Positioning System coordinates taken from participants' households. Of the 202 antiretroviral therapy initiators, 48 (23.8%) were categorized with the map book system as in-cluster residents and 147 (72.8%) as out-of-cluster residents, and 7 (3.4%) were unsure. Agreement between map books and the Global Positioning System was 100% in the 20 adults selected for validation and was 95.0% (? = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00) in an additional 20 in-cluster residents (overall ? = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.00). With map books, cluster residents were classified rapidly and accurately. If validated elsewhere, this approach could be of widespread value in that it would enable accurate categorization without home visits.

MacPherson, Peter; Choko, Augustine T.; Webb, Emily L.; Thindwa, Deus; Squire, S. Bertel; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; van Oosterhout, Joep J.; Chunda, Treza; Chavula, Kondwani; Makombe, Simon D.; Lalloo, David G.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.

2013-01-01

105

Urban expansion in Tokyo metropolitan area between 1972 and 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to World Bank Report, more than half of the world’s population is now living in cities and over two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions come from cities worldwide. The Kanto Plain is the largest plain in Japan, which experienced the greatest urban expansion in the 20th century. Satellite images collected over a span of years can be used to identify and characterize both natural and anthropogenic changes over large areas of land. Landsat satellite images are ideal for this purpose; imagery recorded over nearly four decades provides a unique resource for temporal analysis of urban area land cover change. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal urban area changes in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (include the neighboring regions). and to investigate the possible causes of those changes. To do this, we applied land-cover classification schemes to Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor images recorded between 1972 and 2002, which we acquired from the Landsat archive. We used two supervised classification methods, the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method and the subspace method, to accurately classify land cover on Landsat images recorded in 1972, 1985, and 2002. This allowed us to quantitatively present urban area changes between 1972 and 2002, and allowed us to analyze its relation with multi-time 1 kilometer grid population density census data to further report on the trends of urban expansion. Figure 1 shows the urban area in 1972, and figure 2 shows the urban area in 2002. From the two maps, along with the high economic growth of the Japanese economy, the concentration of the population in Tokyo extremely increased over the period from 1972 to 2002. As a result, these factors lead to urban sprawl in the suburban areas of Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Figure 1. Urban area in 1972. Figure 2. Urban area in 2002.

Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

2010-12-01

106

Quality of water the slum dwellers use: the case of a Kenyan slum.  

PubMed

As a result of rapid urbanization in a context of economic constraints, the majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa live in slums often characterized by a lack of basic services such as water and sewerage. Consequently, the urban poor often use inexpensive pit latrines and at the same time may draw domestic water from nearby wells. Overcrowding in slums limits the adequate distance between wells and pit latrines so that micro-organisms migrate from latrines to water sources. Sanitary practices in these overcrowded slums are also poor, leading to contamination of these wells. This study sought to assess sanitary practices of residents of a Kenyan urban slum and fecal contamination of their domestic water sources. This cross-sectional study involved 192 respondents from Langas slum, Kenya. Forty water samples were collected from the water sources used by the respondents for laboratory analysis of coliforms. Of these 40 samples, 31 were from shallow wells, four from deep wells, and five from taps. Multiple-tube fermentation technique was used to enumerate coliform bacteria in water. The study found that most people (91%) in the Langas slum used wells as the main source of domestic water, whereas the rest used tap water. Whereas most people used pit latrines for excreta disposal, a substantial percentage (30%) of children excreted in the open field. The estimated distance between the pit latrines and the wells was generally short with about 40% of the pit latrines being less than 15 m from the wells. The main domestic water sources were found to be highly contaminated with fecal matter. Total coliforms were found in 100% of water samples from shallow wells, while 97% of these samples from shallow wells were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. Three out of the four samples from deep wells were positive for total coliforms, while two of the four samples were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. None of the samples from taps were positive for either total or thermotolerant coliforms. Because the presence of thermotolerant coliforms in water indicates fecal contamination, facilitated by the proximity between the wells and pit latrines, the study suggests that the pit latrines were a major source of contamination of the wells with fecal matter. However, contamination through surface runoff during rains is also plausible as indiscriminate excreta disposal particularly by children was also common. Owing to the fecal contamination, there is a high possibility of the presence of disease pathogens in the water; thus, the water from the wells in Langas may not be suitable for human consumption. To address this problem, treatment of the water at community or household level and intensive behavioral change in sanitary practices are recommended. Efforts should be made to provide regulated tap water to this community and to other slums in sub-Saharan Africa where tap water is not accessible. However, more sampling of different water sources is recommended. PMID:17551841

Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth Wambui; Ngindu, Augustine M

2007-06-06

107

Mapping urban poverty for local governance in an Indian mega-city: The case of Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article maps urban poverty, using the `livelihoods assets framework' to develop a new index of multiple deprivation, examining the implications for area and sector targeting by policy-makers. This article deals with the index and the results for Delhi. The study maps: the spatial concentration of poverty; the diversity of deprivation at ward level; whether poverty is concentrated in slums;

I. S. A. Baud; N. Sridharan; K. Pfeffer

2008-01-01

108

Relationship of family income and house type to body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among urban Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 469 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Dum Dum, Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income and house type with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency. The overall frequency of chronic energy deficiency was 32.0%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency among this population was high and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income was significantly positively correlated with BMI. Significant differences in mean weight, BMI and monthly family income, were observed between the two house type groups. All values were found to be significantly higher in the brick household group who also earned a comparatively higher income as evident from the mean monthly family income values. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency was also found to be significantly higher in the bamboo-fenced household group. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group had the lowest mean BMI and the highest rate of chronic energy deficiency while those in the highest family income group had the largest mean BMI and lowest rate of chronic energy deficiency. There was a significant family income group difference in mean BMI. There existed significant differences in chronic energy deficiency rates in family income group categories. Linear regression analyses showed that monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI. Subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed that both monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI, even after controlling for each other. PMID:19019365

Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran

2008-11-18

109

Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.

van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

2013-01-01

110

City Air or City Markets: Productivity Gains in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent productivity gains to rural-urban migrants have been documented by a number of researchers. One interpretation of this result is that individuals learn higher value skills in cities than they would have learned in less dense areas. Another explanation for this result, however, is that thicker urban labor markets allow for better matches, which are realized slowly through a process

Douglas J. Krupka

2007-01-01

111

The Green Area Ratio: an urban site sustainability metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green Area Ratio (GAR) is an urban site sustainability metric which has been used in Berlin, Germany since 1997 to enhance the urban environment by requiring green infrastructure enhancements on private properties. Following an overview of the principles of the GAR instrument, this paper outlines metric development and implementation procedures in Berlin and then analyses how instrument features might

Melissa Keeley

2011-01-01

112

Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

Khosla, Renu

113

Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

Tsujita, Yuko

2013-01-01

114

What does Access to Maternal Care Mean Among the Urban Poor? Factors Associated with Use of Appropriate Maternal Health Services in the Slum Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The study seeks to improve understanding of maternity health seeking behaviors in resource-deprived urban settings. The objective\\u000a of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the choice of place of delivery among the urban poor, with a distinction\\u000a between sub-standard and “appropriate” health facilities. Methods The data are from a maternal health project carried out in two

Jean-Christophe Fotso; Alex Ezeh; Nyovani Madise; Abdhallah Ziraba; Reuben Ogollah

2009-01-01

115

INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

116

PRT: A Suitable Transport System for Urban Areas in Sweden.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a thematic research program 'Advanced transit systems' performed at Chalmers University of Technology during the years 1994-97. The program aims to investigate if Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) may be a suitable system for urban areas...

I. Andreasson

1998-01-01

117

Modelling and managing runoff processes in peri-urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, a deeper knowledge of the extreme runoff generation requires more inclusive and interactive understanding of its numerous determining factors. This includes not only a better estimation of meteorological extremes under changing climate conditions, but also a better evaluation of infiltration and saturation excesses, of subsurface return flows, as well as, of human impacts on surface runoff. This communication presents a physically based and spatially distributed numerical model for simulation of the hydrologic interactions between the surface and subsurface flows. Further particularities of this model correspond to: (1) a new methodology for the estimation of the precipitation input; and (2) a new modelling methodology to design Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas. The multifractal frequency analyses have been used to evaluate the maximum precipitation rate for several durations with the design return period. This method has the advantage to rely on a few robust exponents that are physically meaningful and can be evaluated on discontinuous and/or low frequency samples. The design of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas with low permeability soils as well as with high groundwater levels can be used to decrease the floods risk in the inundated zones. Our model was particularly oriented towards the retention in ponds and swales, infiltration into the ground and drainage through perforated pipes to manage the storm water runoff. The methodology explicitly takes into account the interactions with the water table, the evolution of the latter with infiltration and the soil profile. Using GIS, we visualise the resulting runoff processes together with the evolution of water table levels for the two case studies: a county contiguous to Paris (France) and in the Panola Area (USA). The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of SUDS in urban and peri-urban areas and fluvial retention measures to attenuate floods in small urban catchments. Comparisons with natural catchments with low urban development illustrate the impact of climate change and urbanisation on extreme runoff characteristics.

El Tabach, E.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

2008-12-01

118

URBAN GOES, JESSICA COMES” OR SUPPORTING URBAN AREAS IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Community has noticed relatively early, that the regional policy could not only drift for reducing the economic disparities existing between certain regions, but should support some other important goals. One part of the financial instruments of the regional policy supported expansions in rural development, but the regeneration of urban areas and the sustainable urban development has gradually appeared

Ágnes JUHÁSZ

2010-01-01

119

The Fuzzy Boundary: The Spatial Definition of Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities seem to have some kind of area structure, usually distinguished in terms of land use types, socio-economic variables, physical appearance or historical and cultural characteristics. Is there any possibility that urban areas could in general be differentiated from the spatial perspective? What is the nature of boundaries between areas in terms of space? These questions could be approached by

TAO YANG; BILL HILLIER

120

Interactive model of urban development in residential areas in Skopje  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of residential areas in Skopje in a period after the 1963 earthquake led to an emergence of continuous pressure to the physical structure of the city. It's essential to analyse, explore and understand the processes that are shaping our city. The study explores interactive tool that exercise the complex analysis of architectural and urban structure within the Skopje's residential areas and proposes a 3D model to investigate local dynamics and best fitting urban indicators for development. Through series of analysis of diverse typologies, programs, spatial and functional configurations of the dwelling within the city, the study presents an effort by use of Interactive Visualization Tool (InViTo) for modeling of urban development to explicate spatial distribution, the process of transformation and acknowledge the regularities and suitability of development of urban form in Skopje's residential area and, in particular, the relationship between functions and its localizations.

Marina, O.; Masala, E.; Pensa, S.; Stavric, M.

2012-10-01

121

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 5–10 year olds in rural, urban and slum areas in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background No previous epidemiological studies of child mental health have been conducted in Bangladesh, partly due to lack of suitable measures. Methods A Bangla translation of a standardised child psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), was validated against routine clinical diagnoses on a consecutive series of 100 re- ferrals to a child mental health service. A two-phase study

Mohammad Sayadul Islam Mullick; Robert Goodman

2005-01-01

122

Carbonaceous aerosols in Norwegian urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their

K. E. Yttri; C. Dye; O.-A. Braathen; D. Simpson; E. Steinnes

2009-01-01

123

Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East Africa have been derived (six at CSIR and two at CMCC). That is, a multi-model ensemble of simulations of present-day and future climate has been made available for a number of African regions. This approach is most useful to describe the range of uncertainty associated with future climate. In order to obtain a set of plausible and physically defensible projections that can be used for a broad range of subsequent research questions, the two partners followed two different modelling approaches. The first approach, (by CMCC) uses a single dynamic climate change model: the model gets executed several times using a number of pertubations, e.g. changing initial conditions to account for the non-linear dynamics, perturbations of the boundary conditions to account for the 'imperfect' characterizations of the non-atmospheric components of the climate system or to handle the uncertainty of the driving global model, or perturbations of the model physics to account for the uncertainties inherent in the parameterizations. The second approach, (by CSIR) keeps the boundary conditions static but downscales a number of different global circulation models to account for the uncertainties inherent in the models themselves. In total, CSIR has run six different dynamic models. All runs have been conducted on super computing clusters to be completed within reasonable timeframes. The full data set is currently made available on the web. A number of tools is used to provide maximum user experience for climate change experts, social geographers, city planners and policy decision makers.

Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

2013-04-01

124

Child Morbidity and Mortality in Slum Environments along Nairobi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem that guided this study was that child mortality and morbidity disparities continue to be observed in the era of improved expansion of the provision of health care services. Some areas have low mortality and morbidity while others such as the slums of Nairobi have high. Various factors may account for this scenario. On the one hand, this would

Margaret Nyanchoka Keraka; Wellington Nguya Wamicha

2003-01-01

125

Performance of a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention in the management of diarrhoea in a slum of Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers (n=370) of children, aged >12-71 months, identified by a door-to-door survey from a large urban slum, were enrolled in the study in two groups, i.e. control and intervention. To ensure minimal group interaction, enrollment for the control and intervention groups was done purposively from two extreme ends of the slum cluster. Baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diarrhoea-related issues, such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT), oral rehydration salt (ORS), and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea, was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. Thereafter, mothers (n=195) from the intervention area were provided health and nutrition education through fortnightly contacts achieved by two approaches developed for the study--'personal discussion sessions' and 'lane approach'. The mothers (n=175) from the control area were not contacted. After the intervention, there was a significant (p=0.000) improvement in acquaintance to the term 'ORS' (65-98%), along with its method of reconstitution from packets (13-69%); preparation of home-made sugar-salt solution (10-74%); role of both in the prevention of dehydration (30-74%) and importance of their daily preparation (74-96%); and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea (47-90%) in the intervention area. Sensitivity about age-specific feeding of ORS also improved significantly (p=0.000) from 13% to 88%. The reported usage of ORS packets and sugar-salt solution improved significantly from 12% to 65% (p=0.000) and 12% to 75% (p=0.005) respectively. The results showed that health and nutrition-education intervention improved the knowledge and attitudes of mothers. The results indicate a need for intensive programmes, especially directed towards urban slums to further improve the usage of oral rehydration therapy. PMID:21261200

Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G S

2010-12-01

126

Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.  

PubMed

In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, Joăo; Spaan, Matthijs T J

2010-03-19

127

ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural)

Gîdiu Valeria; Toader Valentin

2011-01-01

128

Why do Fertility Levels Vary between Urban and Rural Areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kulu H. Why do fertility levels vary between urban and rural areas?, Regional Studies. This study examines the causes of fertility variation across settlements. It uses rich longitudinal data from Finland and applies event history analysis. Analysis shows that fertility levels are the highest in small towns and rural areas and the lowest in the capital city, as expected. The

Hill Kulu

2011-01-01

129

Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; Gonzalez, Marta C.

2012-01-01

130

Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

2012-12-01

131

Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

2011-01-01

132

Urban poverty and its connection to internal migration: a sociological study of some of the inner?city neighbourhoods of Riyadh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with an important sociological aspect of the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. It analyses urban poverty in the old, slum (sha?b?) neighbourhoods in the centre of the city, such as those affiliated to the municipality of ‘al?Ba????’ where families in these areas have witnessed an increase in numbers along with a decrease in income and an

Aziza A. Alnuaim

2010-01-01

133

Carbon Storage in Urban Areas in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that human settlements occupy a small proportion of the landmass and therefore play a relatively small role in the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Most modeling studies focusing on the land carbon cycle use models of varying complexity to estimate carbon fluxes through forests, grasses, and croplands, but completely omit urban areas from their scope. Here, we estimate carbon storage in urban areas within the United States, defined to encompass a range of observed settlement densities, and its changes from 1950 to 2000. We show that this storage is not negligible and has been continuously increasing. We include natural- and human-related components of urban areas in our estimates. The natural component includes carbon storage in urban soil and vegetation. The human related component encompasses carbon stored long term in buildings, furniture, cars, and waste. The study suggests that urban areas should receive continued attention in efforts to accurately account for carbon uptake and storage in terrestrial systems.

Churkina, G.; Brown, D.; Keoleian, G.

2007-12-01

134

Housing Conditions in Urban Poverty Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents data from two special tabulating operations carried out for the Commission by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, to provide information about (1) the geographic extent of 'poverty areas' in the largest metropolitan areas (those that had a ...

A. D. Manvel

1968-01-01

135

Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.  

PubMed

The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

Desmond, Bree

136

Flood Risk Assessment of Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with assessment of the existing storm sewer system of the Prishtina airport area in Kosovo. Frequent flooding\\u000a of the airport area occurred recently and the activities in flood assessment and flood protection design were undertaken.\\u000a First step in achieving flood risk assessment is data collection. Since the region recently was in war conflict it was not\\u000a an

Cvetanka Popovska; Dragan Ivanoski

137

Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas: The TRAILS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urban- ization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and rural area and to examine the contributory factors. Methods: We obtained data from the first

Sijmen A. Reijneveld; Rene Veenstra; Andrea F. de Winter; Frank C. Verhulst; Johannes Ormel

2009-01-01

138

Modelling muddy floods in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

2012-04-01

139

House price diffusions across three urban areas in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Various empirical studies have demonstrated that house prices in different geographic regions have a tendency to co-move. But these studies have focused on developed economies in the west. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis in the case of three major urban areas in the rapidly developing economy of Malaysia, namely Klang Valley, Penang and

Hon-Chung Hui

2010-01-01

140

?????????????????????????? Health and Happiness Outcomes in Urban and Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explain the relationship between socio-economic factors and physical health and happiness outcomes of the Thai people. The study specifically investigates the differences between health and happiness outcomes of people who live in the urban and rural areas in Thailand. Unlike results found in other countries, income is found to not affect the level of happiness for

Piriya Pholphirul

141

Characterization and heterogeneity of coarse particles across an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse particles exposures are expected to be highly heterogeneous in an urban area. However, little data are available to explore the extent of heterogeneity of coarse particles, especially on a local scale. An extensive sampling program for the coarse particles was conducted using University of North Carolina (UNC) passive aerosol samplers. The samplers were deployed for 4–5 week periods during

Pramod Kumar; Philip K. Hopke; Suresh Raja; Gary Casuccio; Traci L. Lersch; Roger R. West

142

Developing a variable-scale map projection for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the development of a variable-scale map projection is presented and the code given in C. Such constructs have applications in urban areas where the central zones, which are detailed densely are to be displayed at a larger scale than the surrounding suburbs which are more extensive, but with sparser mappable features.

D. Fairbairn; G. Taylor

1995-01-01

143

Caring for Caregivers of People Living with HIV in the Family: A Response to the HIV Pandemic from Two Urban Slum Communities in Pune, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction In low resource settings, the vast majority of ‘Person/people Living with HIV’ (PLHIV/s) and inadequate healthcare delivery systems to meet their treatment and care needs, caregivers play a vital role. Home based caregivers are often unrecognized with limited AIDS policies and programs focusing on them. We explored the perceptions and norms regarding care being provided by family caregivers of PLHIVs in India. Methodology A community based qualitative study to understand the issues pertaining to home based care for PLHIV was conducted in urban settings of Pune city, in Maharashtra, India. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among men, women and peer educators were carried out. A total of 44 in-depth Interviews (IDIs) with PLHIVs (20) and their caregivers (24), were conducted using separate guides respectively. Data was analyzed thematically. Results Home based care was perceived as economically viable option available for PLHIVs. ‘Care’ comprised of emotional, adherence, nursing and financial support to PLHIV. Home based care was preferred over hospital based care as it ensured confidentiality and patient care without hampering routine work at home. Women emerged as more vital primary caregivers compared to men. Home based care for men was almost unconditional while women had no such support. The natal family of women also abandoned. Their marital families seemed to provide support. Caregivers voiced the need for respite care and training. Discussion Gender related stigma and discrimination existed irrespective of women being the primary family caregivers. The support from marital families indicates a need to explore care and support issues at natal and marital homes of the women living with HIV respectively. Home based care training and respite care for the caregivers is recommended. Gender sensitive interventions addressing gender inequity and HIV related stigma should be modeled while designing interventions for PLHIVs and their family caregivers.

Kohli, Rewa; Purohit, Vidula; Karve, Latika; Bhalerao, Vinod; Karvande, Shilpa; Rangan, Sheela; Reddy, Srikanth; Paranjape, Ramesh; Sahay, Seema

2012-01-01

144

"Making It": Understanding Adolescent Resilience in Two Informal Settlements (Slums) in Nairobi, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many adolescents living in contexts characterized by adversity achieve positive outcomes. We adopt a protection-risk conceptual framework to examine resilience (academic achievement, civic participation, and avoidance of risk behaviors) among 1,722 never-married 12-19 year olds living in two Kenyan urban slums. We find stronger associations…

Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Ndugwa, Robert P.; Zulu, Eliya M.; Jessor, Richard

2012-01-01

145

"Making It": Understanding Adolescent Resilience in Two Informal Settlements (Slums) in Nairobi, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adolescents living in contexts characterized by adversity achieve positive outcomes. We adopt a protection-risk conceptual framework to examine resilience (academic achievement, civic participation, and avoidance of risk behaviors) among 1,722 never-married 12-19 year olds living in two Kenyan urban slums. We find stronger associations…

Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Ndugwa, Robert P.; Zulu, Eliya M.; Jessor, Richard

2012-01-01

146

Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Holzer, T. L.; Johnson, A. I.

1985-01-01

147

Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m- 2 s- 1, which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m- 2 s- 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m- 2 s- 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO2 m- 2 y- 1, considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

2012-03-01

148

The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

Starry, O.

2005-05-01

149

Environmental Consequences of Urbanization in Permafrost Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Most of northern cities are anthropo-natural systems with domination of anthropogenic components. The environmental framework of the permafrost zone is very insignificant, with green belts being represented by small parks and public gardens. Modern northern cities of Russia represent territories with dense and compact residential buildings having simple configuration to reduce heat loss under severe climatic conditions. In earlier settlements such buildings alternate quite often with private one-storey houses. The typical modern and old cities were investigated for study of its environmental impact. Purpose The goal of this presentation is analysis of main environmental problems in permafrost areas of Northern Russian territories using data of city infrastructure and permafrost and environmental processes monitoring for old and new developing cities. Results It was found that primary anthropogenic changes of cities' environments are following: soil devastation, change of surface water and groundwater, stationary and dynamic loads, pollution, change of thermal state of soils, accumulation of occupation layer, waste dumping. It is practically impossible to preserve natural permafrost conditions. Therefore we can observe in all cities of the permafrost zone degradation or, more rarely, aggradation of permafrost grounds depending on natural and permafrost conditions, construction principles, density and age of constructions, development of the territory and many other factors. The degree of change in various natural components of various permafrost zones varies, depending on the initial natural conditions in which economic activity is carried out, its type and duration. This entails various ecologic situations ranging from normal to crisis or disaster. Conclusion Significant changes of geocryological and an ecological situation are marked only at dense modern multi-storey building city territories. In these cases there is a degradation of permafrost soils irrespective of principles of preparation of the bases and constructions.

Khilimonyuk, D.; Brouchkov, A.

2010-03-01

150

Interrelationship between poverty and the wildland–urban interface in metropolitan areas of the Southern US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research disentangles the relationship between Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) area and poverty in metropolitan areas of the Southern US where urban sprawl has intensified and high-poverty regions have persisted. Results confirm that the enlargement of WUI areas increases urban poverty, which in turn causes WUI areas to expand. This finding validates the underlying hypothesis: expansion of the WUI excludes people

Seong-Hoon Cho; Suhyun Jung; Roland K. Roberts; Seung Gyu Kim

2012-01-01

151

Interrelationship between poverty and the wildland–urban interface in metropolitan areas of the Southern US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research disentangles the relationship between Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) area and poverty in metropolitan areas of the Southern US where urban sprawl has intensified and high-poverty regions have persisted. Results confirm that the enlargement of WUI areas increases urban poverty, which in turn causes WUI areas to expand. This finding validates the underlying hypothesis: expansion of the WUI excludes people

Seong-Hoon Cho; Suhyun Jung; Roland K. Roberts; Seung Gyu Kim

2011-01-01

152

URBAN AIR TRANSECT STUDY TO INVESTIGATE URBAN AREAS AS SOURCES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An urban air transect study was undertaken in Oklahoma City, OK, to investigate whether urban areas represent sources of dioxin-like compounds to the rural environment. This study proposed the hypothesis that the collective human activities characteristic of cities cause urban a...

153

A STUDY OF STABILITY CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN AREA  

SciTech Connect

Accurate numerical prediction of airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas depends, to a great extent, on the use of appropriate stability conditions. Due to the lack of relevant field measurements or sufficiently sophisticated turbulence models, modelers often assume that nearly neutral conditions are appropriate to use for the entire urban area being simulated. The main argument for such an assumption is that atmospheric stability (as defined by the Richardson number) is determined by both mechanical stresses and buoyant forcing but, for a typical urban setting with a given thermal stability or sensible heat flux, building-induced mechanical stresses can become so dominant to drive the resulting stability toward nearly neutral conditions. Results from our recent simulations of two Joint URBAN 2003 releases, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model - FEM3MP, appear to support partially the assumption that urban areas tend toward neutral stability. More specifically, based on a model-data comparison for winds and concentration in the near field and velocity and turbulence profiles in the urban wake region, Chan and Lundquist (2005) and Lundquist and Chan (2005) observed that neutral stability assumption appears to be valid for intensive operation period (IOP) 9 (a nighttime release with moderate winds) and also appears to be valid for IOP 3 (a daytime release with strong buoyant forcing) in the urban core area but is less valid in the urban wake region. Our model, developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm is based on finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex building geometries and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection scheme and modern iterative solvers developed by Gresho and Chan (1998) for efficient time integration. Physical processes treated in our code include turbulence modeling via Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches described in Chan and Stevens (2000), atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budgets, and vegetative canopies, etc. Predictions from our model are continuously being verified against measured data from wind tunnel and field experiments. Examples of such studies are discussed in Chan et al. (2001, 2004), Chan and Leach (2004), Calhoun et al. (2004, 2005), and Humphreys et al. (2004). In this study, the stability conditions associated with two more of the Joint URBAN 2003 releases are investigated. Through a model-data comparison of the wind and concentration fields, observed buoyancy production in the urban wake region, together with predicted values of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in various regions of the computational domain, a more definitive characterization of stability conditions associated with the simulated releases is presented. In the following, we first discuss briefly the field experiments being simulated, then present sample results from a model-data comparison for both the wind and concentration fields, examine the predicted TKE field and the observed buoyant forcing relative to the total TKE in the urban wake, and finally offer a few concluding remarks including the resulting stability conditions of the simulated releases.

Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

2005-11-01

154

Comparable seropositivity for ascariasis and toxocariasis in tropical slum children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seropositivities for infection byAscaris lumbricoides andToxocara canis were determined in children (1–15 years old) of a slum area of Caracas, Venezuela, and the levels that indicate the presence of active infection were defined. In children aged from 1 to 3 years, approximately 10% were positive for either parasite, and this figure increased to about 30% in 4- to 6-year-olds.

Neil R. Lynch; Isabel Hagel; Vivian Vargas; Alecia Rotundo; María C. Varela; Maria C. Di Prisco; A. Neill Hodgen

1993-01-01

155

The synanthropic flora in the Mendoza (Argentina) urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synanthropic flora in the Mendoza urban area was studied in terms of its three most relevant sub-environments: house and\\u000a school gardens, parks and borders of narrow ditches used to irrigate the whole city. The current synanthropic flora comprises\\u000a 487 species, 8 native and 479 alien species. Neophytes include 282 genera and 104 families, with the dominant families being\\u000a Fabaceae,

Eduardo Enrique Martínez Carretero; Martínez Carretero

2010-01-01

156

Residential segregation of Spanish Americans in united states Urbanized Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential segregation among Spanish Americans, whites and blacks is measured in the 29 largest U.S. urbanized areas. Results\\u000a show that Spanish Americans are much less segregated from whites than are blacks and are less concentrated within central\\u000a cities. Spanish-white segregation also tends to be much lower in suburbs than in central cities, while black-white segregation\\u000a is maintained at a high

Douglas S. Massey

1979-01-01

157

Distribution of Excessive Rainfall Amounts over an Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data recorded over a 10-year period from a network of 11 recording rain gages was used in a study of the distribution characteristics of excessive rainfall amounts over the 10-square-mile urban area of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. All storms were used in which one or more rain gages recorded an amount equalling or exceeding the 2-year return period value of point rainfall

F. A. Huff; S. A. Changnon

1960-01-01

158

Measuring neighborhood context for young children in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of worsening conditions in urban areas has led to a growing interest in how neighborhood context affects children.\\u000a Although the ecological perspective within child development has acknowledged the relevance of community factors, methods\\u000a of measuring the neighborhood context for children have been quite limited. An approach to measuring neighborhood environments\\u000a was tested using the average perceptions of caregivers of

Claudia J. Coulton; Jill E. Korbin; Marilyn Su

1996-01-01

159

[Ecological quality of Beijing urban area from 1996 to 2005].  

PubMed

From the aspects of four ecological themes, i.e., ecological element, ecological process, ecological function and ecological destruction, an indicator framework including 16 indicators was developed to make an integrated assessment on the ecological quality of Beijing urban area. The weights of the indicators were determined by the methods of entropy weight, optimal state weight, and worst state weight, and the ecological element index (EEI), ecological process index (EPI), ecological function index (EFI), ecological destruction index (EDI), and composite ecological index (CEI) were computed by a weighted sum method and served as effective tools for analyzing the evolvement of the ecological quality of Beijing urban area from 1996 to 2005. The results showed that during the period of 1996-2005, the EEI of Beijing urban area did not display visible improvement and maintained a low level, far from the ideal state. The EPI and EFI increased dramatically, and approached to the ideal state in 2005. The EDI fluctuated within a low level, far from ideal state, and did not show an evolutionary trend. The CEI improved year after year, but was still low and did not reach the ideal state. The EPI, EFI, and CEI increased rapidly with economic development when the GDP per capita was less than US $ 3,000, but the decrease was decelerated after the GDP exceeded US $ 3,000. The EEI and EDI were less affected by economic development, but mainly restrained by the natural conditions and global and regional eco-environmental evolvement. PMID:18593048

Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-hua; Wang, Xiao-ke

2008-04-01

160

Surface-Atmosphere exchanges in urban areas: Observations and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing attention is being directed to the climates of urban areas given a large and increasing proportion of the worlds population live in cities, and urban settings are the locations of some of the most profound human impacts on the natural environment. Although understanding of urban effects on climate is incomplete, over the last decade much has been learnt about how urbanization modifies the climate system at micro, local and meso-scales, and the variability both within and between cities. This paper will attempt to summarize the most significant findings of this research. Data on the fundamental energy, mass and momentum exchanges will be presented from measurements campaigns from cities across North America (Vancouver, Mexico City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Sacramento, Tucson, Oklahoma City, Baltimore); Europe (Lodz, Marseille); and Africa (Ouagadougou), along with results of evaluations of simple (LUMPS-NARP and UK Met-Office) to more complex (TEB) surface-atmosphere exchange schemes, appropriate for use in global circulation, numerical weather prediction, and regional land-atmosphere models.

Grimmond, S.; Oke, T. R.

2003-12-01

161

Refining the waterfront. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas  

SciTech Connect

Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas are discussed with focal points on the older urban coastal areas, alternative patterns of development, economics of energy facility siting, and a look into the future for urban coastal areas. An appendix and bibliography is included in the work. (DLS)

Morell, D.; Singer, G. (eds.)

1980-01-01

162

A study on measurement of integration of urban and rural areas based on Clustering Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

developed tertiary industry is a sign of high-level urbanization for any places and cities. In urban economics, it is suggested that the rural areas based it's general development on the agriculture industry and the development level of the tertiary industry in rural areas are far behind that in urban areas. Therefore, the development level of the tertiary industry is one

Deying Sun

2011-01-01

163

47 CFR 90.741 - Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a minimum of 28 of the urban areas listed in the following Table...within one of the listed urban areas if it is within 60 kilometers...NAD83)). Table Urban area North latitude West longitude...Maryland/Virginia 38°53â˛51.4âł...

2011-10-01

164

47 CFR 90.741 - Urban areas for Phase I nationwide systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a minimum of 28 of the urban areas listed in the following Table...within one of the listed urban areas if it is within 60 kilometers...NAD83)). Table Urban area North latitude West longitude...Maryland/Virginia 38°53â˛51.4âł...

2012-10-01

165

A million dollar exit from the anarchic slum-world: Slumdog Millionaire's hollow idioms of social justice.  

PubMed

This article contests the characterisation of the popular and acclaimed film, Slumdog Millionaire, as a realistic portrayal of India's urban poverty that will ultimately serve as a tool of advocacy for India's urban poor. It argues that the film's reductive view of slum-spaces will more probably reinforce negative attitudes towards slum-dwellers, lending credibility to the sorts of policies that have historically dispossessed them of power and dignity. By drawing attention to the film's celebration of characters and spaces that symbolise Western culture and Northern trajectories of 'development', the article also critically engages with some of the issues raised by the film's enormous success. PMID:20607903

Sengupta, Mitu

2010-01-01

166

Fatal injuries in the slums of Nairobi and their risk factors: results from a matched case-control study.  

PubMed

Injuries contribute significantly to the rising morbidity and mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases in the developing world. Unfortunately, active injury surveillance is lacking in many developing countries, including Kenya. This study aims to describe and identify causes of and risk factors for fatal injuries in two slums in Nairobi city using a demographic surveillance system framework. The causes of death are determined using verbal autopsies. We used a nested case-control study design with all deaths from injuries between 2003 and 2005 as cases. Two controls were randomly selected from the non-injury deaths over the same period and individually matched to each case on age and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modeling to identity individual- and community-level factors associated with fatal injuries. Intentional injuries accounted for about 51% and unintentional injuries accounted for 49% of all injuries. Homicides accounted for 91% of intentional injuries and 47% of all injury-related deaths. Firearms (23%) and road traffic crashes (22%) were the leading single causes of deaths due to injuries. About 15% of injuries were due to substance intoxication, particularly alcohol, which in this community comes from illicit brews and is at times contaminated with methanol. Results suggest that in the pervasively unsafe and insecure environment that characterizes the urban slums, ethnicity, residence, and area level factors contribute significantly to the risk of injury-related mortality. PMID:21630106

Ziraba, Abdhalah Kasiira; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

2011-06-01

167

Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

2010-06-01

168

Pollutant Flushing Characterizations from Urban Storm Runoff at Rapid Urbanizing Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrology and water quality of 4 rainfall events were synchronously and continuously measured from 4 rapid urbanizing catchments in the Shiyan Reservoir Watershed. Flushing characterizations of COD, NH3-N, TN, TP, SS and BOD5 of storm runoff were analyzed. 59.37% and 26.04% of pollutant washoff resulting from urban storm runoff exhibit first flush phenomenon and second flush phenomenon, respectively. The pollutant washoff intensity during the prophase, metaphase and anaphase of rainfall are 1.30, 0.98 and 0.73, respectively. The variation characteristics of pollutant concentration in storm runoff is prophase concentration>metaphase concentration>anaphase concentration. There are no significant differences among 6 pollutants’ flushing characterizations at one catchment. However, significant differences of pollutant flushing characterizations for one pollutant exist among 4 catchments. Underlying surface condition and rainfall intensity are two important factors affecting pollutant flushing characteristics. The greater the percent of imperviousness, slope or rainfall intensity is, the more easily first flush phenomenon happens. On the contrary, second flush will happen more frequently. Significant second flush phenomenon exists in rapid urbanizing area. Figure 2 Cumulative pollutant load versus cumulative rainfall runoff Figure 3 Classification of pollutant flushing characterizations from urban storm runoff

Huang, Y.; Wang, L.; Wang, G.; Qing, H.

2010-12-01

169

The use of economic valuation to create public support for green infrastructure investments in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing urbanization has created pressure on land use. Today more and more land in urbanized areas is used for housing, industry, community services or other economic functions. However, green spaces have a proven positive effect on people living in the neighborhood of green spaces, as well as on people working or recreating in the urbanized area. Therefore, green infrastructure investments

Valerie Vandermeulen; Ann Verspecht; Bert Vermeire; Guido Van Huylenbroeck; Xavier Gellynck

2011-01-01

170

The Concentration of Severely Disturbed CMI in a Core Urban Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted two needs assessment studies of chronically mentally ill (CMI). Examined differential concentration of CMI persons in areas of Colorado, finding a disproportionate concentration on CMI persons in core urban area of Denver. Comparison of core urban clients to national sample revealed that Denver's core urban CMI population was severely…

Shern, David; Dilts, Stephen L.

1987-01-01

171

Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.  

PubMed

The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit. PMID:7522455

Shefer, D

1994-08-01

172

LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.  

PubMed

This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems. PMID:18657964

Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

2008-07-26

173

The Work of Teachers and Others in and around a Birmingham Slum School 1891-1920  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Floodgate Street area" was a notorious slum district in the city of Birmingham in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article presents a case study, drawing on the rich archival sources available for this area, to examine the language that local authority and voluntary workers used to describe the local area, and their…

Wright, Susannah

2009-01-01

174

Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence. PMID:23568948

Murthy, Sharmila L

2012-12-15

175

CFD model simulation of LPG dispersion in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing concern related to the releases of industrial hazardous materials (either toxic or flammable) due to terrorist attacks or accidental events in congested industrial or urban areas. In particular, a reliable estimation of the hazardous cloud footprint as a function of time is required to assist emergency response decision and planning as a primary element of any Decision Support System. Among the various hazardous materials, the hazard due to the road and rail transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is well known since large quantities of LPG are commercialized and the rail or road transportation patterns are often close to downtown areas. Since it is well known that the widely-used dispersion models do not account for the effects of any obstacle like buildings, tanks, railcars, or trees, in this paper a CFD model has been applied to simulate the reported consequences of a recent major accident involving an LPG railcar rupture in a congested urban area (Viareggio town, in Italy), showing both the large influence of the obstacles on LPG dispersion as well as the potentials of CFD models to foresee such an influence.

Pontiggia, Marco; Landucci, Gabriele; Busini, Valentina; Derudi, Marco; Alba, Mario; Scaioni, Marco; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio; Rota, Renato

2011-08-01

176

Human pharmaceuticals in wastewaters from urbanized areas of Argentina.  

PubMed

The study contributes with a first survey of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters discharging into fresh and estuarine waters from areas with varying degrees of urbanization of Argentina. Analyses were done on the soluble fraction by HPLC-MS after SPE extraction. In all of the samples were detected caffeine and ibuprofen within the range of 0.9-44.2 and 0.4-13.0 ?g/L, and lower levels of carbamazepine, atenolol and diclofenac between 0.2-2.3, 0.2-1.7 and <0.03-1.2 ?g/L, respectively. Profiles of compounds were similar in all studied locations. PMID:23229304

Elorriaga, Yanina; Marino, Damián J; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Ronco, Alicia E

2012-12-11

177

Urban heat island and its effect on the cooling and heating demands in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the Hong Kong Observatory. The urban heat island intensity, determined as the air-temperature difference between the selected urban/suburban area and the reference rural area (i.e., Ta Kuw Ling) with thin population and lush vegetation, was used for the analysis. Results showed stronger heat island effect during winter and nighttime than during summer and daytime. An investigation of the cooling and heating degree days indicate that all areas have observed higher number of cooling degree days. However, the cooling degree days were the maximum while heating degree days were the minimum in the urban area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui). Clearly, the minimum heating degree days and the maximum cooling degree days in the urban area were a direct consequence of urban heat island. The 10-year (i.e., from 1995 to 2005) average shows that Cheung Chau experienced the least number of cooling degree days while Lau Fau Shan experienced the highest number of heating degree days. Seemingly, the area of Cheung Chau offers better thermal comfort conditions with the minimum number of cooling and heating degree days.

Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Leung, Michael K. H.

2010-07-01

178

Urban heat island and its effect on the cooling and heating demands in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the Hong Kong Observatory. The urban heat island intensity, determined as the air-temperature difference between the selected urban/suburban area and the reference rural area (i.e., Ta Kuw Ling) with thin population and lush vegetation, was used for the analysis. Results showed stronger heat island effect during winter and nighttime than during summer and daytime. An investigation of the cooling and heating degree days indicate that all areas have observed higher number of cooling degree days. However, the cooling degree days were the maximum while heating degree days were the minimum in the urban area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui). Clearly, the minimum heating degree days and the maximum cooling degree days in the urban area were a direct consequence of urban heat island. The 10-year (i.e., from 1995 to 2005) average shows that Cheung Chau experienced the least number of cooling degree days while Lau Fau Shan experienced the highest number of heating degree days. Seemingly, the area of Cheung Chau offers better thermal comfort conditions with the minimum number of cooling and heating degree days.

Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Leung, Michael K. H.

2011-03-01

179

Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite\\u000a close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based\\u000a population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence\\u000a of urban hierarchies

Gilvan Guedes; Sandra Costa; Eduardo Brondízio

2009-01-01

180

A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

Ellis, S. R.; Mustard, M. H.

1985-01-01

181

Approaches to Locating Urban Functions in Developing Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares two approaches to planning the locations of urban functions in developing rural regions. The prevailing functional integration approach gives more weight to integrating and articulating an urban hierarchy than to increasing the access of rural populations to urban-based services. It relies on supply-side descriptions of functional urban hierarchies and linkages and fails to consider effective demand when

Eric S. Belsky; Gerald J. Karaska

1990-01-01

182

Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.  

PubMed

Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. PMID:22687155

Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

2012-07-01

183

Annual particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term eddy covariance (EC) particle number flux measurements for the size range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over urban area in Helsinki, Finland. Heterogeneous urban environment allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle fluxes were observed to be the highest from the road direction during weekdays with day-time median flux 0.8×109 m-2 s-1. Particle fluxes showed a~clear dependence on traffic rates and mixing conditions of the boundary layer. In the direction of road, the larger particle fluxes were dominated by smaller sizes. Footprint analysis was performed by using numerical modeling and emission rate of particles from road was estimated to be 0.8×1012 s-1 m-1 during day-time. With typical traffic rate of 2500 vehicles per hour this corresponds to average emission rate of 1.2×1015 vehicles-1 km-1. The particle fluxes from vegetated area were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1×109 m-2 s-1. On annual scale, the highest fluxes were measured in winter when emissions from stationary combustion sources are higher.

Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.

2009-06-01

184

Application of district heating system to U. S. urban areas  

SciTech Connect

In the last few decades district-heating systems have been widely used in a number of European countries using waste heat from electric generation or refuse incineration, as well as energy from primary sources such as geothermal wells or fossil-fired boilers. The current world status of district-heat utilization is summarized. Cost and implementation projections for district-heating systems in the U. S. are discussed in comparison with existing modes of space conditioning and domestic water heating. A substantial fraction, i.e., up to approximately one-half of the U.S. population could employ district-heating systems using waste heat, with present population-distribution patterns. U.S. energy usage would be reduced by an equivalent of approximately 30 percent of current oil imports. Detailed analyses of a number of urban areas are used to formulate conceptual district energy-supply systems, potential implementation levels, and projected energy costs. Important national ancillary economic and social benefits are described, and potential difficulties relating to the implementation of district-heating systems in the U.S. are discussed. District-heating systems appear very attractive for meeting future U.S. energy needs. The technology is well established. The cost/benefit yield is favorable, and the conservation potential is significant. District heating can be applied in urban and densely populated suburban areas. The remaining demand, in rural and low-population-density communities, appears to be better suited to other forms of system substitution.

Karkheck, J.; Powell, J.

1978-01-01

185

Climatic trends in major U.S. urban areas, 1950-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate changes in climatic indices for the 100 largest U.S. urban areas and paired surrounding non-urban areas. During the period 1950-2009, we find that there were statistically significant changes in as many as half of the urban areas in temperature-related indices, such as heating and cooling degree-days and number of warm and cool nights, almost all of which are reflective of a general warming. Similarly, statistically significant changes (mostly increases) in indices related to extreme precipitation, such as daily maximum intensities and number of days with heavy precipitation, were detected in as many of 30% of the urban areas. A paired analysis of urban and surrounding non-urban areas suggests that most temperature-related trends are attributable to regional climate change, rather than to local effects of urbanization, although the picture is more mixed for precipitation.

Mishra, Vimal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

2011-08-01

186

Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization transforms the natural landscape to anthropogenic urban land and changes surface biogeophysical characteristics.Urban growth affects the ecology of cities in a number of ways, such as eliminating and fragmenting native habitats, modifying local climate conditions, and generating anthropogenic pollutants.Urbanization has changed many landscapes throughout the world with serious ecological consequences.To understand the ecology of urban systems, it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization, which often requires dynamic modeling and spatial analysis. Geospatial information provided by satellite remote sensing sensors and biogeophysical field data are very useful for urban landuse-landcover dynamics and impacts analysis. The spatial and spectral variability of urban environments present fundamental challenges to deriving accurate remote sensing information for urban areas. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. Percent impervious surface was used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapour content. Land surface temperatures have been analysed for different land use and land cover categories both in urban as well as in periurban areas. Because of the removal of vegetative cover and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces, the urban heterogeneity of land surface and associated spatial extents influence surface thermal conditions. In situ meteorological data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a serious impact on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects. This papers aims to provide a spatio-temporal analysis of urban structure for Bucharest urban area based on multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite imagery (LANDSAT TM, ETM; MODIS, IKONOS) over 1987 - 2007 period. Understanding the structure of urban cover dynamics and land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas is very important to urban management for reasons such as runoff control, urban forest planning, air quality improvement, and mitigation of global climate change. Accurate maps of urban tree and other surface cover types can provide critical information to better understand urban ecosystems and help improve environmental quality and human health in urban areas. This paper demonstrates the potential of moderate-and high resolution, multispectral imagery to map and monitor the evolution of the physical urban environment in relation with micro and macroclimate conditions and their feedbacks.

Zoran, M.; Savastru, R.; Savastru, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Tautan, M. N.; Miclos, S.

2009-04-01

187

Dry deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The PCB dry deposition flux was measured in Chicago with a greased, Mylar-covered smooth plate with a sharp leading edge pointed into the wind. The dry deposition flux of PCBs in Chicago averaged 3.8 {mu}g/m{sup 2}{center dot}day between May and November 1989 and 6.0 {mu}g/m{sup 2}{center dot}day for May and June 1990. A comparison of the PCB flux measured in Chicago to an estimated nonurban PCB flux shows that the flux of PCBs is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher in urban areas than in nonurban areas, indicating that Chicago and other urban areas near the Great Lakes must be considered as major source terms for deposition of PCBs into the lakes. The distribution of atmospheric PCBs between the gas and particle phase and the size distribution of particle-phase PCBs were also measured. The airborne PCB concentration as measured by the Noll rotary impactor (NRI) A stage (particles with aerodynamic diameters of > 6.5 {mu}m) was higher in Chicago (0.94 ng/m{sup 3}) than in Los Angeles (0.52 ng/m{sup 3}), as was the mean particle-phase PCB concentration (47 vs 21 {mu}g/g). PCBs were found to be associated with all sizes of atmospheric particles; however, their particle mass normalized concentration decreased with increasing particle size. PCBs associated with particles, particularly coarse particles, represented a significant fraction of the total PCB dry deposition flux even though PCBs in the ambient air were present primarily in the gas phase.

Holsen, T.M.; Noll, K.E.; Shiping Liu, Wenjhy Lee (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States))

1991-06-01

188

Modelling the groundwater recharge of an urban area in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge is an important part of the natural water cycle. This cycle is disturbed particularly in urban areas. Sealing negatively influences the hydrological and mechanical soil properties. The continued sealing of soils, mainly caused by urbanisation, will continue to reduce the infiltration of water to groundwater and increase the surface run-off. Furthermore, recent and future climate changes strongly affect the available water resources. Those changes in water availability interfere with i.e., the cultivation of land, forest management, water supply, waste water disposal and urban infrastructure. Those issues are studied in the BMBF-supported joint research project REGKLAM that deals with climate change adaptation options in the model region Dresden. This work aims at simulating the groundwater recharge for the status quo and regionalised climate change scenarios and thus will deliver a central component to other parts of the REGKLAM project. Modelling is done using the two-dimensional hydrological model BOWAM. Current groundwater recharge models miss not only a high resolution, but also a realistic description of soil properties. Thus, it was necessary to develop a differentiated classification of soil and land use data. At present, we focus on the Quaternary aquifer of the region of Dresden, as there have been already conducted several studies that may serve as a reference for our more detailed and actual results.

Tesch, Sabine; Dunger, Volkmar; Matschullat, Jörg

2010-05-01

189

Characterization and heterogeneity of coarse particles across an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse particles exposures are expected to be highly heterogeneous in an urban area. However, little data are available to explore the extent of heterogeneity of coarse particles, especially on a local scale. An extensive sampling program for the coarse particles was conducted using University of North Carolina (UNC) passive aerosol samplers. The samplers were deployed for 4-5 week periods during four seasons, fall, winter, spring, and summer at 25 different sites across Syracuse, a small city located in central New York. The substrates from the UNC passive samplers were analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) providing size, shape, and elemental composition in the form of fluoresced X-ray spectra. Adaptive resonance theory (ART-2a) based neural network algorithm was applied with processed X-ray data to identify homogenous particles classes of 25,437 coarse particles from all four seasons. Thirty-four particle classes were identified with similar chemical characteristics. The mass fractions of particles in each identified class were then used to assess the homogeneity of composition and concentration across the measurement domain for each season. Road/soil dust, carbonaceous dust, biological materials, and deicing road salt were identified as the major sources of the urban coarse particles. Spatial and seasonal variations in both composition and concentration were observed and a noticeable heterogeneity between adjacent sites is indicated by the coefficient of divergence and correlation coefficient analysis.

Kumar, Pramod; Hopke, Philip K.; Raja, Suresh; Casuccio, Gary; Lersch, Traci L.; West, Roger R.

2012-01-01

190

The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food

Justin L. Brown

2007-01-01

191

How does real exchange rate influence income inequality between urban and rural areas in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The channels through which the real exchange rate influences urban\\/rural per capita real income inequality are analyzed using yearly data for 28 Chinese provinces. Due to the higher share of tradable goods produced in urban than rural areas, the real depreciation of the Chinese currency raised the urban bias, contrary to the effect usually expected. This rise was, however, mitigated

S. Guillaumont Jeanneney; P. Hua

2001-01-01

192

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

193

Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index

Rosa Puigpinós-Riera; Marc Marí-Dell’Olmo; Mercč Gotsens; Carme Borrell; Gemma Serral; Carlos Ascaso; Montse Calvo; Antonio Daponte; Felicitas M Domínguez-Berjón; Santiago Esnaola; Ana Gandarillas; Gonzalo López-Abente; Carmen M Martos; Miguel A Martínez-Beneito; Agustín Montes-Martínez; Imanol Montoya; Andreu Nolasco; Isabel M Pasarín; Maica Rodríguez-Sanz; Marc Sáez; Pablo Sánchez-Villegas

2011-01-01

194

Rethinking Late-Victorian Slum Fiction: The Crowd and Imperialism at Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

By fA r the most compelling crowds in London’s late-Victorian streets, squares, and public parks were those that never actually materialized. As the state struggled after midcentury to maintain public order in the open spaces of the metropolis, London’s second generation of so-called slum novelists imagined a disturbing and destructive crowd in their fictional depictions of the urban terrain. Writers,

MATTHEW K. MCKEAN

195

Spatial Knock-On Effects of Area-Based Urban Policies: Practices From Utrecht, the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many West European countries the welfare state is retreating and instruments of urban policy have changed. Urban policies are now often area based, which means that action is taken in a spatially defined area. One of the problems of this approach is that it leads to a so called spatial knock-on effect. This is when an area-based approach causes

Anne Slob; Ronald Van Kempen; Gideon Bolt

2006-01-01

196

A Park Recreation and Open Space Study for the Billings Montana Urban Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is specially directed to a consideration of the park and open space resources and requirements of the city/county planning area, the urban area. It is a critical component of the comprehensive plan for the Billings urban area. Consideration has ...

1969-01-01

197

Infant morbidity in an Indian slum birth cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish incidence rates, clinic referrals, hospitalisations, mortality rates and baseline determinants of morbidity among infants in an Indian slum. Design A community-based birth cohort with twice-weekly surveillance. Setting Vellore, South India. Subjects 452 newborns recruited over 18 months, followed through infancy. Main outcome measures Incidence rates of gastrointestinal illness, respiratory illness, undifferentiated fever, other infections and non-infectious morbidity; rates of community-based diagnoses, clinic visits and hospitalisation; and rate ratios of baseline factors for morbidity. Results Infants experienced 12 episodes (95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 13) of illness, spending about one fifth of their infancy with an illness. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms were most common with incidence rates (95% CI) of 7.4 (6.9 to 7.9) and 3.6 (3.3 to 3.9) episodes per child-year. Factors independently associated with a higher incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness were age (3-5 months), male sex, cold/wet season and household involved in beedi work. The rate (95% CI) of hospitalisation, mainly for respiratory and gastrointestinal illness, was 0.28 (0.22 to 0.35) per child-year. Conclusions The morbidity burden due to respiratory and gastrointestinal illness is high in a South Indian urban slum, with children ill for approximately one fifth of infancy, mainly with respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. The risk factors identified were younger age, male sex, cold/wet season and household involvement in beedi work.

Gladstone, B P; Muliyil, J P; Jaffar, S; Wheeler, J G; Le Fevre, A; Iturriza-Gomara, M; Gray, J J; Bose, A; Estes, M K; Brown, D W; Kang, G

2008-01-01

198

[Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].  

PubMed

By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. PMID:17974233

Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

2007-08-01

199

Sedimentary PBDEs in urban areas of tropical Asian countries.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in surface sediment samples collected from urban canals or rivers in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Japan. The total PBDE concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.83 to 3140ng/g dry wt. BDE-209 was predominant, ranging from 43% to 97% of total PBDEs, followed by nona-BDEs and some detectable concentrations of BDEs 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183. Sedimentary PBDE levels in Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines and Thailand were generally higher than those reported for highly industrialized countries. Spatial distribution of PBDEs indicated that inland sources may impact coastal areas. The presence of BDE congeners which are not contained in technical mixtures and the higher proportions of nona-BDEs relative to BDE-209 in the sediments were identified as indicators of debromination. BDE-209 was possibly debrominated under anaerobic conditions in some of the sediment samples. PMID:24120227

Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Rinawati; Santiago, Evangeline C

2013-10-11

200

Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. PMID:23831797

Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

2013-07-04

201

Annual particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban area in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle number fluxes were highest in the direction of a local road on weekdays, with a daytime median flux of 0.8×109 m-2 s-1. The particle fluxes showed a clear dependence on traffic rates and on the mixing conditions of the boundary layer. The measurement footprint was estimated by the use of both numerical and analytical models. Using the crosswind integrated form of the footprint function, we estimated the emission factor for the mixed vehicle fleet, yielding a median particle number emission factor per vehicle of 3.0×1014 # km-1. Particle fluxes from the vegetated area were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights, the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1×109 m-2 s-1. On an annual scale the highest fluxes were measured in winter, when emissions from stationary combustion sources are also highest. Particle number fluxes were compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes and similarity in their sources was distinguishable. For CO2, the median emission factor of vehicles was estimated to be 370 g km-1.

Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.

2009-10-01

202

Factors influencing childhood immunisation in an urban area of Brazil.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine the factors associated with incomplete vaccination in an urban area in Sao Paulo, Brazil; and to explore whether differences in vaccine coverage in the catchment area of health centres remain after the demographic constitution of the population in these areas is controlled for. DESIGN--The children were selected as controls for a case-control study. 455 children were selected at random (but age matched) from the health centre registries. Data was collected from the health centre records and from home interviews. SETTING--All children were registered in FAISA, a municipal health service comprising a large network of health centres and hospitals. FAISA's services are free at the point of delivery, and over 85% of the city's children are registered. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were selected to represent, except in their age distribution, all children registered in the municipal health service. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected on subjects' vaccine history, year of birth, sex, birth order and birth weight, and health centre of registration; their mothers' age, education, and marital status; and the family's income per capita and history of migration. Analysis was undertaken to identify risk factors for vaccination and whether the differential coverage in health centres' catchment areas remained after demographic characteristics of the population were controlled for. The high coverage for DPT and polio vaccines suggests that low overall coverage was not simply a result of mothers failing to bring children for vaccination. The variable that best predicted vaccine coverage was year of birth. Children born to immigrant mothers or into large families had lower vaccine uptake. The characteristics of children and their mothers did not account for the variation in vaccination coverage in catchment areas of different health centres. CONCLUSIONS--It is likely that in this area vaccination completeness was associated mainly with the health centre's ability to deliver vaccination to the target population.

Barreto, T V; Rodrigues, L C

1992-01-01

203

From bulldozing to housing rights: reducing vulnerability and improving health in African slums.  

PubMed

Forced evictions heighten vulnerability among slum dwellers who already face multiple risks of ill health. They constitute a well-documented violation of economic and social rights and are reaching epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa as economic globalization creates and strengthens incentives for forced evictions. We describe evictions in the slums of four African metropolitan areas: Accra (Ghana), Lagos (Nigeria), Luanda (Angola) and Nairobi (Kenya). We survey diverse strategies used in responding to forced evictions and outline the challenges and barriers encountered. We conclude that the international human rights framework offers an important approach for protecting the health of vulnerable populations. PMID:23549705

Mohindra, Katia S; Schrecker, Ted

2013-03-01

204

Characterization of urban areas using principal component analysis from multitemporal ERS coherence imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C-band SAR interferometry using ERS data has been shown to be potential for urban areas studies. This work illustrates the application of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to a multi-temporal set of ERS coherence images to detect urban areas and their features. In particular Principal Component Transformation was applied on sets of one-day and long-term coherence images for urban mapping applications in the area of Naples, Italy. Two main classes, urban and non-urban, which then included two classes each, were considered in this study. Dense built-up areas and residential areas formed the urban class. Water bodies and vegetated areas (fields and woods) were grouped in the non-urban class. The first principal component was found to be more suitable than higher order components for detection of urban areas. Moreover, a simple algorithm based on distance between the first principal component of a pixel and the value representative for each class was tested for intra-urban mapping. Results showed that the first principal component could discriminate reasonably well between dense built-up and residential areas.

Fanelli, Attilio; Santoro, Maurizio; Napolitano, Luca

2003-03-01

205

The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the urban core. Detailed modelling analyses (WRF-Chem) of a series of convective storms over the New York City metropolitan area, suggest that under certain meteorological conditions, increased concentrations of aerosols can lead to better organization of convection, higher vertical velocities and significantly increased convective rainfall accumulations. Higher vertical velocities were more widespread and reached deeper atmospheric levels when meteorological conditions were favourable, under increased aerosol concentrations. Areas that are downstream of sources of aerosols (i.e. New York City) are more prone to experience convective enhancement.

Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

2009-04-01

206

Urban heat island and its effect on the cooling and heating demands in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the

Rizwan Ahmed Memon; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Michael K. H. Leung

2011-01-01

207

Urban heat island and its effect on the cooling and heating demands in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the

Rizwan Ahmed Memon; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Michael K. H. Leung

2010-01-01

208

Urban heat island and its effect on the cooling and heating demands in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include\\u000a a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau,\\u000a Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired\\u000a from the

Rizwan Ahmed Memon; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Michael K. H. Leung

2011-01-01

209

Cholera vaccination in urban haiti.  

PubMed

Abstract. Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W

2013-10-01

210

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an industrialized urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization, agricultural intensification and industrialization are contributing to erosion, local and diffuse contamination and sealing of soil surfaces, resulting in soil quality degradation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments and considered good markers of anthropogenic activities such as traffic, industry, domestic heating and agriculture. Although they are subject to biodegradation and photodegradation, once in the soil, they tend to bind to the soil organic fraction. Estarreja is a small coastal town in the Northwestern Portuguese coast, with a close relation with the lagoon of Aveiro which supports a variety of biotopes (channels, islands with vegetation, mudflats, salt marshes and agricultural fields) of important ecological value. It supports an intensive and diversified agriculture, a variety of heavy and light industries and a population of about half a million people which is dependent on this resource. This is a very industrialized area, due to its five decades of chemical industry. This study aims to assess the impact of the urbanization and of the chemical industry in PAHs distribution. The survey and sampling method were based on pre-interpreted maps, aerial photographs, and directly checked in the field, in order to get an overall characterization of the area. Topsoils were collected from 34 sites, considering different land uses. Five land uses were chosen: ornamental gardens, parks, roadsides, forest and agricultural. Parameters such as soil pH (ISO method 10390:1994), total C, N, H, S percentages (microanalyser LECO, CNHS-932), organic matter (LOI at 430°), particle size distribution (Micromeritics® Sedigraph 5100), cation exchange capacity and exchangeable bases, were determined in order to have a general characterization of soil. Determination of the 16 EPA PAHs in soils was performed by GC/MS after a Soxhlet extraction and an alumina clean-up of extracts. Procedure blanks, duplicates and reference material were used in each extraction batch for quality control assessment. In what concerns the general parameters, Estarreja soils were characterized as slightly acid, with a median pHCaCl2 of 5.15, ranging from 3.12 and 6.88. The content in organic matter observed was relatively high, with a median of 4.6% and ranging from 1.8 to 45%. The median concentration of PAHs was 98 µg kg-1, ranging from 27 to 2,016 µg kg-1. The former value was found in an agricultural area and, together with another agricultural soil (with 1121 µgPAHs/kg), were considered heavily contaminated according to the classification given by Maliszewska-Kordybach. Moreover, eight samples were classified as weakly contaminated (PAHs between 200 and 600 µg/kg) and the remaining ones were not contaminated. The relative abundance of individual PAHs in Estarreja soils was evaluated, being the most abundant Fluoranthene and Pyrene followed by Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Phenanthrene and Crysene. These PAHs are the ones usually associated with the combustion of fossil fuel and other burnable materials, being this composition is typical for topsoil of European industrialized countries. Geostatistical methods were used to show the spatial variability of contaminants and the probability of exceeding the risk-based standards. The plots of concentration of PAHs on GIS highlight areas where the highest elements concentrations occur and the land use associated. These soil maps assemble important information for decision-making, allowing identifying possible sources of contamination, assess the suitability of soil to its use and to contribute for land use planning in accordance to soil characteristics. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/38418/2007) and by CESAM

Cachada, A.; Pereira, R.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Duarte, A. C.

2009-04-01

211

Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.  

PubMed

We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liň, Pietro

2012-04-18

212

Examining health status of women in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions.

Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye

2009-01-01

213

Study on the relationship between redistributional fiscal expenditure and disparity between urban and rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disparity between urban and rural area can be rectified and made up by redistributional fiscal expenditure. Divide disparity between Urban and Rural Area into consumption disparity and income disparity, it can be found that redistributional fiscal expenditure can significantly narrow consumption disparity while its effect on income disparity is not significant. A higher inequality demands a higher redistributional fiscal expenditure.

Xiaohua Yang

2011-01-01

214

MOBILE SOURCE HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN THE SEATTLE-TACOMA URBAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes mobile source hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in the Seattle-Tacoma, Washington, Urban area. obile sources have been identified as significant contributors to HAP emissions in urban areas. PA is working in partnership with the Puget Sound Air Pollution...

215

An investigation of driver attitudes and behaviour in rural and urban areas in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate differences in self-reported driver attitudes and behaviour in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Norway. Age, gender and education were controlled for. An additional aim was to investigate the relations between demographics, personality variables, driver attitudes and behaviour in the complete sample and across the different geographical areas. To obtain these aims, a questionnaire was

Trond Nordfjćrn; Stig Halvard Jřrgensen; Torbjřrn Rundmo

2010-01-01

216

The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings and facilities are being mingled with rational agricultural landscape images. These large areas – up to 1500 hectares

M. Brinkhuijsen; Velde van der R; Graaf de E; E. Kruit; A. Lodder

2011-01-01

217

A ray-tracing propagation model for digital broadcast systems in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A propagation model is presented for characterizing the channel response for digital systems in urban areas where multiple reflections from buildings are encountered. A deterministic ray-tracing propagation model is used to predict the time delay and fading characteristics for the channel in a hypothetical urban area. The analysis shows that due to multiple reflection and diffraction sources, the RMS delay

Harry R. Anderson

1993-01-01

218

Engineering geological mapping for urban areas of the Oltrepo Pavese plain (Northern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to develop a methodology for engineering geological mapping to support urban planning and development. The study area is located in the province of Pavia and corresponds to the Southern and Central sector of the Po River Plain (Northern Italy). It has an extent of about 440 km 2 and several important urban areas are

CLAUDIA MEISINA

2006-01-01

219

[An intervention policy for reducing noise pollution in urban areas].  

PubMed

The methodological methods for a reduction of the noise pollution in the urban areas, mainly, can be advised in 8 operative points: 1) reduction of the source's noise; 2) control of the traffic; 3) planning of the urban and regional development; 4) building's shelter against the noise; 5) compensation's and incentivation's interventions for the exposed people; 6) controls activity and restaining of the noise's sources; 7) scientific research; 8) health education. For executive motivations we must, necessarily, divide the intervention turned to a reduction of the noise's emissions caused by fixed source compared to the noise's emissions determined by motor or railway traffic (mobile sources). This operative criteria have been utilized recently (1988) from Italian Department of Ecology for a bill. The controls of fixed source are made by Public Health Services of U.S.L. (Local Sanitary Unit) assisted, in case, by multiarea country's districts. The regulations of traffic can be took in consideration, in short time, only in more simple problems, as the setting up of pedestrian island or the suspensions of the heavy traffic, etc. The traffic's regulation must care same general data: the halved of traffic's flow in same rilevation's point, involve a reduction of only 3 dBA of the sound pressure level previously measured; if the percentage of heavy traffic is higher than 10% of the traffic's flow, the first intervention must be the no thorough fare to heavy lorries. In general, then, the best way for the resolution of vehicular noise pollution is the noisy emission's control of the single vehicle, because only the regulation of traffic's flow doesn't suffice to realise a enough reduction of noise pollution. For the resolution of more complex problems is necessary a preliminary stage to study and to plan those before to can carry out a typology of intervention. This necessity is, of course, more expensive in time and money; in fact, the solution of the problem can be the building of a efficient subway network completed by car parks in the terminal stations. In alternation at this draft, we can pointed out, also, same compromise resolutions like the appoint areas to limited traffic in the town or the break of continuity of the bus-line in the town. The compensation or the incentivation to make defence works against noise is a very expensive way and, moreover, they don't solve the problem for all exposed people in a future.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2483630

Cosa, M; Cosa, G

220

The Monitoring Of Thunderstorm In Sao Paulo's Urban Areas, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monitoring of thunderstorm in urban areas occurred in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo from November 2004 to March 2005. Eight thunderstorms were monitored by local electric field, video camera, Brazilian Lightning Location Network (RINDAT) and weather radar. The most of these thunderstorms were associated with the local convection and cold front. Some of these events presented floods in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo and in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP) being associated with local sea breeze circulation and the heat island effect. The convectives cells exceeding 100km x 100 km of area, actives between 2 and 3 hours. The local electric field identified the electrification stage of thunderstorms, high transients of lightning and total lightning rate of above 10 flashes per minute. About 29.5 thousands of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes were analyzed . From the total set of CG flashes analyzed, about 94 percent were negative strokes and presented average peak current of above 25kA, common for this region. Some lightning images were obtained by video camera and compared with transients of lightning and lightning detection network data. The most of these transients of lightning presented continuing current duration between 100ms and 200ms. A CG lightning occurred on 25th February was visually observed 3.5km from FEI campus, Sao Bernardo do Campo. This lightning presented negative polarity and estimed peak current of above 30kA. A spider was visually observed over FEI Campus at 17th March. No transients of lightning and recording by lightning location network were found.

Gin, R. B.; Pereira, A.; Beneti, C.; Jusevicius, M.; Kawano, M.; Bianchi, R.; Bellodi, M.

2005-12-01

221

Fast 3D stereo flood simulations in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary results of a 3D stereo flood.

Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.

2012-04-01

222

Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in public than private schools. Goitre was not detected. Overweight/obesity was low (2.3%) and affected significantly more children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p < 0.05). Thinness and stunting were significantly higher in peri-urban compared to urban schools (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 respectively). Almost 15% of the children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

2011-01-01

223

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an industrialized urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization, agricultural intensification and industrialization are contributing to erosion, local and diffuse contamination and sealing of soil surfaces, resulting in soil quality degradation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments and considered good markers of anthropogenic activities such as traffic, industry, domestic heating and agriculture. Although they are subject to biodegradation and photodegradation, once in the soil, they

A. Cachada; R. Pereira; E. Ferreira da Silva; A. C. Duarte

2009-01-01

224

Education in Urban Areas. Cross-National Dimensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…

Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.

225

Education in Urban Areas. Cross-National Dimensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…

Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.

226

Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study reported in this thesis reviews existing approaches to quantitative flood risk analysis and evaluation of

J. A. E. Ten Veldhuis

2010-01-01

227

Assessment of environmental quality of Bucharest urban area by multisensor satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban environmental quality is an important part of efficient urban environment planning and management. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. As is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas , often many different indicators can conflict with each other. The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. Based on Landsat TM, ETM, SPOT and SAR data for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania, it was performed a land cover classification based on spectral signatures of different terrain features used to separate surface units of urban and sub-urban area . A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used .

Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

2004-10-01

228

Universal immunization in urban areas: Calcutta's success story.  

PubMed

The Central Government of Calcutta, India aimed to immunize 85% (85,262) of the city's 12 month old infants against polio, diphtheria, measles, tuberculosis, pertussis and tetanus. The Universal Immunization Program (UIP) achieved this target 3 months earlier than intended. In fact, at the end of December 1990, it achieved 110.6% for DPT3, 142.16% for OPV3, 151.96% for BCG, and 97% for measles. UIP was able to surpass its targets by emphasizing team work. Government, the private sector, UNICEF, and the voluntary sector made up the Apex Coordination Committee on Immunization headed up by the mayor. The committee drafted an action plan which included routine immunization sessions on a fixed day and intensive immunization drives. Further the involved organizations pooled together cold chain equipment. In addition, the District Family Welfare Bureau was the distribution center for vaccines, syringes, immunization cards, report formats, vaccine carriers, and ice packs. Health workers administered immunizations from about 300 centers generally on Wednesday, National Immunization Day. Intensive immunization drives focused on measles immunizations. UIP leaders encouraged all center to routinely record coverage and submit monthly progress reports to the District Family Welfare Bureau. The Calcutta Municipal Corporation coordinated promotion activities and social mobilization efforts. Promotion included radio and TV announcements, newspaper advertisements, cinema slides, billboards, and posters. The original UIP plan to use professional communicators to mobilize communities was ineffective, so nongovernmental organizations entered the slums to encourage people to encourage their neighbors to immunize their children. Further Islamic, Protestant, and Catholic leaders encouraged the faithful to immunize their children. A UNICEF officer noted that this success must be sustained, however. PMID:2133577

Chaudhuri, E R

229

Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated summertime temperatures in urban ‘heat islands’ increase cooling-energy use and accelerate the formation of urban smog. Except in the city’s core areas, summer heat islands are created mainly by the lack of vegetation and by the high solar radiation absorptance by urban surfaces. Analysis of temperature trends for the last 100 years in several large U.S. cities indicate that,

H. AKBARI; M. POMERANTZ; H. TAHA

2001-01-01

230

Change of atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan from the viewpoint of rainfall intensity.  

PubMed

The atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan was examined from the viewpoint of a 14-year trend in the rainfall intensity. To cancel the wide-area meteorological phenomena such as a typhoon and a front, the rainfall datasets obtained not only in an urban area but also in a rural area was studied. The rainfall datasets collected on a 0.5 mm rainfall basis was used. The rainfall intensity dominantly increased in urban area, while that in rural area neither increased nor decreased. An increasing trend was clearly observed for rainfall with precipitation amounts of 5 and 10 mm. Rainfall with precipitation amounts of 15 and 20 mm showed neither an increasing nor a decreasing trend. The results of this study show that there is a high probability of a connection between the urbanization and the change of rainfall intensity. PMID:18259887

Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

2008-02-08

231

Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

Particulate Matter (PM10) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%).

Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

232

Livelihoods, nutrition and health in Dhaka slums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify groups within Dhaka slums that report similar patterns of livelihood, and to explore nutritional and health status. Design: A random sample of households participated in a longitudinal study in 1995- 1997. Socio-economic and morbidity data were collected monthly by questionnaire and nutritional status was assessed. Cluster analysis was used to aggregate households into livelihood groups. Setting: Dhaka

Jane A Pryer; Stephen Rogers; Charles Normand; Ataur Rahman

2002-01-01

233

Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possčde une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivičre Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intéręt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivičre Han, le réseau de pompage du métro et les pompages privés. Le bilan entre la recharge de la nappe et sa décharge est proche de l'équilibre. Cependant, les infiltrations d'eaux usées, les décharges abandonnées, les décharges d'ordures et les puits abandonnés portent atteinte ŕ la qualité de l'eau souterraine et ŕ la capacité de contrôler les flux de contaminants. Resumen. La ciudad de Seúl tiene más de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 605 km2. Se bombea aguas subterráneas para abastecimiento urbano y para usos industriales, así como para el drenaje de instalaciones subterráneas y de solares en construcción. Aunque la mayor parte del agua de boca procede del río Han, los ciudadanos de Seúl están muy concienciados por la cantidad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas, ya que su explotación para uso de boca está experimentando un continuo incremento. El presente estudio identifica los factores que más afectan a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas en el área de Seúl y hace una estimación del balance de agua en el territorio urbano. Entre los factores principales que afectan al balance y a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, se incluye el lixiviado de la red municipal de suministro y de la red de alcantarillado, la infiltración de agua de lluvia, las fluctuaciones del nivel del río Han, el sistema de bombeo del metro y los bombeos domésticos. El balance entre la recarga y la descarga en el acuífero está próximo al equilibrio. Sin embargo, la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y la capacidad de controlar los flujos de contaminación están amenazadas por la infiltración de aguas residuales, vertederos abandonados, depósitos de residuos y pozos abanadonados.

Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

2001-07-01

234

Slumdog cities: rethinking subaltern urbanism.  

PubMed

This article is an intervention in the epistemologies and methodologies of urban studies. It seeks to understand and transform the ways in which the cities of the global South are studied and represented in urban research, and to some extent in popular discourse. As such, the article is primarily concerned with a formation of ideas - "subaltern urbanism" - which undertakes the theorization of the megacity and its subaltern spaces and subaltern classes. Of these, the ubiquitous ‘slum’ is the most prominent. Writing against apocalyptic and dystopian narratives of the slum, subaltern urbanism provides accounts of the slum as a terrain of habitation, livelihood, self-organization and politics. This is a vital and even radical challenge to dominant narratives of the megacity. However, this article is concerned with the limits of and alternatives to subaltern urbanism. It thus highlights emergent analytical strategies, utilizing theoretical categories that transcend the familiar metonyms of underdevelopment such as the megacity, the slum, mass politics and the habitus of the dispossessed. Instead, four categories are discussed — peripheries, urban informality, zones of exception and gray spaces. Informed by the urbanism of the global South, these categories break with ontological and topological understandings of subaltern subjects and subaltern spaces. PMID:21542201

Roy, Ananya

2011-01-01

235

Sexual Behavior of the Elderly in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed at investigating sexual behavior patterns of elderly residents of urban areas in South Korea and their correlation with lower urinary tract symptoms. Materials and Methods From May, 2009 to October, 2009, 154 males and 299 females over 60 years old who visited senior welfare centers of Seoul were administered a questionnaire on sex life patterns and voiding symptoms. Results Among the 154 males, 59 (38.3%) had sexual intercourse at least one time per month. The remaining 95 males (61.7%) did not have sexual intercourse, because of impotence for 52 males (52.6%), no sexual desire for 28 males (29.4%), and sex partner's problems for 15 males (15.7%). The higher International Prostate Symptom Score was, the lower International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 was (p=0.035). Among 299 females, 37 (12.4%) had sexual intercourse at least one time per month. The remaining 262 females (87.6%) did not have sexual intercourse, because of no spouse for 163 females (63.2%), no sexual desire for 48 females (18.6%), the spouse's impotence for 34 females (13.2%), and the spouse's bad health for 10 females (3.9%). It was found that self-diagnosis of overactive bladder affects sex life negatively. Conclusions The sexual behaviors of the elderly included varying activity. Sexual intercourse were significantly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Our results suggest that the counseling with the elderly about sexual health is as important as it is with non-elderly individuals.

Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Sin Uk; Lee, Wan Chul; Kim, Ma Tae; Lee, Won Ki; Kim, Ha Young; Kim, Sung Yong

2012-01-01

236

Global comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciated volatile organic compound (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Marylebone Road site in central London from 1998 through 2008 are presented. Long-term trends show statistically significant decreases for all the VOCs considered, ranging from -3% to -26% per year. Carbon monoxide decreased by -12% per year over the measurement period. The VOC trends observed at the kerbside site in London showed greater rates of decline relative to trends from monitoring sites in rural England (Harwell) and a remote high-altitude site (Hohenpeissenberg), which showed decreases for individual VOCs from -2% to -13% per year. Over the same 1998 through 2008 period VOC to CO ratios for London remained steady, an indication that emissions reduction measures affected the measured compounds equally. Relative trends comparing VOC to CO ratios between Marylebone Road and Hohenpeissenberg showed greater similarities than absolute trends, indicating that emissions reductions measures in urban areas are reflected by regional background locations. A comparison of VOC mixing ratios and VOC to CO ratios was undertaken for London and other global cities. Carbon monoxide and VOCs (alkanes greater than C 5, alkenes, and aromatics) were found to be strongly correlated (>0.8) in the Annex I countries, whereas only ethene and ethyne were strongly correlated with CO in the non-Annex I countries. The correlation results indicate significant emissions from traffic-related sources in Annex I countries, and a much larger influence of other sources, such as industry and LPG-related sources in non-Annex I countries. Yearly benzene to ethyne ratios for London from 2000 to 2008 ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 and compared well with previous results from US cities and three global megacities.

von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S.; Plass-Duelmer, Christian

2010-12-01

237

Monitoring of atmospheric particles over an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that optical properties of atmospheric aerosols are important for the Earth s radiation budget and global climate It is also known that Asia is the most complicated region for aerosol study because the dust particles come from continental desert area carbonaceous aerosols are produced by large Siberian biomass-burning plumes and small anthropogenic particles are emitted from the increasing industrial activities Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric aerosols and suspended particulate matter SPM have been undertaken at Kinki University campus in Higashi-Osaka in order to monitor the urban environment during more than two years The sun sky photometry has been made as a NASA AERONET station since 2002 and the SPM-613D Ki-moto Electric has been taking measurements of the SPM concentrations such as TSP PM 10 PM 2 5 and OBC at the same site since March 15 2004 This long term simul-taneous monitoring of aerosols and SPM provides us with typical aerosol types over an industrial city of Higashi-Osaka and the relationship between aerosol properties obtained from radiometry with AERONET and the SPM measurements as 1 The air quality of the Higashi-Osaka site is poor due to not only anthropogenic particles by local emissions such as diesel vehicles and chemical industries but also due to dust particles and biomass-burning aerosols by large scale climatic conditions 2 Fine anthropogenic particles dominate at Higashi-Osaka even during dust events It is of interest to mention that dust events at Higashi-Osaka seem to be

Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Yasumoto, M.

238

Innovative technologies for decentralised water-, wastewater and biowaste management in urban and peri-urban areas.  

PubMed

Avoiding the comingling of water flows coming from different sources and thus obtaining flows with a very low dilution factor is the first and major step key to technical solutions for adequate treatment of household wastewaters. Through their decentral structure and effective recovery of water, energy and fertiliser these systems can be highly cost efficient. Fresh water consumption can be reduced by up to 80% while nutrients can be recovered to a large extent. Source control is also advantageous for hygienic reasons: low volumes are far easier to sanitise. Source separation technology in municipal waste water treatment does often lead decentralised or semicentral systems. The first essential step is the separate collection and treatment of toilet waste in households, which contains almost all pathogens and nutrients. New toilet systems with very low dilution factors, ranging from vacuum- through urine sorting to dry toilets, have been introduced in several projects and proven feasible. New ideas such as the black- and greywater cycle systems are presently under research at the Technical University Hamburg Harburg. Such modular, integrated and small scale systems are only possible through recent advances in membrane technology and, due to their small scale, do have the potential to be installed in densely populated regions. These technologies are options for following the principles of ecological sanitation, to contain, to sanitise and to reuse also in urban areas (EcoSanRes, 2003). PMID:14753515

Otterpohl, R; Braun, U; Oldenburg, M

2003-01-01

239

Excessive weight gain after pregnancy in urban areas: one important area to prevent diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been found to be common in people, including the women of child bearing age, in urban Nepal. There is a custom of feeding the women with foods rich in calories and fats, as much as possible, after delivery. Weights of 200 women of urban Kathmandu before the first pregnancy and 6 months and 1 year after delivery were studied. The mean + SD of weights before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 51.3 + 4.9, 67.2 + 6.3 and 63.4 + 6.4 respectively. Similarly, the mean + SD of body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 21.3 + 1.8, 27.9 + 2.5 and 26.7 + 2.8 respectively. The average increases in weight and BMI six months after delivery were 15.9 kg and 6.6; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). Six months later the average increased weight and BMI decreased by 3.8 kg and 1.2 respectively. Thus, the average increases in weight and BMI one year after first pregnancy were 12.1 kg and 5.4; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). The women seemed to have difficulty in losing weight gained. In view of the problem of overweight, the custom of excess feeding after delivery seems required to be discouraged in urban areas to prevent subsequent gestational and type 2 diabetes in women and the population. PMID:16519070

Bhattarai, Madhur Dev; Singh, Dhruba Lall

2005-12-01

240

Determinants of utilisation of health services by women in rural and urban areas in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the factors that influence the utilisation of health services by women in the rural and urban areas in Ghana. The systematic sampling procedure was used to draw the sample from women aged 18 and above with diverse backgrounds from Ahafo-Ano South district, representing the rural districts and Kumasi metropolis, representing the urban districts. The research instruments used

Daniel Buor

2005-01-01

241

A technique for using composite DMSP\\/OLS “City Lights” satellite data to map urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Tresholding technique was used to convert a prototype “city lights” data set from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAAINGDC) into a map of “urban areas” for the continental United States. Thresholding was required to adapt the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSPIOLS)-based NGDC data set into an urban map because the values

Marc L. Imhoff; William T. Lawrence; David C. Stutzer; Christopher D. Elvidge

1997-01-01

242

The Health Services Use Among Older Canadians in Rural and Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though universal health care is one of the fundamental pillars of Canadian society, the rising cost of all services has resulted in the relocation and redistribution of funding and services between rural and urban areas. While most econometric analyses of health service use in Canada include broad controls by province and rural\\/urban status, there has been relatively little econometric

Heather Conde; James Ted McDonald

2007-01-01

243

A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including

K C Clarke; S Hoppen; L Gaydos

1997-01-01

244

Avian Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds in Highly Urbanized Areas  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses.

Verhagen, Josanne H.; Munster, Vincent J.; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B. G.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

2012-01-01

245

Demographic and Disease Characteristics of People With Multiple Sclerosis Living in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares demographic and disease-related characteristics of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in urban and rural areas. The data analyzed for this study were collected from a survey of 1518 people with MS living throughout the United States from October 2004 through January 2005. We found significant urban-rural differences in various MS characteristics, including type of MS. A

Robert J. Buchanan; Randolph Schiffer; Alexa Stuifbergen; Li Zhu; Suojin Wang; Bonnie J. Chakravorty; MyungSuk Kim

246

Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. METHODS: The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa

Jean-Christophe Fotso

2006-01-01

247

The social situation of motherless children in rural and urban areas of Guinea-Bissau  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of HIV infection and the high maternal mortality, orphans are a rapidly growing problem in Africa. However, few studies describe the social conditions of these children. Our study focuses on motherless children in urban and rural areas of Guinea-Bissau.A rural and an urban cohort of children (128 and 192, respectively) that had been followed by demographic

Tania Nicole Masmas; Henrik Jensen; Domingos da Silva; Lars Hřj; Anita Sandström; Peter Aaby

2004-01-01

248

Mass Communication Differences Between Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas: Cross-Cultural Comparisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews various studies of media development patterns, all pointing to mass media growth's association with urbanization. The development and use of mass media differs greatly among urban, suburban, and rural areas. However, media development patterns are similar among countries, differing in the stage but not the pattern of media…

Bostian, Lloyd R.

249

Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate the causes of these underlying differences. ?? North American Benthological Society.

Brown, L. R.; Cuffney, T. F.; Coles, J. F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A. H.; May, J. T.

2009-01-01

250

Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

251

Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 ?g/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 ?g/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic nitrogen (WSIN) for the urban coastal, sub-urban and pristine zones (R2= 0.81, n=22). This correlation could be explained by a possible source of secondary water soluble organic aerosols derived by the reaction between biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as isoprene, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) present in the atmosphere of these regions. Such correlation was not found in Caracas, possibly due to the fact that in this city the major source of VOCs is fossil fuel combustion which produces mostly non soluble aliphatic VOCs. These compounds could most likely produce low water soluble secondary organic nitrogen aerosols.

Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

2007-12-01

252

Bioclimatic characterisation of an urban area: a case study in Bologna (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer bioclimatic discomfort is a significant public health problem. Bioclimatic characterisations of populations living in urban areas are usually very poor, although the risks are relatively higher in cities because of the phenomenon known as the “urban heat island”. We compared airport, rural, and urban bioclimatic conditions in terms of apparent temperature, Thom index, and temperature alone in several sites within a radius of approximately 25 km from the city of Bologna (Italy). The comparison between meteorological monitoring stations within and near the urban area showed the large impact of the urban heat island effect. Nighttime data showed the largest differences among the investigated sites. Minimum apparent temperatures at rural stations were about 3.5°C lower than the urban 30 m reference station, and 6°C lower than the 2 m urban site. The 2 m apparent temperature values within the urban area were several degrees higher (typically 2°C) than those taken above the roof, both for minimum and maximum values. Temporal trends in the different sites were highly correlated (generally above 0.90), but regression residuals were sometimes quite large. Finally, epidemiological implications are briefly addressed.

Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Tibaldi, Stefano; Scotto, Fabiana; Lauriola, Paolo

2008-11-01

253

Pollutant Flushing Characterizations from Urban Storm Runoff at Rapid Urbanizing Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrology and water quality of 4 rainfall events were synchronously and continuously measured from 4 rapid urbanizing catchments in the Shiyan Reservoir Watershed. Flushing characterizations of COD, NH3-N, TN, TP, SS and BOD5 of storm runoff were analyzed. 59.37% and 26.04% of pollutant washoff resulting from urban storm runoff exhibit first flush phenomenon and second flush phenomenon, respectively. The pollutant

Y. Huang; L. Wang; G. Wang; H. Qing

2010-01-01

254

Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the distribution of light-curing units (LCU) used in an urban area (Riyadh) and a rural area (Kharj) of Saudi Arabia, and to compare their irradiance values. Methods The study involved three dental centers in urban areas and two in rural areas, all of which were parts of a single healthcare institution providing dental services. The light outputs (power mW) from 140 LCUs were measured by laboratory-grade spectrometry, and the irradiance (mW/cm2) was calculated from the tip area of each LCU. The minimum acceptable irradiance outputs for the quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units were set at 300 and 600 mW/cm2, respectively. The ages of these units and the protocol used to light-cure the resins were also determined. Results The total number of LCUs was 140, 112 (78%) in urban areas, and 28 (22%) in rural areas. In rural areas, only 7 of the 22 (32%) QTH units delivered irradiances greater than 300 mW/cm2 and were therefore considered clinically acceptable, whereas 4 of the 6 (66.7%) LED units delivered values greater than 600 mW/cm2. In urban centers, 43 of 61 (70.5%) LED units and 25 of 61 (49%) QTH units were considered clinically acceptable. Irradiance values for both QTH (P < 0.01) and LED (P < 0.05) units were significantly better in urban than in rural areas. Conclusions Urban areas had a greater distribution of LCUs than rural areas. Overall, irradiance values were significantly higher in urban areas.

AlShaafi, Maan M.

2012-01-01

255

Urban geology: documentation of geo-thematic information for urban areas in Greece, the case of Nafplio, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of geological and Mineral Exploration of Greece (I.G.M.E.), in the frame of CSF 2000-2006 (Community Support Framework 2000-2006), has been implementing the pilot project titled "Collection, Codification and Documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Geological, geochemical, geophysical, geotechnical, hydrogeological and other data concerning the urban and surrounding areas of Drama (North Greece), Nafplio & Sparti (Peloponnesus) and Thrakomakedones (Attica) is collected. Drillings, geological and geotectonic mapping (scale 1:5.000) and other "in situ" measurements and field works are taking place. The contours of the 1:5.000 topographic maps are digitized and a high detail DEM is created. The DEM and ground control points collected with GPS are used for the Orthorectification of very high-resolution satellite data. Then, the orthorectified satellite data is used for the land use classification and the urban area mapping. All initial and derived analogical and digital data is compiled and processed in specially designed geo-databases in GIS Environment. The final results will be presented in geothematic maps of different scales (1:5.000, 1:10.000 etc). Thematic maps (geological, geotechnical, geochemical, geophysical etc) and other digital data such as geodatabases, DEMs will be available to all, public or private sector, concerning geological environment in urban and suburban areas. All these data will constitute the essential base for land use planning and environmental protection in specific urban areas. Through this pilot project, new scientific approaches, methodologies and standards will be developed and improved in order to be applied to other future projects concerning capital centers of the country.

Zervakou, Alexandra; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

2007-10-01

256

Screening to Identify and Prevent Urban Storm Water Problems: Estimating Impervious Area Accurately and Inexpensively.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, 'smart growth' and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) caus...

S. Bird J. Harrison L. Exum S. Alberty C. Perkins

2002-01-01

257

APPLICATION OF A DATA-ASSIMILATING PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODEL TO TWO URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study we have used a data-assimilating prognostic meteorological model, the Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (SAIMM), ot generate meteorological fields suitable for photochemical modeling of two urban areas; os Angeles, California and the Lower Lake Mich...

258

State and Urban Area Homeland Security Strategy v3.0: Evolving Strategic Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis proposes to overhaul the state and urban area homeland security strategy program by improving the strategic planning process guidance and assistance and strategy review in collaboration with state and local stakeholders. Federal state and loca...

D. Chen

2006-01-01

259

Technology Assessment and Research Needs of Water-Based Recreation for Urbanizing Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recreation planning process was studied with special emphasis on its application to urbanizing areas and on water-based recreation. Available technologies were examined as to how each fits within the planning process. A description of the methodology ...

1980-01-01

260

Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook provides guidelines and tools to help providers of transit in rural and small urban areas make employee compensation decisions. These decisions are critical to the economic health of your organization and can provide the key to good custome...

S. Knapp

2008-01-01

261

National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Urban Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides guidance to States, Territories, authorized Tribes, and the public regarding management measures that may be used to reduce nonpoint source pollution from urban areas. It is intended to provide technical assistance to state and loca...

2005-01-01

262

SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY  

EPA Science Inventory

Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

263

Evaluation and Optimization of Durable Pervious Concrete for Use in Urban Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although pervious concrete was first used in the nineteenth century, it has only recently begun to increase in popularity. As urban areas expand, the problems associated with runoff management have become more challenging. The focus on the negative enviro...

Y. Joung Z. C. Grasley

2007-01-01

264

Larger broods in the Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis near urban areas in southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined if the distance from densely-built (urban) areas is reflected in the brood size of the Northern Goshawk near the southern coast of Finland. The data were collected from 70 nesting territories in 1976-2007, including 270 fledged broods. Within an approxi- mate distance of less than 2.5 km from the nearest urban area, the average brood size was significantly

Tapio Solonen

2008-01-01

265

Response surfaces for climate change impact assessments in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the impacts of climate change in real-world water systems, such as urban drainage networks, is a research priority for IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change). The usual approach is to force a hydrological transformation model with a changed climate scenario. To tackle uncertainty, the model should be run with at least high, middle and low change scenarios. This

A. Semadeni-Davies

2003-01-01

266

OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...

267

OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...

268

Management of rainfall-related environmental risks in urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall brings urban residents both benefits, such as water resources, but also adverse risks such as flooding. Additionally, it has been recognized that wet weather run-off discharges pollutantsand transfers chemicals and pathogen bacteria into the aquatic ecosystem. This causes not only deterioration of water quality but also environmental pollution risk. Both the flood risk and environmental pollution risk are treated

Akira Sakai; Yoshimi Hagihara; Kazuhiro Asada; Zhang Shengping

2004-01-01

269

Teaching the Geographies of Urban Areas: Views and Visions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on empirical research in four countries on the growing interest in the perceived "gap" between school and university human geography. Focusing on urban geography, we investigated the views of teachers and academic geographers about key elements of the field and those that were important for geography education. These views were…

Beneker, Tine; Sanders, Rickie; Tani, Sirpa; Taylor, Liz; van der Vaart, Rob

2007-01-01

270

Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach  

PubMed Central

The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region.

Costa, Sandra; Brondizio, Eduardo

2012-01-01

271

The increasing supply of physicians in US urban and rural areas, 1975 to 1988.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Despite the rapid growth of the US physician supply since the mid-1970s, it remains unclear whether physicians have spread into the most rural areas of the country. This report examines the urban-rural distribution of physicians between 1975 and 1988. METHODS. A county-based typology of the urban-rural continuum was employed to examine trends in the supply of nonfederal primary care physicians, specialist physicians, and osteopaths. RESULTS. All urban and rural areas gained physicians during the late 1970s and 1980s. The supply of physicians increased most rapidly in metropolitan counties. Within nonmetropolitan areas, urbanized remote counties became more prominent centers of the physician supply. Osteopaths were more likely to locate in the most rural areas than allopaths. The physician supply in all areas also became more specialized over time. CONCLUSIONS. The rapid growth of the US physician supply was associated with the spread of more practitioners into all parts of the country. However, the supply of physicians increased most rapidly in urban areas, widening urban-rural differences in the availability of physicians.

Frenzen, P D

1991-01-01

272

Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to urbanization. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

Meador, M. R.; Coles, J. F.; Zappia, H.

2005-01-01

273

Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes—one based on occupation and the other on educational level—at the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50?×?50 m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic.

2013-01-01

274

Triple digging — a simple method for restoration of radioactively contaminated urban soil areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

External radiation doses to urban or suburban populations after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 are often dominated by contributions from soil areas near dwellings. Previously reported procedures for reclamation of contaminated soil are generally inadequate or expensive to carry out in this type of area. Therefore, a new technique has been examined in a heavily contaminated area of Russia. The

Jřrn Roed; Kasper G. Andersson; Christian L. Fogh; Anatoli N. Barkovski; Boris F. Vorobiev; Viktor N. Potapov; Alexander V. Chesnokov

1999-01-01

275

Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

2006-01-01

276

Analysis of heavy-duty truck use in urban areas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Truck Trip Information Survey includes data on mileage by road class, engine characteristics, fuel economy measures, cargo types and weights, and vehicle weights, as well as many other variables that provide a more detailed look at the operation of medium and heavy trucks in urban areas. In the report, the NTTIS sample and survey methodology are discussed. Variables in the study particularly relevant to urban diesel-truck emissions are defined. The bulk of the report is devoted to tables examining the operations of medium and heavy-duty trucks in urban areas. The tables show the structure of the U.S. truck population, the breakdown of truck travel between urban and rural areas by road type, engine horsepower, and gross combination weight.

Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

1988-06-30

277

Intensity and delimitation of the night Urban Surface Heat Island over the Paris metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urban Heat Island is one of the main factors of the urban climate. Known for a long time, it corresponds to a temperature differential between urban and rural areas surrounding and was defined firstly from the temperatures measured in the conventional network weather stations or by mobile measurements. In the present study, we used the daily night MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product at 1 km resolution and during the years 2002-2011 in order to investigate the Urban Surface Heat Island (USHI) over the Paris metropolitan area (around 14 millions inhabitants, about 150 km from east to west and a little less from north to south). We calculated and used LST anomalies for the selected nights (clear sky) to overcome the seasonal and daily variations. The objective of this study is to propose a delimitation of USHI and study the relationship between the observed data points in the 9 weather stations of Météo France network and the surface temperatures of the satellite MODIS pixels. The different synthetic images, obtained from the mean, median of all the dates selected and a principal component analysis (PCA), show clearly high surface temperatures over dense urban areas and a strong decrease (around 9°C) from the center of Paris to about 30 km. Beyond the assessment of its intensity, the night USHI is defined by the Pettitt test performed on transects in all directions and shows logically the influence of topography and land use (dense urban areas vs. forest or agricultural areas).

Madelin, M.; Beltrando, G.; Sakhy, A.

2012-04-01

278

Contribution of Cooking to Organic Aerosols in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a few years, positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol mass spectra have become crucial to derive quantitative information on organic aerosol sources or components. This technique was used in several urban data sets and has shown that the contribution of cooking can be a significant source in London, Peking, Zurich, and Toronto. Recently we performed measurements in Barcelona and in Paris where the cooking factor could be clearly identified. Especially in the center of Paris we found very high contributions, averaging to more than 35% of organic mass during cooking time periods leading to very prominent diurnal patterns. The discussion of these recent ambient results will be put in context of on-going cooking emission and aging experiments. Potentially, cooking might explain a considerable fraction of the very non-fossil nature of urban organic carbon in particulate matter.

Prevot, A. S.; El Haddad, I.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Platt, S.; Poulain, L.; Slowik, J.; Baltensperger, U.

2011-12-01

279

[Organic carbon storage in urban built-up areas of China in 1997-2006].  

PubMed

With the increase of greenhouse gases emission in urban regions, urban carbon cycle plays a more and more important role in global carbon cycle. To estimate urban carbon emission and carbon storage is crucial for understanding urban carbon cycle. By using China's statistics data and the results from recent publications, this paper estimated the organic carbon storage in China's urban built-up areas in 1997-2006. From 1997 to 2006, the total organic carbon storage in the urban built-up areas increased from 0.13-0.19 Pg C (averagely 0.16 Pg C) to 0.28-0.41 Pg C (averagely 0.34 Pg C), and the organic carbon density increased from 9.86-14.03 kg C x m(-2) (averagely 11.95 kg C x m(-2)) to 10.54-15.54 kg C x m(-2) (averagely 13.04 kg C x m(-2)). The total organic carbon storage in the urban built-up areas was mainly contributed by soils (78% in 1997 and 73% in 2006), followed by buildings (12% in 1997 and 16% in 2006) and green spaces (9% in 1997 and 10% in 2006), while the carbon storage in resident bodies only accounted for less than 1%, which could be neglected. PMID:22919827

Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shu-Qing; Zhou, De-Cheng

2012-05-01

280

Preliminary Study to Formulate Multimodal Transportation Strategies to Alleviate Traffic Congestion in Small Urban Areas of New England.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This preliminary study has two objectives: (1) identify multimodal transportation strategies to alleviate traffic congestion in small urban areas of New England; and (2) offer recommendations to develop traffic congestion mitigation plans for small urban ...

F. Atash R. B. Shaw K. W. Lee A. Brahmachari

1995-01-01

281

Characterization of changes in spatial patterns of urban built-up areas using remote sensing and landscape metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial patterns of urban built-up areas are essential in determining the regional environment and socioeconomic This study focuses on the characterization of temporal changes in spatial patterns of urban built-up areas using Landsat satellite data and landscape metrics The study area chosen was Nagoya city the fourth largest city in Japan located in the middle of the island During our study we created maps of urban built-up areas using land cover images from satellite data and quantified the urban structure by landscape metrics Using the landscape metrics in combination with urban distribution data and administrative boundary data we were successfully able to evaluate temporal changes of urban structure in and around the city The results showed remarkable changes in urban structure of municipalities around Nagoya city and indicated that the integration of remote sensing and landscape metrics was highly efficient in the quantitative analysis of spatial patterns affecting urban changes

Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuoki, Y.; Asaka, T.; Iwashita, K.; Nishikawa, H.

282

40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the... County Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles...

2013-07-01

283

Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California  

EPA Science Inventory

â??Pestâ?ť control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

284

Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB) knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%); symptoms (46.8%), transmission (54.3%), prevention (34%) and free treatment (35%). Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4) and cure (85.1) was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI) lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P?=?0.004), unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P?=?0.010) and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P?urban-slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV.

2012-01-01

285

Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example from ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected ants from six urban and one forest land-use types in Raleigh, NC to examine the effects of urbanization on species\\u000a richness and assemblage composition. Since urban areas are warmer (i.e., heat island effect) we also tested if cities were\\u000a inhabited by species from warmer\\/drier environments. Species richness was lower in industrial areas relative to other urban\\u000a and natural

Sean B. Menke; Benoit Guénard; Joseph O. Sexton; Michael D. Weiser; Robert R. Dunn; Jules Silverman

2011-01-01

286

Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment.

2011-01-01

287

The long-term effect of increasing the albedo of urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar reflective urban surfaces (white rooftops and light-colored pavements) can increase the albedo of an urban area by about 0.1. Increasing the albedo of urban and human settlement areas can in turn decrease atmospheric temperature and could potentially offset some of the anticipated temperature increase caused by global warming. We have simulated the long-term (decadal to centennial) effect of increasing urban surface albedos using a spatially explicit global climate model of intermediate complexity. We first carried out two sets of simulations in which we increased the albedo of all land areas between ±20° and ±45° latitude respectively. The results of these simulations indicate a long-term global cooling effect of 3 × 10-15 K for each 1 m2 of a surface with an albedo increase of 0.01. This temperature reduction corresponds to an equivalent CO2 emission reduction of about 7 kg, based on recent estimates of the amount of global warming per unit CO2 emission. In a series of additional simulations, we increased the albedo of urban locations only, on the basis of two independent estimates of the spatial extent of urban areas. In these simulations, global cooling ranged from 0.01 to 0.07 K, which corresponds to a CO2 equivalent emission reduction of 25-150 billion tonnes of CO2.

Akbari, Hashem; Damon Matthews, H.; Seto, Donny

2012-06-01

288

Prevalence and Costs of Childhood Diarrhoea in the Slums of Dhaka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diarrhoea is a common water-borne disease among slum children in Bangladesh. This study seeks to identify the engineering, behavioural and socio-economic determinants of childhood diarrhoea and its duration and to compute the resulting costs borne by slum dwellers. The study is based on a survey of 480 households in 32 slums in Dhaka. Nearly 50 percent of slum households reported

M. Jahangir Alam

289

Study of leprosy among slum dwellers in Pune. Part II--Disabilities.  

PubMed

While conducting a leprosy survey in an urban slum in Pune 45 cases of leprosy were detected in a population of 4915 and only 7 of these cases had some disability. Disability rate in the leprosy cases was 15.56 percent, and maximum number had Grade 2 disability of hands or feet. Disability was higher in the higher age groups, males, Hindus, widower/widows, unemployed and lower socio-economic classes. Majority of the cases had a very low Disability Index DI (2) between 0.10 to 0.69 which is heartening and proves the successful implementation of the National Leprosy Eradication Programme. PMID:1303995

Krishnan, S K; Gokarn, A

290

Maternal and neonatal health expenditure in mumbai slums (India): A cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The cost of maternity care can be a barrier to access that may increase maternal and neonatal mortality risk. We analyzed\\u000a spending on maternity care in urban slum communities in Mumbai to better understand the equity of spending and the impact\\u000a of spending on household poverty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used expenditure data for maternal and neonatal care, collected during post-partum interviews. Interviews

Jolene Skordis-Worrall; Noemi Pace; Ujwala Bapat; Sushmita Das; Neena S More; Wasundhara Joshi; Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom; David Osrin

2011-01-01

291

Large-Eddy Simulation of plume dispersion within various actual urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plume dispersion of hazardous materials within urban area resulting from accidental or intentional releases is of great concern to public health. Many researchers have developed local-scale atmospheric dispersion models using building-resolving computational fluid dynamics. However, an important issue is encountered when determining a reasonable domain size of the computational model in order to capture concentration distribution patterns influenced by urban surface geometries. In this study, we carried out Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of plume dispersion within various urban areas with a wide range of obstacle density and building height variability. The difference of centerline mean and r.m.s. concentration distributions among various complex urban surface geometries becomes small for downwind distances from the point source greater than 1.0 km. From these results, it can be concluded that a length of a computational model should be at least 1.0 km from a point source.

Nakayama, H.; Jurcakova, K.; Nagai, H.

2013-02-01

292

THE CHARAKA COMPLEXMaturation out of Delinquency in an Israeli Slum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a subcultural approach to explain why most delinquents abandon crime as they reach adulthood. An ethnographic study of an Israeli slum, it reveals that the slum culture is composed of different age groups, one of which—the youth— promotes delinquency, while the others practice conventional behavior. While the youth encourage some deviant and daring acts, they also encourage

MOSHE HAZANI

1989-01-01

293

The lost history of urban renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to common understanding, the US government's policy of “urban renewal” was conceived as an alternative policy to slum clearance. Bitterly opposed to public housing, conservative housing?industry trade associations sought a way to reform the urban redevelopment formula of clearance and public housing established in the Housing Act of 1949. In the early 1950s, the industry groups seized on citizens'

Alexander von Hoffman

2008-01-01

294

Quality of life in urban-classified and rural-classified English local authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Audit Commission’s local quality-of-life indicators dataset to compare reported outcomes amongst 208 urban-classified and 144 rural-classified English local authority areas. We contextualise the demarcation of the urban and rural by reference to the transformational politics of the previous Labour government and its establishment of the sustainable communities initiative, whose controversial

Josep M Campanera; Paul Higgins

2011-01-01

295

Sociocultural aspects of AIDS in an urban peripheral area of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the social dynamics—migration, urbanization, the status of women, education—related to AIDS in an urban peripheral area of Abidjan. Structured interviews were administered to 420 people, selected through cluster random sampling. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were performed with key-informants. The results show that 26.9% of the interviewees are foreigners and 40%

S. Yelibi; P. Valenti; C. Volpe; A. Caprara; S. Dedy; G. Tape

1993-01-01

296

The new equine sector and its influence on multifunctional land use in peri-urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equine sector is increasingly influencing land use, especially in peri-urban areas where the demand for land is already\\u000a high. The sector not only influences traditional farming and land use, but also social, legal and economic development, and\\u000a thus demands new interpretations of rural and urban. However, there is currently a lack of information on the consequences\\u000a of this sector

Hanna Elisabeth Elgĺker

297

Open-path FTIR measurements at an urban area in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-path FTIR (op-FTIR) measurement method has several characteristics, which make the method attractive for monitoring air pollutants in urban areas. In this paper recent op-FTIR measurements at an urban site in Germany are presented. These measurements include the first direct intercomparisons between op-FTIR measurements and an official measurement system of the Environmental State Agency in North- Rhine-Westphalia. These intercomparisons

Konradin Weber; Johannes Weidemann; Guenther van Haren; Torsten Lamp

1995-01-01

298

Open-path FTIR measurements at an urban area in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open-path FTIR (op-FTIR) measurement method has several characteristics, which make the method attractive for monitoring air pollutants in urban areas. In this paper recent op-FTIR measurements at an urban site in Germany are presented. These measurements include the first direct intercomparisons between op-FTIR measurements and an official measurement system of the Environmental State Agency in North- Rhine-Westphalia. These intercomparisons revealed very good results.

Weber, Konradin; Weidemann, Johannes; van Haren, Guenther; Lamp, Torsten

1995-05-01

299

Nationwide shift in CO concentration levels in urban areas of Korea after 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in urban and rural air were analyzed from 16 urban roadside locations in the 7 major cities along with 5 background areas in Korea during an 11-year period (1998–2008). Because of noticeable changes in CO levels after 2000, temporal evaluation of its roadside data was carried out by grouping them into period I (1998–2000) and

Ki-Hyun Kim; Zang-Ho Shon

2011-01-01

300

Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas.  

PubMed

Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning. PMID:18584292

Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J

2008-12-01

301

Urban Bias in Area-averaged Surface Air Temperature Trends.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data set derived from the United States Historical Climate Network has been compared to two global land-based temperature data sets that have been commonly cited in connection with the detection of the greenhouse effect and in other studies of climate change. Results indicate that in the United States the two global land-based temperature data sets have an urban bias between +6.1°C and +0.4°C over the twentieth century (1901-84). This bias is as large or larger than the overall temperature trend in the United States during this time period, +0.16°C/84 yr. Temperature trends indicate an increasing temperature from the turn of the century to the 1930s but a decrease thereafter. By comparison, the global temperature trends during the same period are between +0.4°C/84 yr and +0.6°C/84 yr. At this time, we can only speculate on the magnitude of the urban bias in the global land-based data sets for other parts of the globe, but the magnitude of the bias in the United States compared to the overall temperature trend underscores the need for a thorough global study.

Karl, Thomas R.; Jones, Philip D.

1989-03-01

302

Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: The importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities affect both the amount and configuration of habitat. These changes have important ecological implications\\u000a that can be measured as changes in landscape connectivity. I investigated how urbanization interacts with the initial amount\\u000a and aggregation of habitat to change dispersal potential, restoration potential, and the risk of spatially extensive disturbances.\\u000a I used a factorial set of simulated landscapes and

Britta G. Bierwagen

2007-01-01

303

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SHADOW EFFECTS IN HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadow effects have drawn much attention by researchers with increasing use of high-resolution remote sensing images of urban areas. For correction or compensation to pixels that falling in shadow areas due to the existence of vertically standing objects such as buildings and trees, quantitative analysis of shadow effects is essential. In this paper, we proposed an object-based approach for predicting,

Qingming Zhan; Wenzhong Shi; Yinghui Xiao

304

Differences between burns in rural and in urban areas: implications for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify typical features of burns in rural areas and to improve their prevention by comparing the characteristics of burnt patients and their burns in rural and urban areas. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 19 of the 23 French burns units over one year, using a structured questionnaire. We analysed the resulting database. Of the 1422

G Vidal-Trecan; S Tcherny-Lessenot; C Grossin; S Devaux; M Pages; J Laguerre; D Wassermann

2000-01-01

305

Regulation of formal and informal water service providers in peri-urban areas of Maputo, Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service delivery to large areas of peri-urban Maputo depends largely on alternative informal service providers. These providers are located within the limits of Maputo, in a water supply area that is formally leased to a private operator. Informal service providers therefore operate within the main regulatory body, but their activity is presently unregulated. This paper discusses activities of informal alternative

Nelson P. Matsinhe; Dinis Juízo; Berta Macheve; Clara dos Santos

2008-01-01

306

Environmental and serological evidence for the presence of toxocariasis in the urban area of Ancona, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the Toxocara spp. eggs environmental contamination of the soil of the urban or suburban area Ancona (Italy), 22 public playgrounds were selected and several cores of soil were taken from any selected areas. To study the Toxocara seroprevalence in the inhabitants of Ancona, blood samples were collected from selected groups of individuals. One hundred and sixty-three blood samples

A. Giacometti; O. Cirioni; M. Fortuna; P. Osimani; L. Antonicelli; M. S. Del Prete; A. Riva; M. M. D'Errico; E. Petrelli; G. Scalise

2000-01-01

307

Hydrologic Data from Urban Watersheds in the Tampa Bay Area, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrologic data are being collected in 10 urbanized watersheds located in the Tampa Bay area, Florida. The gaged watersheds have impervious areas that range from 19 percent for a residential watershed in north Tampa to nearly 100 percent for a downtown Ta...

M. A. Lopez D. M. Michaelis

1979-01-01

308

Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

2013-09-01

309

Anticline growing beneath the urban area of Catania (Italy) measured by SAR interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors applied the differential SAR interferometry technique to detect and measure the rise of a basal anticline beneath the urban area of Catania (Italy) which originates from outward thrusting above the basal decollement of Etna volcano. This phenomenon, coupled with the already documented active extension of the volcano summit area, demonstrates the occurrence of the active volcanic spreading process

P. Berardino; A. Borgia; G. Fornaro; R. Lanari; E. Sansosti; M. Tesauro

2000-01-01

310

Identifying dissolved phosphorus source areas and predicting transport from an urban watershed using distributed hydrologic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduction in surface water quality in urban watersheds due to nonpoint source phosphorus (P) loading has prompted municipalities to consider management practices to reduce P loss from landscapes. However, locating P source areas can be time consuming and expensive. Use of distributed models allows delineation of P source areas and focused management strategies. Using the spatially distributed soil moisture

Zachary M. Easton; Pierre Gérard-Marchant; M. Todd Walter; A. Martin Petrovic; Tammo S. Steenhuis

2007-01-01

311

Estimating long-term population exposure to ozone in urban areas of Europe.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone concentrations regarded as harmful for human health are frequently encountered in Central Europe in summertime. Although ozone formation generally results from precursors transported over long distances, in urban areas local effects, such as reactions due to nearby emission sources, play a major role in determining ozone concentrations. Europe-wide mapping and modeling of population exposure to high ozone concentrations is subject to many uncertainties, because small-scale phenomena in urban areas can significantly change ozone levels from those of the surroundings. Currently the integrated assessment modeling of European ozone control strategies is done utilizing the results of large-scale models intended for estimating the rural background ozone levels. This paper presents an initial study on how much local nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations can explain variations between large-scale ozone model results and urban ozone measurements, on one hand, and between urban and nearby rural measurements, on the other. The impact of urban NOx concentrations on ozone levels was derived from chemical equations describing the ozone balance. The study investigated the applicability of the method for improving the accuracy of modeled population exposure, which is needed for efficient control strategy development. The method was tested with NOx and ozone measurements from both urban and rural areas in Switzerland and with the ozone predictions of the large-scale photochemical model currently used in designing Europe-wide control strategies for ground-level ozone. The results suggest that urban NOx levels are a significant explanatory factor in differences between urban and nearby rural ozone concentrations and that the phenomenon could be satisfactorily represented with this kind of method. Further research efforts should comprise testing of the method in more locations and analyzing the performance of more widely applicable ways of deriving the initial parameters. PMID:11351762

Syri, S; Amann, M; Schöpp, W; Heyes, C

2001-01-01

312

Food Security among Urban Households: A Case Study of Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents

H. Ibrahim; N. R. Uba-Eze; S. O. Oyewole; E. G. Onuk

2009-01-01

313

Endless Urban Growth? On the Mismatch of Population, Household and Urban Land Area Growth and Its Effects on the Urban Debate  

PubMed Central

In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990–2000 and 2000–2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these “double-declining” cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number “automatically” solve the global problem of land consumption.

Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

2013-01-01

314

Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.  

PubMed

Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

2013-02-26

315

A one-class classifier for identifying urban areas in remotely-sensed data  

SciTech Connect

For many remote sensing applications, land cover can be determined by using spectral information alone. Identifying urban areas, however, requires the use of texture information since these areas are not generally characterized by a unique spectral signature. We have designed a one-class classifier to discriminate between urban and non-urban data. The advantage to using our classification technique is that principles of both statistical and adaptive pattern recognition are used simultaneously. This prevents new data that is completely dissimilar from the training data from being incorrectly classified. At the same time it allows decision boundary adaptation to reduce classification error in overlap areas of the feature space. Results will be illustrated using a LANDSAT scene of the city of Albuquerque.

Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); White, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-01-01

316

A one-class classifier for identifying urban areas in remotely-sensed data  

SciTech Connect

For many remote sensing applications, land cover can be determined by using spectral information alone. Identifying urban areas, however, requires the use of texture information since these areas are not generally characterized by a unique spectral signature. We have designed a one-class classifier to discriminate between urban and non-urban data. The advantage to using our classification technique is that principles of both statistical and adaptive pattern recognition are used simultaneously. This prevents new data that is completely dissimilar from the training data from being incorrectly classified. At the same time it allows decision boundary adaptation to reduce classification error in overlap areas of the feature space. Results will be illustrated using a LANDSAT scene of the city of Albuquerque.

Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1992-05-01

317

Does Size Matter? Scaling of CO2 Emissions and U.S. Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Urban areas consume more than 66% of the world’s energy and generate more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With the world’s population expected to reach 10 billion by 2100, nearly 90% of whom will live in urban areas, a critical question for planetary sustainability is how the size of cities affects energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Are larger cities more energy and emissions efficient than smaller ones? Do larger cities exhibit gains from economies of scale with regard to emissions? Here we examine the relationship between city size and CO2 emissions for U.S. metropolitan areas using a production accounting allocation of emissions. We find that for the time period of 1999–2008, CO2 emissions scale proportionally with urban population size. Contrary to theoretical expectations, larger cities are not more emissions efficient than smaller ones.

Fragkias, Michail; Lobo, Jose; Strumsky, Deborah; Seto, Karen C.

2013-01-01

318

Sustainable reclamation of industrial areas in urban landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the second half of the twentieth century a widespread crisis of numerous industrial sectors contributed to the appearance of derelict industrial areas. In this perspective the recycling of derelict industrial areas is indispensable for sustainable city development in the optic of recovery and conservation of our industrial heritage. The transformation of derelict industrial sites into public spaces represents a

L. Loures; T. Panagopoulos

2007-01-01

319

Sourcing dry N deposition in urban areas and implications for national N inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil fuel combustion from point (e.g. power plants) and mobile (e.g. automobiles) sources in urban areas is a key contributor to dry nitrogen deposition. However, relative to rural areas, atmospheric N deposition in urban areas is poorly characterized because monitoring of reactive N deposition by national networks is primarily conducted at remote locations. For example, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), the dry deposition monitoring network in the U.S., intentionally locates sites in rural areas to capture regional background levels of deposition. This may potentially underestimate the amount of atmospheric N reaching the land surface, as it does not take into account hotspots of N deposition near area sources of pollution, such as roadways and urban locations. Furthermore, vegetation in urban environments represents a potentially important sink for atmospheric inputs of reactive N, and understanding the nutrient dynamics of vegetation in urban ecosystems is critical to understanding N budgets. However, little is known about how urban ecosystems compensate for higher local N loading received via depositional processes. This study couples passive sampling of dry N deposition and plant biomonitors to delineate the sources and magnitude of N deposition to urban and rural areas and associated influence on local vegetation. Research sites consisted of two urban to rural transects, one in Baltimore, MD and the other in Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Passive samplers were deployed at urban, suburban and rural sites for five months to collect dry N deposition (NO2, HNO3 and NH3) for analysis of both concentration and stable isotopes of nitrogen (?15N). This method provides a straightforward and inexpensive approach for monitoring N deposition and sources across large spatial gradients for extended time periods. Additionally, we deployed grasses as biomonitors along the urban to rural gradients to assess the influence of excess dry N deposition on isotopic composition and N content of plant tissue. Preliminary results indicate that along the Baltimore transect, N flux at the urban site was 1.5 times higher than the rural site. Along the Pittsburgh transect, N flux was 2.3 times higher at the urban site. In addition, NO2 was a large component of total deposition. This has implications for development of total N budgets, as NO2 is not currently monitored by the CASTNET monitoring network. Furthermore, the highest seasonal fluxes of N deposition coincide with highest inputs from fossil fuel N, in October and November, indicating that fossil fuel combustion is a primary source of dry N deposition in urban areas. Stable isotope analysis further supports this hypothesis: ?15N-NO2 along the Pittsburgh transect was highest at the urban site in all months, corresponding with high ?15N-NO2 values from anthropogenic fossil-fuel combustion sources. However, at the Baltimore gradient, this trend was only evident in October and November. Future work includes exploring how these patterns are related to the geographic distributions of point and mobile sources and emissions inventories from this time period.

Redling, K. M.; Elliott, E. M.; Hom, J. L.

2011-12-01

320

The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability  

PubMed Central

Background Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Conclusions Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post-source contamination during storage in the household, except during the monsoon season, when there was some point-of-source water contamination. This suggests that safe storage and household water treatment interventions may improve water quality in slums. Problems of exorbitant expense, inadequate quantity, and poor point-of-source quality can only be remedied by providing unrecognized slums with equitable access to municipal water supplies.

2013-01-01

321

Preliminary analysis of hazardous air pollutant emission inventories from three major urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The paper summarizes results of three current projects and indicates HAP emissions inventory needs. HAP inventories for three urban areas--Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle/Tacoma--were analyzed to identify area sources as defined in the CAAA. One inventory focused on area sources; the other two were basically point source inventories that had facilities that met the area source definition. The HAPs that contribute most of the area source emissions in each inventory were identified, and 22 HAPs that were common to the inventories were selected for further analysis.

Jones, J.W.; Campbell, D.; Murphy, P.; Smith, R.

1993-01-01

322

Detroit's East Side Village Health Worker Partnership: Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Intervention in an Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there have been few reports in the literature of interventions using a lay health advisor approach in an urban area. Consequently, little is known about how implementation of this type of community health worker model, which has been used extensively in rural areas, may differ in an urban area. This article describes the implementation of the East

Edith A. Parker; Amy J. Schulz; Barbara A. Israel; Rose Hollis

1998-01-01

323

Serum micronutrient status and nutrient intake of elderly Yoruba people in a slum of Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The present study was conceived in response to a perceived lack of data about the nutritional status of free-living elderly Yoruba people living in a poor urban area in south-western Nigeria. The major focus was to assess the micronutrient status of elderly Yoruba people living in a slum of Ibadan. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect data on dietary intake and micronutrient status. SETTING: By means of a structured questionnaire and the estimated food record method, nutrient intake was assessed. Blood was taken from 120 people to determine serum micronutrient levels. SUBJECTS: A total of 240 elderly Yoruba people were selected from Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria using a random sampling technique. RESULTS: The diet of the elderly Yoruba participants was mainly plant based and inadequate in B vitamins (especially B1, B6 and folic acid) and micronutrients such as Zn. The intake of vitamin A ranged from 269 to 487 ?g/d, while vitamin B1 and B2 intakes ranged from 0·20 to 0·82 mg/d in both males and females. The intake of vitamin C varied from 24·8 to 42·8 mg/d. The majority of participants had insufficient serum levels of vitamins and minerals relative to reference values. Forty per cent were deficient in serum Ca, 71 % were deficient in serum Zn and 51 % were deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the elderly Yoruba people were deficient in Zn, ferritin and vitamin B6. This is the result of a diet lacking in vitamins and minerals. PMID:23211101

Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O; Fadupin, Grace T; Agbato, Serifat O; Soyewo, Deborah O

2012-12-01

324

Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China.  

PubMed

High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m(3)) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m(3)) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. PMID:22955250

Wang, Chen; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiwei; Wang, Hongqijie; Li, Tongchao; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Tang, Jianhui; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

2012-09-03

325

Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

1982-06-01

326

Study on distribution of soil pH in urban area of Beijing using GIS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

pH is one of the pretty important properties of surface soil. In this paper, GIS technology was used to analyze the pH data from thirty one sample plots in Beijing. The analyzing result shows the distribution character of surface soil pH in urban area of Beijing. The whole area can be divided into three sub-areas: the North part, the Middle

Lingli Yang; Xiao-juan Li; Hui-li Gong; Wen-ji Zhao; Lei Wang; Yong Hua Sun

2005-01-01

327

Remote sensing of aerosols and atmospheric correction of HJ-1 CCD data over urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite aerosol retrieval over urban areas remains a difficult task due to heterogeneity and high reflectance of the urban ground surface. Compared to most moderate/low resolution satellite sensors for aerosol detection, the high spatial resolution of HJ-1 CCD camera (30 m) enables larger opportunities to find spectrally pure pixels over urban areas. In this study, we developed a SPP (spectrally pure pixels) algorithm for urban aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval using HJ-1 CCD data. Pixel Purity Index (PPI) is used to identify the pure pixels on the image. The surface reflectances of the pure pixels are estimated from the multi-temporal CCD measurements of HJ-1A and HJ-1B platforms based on surface BRDF model. Then the aerosol optical depth can be derived from satellite radiation. The comparison with ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) AOD measurements shows good performance of our algorithm. A significant (R=0.84) is obtained with a linear regression slope close to 1 and, however, a relatively large intercept of ~0.057. With the retrieved AOD as input, the atmospheric correction of HJ-1CCD data over urban areas is largely improved.

Fang, L.; Yu, T.; Gu, X.

2012-04-01

328

Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa--a review.  

PubMed

Eutrophication is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and, as a result, the ecological integrity of surface waters becomes compromised, fish populations become extinct, toxic cyanobacteria blooms are abundant, and oxygen levels reduce. In this review we establish the relationship between eutrophication of fresh inland surface waters in SSA and the release of nutrients in their mega-cities. Monitoring reports indicate that the population of mega-cities in SSA is rapidly increasing, and so is the total amount of wastewater produced. Of the total amounts produced, at present, less than 30% is treated in sewage treatment plants, while the remainder is disposed of via onsite sanitation systems, eventually discharging their wastewater into groundwater. When related to the urban water balance of a number of SSA cities, the total amount of wastewater produced may be as high as 10-50% of the total precipitation entering these urban areas, which is considerable, especially since in most cases, precipitation is the most important, if not only the 'wastewater diluting agent' present. The most important knowledge gaps include: (1) the fate and transport mechanisms of nutrients (N and P) in soils and aquifers, or, conversely, the soil aquifer treatment characteristics of the regoliths, which cover a large part of SSA, (2) the effect of the episodic and largely uncontrolled removal of nutrients stored at urban surfaces by runoff from precipitation on nutrient budgets in adjacent lakes and rivers draining the urban areas, and (3) the hydrology and hydrogeology within the urban area, including surface water and groundwater flow patterns, transport velocities, dynamics of nutrient transport, and the presence of recharge and discharge areas. In order to make a start with managing this urban population-related eutrophication, many actions are required. As a first step, we suggest to start systematically researching the key areas identified above. PMID:19889445

Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Uhlenbrook, S; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A

2009-11-03

329

Characterization of visibility and atmospheric aerosols in urban, suburban, and remote areas.  

PubMed

Visibility data from over the past four decades accumulated from urban areas of central Taiwan indicated that air pollutants have significantly degraded visibility in recent years. Currently, the annual average visibility in urban areas of the same region is approximately 8-10 km, while the visibility in remote areas is approximately 25-30 km. To understand how aerosols affect the visibility in this region, here we selected three sites in central Taiwan to measure the soluble ionic and carbonaceous species of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) during 1997-1998. A MOUDI cascade impactor was used to measure the size distributions of atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and carbonaceous particles. The aerosol data were then analyzed together with meteorological and air quality data. Comparing the results obtained from urban, coastal suburban and remote sites revealed that sulfate, carbonaceous species and local wind speed significantly affected the visibility in the urban area. However, sulfate concentration and humidity influenced visibility in the coastal area of central Taiwan. The particulate concentration at the remote station was roughly one-fifth of that in the city. Regression analysis results indicated that humidity is a dominant factor affecting remote visibility. PMID:11194144

Chen, M T; Tsai, Y I

2000-12-18

330

Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. PMID:17380412

Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

2007-03-23

331

HIV Risk Perception and Constraints to Protective Behaviour among Young Slum Dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS risk perception and protective behaviour among sexually-active urban young slum dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria. The multistage sampling techniques were used for selecting 1,600 respondents aged 15-24 years. Of these, 1,042 (65%) respondents who reported unprotected sex in the last three months were selected for analysis. Although the sexually-active respondents demonstrated basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high risk perception, risky behaviour was common and protective behaviour was poor. About 48% of 505 males and 12% of 537 females had multiple partners. Similarly, 29% of males and 38% of females were engaged in transactional sex. Only 14% of males and 5% of females used any form of protection, resulting in the high rates of sexually transmitted infections reported by 27% of males and 10% of females. Structural and environmental constraints were identified as barriers to adopting protective behaviour. Therefore, programme and policy interventions should be designed to address the peculiar circumstances of urban young slum dwellers to curtail the HIV epidemic.

Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Omololu, Femi O.; Odutolu, Oluwole

2007-01-01

332

Mediterranean rural ozone characteristics around the urban area of Athens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic analysis of surface ozone observations in rural areas surrounding Athens is presented. The analysis is based on ozone data for the rural station Aliartos about 80km NW of Athens center and for two stations on the northern periphery of the Athens basin: Demokritos, located 10km NE of Athens center and Liossia, 12km to the north. The data for

Pavlos D Kalabokas; Loizos G Viras; John G Bartzis; Christos C Repapis

2000-01-01

333

A cokriging method for estimating population density in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population information is typically available for analysis in aggregate socioeconomic reporting zones, such as census blocks in the United States and enumeration districts in the United Kingdom. However, such data mask underlying individual population distributions and may be incompatible with other information sources (e.g. school districts, transportation analysis zones, metropolitan statistical areas, etc.). Moreover, it is well known that there

Changshan Wu; Alan T. Murray

2005-01-01

334

Multiscale Atmospheric Simulations Over Urban Areas: Testing WRF Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study is to simulate realistic flows over specific sites in the NYC metropolitan area. This requires accurate atmospheric simulations at scales ranging from the mesoscales to the small turbulent scales. The meteorological Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model has been extensively tested as a mesoscale simulation tool; however, only limited results have been reported on its performance

C. Talbot; E. Bou-Zeid

2008-01-01

335

An urban transport emission model for the Antwerp area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed modelling approach which provides hourly emissions of CO, NOx, VOC, PM, SO2 and Pb for individual streets and road segments in the Antwerp area (20km×20km). The hourly emissions are computed as a function of road type, vehicle type, fuel type, traffic volume, vehicle age, trip length distribution and the actual ambient temperature. The traffic volumes are

C Mensink; I De Vlieger; J Nys

2000-01-01

336

Evolution of nutrient export under urban development in areas affected by shallow watertable.  

PubMed

Surface water quality in catchments undergoing urbanisation may be affected by the release of pre-existing (or legacy) solutes, such as nutrients, as well as new sources associated with urban land use. This paper examines both for a number of urbanisation scenarios and adopting the modelling capability developed for the analysis of urbanisation effects on catchment water balance. The flat relief of the study catchment and its sandy soils, in combination with a Mediterranean-type climate, lead to large rates of diffuse gross recharge and diffuse (evaporative) discharge with low overall runoff from the catchment (<1mm per unit area). Under these conditions solutes stored in shallow groundwater have long residence times (longer than 100 years). Urbanisation of such a catchment leads to significant changes in water regime, leading to a reduction in groundwater residence time and 'flushing' of legacy solutes towards the surface water network. Concurrently, urban development introduces new sources of solutes. It was found that the modelled concentrations of legacy solutes in the urban drains are greater than the water quality standards in the region; though, legacy solute concentrations reduce by 50% within the first 2-3 years and become less than 5% within 10 years for all urban scenarios. The full effect of new urban landscape on water quality was estimated to be longer than 5 years. Urban density and groundwater abstraction for irrigation of public open space and domestic garden have an effect on the surface water quality, as they influence the rate of legacy solute replacement and accumulation of the solute associated with the new urban forms. It was shown that water quality control measures in new urban developments should be directed to legacy nutrients during the first 2-3 years but measures reducing nutrient leachate from soil, such as soil amendments, should be considered for long-term solutions. PMID:23220139

Barron, Olga V; Barr, Anthony D; Donn, Michael J

2012-12-05

337

Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: The case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is increasingly homogenizing the biota of less developed countries. Even though urban sprawl is a worldwide problem, most studies on the effects of urbanization, and the conceptual models have focused on developed countries. South America has not escaped urbanization, and here we discuss the potential impacts of urban sprawl with respect to three ecosystems in the metropolitan area of

Aníbal Pauchard; Mauricio Aguayo; Eduardo Peńa; Roberto Urrutia

2006-01-01

338

Multivariate Stochastic Models of Sulphur Dioxide Pollution in an Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three multivariate stochastic mathematical models of daily SO2 pollution in an urban area (Milan, Italy) during the heating season (mid-October\\/end of March) are illustrated in the paper. Each model is characterized by a different number of external inputs. Precisely, the first model has no inputs (it is simply an autoregressive relationship), the second one has a temperature input (roughly accounting

G. Finzi; G. Fronza; A. Spirito

1980-01-01

339

Estimating long-term population exposure to ozone in urban areas of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric ozone concentrations regarded as harmful for human health are frequently encountered in Central Europe in summertime. Although ozone formation generally results from precursors transported over long distances, in urban areas local effects, such as reactions due to nearby emission sources, play a major role in determining ozone concentrations. Europe-wide mapping and modeling of population exposure to high ozone concentrations

S. Syri; M. Amann; W. Schöpp; C. Heyes

2001-01-01

340

Cost Per Job Associated with EDA Investments in Urban and Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brief report was prepared in response to a request from Arizona Senator John McCain to the secretary of commerce asking for a study of the differences in job-creation cost of federal projects in urban and rural areas. The study examines two data sets...

A. K. Glasmeier

2002-01-01

341

IS IT EASIER TO ESCAPE FROM LOW PAY IN URBAN AREAS? EVIDENCE FROM THE UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we compare periods of low pay employment between rural and urban areas in the UK. Using the British Household Panel Survey, we estimate the probability that a period of low pay employment will end allowing for a number of possible outcomes, namely to a \\

Euan Phimister; Ioannis Theodossiou; Richard Upward

2004-01-01

342

A Double-Hurdle model of urban green areas valuation: Dealing with zero responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the widespread support for public parks and open spaces in urban areas, there is an increasing need to analyse the social benefits that are generated by such amenities. The city of Valencia (Spain) has a large park that can be considered its green backbone due to its transversal layout running along 9 of the 19 districts into which

Salvador del Saz-Salazar; Pau Rausell-Köster

2008-01-01

343

Coupled vibration control system for slender buildings constructed closely in urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new coupled vibration control system is proposed for a group of slender buildings constructed closely in urban areas. The connection dampers which can move in vertical, not in lateral are set between the adjacent buildings. Also, to concentrate the earthquake input energy to the connection dampers, a rocking structural system is applied to each connected building. This proposed system

Tatsuya Azuhata; Tadashi Ishihara; Mitsumasa Midorikawa

2007-01-01

344

Lead Poisoning: The Silent Epidemic Affecting Poor and Minority Children in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is often cited as the nation's most preventable childhood public health problem (Bailey, 1998). Common sources of lead poisoning are lead-based paint chips from interior exterior paint, soil, especially in dense urban areas, dust and debris from older building renovation, drinking water, playground soil, household dust, cosmetics, ceramics, etc. The accumulation of lead in one's blood can cause

Magee McIlvaine; Fatema Mosammat; Narin Prum

345

Numerical solution to a two-dimensional hypersingular integral equation and sound propagation in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model of sound propagation from a noise source in urban areas is constructed. The exterior Neumann problem for the scalar Helmholtz equation is reduced to a system of hypersingular integral equations. A numerical method for solving the system of integral equations is described. The convergence of the quadrature formulas underlying the numerical method is estimated. Numerical results are presented for particular applications.

Gutnikov, V. A.; Kiryakin, V. Yu.; Lifanov, I. K.; Setukha, A. V.; Stavtsev, S. L.

2007-12-01

346

Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania…

Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

2012-01-01

347

DETECTION OF HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN DOGS AND SOIL CONTAMINATION IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the helminthes in dog's feces and soil samples from urban and rural areas. Six species of nematodes (Toxocara sp, an undetermined nema- tode larvae, Strongyloides sp larvae, Ascaris sp ova, hookworm ova, Trichuris sp ova) and one species of Cestode (Taenia sp) were found in 175 stool samples. Seventy-eight point nine percent of stool

Noor Azian; L Sakhone; S Lokman Hakim; MY Yusri; Y Nurulsyamzawaty; AH Zuhaizam; I Mohd Rodi

348

Geophysical studies for the identification of basin effects in urban areas in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas in northern Venezuela are subject to a moderate seismic hazard due to the interactions between the Caribbean and south American plates, which has been evidenced by historical damaging earthquakes as for example the 1812 and the 1967 earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.2 and 6.5, respectively. Strong damages in Caracas during the 1967 earthquake have been asociated to

M. Schmitz; V. Rocabado; J. Sánchez; C. Reinoza; E. Amaris; C. Cornou

2007-01-01

349

Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall,

T. Vitvar; D. A. Burns; J. M. Duncan; J. M. Hassett; J. J. McDonnell

2002-01-01

350

Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of

T. Vitvar; D. A. Burns; J. M. Duncan; J. M. Hassett; M. J. Mitchell

2002-01-01

351

Identification of Pollutant Sources in Urban Area Using Inverse CFD Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research introduces a technique to determine pollution source locations in urban areas -when the pollutant concentration field is known- through the use of reversed time marching method (RTMM). The method depends primarily on the solution of the scalar transport equation with time integration in the negative direction. This leads to reversing the velocity field and also the diffusion

Hong Huang; Shinsuke Kato; Mahmoud Bady

352

Distribution and availability of arsenic in soils from the industrialized urban area of Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of arsenic (As) were determined in soils of 5 industrial sites in an urban area of Beijing, China. Fifty seven typical surface soils were sampled to determine total concentrations of metals, pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). One hundred and eight deep soils were submitted to a four-step, sequential extraction to assess the relative mobility and bioavailability of As

Wei Luo; Yonglong Lu; Guang Wang; Yajuan Shi; Tieyu Wang; John P. Giesy

2008-01-01

353

Microwave propagation characteristics depending on base-station antenna height in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted propagation experiments assuming the environment of low base station antenna height and, hence, microcells in an urban area and have reported their results. In this report, we report the results of a propagation experiment in the microwave band that is conducted with transmission base station antennas installed at height sufficiently higher or lower than the surrounding building

K. Sakawa; H. Masui; M. Ishii; H. Shimizu; T. Kobayashi

2001-01-01

354

Classification of hyperspectral data from urban areas based on extended morphological profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of hyperspectral data with high spatial resolution from urban areas is investigated. A method based on mathematical morphology for preprocessing of the hyperspectral data is proposed. In this approach, opening and closing morphological transforms are used in order to isolate bright (opening) and dark (closing) structures in images, where bright\\/dark means brighter\\/darker than the surrounding features in the images.

Jón Atli Benediktsson; Jón Aevar Palmason; Johannes R. Sveinsson

2005-01-01

355

The Functional Resilience of an Innovative Cluster in the Montpellier Urban Area (South of France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to evaluate the resilience of territories through a study of the morphology of local firms' networks: in this case, in the Montpellier urban area. Two types of data collection were used for the analysis: a statistical survey of a sample of firms and a list of shared patents pending. The first step of the

Nicolas Bonnet

2010-01-01

356

QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECASTING FOR A SMALL URBAN AREA: USE OF RADAR NOWCASTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) over urban areas is a challenging problem. Many attempts have been made to use weather radar to produce rainfall forecasts with lead times of a few hours ahead. In the UK, the Met Office has developed a stochastic probabilistic precipitation forecasting scheme (STEPS), which merges an extrapolation radar rainfall forecast with a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction

A. N. A. Schellart; M. A. Rico-Ramirez; S. Liguori; A. J. Saul

357

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

358

The Occurrence of Haze in Malaysia: A Case Study in an Urban Industrial Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

-- Klang Valley, a heavily industrialized urban area in Malaysia, has experienced severe haze episodes since the early 1980s. Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) is used in studying this phenomenon. Three severe haze episodes during the early 1990s are reviewed; August 1990, October 1991, and August-October 1994. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are

AIMAN SOLEIMAN; MAZLAN OTHMAN; AZIZAN ABU SAMAH; NIK MERIAM SULAIMAN; MIROSLAV RADOJEVIC

2003-01-01

359

Using Solar Cookers and Gardens to Improve Health in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although health benefits of vegetables have been scientifically documented and well publicized, food habits and cost frequently limit vegetable consumption. Our work in Latin America in varied climates, in urban and rural areas, with different populations--especialy those with limited resources--has global applications. In Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, and in Central America we found that often fresh vegetables are readily available but

R. M. Dow; C. R. Dow

1999-01-01

360

Similarity and Disparity of China's Home Appliances' Diffusion Trajectory in Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washing machine, refrigerator and color TV set, representing China's traditional home appliances, have got rapid diffusion in urban area with the continual economic development, and information of similarity and disparity of their diffusion trajectory and potential space is significant for domestic producers to make and adjust their strategy for more market share. Using Simple Logistic Growth Model and Logistic Growth

Lei Shanyu; Miao Jin; Li Guiyuan

2009-01-01

361

Plant communities of selected urbanized areas of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare plant biodiversity and community indicators among urban residential areas and more-natural habitats in the vicinity of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Six house lots were examined in each of three age-categories of residential neighborhoods (>80 years, 30–50 years, and

K. Turner; L. Lefler; B. Freedman

2005-01-01

362

A method for the evaluation of pollution loads from urban areas at river basin scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the identification of significant human pressures and impacts on water bodies. This is part of the wider analysis of river basins required by Article 5 (and Annex II) of the WFD, which must be carried out by the end of 2004. The human pressures on surface waters include point and diffuse source pollutions, water abstraction, water flow regulation, morphological alterations and land use patterns. In order to be able to complete the analysis of significant pressures and impacts before the deadline within the WFD it is necessary to maximise the use of existing information. In a project at the University Essen, funded by the Ministry for Environment in North Rhine-Westphalia, a method for the evaluation of point source pollution at river basin scale, especially the pollution loads from urban areas into surface waters, was developed. The empirical method is based only on existing information. The imperviousness in urban areas estimated by using information on land use in CORINE Land Cover shows differences between -0,6% and -13% in comparison with investigations on the basis of aerial photos. The evaluated water and pollution loads from urban areas into surface waters were compared with the results of other investigations. The comparisons demonstrated the effectiveness of the method to facilitate the analysis of significant pressures from urban areas on surface waters as required by the WFD.

Nafo, I. I.; Mertsch, V.; Bürgel, B.; Geiger, W. F.

2003-04-01

363

Big Guys Eat Big Cakes: Firm Size and Contracting in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of attention has been devoted to the analysis of different levels of privatization in urban and rural areas. However, until now no empirical study has been conducted on what types of firms are present in different geographical environments. We find that large firms that operate on a national basis dominate the contracts in the most populated and

Germŕ Bel; Xavier Fageda

2011-01-01

364

Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: ``Cockroach Kill Gel'' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi?toslawski, J.

2000-03-01

365

Wind tunnel tests on the dispersion of vehicular pollutants in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from an extensive series of wind tunnel tests to investigate the dispersion of a tracer gas emitted from a ground level source on a 1:125th scale model of an urban area typical of those found in the UK. Concentrations of a tracer gas, propane in air, were measured at a number of pedestrian level locations around the

W. Pearce; C. J. Baker

1999-01-01

366

A Method of Assessing Air Toxics Concentrations in Urban Areas Using Mobile Platform Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an approach to characterize the spatial variability in ambient air concentrations using mobile platform measurements. This approach may be useful for air toxics assessments in Environmental Justice applications, epidemiological studies, and environmental health risk assessments. In this study, we developed and applied a method to characterize air toxics concentrations in urban areas

Vlad Isakov; Jawad S. Touma; Andrey Khlystov; Melanie Sattler; Sapna Devanathan; Jill Engel-Cox; Stephanie Weber; Michael McFarland; Arthur Olivas; Sally Atkins; Robert Kennedy; Kalpesh Patel; Marc Pitchford; William Malm; Bret Schichtel; Naresh Kumar; Douglas Lowenthal; Jenny Hand; Charles Blanchard; Shelley Tanenbaum; George Hidy; Yang Liu; Petros Koutrakis; Ralph Kahn; Solene Turquety; Robert Yantosca; W. Knighton; Scott Herndon; Joanne Shorter; Richard Miake-Lye; Mark Zahniser; Kenichi Akiyama; Akio Shimono; Kazuya Kitasaka; Hatsumi Shimajiri; Koichi Sugihara; Zhiliang Yao; Qidong Wang; Kebin He; Hong Huo; Yongliang Ma; Qiang Zhang; Ying-Hsien Yang; Sue-Jane Lin; Charles Lewis; Xiaohong Xu; Jeffrey Brook; Yanshan Guo

2007-01-01

367

Quantification of groundwater contamination in an urban area using integral pumping tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the integral groundwater investigation method is used for the quantification of PCE and TCE mass flow rates at an industrialized urban area in Linz, Austria. In this approach, pumping wells positioned along control planes perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction are operated for a time period on the order of days and sampled for contaminants. The concentration

S. Bauer; M. Bayer-Raich; T. Holder; C. Kolesar; D. Müller; T. Ptak

2004-01-01

368

Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

2007-01-01

369

Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours in different geographical areas, urban and rural.Methods: Patients aged 20–80 years, living in the middle part of Sweden, and diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000 were included. One control matched for sex and age in five year age

L Hardell; M Carlberg; K Hansson Mild

2005-01-01

370

Building and Sustaining Community-University Partnerships in Marginalized Urban Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This symposium explores and examines the challenges and opportunities of building community-university collaborations in marginalized urban areas. The selection of short essays highlights different experiences of building and sustaining community-university partnerships in a variety of cities as vehicles for enhancing experiential learning in…

Allahwala, Ahmed; Bunce, Susannah; Beagrie, Lesley; Brail, Shauna; Hawthorne, Timothy; Levesque, Sue; von Mahs, Jurgen; Spotton Visano, Brenda

2013-01-01

371

Quantitative Assessment Of Building Damage In Urban Area Using Very High Resolution Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high resolution images are particularly well adapted to damage assessment methodology in urban area because on one hand it allows an analysis focused on the buildings solely through an object-oriented analysis, and on the other hand it permits a quantitative evaluation of this damage assessment using a visually established ground truth. We propose in this paper a method of

Anne-Lise Chesnel; Renaud Binet; Lucien Wald

2007-01-01

372

UHF bent-slot antenna system for portable equipment—II: Receiving performance in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receiving performance of UHF portable equipment with a bent-slot antenna is studied on the basis of experimental results. The received power increase in the experiment is analyzed by applying the ray and random models to urban area structures. The analysis shows that the bent-slot antenna designed with both vertical and horizontal polarization components has contributed to an increase in

HARUHIRO KUBOYAMA; KYOHEI FUJIMOTO; KAZUHIRO HIRASAWA

1987-01-01

373

Analysis of heavy-duty truck use in urban areas. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Truck Trip Information Survey includes data on mileage by road class, engine characteristics, fuel economy measures, cargo types and weights, and vehicle weights, as well as many other variables that provide a more detailed look at the operation of medium and heavy trucks in urban areas. In the report, the NTTIS sample and survey methodology are discussed. Variables

D. F. Blower; K. L. Campbell

1988-01-01

374

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

2010-01-01

375

RETRACTED: A GIS-based gradient analysis of urban landscape pattern of Shanghai metropolitan area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying landscape pattern and its change is essential for the monitoring and assessment of ecological consequences of urbanization. As the largest city in the country, metropolitan Shanghai is now the fastest growing area among all major Chinese cities with more than 13 million residents. Using the GIS-based land use data set of the year 1994 and combining gradient analysis with

Liquan Zhang; Jianping Wu; Yu Zhen; Jiong Shu

2004-01-01

376

Detection of helminth infections in dogs and soil contamination in rural and urban areas.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the helminthes in dog's feces and soil samples from urban and rural areas. Six species of nematodes (Toxocara sp, an undetermined nematode larvae, Strongyloides sp larvae, Ascaris sp ova, hookworm ova, Trichuris sp ova) and one species of Cestode (Taenia sp) were found in 175 stool samples. Seventy-eight point nine percent of stool samples were positive for helminthes. Mixed infection with at least one parasite was found in 32.6% of the samples. The prevalence of helminth infection ranged from 1.1% to 45.1%. The prevalence of hookworm sp was the highest with 45.1%. The highest prevalence in urban dogs was hookworm sp in 76.7% and in rural areas was Ascaris sp in 48.7%. Soil samples were also examined to determine contamination of the environment, especially due to Toxocara canis, as a potential source of infection. Urban soil samples showed a higher contamination rate with 26.7% compared to rural areas with 4.9%. Toxocara ova were the most prevalent helminthes contaminating the soil with 12.1%. This study showed that humans from both urban and rural areas are at risk of acquiring helminth infection from contaminated soil. PMID:18564703

Azian, M Y Noor; Sakhone, L; Hakim, S Lokman; Yusri, M Y; Nurulsyamzawaty, Y; Zuhaizam, A H; Rodi, I Mohd; Maslawaty, M N

2008-03-01

377

Comparative streamflow characteristics in urbanizing basins in the Portland Metropolitan Area, Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates changes in streamflow characteristics for urbanizing watersheds in the Portland Metropolitan Area of Oregon for the period from 1951 to 2000. The objective of this study was to assess how mean annual runoff ratio, mean seasonal runoff ratio, annual peak runoff ratio, changes in streamflow in response to storm amount, the fraction of time that the daily

Heejun Chang

2007-01-01

378

The Ambivalence of Attitudes Toward Urban Green Areas: Between Proenvironmental Worldviews and Daily Residential Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambivalence of attitudes toward urban green areas is investigated through a cross-sectional survey carried out in the city of Rome (N = 500). First, the dimensional structure, and then the personal tendency to hold ambivalent attitudes were analyzed in relation to: (a) broader human values and environmental worldviews (such as biospheric value orientations, ecocentrism vs. anthropocentrism) and (b) specific

Mirilia Bonnes; Paola Passafaro; Giuseppe Carrus

2011-01-01

379

B VITAMINS AND PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the association between total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and folate, B12, and B6 status in the urban and rural areas of Costa Rica. We determined plasma tHcy concentrations and assessed dietary folate, B12 and B6 intake by a food frequency questionnaire in 462 subjects sele...

380

AIR QUALITY MODELING AT COARSE-TO-FINE SCALES IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban air toxics control strategies are moving towards a community based modeling approach, with an emphasis on assessing those areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This approach will require information that accurately maps and...

381

Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. METHODS: We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial

Karen E Lamb; Neil S Ferguson; Yang Wang; David Ogilvie; Anne Ellaway

2010-01-01

382

Estimation of the source strength of soil NO x in the Nashville, Tennessee, urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil biogenic NOx emissions are an important part of the total global NOx budget. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the soil NOx source in an urban-metropolitan area. We measured the emissions from soils within the urban-metropolitan land use area of Nashville, Tennessee, and surrounding Davidson County, to estimate the importance of this source in the overall NOx budget of Davidson County. Nashville is currently in nonattainment for ozone (O3), and a State Implementation Plan (SIP) has been promulgated to help achieve compliance of the O3 standard. Using geographic information systems imagery and aerial photographs, we determined the extent of urban-metropolitan soils within the Nashville area. Results indicated that 409 km2, or approximately 34% of the county, was classified as residential or urban, with the predominant vegetation being grass (68%). The residential sector was the largest with 323 km2, the urban area comprising 87 km2, and a total area of 8 km2 of golf courses. Soil NOx emission measurements were made in approximate proportion to the major land use types using static chamber techniques. Results indicated that urban-metropolitan soils were not an important source of soil NOx. Approximately 10 Mg NOx, or 0.003% of the total annual NOx budget of Davidson County, is estimated to be emitted by urban soils annually. Additionally, the remaining soil sources in the county, forests and agricultural land, contributed 179 Mg, or 0.66% of the total annual NOx budget. While soil NOx emissions were concluded to be a negligible component of the Davidson County budget, their contribution to the NOx budget of the surrounding four counties in the SIP area was significant. Extrapolation of soil NOx emissions for three of the four counties within the SIP area indicated that soil biogenic NOx emissions contributed from 7.0 to 9.8% of the daily average NOx budget during the months of June through August. Because of the soil temperature dependence of soil NOx emissions, it was estimated that during the hottest July days the soil biogenic component could contribute over 17% of the total NOx in some SIP counties.

Thornton, F. C.; Shurpali, N. J.

1996-10-01

383

The revival of urban waterfront areas: evaluation of British and Irish experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the decline of urban ports-related activities, since the post-war period many European waterfront areas have been affected by obsolescence and degradation. Once vibrant seats of activities, flows of goods and people relationships, they have been gradually dismissed and abandoned, sometimes becoming 'no-go-areas'. Overwhelmed by deep structural changes, cities have been forced to face spatial, environmental and socio-economic problems.

Candida Cuturi

2010-01-01

384

Distribution of injury death and outpatients in rural and urban areas of China in 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo know the distribution features of injury of Chinese population in rural and urban areas, and further to provide basic scientific data for injury prevention and control in different areas.MethodsFatal injury data were derived from official death certificates by the National Disease Surveillance Points System (DSP). Hospital injury visit data were from emergency and outpatient rooms of the 126 hospitals

L Duan; X Deng

2010-01-01

385

A survey of the alien vascular flora of the urban and suburban area of Thessaloniki, N Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krigas, N. & Kokkini, S.: A survey of the alien vascular flora of the urban and suburban area of Thes- saloniki, N Greece. - Willdenowia 34: 81-99. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2004 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. In the frame of a wider research project, an inventory of 147 alien vascular plant taxa of the urban and suburban area of the city of

NIKOS KRIGAS; STELLA KOKKINI

2004-01-01

386

Understanding Peri-Urban Maize Production through an Examination of Household Livelihoods in the Toluca Metropolitan Area, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rates of urban growth globally continue to rise, especially in small and intermediary cities and peri-urban areas of the developing world. Communities in these settings share characteristics with rural areas, in terms of continued connections with agriculture, yet with an increasing reliance of non-agricultural employment which poses…

Lerner, Amy M.; Eakin, Hallie; Sweeney, Stuart

2013-01-01

387

Integrated Evaluation of Urban Development Suitability Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques – A Case Study in Jingjinji Area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jingjinji area (namely Beijing, Tianjin and He Bei Province) is one of the three largest regional economic communities in China. Urban expansion has sped up in the past 20 years in this area due to the rapid economic and population growth. Evaluating the land- use suitability for urban growth on a regional scale is an urgent need, because the most

Jiang Dong; Dafang Zhuang; Xinliang Xu; Lei Ying

2008-01-01

388

Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction.

O. Pueyo Anchuela; A. Soriano; A. Casas Sainz; A. Pocoví Juan

2009-01-01

389

Comparative analysis of the urban noise between two different areas in the city of Curitiba, PR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to analyze the urban noise perception comparatively in the inhabitants of a residential area (neighborhood) and a mixed area (center), in the city of Curitiba, PR, in order to characterize two different situations: (1) acoustically ideal urban environment; and (2) acoustically polluted urban environment. For that, subjective and objective evaluations were accomplished, where an aleatory sample of each area was submitted to a survey. In the objective evaluation, the medium equivalent sound levels calculated were 53.50 dB(A) and 72.90 dB(A) for the neighborhood and center, respectively. The parameters used for comparison of the calculated medium equivalent sound levels where the values of 55.00 dB(A) (Municipal Law No. 10.625) and 65.00 dB(A) (WHO), in the period of the day for residential areas. The interpretation of the subjective results verified that the central zone inhabitants have an annoyance perception bigger than the residential zone inhabitants. The interpretation of the objective results classified the neighborhood and center areas as acoustically control zone and acoustically polluted zone, respectively, according to the adopted parameters. Starting from the comparison between these two areas, it was defined that both can be classified as reference factor for other evaluations.

Paz, Elaine C.; Ferreira, Andressa C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

2001-05-01

390

Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

2010-01-01

391

Ground-high altitude joint detection of ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban areas of Beijing.  

PubMed

Based on observational data of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) mixing ratios on the ground and at high altitude in urban areas of Beijing during a period of six days in November 2011, the temporal and spatial characteristics of mixing ratios were analyzed. The major findings include: urban O3 mixing ratios are low and NO(x) mixing ratios are always high near the road in November. Vertical variations of the gases are significantly different in and above the planetary boundary layer. The mixing ratio of O3 is negatively correlated with that of NO(x) and they are positively correlated with air temperature, which is the main factor directly causing vertical variation of O3 and NO(x) mixing ratios at 600-2100 m altitude. The NO(x) mixing ratios elevated during the heating period, while the O3 mixing ratios decreased: these phenomena are more significant at high altitudes compared to lower altitudes. During November, air masses in the urban areas of Beijing are brought by northwesterly winds, which transport O3 and NO(x) at low mixing ratios. Due to Beijing's natural geographical location, northwest air currents are beneficial to the dilution and dispersion of pollutants, which can result in lower O3 and NO(x) background values in the Beijing urban area. PMID:23923785

Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong; Meng, Junwang

2013-04-01

392

Effects of Urbanization on Floods in the Houston, Texas Metropolitan Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall and runoff data from drainage basins in the Houston metropolitan area and a 60-year rainfall record for the National Weather Service station, Houston-City, were used to simulate 60 annual flood peaks at 26 sites. Selected frequency characteristics, based on these simulated annual peaks, are related to drainage area and percentage of impervious area. These relations, which may be used to estimate the flood characteristics at ungaged sites, indicate that in the Houston metropolitan area, complete urbanization increases the magnitude of a 2-year flood nine times and increases the magnitude of a 50-year flood five times.

Johnson, Steven L.; Sayre, Douglas M.

1973-01-01

393

Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to observe weak seismic events (M<2) in areas close to potential nuclear-waste repositories or nuclear power plants, in order to analyze the underlying seismo-tectonic processes and estimate their seismic hazard. We are therefore densifying the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We analyze the test measurement with respect to noise amplitude in different frequency bands, transient noise events and earthquake first arrivals. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs.

Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

2012-04-01

394

[Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].  

PubMed

Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion of the population to surrounding municipios. Planning for the city of Puebla must metropolitan zone. PMID:12317226

Barbosa Prieto, A

1991-12-01

395

Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at sensitive receptors in urban public areas, thus supporting contamination risk assessment for environmental decisions.

Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

2012-04-01

396

Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modeling urban green areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands, and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form, and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The development is performed so that any vegetation model can be used to represent the vegetation part. Here the ISBA model is used. The model results are compared to microclimatic and evaporation measurements performed in small courtyards in a very arid region of Israel. Two experimental landscaping strategies - bare soil or irrigated grass in the courtyard - are observed and simulated. The new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon) scale.

Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Erell, E.; Pearlmutter, D.

2012-05-01

397

Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.  

PubMed

Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

2001-07-01

398

Comparison between background concentrations of arsenic in urban and non-urban areas of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination is of great environmental concern due to its toxic effects as a carcinogen. Knowledge of arsenic background concentrations is important for land application of wastes and for making remediation decisions. The soil clean-up target level for arsenic in Florida (0.8 and 3.7 mgkg?1 for residential and commercial areas, respectively) lies within the range of both background and analytical

Tait Chirenje; Lena Q. Ma; Ming Chen; Edward J. Zillioux

2003-01-01

399

Classification of Urban Areas Using Full-waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is increasingly used for classification purposes, and preferred over traditional aerial photogrammetric techniques in particular in vegetated areas. This work deals with the potential of full-waveform airborne laser scanning data for classification of urban areas. Information derived from full-waveform ALS data, such as amplitude and echowidth, can be used to calculate additional attributes such as backscattering coefficients. These physical attributes together with derived geometrical attributes like the normalized digital surface model, standard deviation of elevation and the number of echoes are used for the classification of urban areas. The study area is located in Vienna city where four classes are to be distinguished. They are buildings, trees, roads and grass area. Two classification methods are used, which are Maximum-Likelihood and Decision Tree. The results of these two methods prove the potential of features extracted from full-waveform airborne laser scanning data for classification purposes in urban environment. It turns out that the achieved accuracy of the Decision Tree classification is slightly better than that of Maximum-Likelihood. For Decision Tree classification, the bi-static backscatter coefficient ? is of less importance, although it may be responsible for a significant improvement for roads discrimination in Maximum-Likelihood classification.

Hasan, Sharif; Jansa, Josef

2013-04-01

400

Parasite Polymorphism and Severe Malaria in Dakar (Senegal): A West African Urban Area  

PubMed Central

Background Transmission of malaria in West African urban areas is low and healthcare facilities are well organized. However, malaria mortality remains high. We conducted a survey in Dakar with the general objective to establish who died from severe malaria (SM) in urban areas (particularly looking at the age-groups) and to compare parasite isolates associated with mild or severe malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings The current study included mild- (MM) and severe malaria (SM) cases, treated in dispensaries (n?=?2977) and hospitals (n?=?104), We analysed Pfdhfr/Pfcrt-exon2 and nine microsatellite loci in 102 matched cases of SM and MM. Half of the malaria cases recorded at the dispensaries and 87% of SM cases referred to hospitals, occurred in adults, although adults only accounted for 26% of all dispensary consultations. This suggests that, in urban settings, whatever the reason for this adult over-representation, health-workers are forced to take care of increasing numbers of malaria cases among adults. Inappropriate self treatment and mutations in genes associated with drug resistance were found associated with SM in adults. SM was also associated with a specific pool of isolates highly polymorphic and different from those associated with MM. Conclusion In this urban setting, adults currently represent one of the major groups of patients attending dispensaries for malaria treatment. For these patients, despite the low level of transmission, SM was associated with a specific and highly polymorphic pool of parasites which may have been selected by inappropriate treatment.

Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Renaud, Francois; Marrama, Laurence; Durand, Patrick; Tall, Adama; Ka, Boubacar; Ekala, Marie Therese; Bouchier, Christiane; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Jambou, Ronan

2010-01-01

401

Determination of Ventilation Channels In Urban Area: A Case Study of Wroc?aw (Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are among the roughest landscapes in the Earth and its aerodynamical properties are responsible for a lot of processes and phenomena of urban climate, such as surface drag and pollutant dispersion. These properties can be quantitatively expressed by various parameters, with zero plane displacement height (z d) and roughness length (z 0) as the most frequently applied. Based on remotely gathered (LIDAR scan) height data and morphometric methods of roughness calculations, the comprehensive procedure to determine ventilation channels in urban area is proposed and implemented on the example from Wroc?aw, Poland. Morphometric analysis of urban structure allowed establishing a proper database of aerodynamic parameters of the city. Then a series of maps of the city showing the distribution of two roughness parameters were prepared. GIS tools were used to carry out the analysis of roughness data, assuming various directions of wind flow. It enabled to determine the locations of potential ventilation paths in the city which, if combined, form large ventilation channels. They may have a significant role in improving air quality and be a valuable source of information for local government responsible for the appropriate development of the city.

Suder, Arkadiusz; Szymanowski, Mariusz

2013-02-01

402

Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

2002-12-01

403

Use of Community Health Workers for Management of Malaria and Pneumonia in Urban and Rural Areas in Eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Use of community health workers (CHWs) has been implemented the same way in urban and rural areas despite differences in availability of health providers and sociodemographic characteristics. A household survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in eastern Uganda, and all children who were febrile in the previous two weeks were assessed for their symptoms, treatment received at home, and when and where they first went for treatment. Rural children were more likely to use CHWs than urban children. Urban children received outside treatment more promptly, and used herbs at home less. Symptoms and proportion of children being taken out for treatment were similar. Children from the poorest households used CHWs less and private providers more than the middle quintiles. Drug shops and private clinics should be included in the community case management to cater for the poorest in rural areas and persons in urban areas.

Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kadobera, Daniel; Katureebe, Sheila; Kalyango, Joan N.; Mworozi, Edison; Pariyo, George

2012-01-01

404

Detection and tracking of gas clouds in an urban area by imaging infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of toxic industrial compounds in urban areas is a threat for the population and the environment. In order to supply emergency response forces with information about the released compounds after accidents or terrorist attacks, monitoring systems such as the scanning imaging spectrometer SIGIS 2 or the hyperspectral imager HI 90 were developed. Both systems are based on the method of infrared spectroscopy. The systems were deployed to monitor gas clouds released in the harbor area of Hamburg. The gas clouds were identified, visualized and quantified from a distance in real time. Using data of two systems it was possible to identify contaminated areas and to determine the source location.

Sabbah, Samer; Rusch, Peter; Gerhard, Jörn-Hinnrich; Harig, Roland

2013-05-01

405

Changes in water quality of Michigan streams near urban areas, 1973-84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monthly water quality monitoring of streams was begun by Michigan Department of Natural Resources in 1973 to: (1) determine temporal and spatial variability, (2) detect long-term trends, and (3) describe changes in water quality near urban areas. A statistical analysis and summary of data collected from 1973 through 1984 is presented. Concentrations and discharges of nine commonly measured water quality constituents and specific conductance are examined. Twenty-three sites on inland streams (streams draining basins wholly within Michigan) and 20 sites on Detroit River are discussed. The changes in water quality in 9 rivers near 12 urban areas in Michigan 's southern Lower Peninsula and the relation between streamflow and selected water quality characteristics, including phosphorus, chloride, sulfate , nitrogen, specific conductance, and solid residues are described. Results show that the median dissolved solids concentration in Clinton River downstream from Pontiac exceed Michigan 's 1986 stream water quality standard. Among inland streams, constituent concentrations and discharges generally were greatest in Saginaw River and least in Grand River upstream from Jackson. Greatest changes in constituent discharges occurred in the Detroit River near the Detroit area; the least occurred in the Chippewa River near Mount Pleasant. Generally, higher streamflows were associated with lower concentrations. Changes in streamflow and changes in constituent concentrations near urban areas were correlated in 57% of the 120 analyses. Generally, higher changes in streamflow were associated with lower changes in concentrations. (Lantz-PTT)

Holtschlag, D. J.

1987-01-01

406

Spatial Vulnerability to Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Area During a 7-Year Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This study considers the vulnerability of the urban area of the City of Belo Horizonte to dengue. A total number of 89,607 cases registered in the surveillance system from 1996 to 2002 were analyzed. Seven epidemic waves were identified during this period. Cases were grouped into 2,563 census areas, and three risk categories were proposed based on how many times each area reached a threshold established for each epidemic wave. The association between the risk categories and the socioeconomic, demographic and urban-infrastructure characteristics was evaluated. Analysis included Kruskal–Wallis test variance comparisons and multivariate regression using multinomial models. Incidence rates differed significantly among the three risk categories in most of the epidemic waves. The factors that best characterized the areas were low educational level (?4 years of schooling), low income of the head of the family (?2 minimum wages per household), household density, and proportion of children and elderly women. Information related to basic sanitation was not enough to discriminate levels of susceptibility to dengue, and study of population density and concentration of establishments considered vulnerable to vector infestation yielded questionable results. It is important to consider different levels of exposure of the population to explain the heterogeneous pattern of distribution of dengue cases in an urban setting. Understanding the dynamics of dengue fever is essential for surveillance purposes, to improve control measures and to avoid epidemics of this disease.

Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Assuncao, Renato Martins; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

2007-01-01

407

Emissions variation in urban areas resulting from the introduction of natural gas vehicles: Application to Barcelona and Madrid Greater Areas (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-road traffic is the major contributor to pollutant emissions in urban areas. Nowadays different emission abatement strategies are being tested in order to improve urban air quality (e.g. the European Commission currently promotes the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel). Several feasible scenarios regarding the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV) are studied in the two main cities

María Gonçalves; Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero; José M. Baldasano

2009-01-01

408

The development and redevelopment of urban villages in Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, like many other developing countries, has seen a huge influx of population into its cities coupled with urban expansion. The presence of massive numbers of rural migrants in cities does not result in slums or squatters due to institutional constraints. In the absence of government help, urban villages have evolved in many cities to provide adequate and affordable housing

Pu Hao; Richard Sliuzas; Stan Geertman

2011-01-01

409

Linking nitrogen cycling and export with variable source area dynamics in forested and urbanizing catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the Baltimore Urban LTER site is to investigate how interactions between ecological processes and urban land use effect ecosystem functions, such as the cycling and export of nutrients. As part of this project, nitrogen export from Pond Branch, a 41 hectare forested catchment in Baltimore County, has been monitored since 1998 and is compared with nitrogen export from neighboring agricultural and urbanizing catchments. To better understand the spatial structure of nitrogen cycling and export processes in this region, a GIS and physically based, hydro-ecological model is used to investigate the interactions between soil water levels, flowpath dynamics and nitrogen cycling and export in Pond Branch. Rates of key ecosystem processes including vegetation uptake, litterfall, decomposition, mineralization, nitrification and denitrification vary in regular spatial and temporal patterns in response to meteorologically driven variations in soil water, temperature and biological activity as well as decadal level variations in canopy composition and extent. Alteration in the distribution of nitrogen sinks and sources in the landscape are particularly manifest in the dynamics of riparian areas that result in peak nitrogen export during the active growing season in this catchment. Urbanization effects can be added to the simulation by altering irrigation and fertilization rates, vegetation patterns and by altering hydrologic flowpaths through the construction of roads and sewer networks. The model is used to investigate current nitrogen cycling and export patterns and scenarios for urbanization of the Pond Branch catchment. Variation in the pattern of land cover change and infrastructure development with respect to the existing pattern of vegetation and topographic controls on nitrogen cycling is shown by the model to influence the impact of urbanization on nitrogen export.

Band, L. E.; Tague, C. E.; Groffman, P.; Belt, K.

2001-05-01

410

[Spatial variability of soil total K and available N in Shenyang urban area].  

PubMed

Geostatistics combined with geographical information system (GIS) was applied to analyze the spatial variability of soil total K and available N in urban area of Shenyang City. The results showed that the theoretical semivariogram models of soil total K was best described by an exponential model, while soil available N was best fitted by a Gaussian model. The ratios of nugget to sill of soil total K and available N were 10.65% and 17.96%, respectively, indicating that there existed significant spatial correlations between soil total K and available N, and the spatial variability was mainly caused by structural factors. The spatial distributions of soil total K and available N in urban area of Shenyang were analyzed by kriging interpolation, and it was found that the content of soil total K had no definite spatial distribution pattern, while the content of soil available N was higher in the around and lower in the middle of the city. PMID:18839913

Zhang, Hong-Wei; Wei, Zhong-Yi; Wang, Qiu-Bing

2008-07-01

411

Spatial dynamics of an epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome in an urban area.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To map risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in an urban area and assess the ability of traditional interventions to control dispersion of the disease. METHODS: Data on the Beijing SARS epidemic were used to map spatial clusters of identified contacts and to estimate transmission of SARS using a model with a time-dependent transmission rate. RESULTS: The estimated transmission rate decreased dramatically from 20 to 30 April 2003. The total number of cases in the epidemic in Beijing was estimated to be 2521. Hierarchical clustering revealed that risk-exposures were widespread, but clustered in a pattern that is distinctly related to the Beijing urban ring roads. CONCLUSION: Traditional control measures can be very effective at reducing transmission of SARS. Spatial patterns of risk-exposures can inform disease surveillance, prediction and control by identifying spatial target areas on which interventions should be focused.

Wang, Jinfeng; McMichael, Anthony J.; Meng, Bin; Becker, Niels G.; Han, Weiguo; Glass, Kathryn; Wu, Jilei; Liu, Xuhua; Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Xiaowen; Zheng, Xiaoying

2006-01-01

412

Scientist and teacher perspectives on developing scientific educational resources for urban natural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of effective educational partnerships between teachers and scientists is increasingly called for as a way to enhance the quality of science education. The purpose of this study is to investigate the experiences and perspectives of scientists and teachers during the collaborative development of science education resources for urban natural areas and to identify best practices for engaging these stakeholders in curriculum development. An analysis of the convergent and divergent perspectives among scientists and teachers helped to organize a set of essential strategies and approaches for advancing the practice of science education within the context of a local urban natural area. Further analysis of these perspectives revealed underlying attitudes, opinions and implications that can help guide future collaboration between educators and scientists.

Newton, Carole

413

Ethnicity, livelihoods, masculinity, and health among Luo men in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Background Previous research suggests that ethnic self-identity has little consequence for objective health outcomes compared to the structural dimensions of ethnicity. Methods Using qualitative data, we investigated perceptions of ethnicity in relation to health among Luo men in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Results While recognizing the complicated cultural origin of poor health, responding Luo men stressed on gender and everyday livelihood situations as being more critical for their health than Luo customs. Recognition of the structural causes of ill-health among the men overlapped with lay notions derived from particular expressions of Luo culture in urban slum contexts. To some extent, respondents regarded the performance of their sense of ethnic identity as protective, though they also admitted to the health-damaging repercussions of some of the ways they enacted aspects of Luo culture. Conclusion Ethnic beliefs that link particular enactments of local customs with health outcomes may motivate the performance of cultural identity in ways that can produce critical health outcomes. PMID:23758660

Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Ochako, Rhoune; Egesa, Carolyne; Tikkanen, Ronny

2013-06-11

414

Isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane levels in urban and industrial areas and possible emission-related activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane are becoming relevant compounds in urban and industrial air, as they are used in important amounts in automobile industry and building insulation, as well as in the manufacture of foams, rubber, paints and varnishes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack, Carboxen) were connected to LCMA-UPC pump samplers for the retention of iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexanes. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry detector (MSD). TD-GC/MS was chosen as analytical method due to its versatility and the possibility of analysis of a wide range of volatility and polarity VOC in air samples. The method was satisfactory sensitive, selective and reproducible for the studied compounds. The concentrations of iso- and isothioisocyanatocyclohexanes were evaluated in different urban, residential and industrial locations from extensive VOC air quality and odour episode studies in several cities in the Northeastern edge of Spain. Around 200-300 VOC were determined qualitatively in each sample. Higher values of iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexane were found in industrial areas than in urban or residential locations. The concentrations ranged between n.d.-246 and n.d.-29 ?g m -3 for isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane, respectively, for industrial areas. On the other hand, urban and residential locations showed concentrations ranging between n.d.-164 and n.d.-29 ?g m -3 for isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane, respectively. The site location (urban or industrial), the kind and nearness of possible iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexane emission activities (industrial or building construction) and the changes of wind regimes throughout the year have been found the most important factors influencing the concentrations of these compounds in the different places.

Gallego, E.; Roca, F. X.; Perales, F.; Ribes, A.; Carrera, G.; Guardino, X.; Berenguer, M. J.

415

Imaging of Single and Double Scatterers in Urban Areas via SAR Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave scattering is a rather complex mechanism, especially in urban areas. Three-dimensional (3-D) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography is a technique that uses multiple views to map the scattering power at different heights, thus extending the capability of SAR sensors to fully image the scene in the 3-D space. This paper presents a first validation of spaceborne long-term SAR tomography

Gianfranco Fornaro; Francesco Serafino

2006-01-01

416

Is it easier to escape from low pay in urban areas? Evidence from the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we compare periods of low-paid employment between urban and rural areas in the United Kingdom. Using the British household panel survey, we estimate the probability that a period of low-paid employment will end, followed by a number of possible outcomes, namely a higher-paid job, self-employment, unemployment, and leaving the labour force. The results show that there are

Euan Phimister; Ioannis Theodossiou; Richard Upward

2006-01-01

417

Urban residential environments and senior citizens' longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: To study the association between greenery filled public areas that are nearby a residence and easy to walk in and the longevity of senior citizens in a densely populated, developed megacity. Design: Cohort study. Methods: The authors analysed the five year survival of 3144 people born in 1903, 1908, 1913, or 1918 who consented to a follow up survey from the records of registered Tokyo citizens in relation to baseline residential environment characteristics in 1992. Main results: The survival of 2211 and the death of 897 (98.9% follow up) were confirmed. The probability of five year survival of the senior citizens studied increased in accordance with the space for taking a stroll near the residence (p<0.01), parks and tree lined streets near the residence (p<0.05), and their preference to continue to live in their current community (p<0.01). The principal component analysis from the baseline residential environment characteristics identified two environment related factors: the factor of walkable green streets and spaces near the residence and the factor of a positive attitude to a person's own community. After controlling the effects of the residents' age, sex, marital status, and socioeconomic status, the factor of walkable green streets and spaces near the residence showed significant predictive value for the survival of the urban senior citizens over the following five years (p<0.01). Conclusions: Living in areas with walkable green spaces positively influenced the longevity of urban senior citizens independent of their age, sex, marital status, baseline functional status, and socioeconomic status. Greenery filled public areas that are nearby and easy to walk in should be further emphasised in urban planning for the development and re-development of densely populated areas in a megacity. Close collaboration should be undertaken among the health, construction, civil engineering, planning, and other concerned sectors in the context of the healthy urban policy, so as to promote the health of senior citizens.

Takano, T; Nakamura, K; Watanabe, M

2002-01-01

418

Simulating Flood Propagation in Urban Areas using a Two-Dimensional Numerical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional numerical model (RiverFLO-2D) has been enhanced to simulate flooding of urban areas by developing an innovative wet and dry surface algorithm, accounting for variable rainfall, and recoding the model computer program for parallel computing. The model formulation is based on the shallow water equations solved with an explicit time-stepping element-by-element finite element method. The dry-wet surface algorithm is

Noemi Gonzalez-Ramirez

2010-01-01

419

Pathlines of pollutant migration in groundwater of the Visakhapatnam urban area, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater regime in the north-western part of the Visakhapatnam urban area was polluted as early as 1981 by discharge of untreated industrial effluent from a Hindustan Polymers Limited (HPL) plant. A total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of surficial effluent up to 6500 mg\\/l and of groundwater in the range 3000-4200 mg\\/l has been reported in the environs of the

N. Subba Rao; V. V. S. Gurunadha Rao

1999-01-01

420

Composition of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city have been studied to assess the different pollution levels. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol), extracts were prepared and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic compounds. High-resolution gas chromatography and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) were used for the analysis of

Débora de Almeida Azevedo; Larissa Silveira Moreira; Denilson Soares de Siqueira

1999-01-01

421

Land use change scenarios and associated groundwater impacts in a protected peri-urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use changes in peri-urban areas are usually associated with significant impacts on groundwater resources due to alteration\\u000a of the recharge regime as well as through the establishment of pollution sources. Quantifying the aforementioned impacts and\\u000a assessing the vulnerability of the groundwater resources is an important step for the better management and protection of\\u000a the aquifers. In the present study,

Elias Dimitriou; Elias Moussoulis

422

Positioning and tracking construction vehicles in highly dense urban areas and building construction sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review previous radio frequency (RF)-related research in construction and further evaluate the pros and cons of several RF-based technologies including GPS, RFID, and Bluetooth. Particularly, we show the limitations of applying GPS for tracking construction vehicles in a highly dense urban area by conducting extensive field tests in Hong Kong. We then propose a continuous, all-location,

Ming Lu; Wu Chen; Xuesong Shen; Hoi-Ching Lam; Jianye Liu

2007-01-01

423

Urban plant species patterns are highly driven by density and function of built-up areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to assess the relative importance of the type of built-up area in structuring plant species composition and\\u000a richness in urbanised environments. The study was carried out in the city of Brussels where all vascular plant species were\\u000a recorded in 189 grid cells of 1 km2 each. The effect of urban land use type on species composition was investigated

Sandrine Godefroid; Nico Koedam

2007-01-01

424

Serum boron concentration from inhabitants of an urban area in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron (B) levels were determined in the serum of 980 healthy inhabitants living in an urban area of Japan by means of inductively\\u000a coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPES).\\u000a \\u000a The results showed a log-normal distribution of serum B for both sexes, although there are age-related differences. In male\\u000a subjects, serum B increases rapidly up to 49 yr of age, reaching a

Kan Usuda; Koichi Kono; Yasuhisa Yoshida

1997-01-01

425

Metals in Leaves as Indicators of Atmospheric Pollution in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biological indicators to monitor atmospheric pollution is widely distributed.The analysis of heavy metals in leaves is suggested as a method for a rapid identification of polluted areas.Reproducibility and representativity of this method must be assessed.We have verified if the concentration of lead, chromium, copper, nickel and manganese in “Quercus Ilex” leaves may be used to classify urban

F. Valerio; C. Brescianini; S. Lastraioli; S. Coccia

1989-01-01

426

Identifying the Public’s Knowledge and Intention to Use Human Cloning in Greek Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The understanding of the public’s knowledge on human cloning (HC) and its acceptability are considered important for the development of evidence-based policy making. The aim of this research study was to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic variables that affect the public’s knowledge and intention to use HC in urban areas of Greece. Additionally, the possible association of religiousness with

Georgia Tzamalouka; Pelagia Soultatou; Maria Papadakaki; Sevasti Chatzifotiou; Basil Tarlatzis; Joannes El. Chliaoutakis

2005-01-01

427

Hunger and food insecurity in Nairobi's slums: an assessment using IRT models.  

PubMed

Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings. Overall, little is known about the prevalence and magnitude of hunger and food insecurity in most cities. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of urban dwellers live on less than one dollar a day, it is obvious that a large proportion of the urban population must be satisfied with just one meal a day. This paper suggests using the one- and two-parameter item response theory models to infer a reliable and valid measure of hunger and food insecurity relevant to low-income urban settings, drawing evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. The reliability and accuracy of the items are tested using both the Mokken scale analysis and the Cronbach test. The validity of the inferred household food insecurity measure is assessed by examining how it is associated with households' economic status. Results show that food insecurity is pervasive amongst slum dwellers in Nairobi. Only one household in five is food-secure, and nearly half of all households are categorized as "food-insecure with both adult and child hunger." Moreover, in line with what is known about household allocation of resources, evidence indicates that parents often forego food in order to prioritize their children. PMID:21234694

Faye, Ousmane; Baschieri, Angela; Falkingham, Jane; Muindi, Kanyiva

2011-06-01

428

Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.

Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

2009-09-01

429

The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.  

PubMed

This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves. PMID:15253907

Kim, Kwi-Gon

2004-06-01

430