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1

Urbanization and slum formation.  

PubMed

The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

Ooi, Giok Ling; Phua, Kai Hong

2007-05-01

2

Urbanization and Slum Formation  

PubMed Central

The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

Phua, Kai Hong

2007-01-01

3

Raising the Breast Health Awareness amongst Women in an Urban Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Breast Cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring cancer among Egyptian women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a health education program on raising the knowledge related to BC, its risk factors, and some related preventive practices among women living in an urban slum area in Alexandria. Patients and Methods A pre-/post-test interventional study was conducted during 2009–2010 on a random sample of women aged 30–65 years (n = 486) living in a slum area in Alexandria, Egypt. 20 health education sessions were carried out to educate the women on BC risk factors and some preventive practices. Previously trained nurses educated the sampled women on breast self-examination (BSE). The women's knowledge and opinion about BC and their practice of BSE were evaluated before and 3 months after the intervention. Results The findings indicated a significant increase in the mean knowledge score regarding BC and the mean opinion score regarding some BC risk factors. A significant increase in the practice of BSE was observed post intervention. Conclusion This study confirms the effectiveness of intervention programs in improving the knowledge about BC risk factors and practice of BSE even in a group of women with a low literacy rate living in a slum area. PMID:22619648

Kharboush, Ibrahim F.; Ismail, Hanaa M.; Kandil, Alaa A.; Mamdouh, Heba M.; Muhammad, Yasmine Y.; El Sharkawy, Omnia G.; Sallam, Hassan N.

2011-01-01

4

Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

2011-01-01

5

Mental health, quality of life, and nutritional status of adolescents in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Comparison between an urban slum and a non-slum area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to clarify the quality of life (QOL), mental health, and nutritional status of adolescents in Dhaka city, Bangladesh by comparing non-slum areas and slums, and to find the factors associated with their mental health problems. A sample of 187 boys and 137 girls from non-slum areas, and 157 boys and 121 girls from slums, between 11–18 years

Takashi Izutsu; Atsuro Tsutsumi; Seika Kato; Susumu Wakai; Hiroshi Kurita

2006-01-01

6

Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2013-08-01

7

Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619 ?S/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2 mmol/L), HCO3 (11 mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3 mmol/L; average of 2.23 mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2 mmol/L and 6 ?mol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2 mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (< 6 meq/100 g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems.

Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C. N.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.

2014-08-01

8

India: environmental degradation, urban slums, political tension.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of stresses facing Indian society, including population pressures on land and agriculture, topsoil erosion, deforestation, flooding, unemployment, urban slums, and political unrest. Over 60% of India's arable land is estimated to suffer from environmental degradation. This has been caused both by a rapidly growing poor population seeking subsistence and by the misappropriation of natural resources by the wealthy for luxury consumption. Although deforestation is officially cited at 0.37 million acres/year, more sensitive estimates put it at 2.5 million acres/year. Deforestation and massive soil erosion have further created silting, flooding, and pollution in the plains areas of the country. Moreover, the urban population of India is expected to double in the next 15 years to reach a level of 350-400 million. At present, 20-33% of the urban population lives in slums without basic facilities. The employment crisis precipitated by increasing urbanization and migration is expected to be a major problem in the decades ahead. By the year 2000, 7.5 million people will enter the labor force annually. Demographic tension has been a major factor in recent political unrest. Language differences, inequitable access to resources, and the lack of job opportunities have been central issues in these conflicts. Unless more effective means can be found to cope simultaneously with the need to speed up development and meet the needs of a rapidly expanding population, the social and environmental fabric of India is in danger of further erosion. PMID:12313938

Chhabra, R

1985-09-01

9

All Slums are Not Equal: Maternal Health Conditions Among Two Urban Slum Dwellers  

PubMed Central

Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a “high risk” group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India). House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services. PMID:22529541

Khan, Zulfia; Mehnaz, Saira; Siddiqui, Abdul Razzaq; Ansari, Athar; Khalil, Salman; Sachdeva, Sandeep

2012-01-01

10

Automated detection of slum area change in Hyderabad, India using multitemporal satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.

Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias

2013-09-01

11

Understanding and addressing childhood immunization coverage in urban slums.  

PubMed

The National Population Policy (2000) aims at complete protection of all children against vaccine preventable diseases by 2010. Urban poor, many residing in slums, comprise about one fourth of India's 285 million urban population. 60% of the children aged 12-23 months in urban India are fully immunized; coverage among urban poor children is a dismal 43%. The inter state variations of immunization coverage in urban areas, reveals a service coverage gap which calls for a rethink on resource allocation and strengthening processes to improve immunization coverage amongst urban poor. Debilitating environmental conditions and high population density in slums expedite disease transmission. Comparisons of urban rural disease incidence indicate a particular urban risk for vaccine preventable diseases. This paper attempts to understand the current scenario and challenges in improving immunization coverage in urban slums; immunization being one of the most successful public health interventions of the past century. It also discusses possible mechanisms for effectively reaching the often left out urban poor. Coordinated activities by the multitude of providers, accurate information based outreach, effective monitoring and community enablement to demand quality services are critical for improving utilization of immunization services by a heterogeneous urban poor population. PMID:16085966

Agarwal, Siddharth; Bhanot, Arti; Goindi, Geetanjali

2005-07-01

12

Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.  

PubMed

Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. PMID:22361648

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2012-01-01

13

Urban flood problems in Dhaka, Bangladesh: slum residents' choices for relocation to flood-free areas.  

PubMed

This article applies a stated preference choice model to assess trade-offs that residents of two squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh might consider if they were given choices for relocation to flood-free areas. The respondents were asked to choose repeatedly from a set of choice cards, which displayed different configurations of financial incentives for relocation, such as free or inexpensive land, loans or nonrepayable grants, and provisions for temporary or permanent employment opportunities. The survey results indicated that despite extensive experience with flood problems, many residents of Mirpur and Vasantek found that certain configurations of economic incentives were not attractive enough for them to relocate to flood-free areas. At the same time, they would prefer a reduction in the risk of flooding at their current location. The economic incentives that would best assist in increasing voluntary relocation of residents from their current locations included free land, nonrepayable grants (Taka 20,000), and long-term employment opportunities. Further, differences in geographic location (i.e., Mirpur vs. Vasantek), income levels, and membership in neighborhood communities were linked with the tendency of residents to stay at their current location. PMID:17530330

Rashid, Harun; Hunt, Len M; Haider, Wolfgang

2007-07-01

14

Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major

Aklimunnessa Khan; Alexander Kraemer; Mitsuru Mori

2009-01-01

15

Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

Rashid, Sabina Faiz

2009-08-01

16

Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

2009-01-01

17

Do slums matter? Location and early childhood preventive care choices among urban residents of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Upward trends in the relative proportions of slum residents in developing countries have led to widespread concern regarding the impact of slum residency on health behaviors. Measurement of these impacts requires recognizing that unobservable household characteristics that affect the location decision may also affect health care choices and outcomes. To address the potential for bias, this paper models the location decision and the household's demand for maternal and child health services simultaneously using a flexible, semi-parametric approach. It uses a unique urban data set from Bangladesh that incorporates sophisticated geographical mapping techniques to carefully delineate between slum and non-slum areas at a particular point in time. The results suggest that accounting for the endogenous location decision of a family substantially reduces bias in estimated marginal effects of slum residence on preventive care demand. While community infrastructure variables appear correlated with preventive care demand, the causal effect of the availability of primary health care facilities is indistinguishable from zero when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account. The findings suggest that improvements in community infrastructure in urban areas of developing countries are a more favorable health policy solution at the margin than the construction of additional health care facilities. PMID:23931944

Heller, Lauren R

2013-10-01

18

Birth Practice Patterns in Urban Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the patterns of birth related practices amongst women from an urban slum population in Dhaka city during December 1988 to May 1989. A household census identified all resident women of childbearing age in Rajabazar ward of Dhaka city. Of the 1017 women so identified, 289 women who had given birth to their last child over the previous

Ashraful Hoque; Beatrice J. Selwyn

1996-01-01

19

Safe Motherhood Practices Among Women of Urban Slums in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of safe motherhood practices of slum dwelling women of Bangladesh using the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey data. Overall, the utilization of maternal health care services was very low. The binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of skilled services utilization for women with higher education, non-working women,

S. M. Mostafa Kamal

2012-01-01

20

Lifestyle pattern in selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area.  

PubMed

Lifestyle is composed of cultural and behavioural patterns and lifelong personal habits that developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyle may be health promotive or detrimental to health. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. Many current day health problems are associated with lifestyle changes. Because of rising urban population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. The mobility of people from rural to urban areas is the main reason of the growing slum population in cities. This Descriptive, cross-sectional study was directed to assess lifestyle pattern in four purposively selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area. Non-Probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study unit. Sample size was one hundred and twenty-three (123) families. Data were collected by interview with one of the adult family members, preferably with the head of the family, with mixed type of interviewer administered questionnaire. There were 494 family members with an average family size of 4.02, while mean age was 24.58 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.79 years. Male-female ratio was 103:100. Of 409 members over 5 years, 174(42.54%) did not have schooling and were illiterate. At least 105(33.02%) members were house-wives, and 99(81.15%) members were smokers. An overwhelming majority (79, 64.23%) families had monthly income between 2000 to 4999 taka. As many as 55(44.72%) families lived in kaccha house, while 40(32.52%) had to live in "Jhupree". In cent per cent families, tube well was the source of water for drinking and other household purposes. A highest majority 121(98.37%) of the families had latrine, while the remaining 2(1.63%) did not have any latrine, and defecate in open air. Of 121 families, 78(64.46%) families had sanitary latrine, while 43(37.54%) did not have sanitary latrine. It was revealed that 86(69.92%) families had cell-phone, while 65(52.85%) families had television, 10(8.13%) families had radio, and 5(4.06%) families had DVD/VCR for recreational facilities. As many as 75(60.98%) respondents had correct knowledge, while the rest 48(39.02%) had incorrect knowledge on hand washing. Of 75, at least 66(88.00%) respondents practiced hand washing, while 9(12.00%) respondents did not practice it. As many as 110(89.43%) members sought medical help for major and minor illness of their family members, whereas the rest 13(10.57%) families did not. Of 110, 62(56.36%) families paid visit to government Hospital, while 22(20.00%) visited to private clinic, 12(10.90%) to pharmacy, 10(9.10%) to qualified doctors and 4(3.64%) to the traditional healers. As many as 58(52.71%) respondents mentioned that they preferred as the facilities cater service free of cost, while 32(29.10%) preferred for better and effective treatment, 16(14.55%) for close to their residence and 4(7.27%) for their belief. Living condition of slum dwellers is considerably low due to low income and inadequate education. Moreover, poor physical environment with unsanitary excreta disposal method is commonplace in slum areas. Existing lifestyle of slum dwellers is unacceptable, and should be improved so that they can contribute to the national development. PMID:22561760

Basher, M S; Haque, M M; Ullah, M S; Nasreen, S A; Begum, A A; Islam, M N; Akhter, S; Haque, M S

2012-04-01

21

Beliefs and practices during pregnancy and childbirth in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide urbanization has become a crucial issue in recent years. Bangladesh, one of the poorest and most densely-populated countries in the world, has been facing rapid urbanization. In urban areas, maternal indicators are generally worse in the slums than in the urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program at BRAC, a non governmental organization, works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in the urban slums of Bangladesh. This paper describes maternal related beliefs and practices in the urban slums of Dhaka and provides baseline information for the Manoshi program. Methods This is a descriptive study where data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The respondents for the quantitative methods, through a baseline survey using a probability sample, were mothers with infants (n?=?672) living in the Manoshi program areas. Apart from this, as part of a formative research, thirty six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted during the same period from two of the above Manoshi program areas among currently pregnant women who had also previously given births (n?=?18); and recently delivered women (n?=?18). Results The baseline survey revealed that one quarter of the recently delivered women received at least four antenatal care visits and 24 percent women received at least one postnatal care visit. Eighty-five percent of deliveries took place at home and 58 percent of the deliveries were assisted by untrained traditional birth attendants. The women mostly relied on their landladies for information and support. Members of the slum community mainly used cheap, easily accessible and available informal sectors for seeking care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforced this behavior, including home delivery without skilled assistance. Conclusions Behavioral change messages are needed to increase the numbers of antenatal and postnatal care visits, improve birth preparedness, and encourage skilled attendance at delivery. Programs in the urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve social support for key influential persons in the community, particularly landladies who serve as advisors and decision-makers. PMID:22978705

2012-01-01

22

Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

2006-01-01

23

Impact of Environment and Social Gradient on Leptospira Infection in Urban Slums  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting. Methods and Findings We performed a community-based survey of 3,171 slum residents from Salvador, Brazil. Leptospira agglutinating antibodies were measured as a marker for prior infection. Poisson regression models evaluated the association between the presence of Leptospira antibodies and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys and indicators of socioeconomic status and exposures for individuals. Overall prevalence of Leptospira antibodies was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0–16.8). Households of subjects with Leptospira antibodies clustered in squatter areas at the bottom of valleys. The risk of acquiring Leptospira antibodies was associated with household environmental factors such as residence in flood-risk regions with open sewers (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.14–1.75) and proximity to accumulated refuse (1.43, 1.04–1.88), sighting rats (1.32, 1.10–1.58), and the presence of chickens (1.26, 1.05–1.51). Furthermore, low income and black race (1.25, 1.03–1.50) were independent risk factors. An increase of US$1 per day in per capita household income was associated with an 11% (95% CI 5%–18%) decrease in infection risk. Conclusions Deficiencies in the sanitation infrastructure where slum inhabitants reside were found to be environmental sources of Leptospira transmission. Even after controlling for environmental factors, differences in socioeconomic status contributed to the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that effective prevention of leptospirosis may need to address the social factors that produce unequal health outcomes among slum residents, in addition to improving sanitation. PMID:18431445

Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Andreia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marilia S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2008-01-01

24

Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

Marghany, Maged

2014-06-01

25

Community-Based Health Programmes: Role Perceptions and Experiences of Female Peer Facilitators in Mumbai's Urban Slums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…

Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

2009-01-01

26

Newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a quantitative and qualitative exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urbanization is occurring at a rapid pace, especially in low-income countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, is estimated to grow to 50 million by 2015, with 21 million living in urban slums. Although health services are available, neonatal mortality is higher in slum areas than in urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in urban

Allisyn C Moran; Nuzhat Choudhury; Nazib Uz Zaman Khan; Zunaid Ahsan Karar; Tasnuva Wahed; Sabina Faiz Rashid; M. Ashraful Alam

2009-01-01

27

Using formative research to develop MNCH programme in urban slums in Bangladesh: experiences from MANOSHI, BRAC  

PubMed Central

Background MANOSHI, an integrated community-based package of essential Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) services is being implemented by BRAC in the urban slums of Bangladesh since 2007. The objective of the formative research done during the inception phase was to understand the context and existing resources available in the slums, to reduce uncertainty about anticipated effects, and develop and refine the intervention components. Methods Data were collected during Jan-Sept 2007 in one of the earliest sites of programme intervention in the Dhaka metropolitan area. A conceptual framework guided data collection at different stages. Besides exploring slum characteristics, studies were done to map existing MNCH service providing facilities and providers, explore existing MNCH-related practices, and make an inventory of community networks/groups with a stake in MNCH service provision. Also, initial perception and expectations regarding the community delivery centres launched by the programme was explored. Transect walk, observation, pile sorting, informal and focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, case studies, network analysis and small quantitative surveys were done to collect data. Results Findings reveal that though there are various MNCH services and providers available in the slums, their capacity to provide rational and quality services is questionable. Community has superficial knowledge of MNCH care and services, but this is inadequate to facilitate the optimal survival of mothers and neonates. Due to economic hardships, the slum community mainly relies on cheap informal sector for health care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforce this behaviour including home delivery without skilled assistance. Men and women differed in their perception of pregnancy and delivery: men were more concerned with expenses while women expressed fear of the whole process, including delivering at hospitals. People expected 'one-stop' MNCH services from the community delivery centres by skilled personnel. Social support network for health was poor compared to other networks. Referral linkages to higher facilities were inadequate, fragmentary, and disorganised. Conclusions Findings from formative research reduced contextual uncertainty about existing MNCH resources and care in the slum. It informed MANOSHI to build up an intervention which is relevant and responsive to the felt needs of the slum population. PMID:21044335

2010-01-01

28

Using formative research to develop MNCH programme in urban slums in Bangladesh: experiences from MANOSHI, BRAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: MANOSHI, an integrated community-based package of essential Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) services is being implemented by BRAC in the urban slums of Bangladesh since 2007. The objective of the formative research done during the inception phase was to understand the context and existing resources available in the slums, to reduce uncertainty about anticipated effects, and develop and

Syed Masud Ahmed; Awlad Hossain; Marufa Aziz Khan; Malay Kanti Mridha; Ashraful Alam; Nuzhat Choudhury; Tamanna Sharmin; Kaosar Afsana; Abbas Bhuiya

2010-01-01

29

Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.  

PubMed

The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented. PMID:1509300

Harpham, T; Stephens, C

1992-07-01

30

Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is proposed for quantifying the health impacts of improved water supplies, and sensitivity analysis of cost and health data provides an indication of cost- effectiveness. Climate change impacts are assessed via weather model parameter adjustment according to statistical downscaling of general circulation model output. Future work involving the interpolation of model parameters to ungaged sites, incorporation of additional global change scenarios (e.g., population, emissions), and extension of the procedure to a full Monte Carlo analysis will be discussed as time allows.

Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

2007-12-01

31

Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.  

PubMed

In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. PMID:22591621

Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

2012-09-01

32

Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums  

PubMed Central

Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life.

Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

2014-01-01

33

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India  

E-print Network

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India Nimmi an anthropological study of everyday mobile internet adoption among teenagers in a low- income urban setting. We-instrumental and entertainment- driven needs. The key here is for ICTD discourse to situate insights from anthropological studies

Rajamani, Sriram K.

34

Child health interventions in urban slums: are we neglecting the importance of nutrition?  

PubMed

During the early part of the twentieth century, there were dramatic falls in the mortality rates in many cities in the West. The reasons for this improvement are of considerable relevance today because the conditions which prevailed at that time in cities such as New York are comparable to those prevailing in many slums of the Third World today. Some early studies linked the improvements in health, as measured by mortality rates, to a better level of nutrition. The importance of nutrition is now widely accepted and there are many studies which show the association between nutrient intake and both mortality and morbidity, and in particular between breast feeding and infant mortality rates. It is sometimes assumed that, because nutrition indicators for city populations have improved, there is no longer a major problem of malnutrition in urban areas. However, it is likely that the figures hide disparities through aggregation, and studies in slums rather than cities as a whole give a much less encouraging picture. Poverty is at the root of many of the nutritional and associated health problems, but the children who will be born over the coming decades cannot afford to wait for a new economic order to provide the solution. Through the promotion of breast feeding, education, growth monitoring and food supplementation, necessary help can be targeted at this vulnerable population. PMID:10282123

Wray, J D

1986-12-01

35

Selection of sustainable sanitation technologies for urban slums--a case of Bwaise III in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

Provision of sanitation solutions in the world's urban slums is extremely challenging due to lack of money, space, access and sense of ownership. This paper presents a technology selection method that was used for the selection of appropriate sanitation solutions for urban slums. The method used in this paper takes into account sustainability criteria, including social acceptance, technological and physical applicability, economical and institutional aspects, and the need to protect and promote human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Bwaise III; a slum area in Kampala (Uganda). This was through administering of questionnaires and focus group discussions to obtain baseline data, developing a database to compare different sanitation options using technology selection criteria and then performing a multi-criteria analysis of the technology options. It was found that 15% of the population uses a public pit latrine; 75% uses a shared toilet; and 10% has private, non-shared sanitation facilities. Using the selection method, technologies such as Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) and biogas latrines were identified to be potentially feasible sanitation solutions for Bwaise III. Sanitation challenges for further research are also presented. PMID:20943256

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Oleja, A; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2010-12-01

36

Virtual mate-seeking in the urban slums of Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents emerging research on young women's participation in virtual heterosexual mate-seeking in two bustees (urban slum communities) in Kolkata. I begin the paper by reviewing the context of online friendship, dating and romance in India. I show how greater educational and social achievements in the bustees are prompting some young Muslim women to pursue online friendship and mate-seeking.

Kabita Chakraborty

2012-01-01

37

Sociocultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand the experience of menstruation in the socio-cultural context of an urban Indian slum. Observations were gathered as part of a larger study of reproductive tract infections in women in Delhi, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative phase consisted of 52 in-depth interviews, three focus groups discussions and five key informant interviews. In the

Suneela Garg; Nandini Sharma; Ragini Sahay

2001-01-01

38

Vulnerability to food insecurity in urban slums: experiences from nairobi, kenya.  

PubMed

Food and nutrition security is critical for economic development due to the role of nutrition in healthy growth and human capital development. Slum residents, already grossly affected by chronic poverty, are highly vulnerable to different forms of shocks, including those arising from political instability. This study describes the food security situation among slum residents in Nairobi, with specific focus on vulnerability associated with the 2007/2008 postelection crisis in Kenya. The study from which the data is drawn was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS), which follows about 70,000 individuals from close to 30,000 households in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The study triangulates data from qualitative and quantitative sources. It uses qualitative data from 10 focus group discussions with community members and 12 key-informant interviews with community opinion leaders conducted in November 2010, and quantitative data involving about 3,000 households randomly sampled from the NUHDSS database in three rounds of data collection between March 2011 and January 2012. Food security was defined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) criteria. The study found high prevalence of food insecurity; 85 % of the households were food insecure, with 50 % being severely food insecure. Factors associated with food security include level of income, source of livelihood, household size, dependence ratio; illness, perceived insecurity and slum of residence. The qualitative narratives highlighted household vulnerability to food insecurity as commonplace but critical during times of crisis. Respondents indicated that residents in the slums generally eat for bare survival, with little concern for quality. The narratives described heightened vulnerability during the 2007/2008 postelection violence in Kenya in the perception of slum residents. Prices of staple foods like maize flour doubled and simultaneously household purchasing power was eroded due to worsened unemployment situation. The use of negative coping strategies to address food insecurity such as reducing the number of meals, reducing food variety and quality, scavenging, and eating street foods was prevalent. In conclusion, this study describes the deeply intertwined nature of chronic poverty and acute crisis, and the subsequent high levels of food insecurity in urban slum settings. Households are extremely vulnerable to food insecurity; the situation worsening during periods of crisis in the perception of slum residents, engendering frequent use of negative coping strategies. Effective response to addressing vulnerability to household food insecurity among the urban poor should focus on both the underlying vulnerabilities of households due to chronic poverty and added impacts of acute crises. PMID:25172616

Kimani-Murage, E W; Schofield, L; Wekesah, F; Mohamed, S; Mberu, B; Ettarh, R; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A

2014-12-01

39

Debt and the Built Urban Environment: Examining the Growth of Urban Slums in the Less Developed Countries, 1990–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the influence of external debt on the change in the proportion of the total population living in urban slum conditions in the less developed countries between 1990 and 2010, drawing from a political economy of the world-system theoretical perspective. Ordinary least squares panel regression illustrates external debt as a percent of gross national income has a

James Rice; Julie Steinkopf Rice

2012-01-01

40

Access to Health Services Among Slum Dwellers in an Industrial Township and Surrounding Rural Areas: A Rapid Epidemiological Assessment  

PubMed Central

Context: The biggest challenge in implementing the primary health care principles is of equitable distribution of health care to all. The rural masses and urban slum dwellers are most vulnerable to lack of access to health care. Aim: To study access to health services among slum dwellers and rural population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey in an urban slum and surrounding rural areas in field practice area of a medical college. Materials and Methods: Structured instrument along with qualitative techniques such as focus group discussions, were used to collect information on access and utilization of health services from 865 individuals of both sexes and all ages selected from urban slums, villages, and indoor and outdoor patients. Access to basic determinants of good health such as housing, water, and sanitation was also elicited. Besides, health needs based on self-reported disease conditions were compiled. Results: More than 50% of respondents were living in poor housing and insanitary conditions. Besides the burden of communicable diseases and malnutrition (especially in children), risk of lifestyle diseases as evidenced by high Body mass index in 25% of adults surveyed was found. Private medical practitioners were more accessible than government facilities. More than 60% sought treatment from private medical facilities for their own ailments (for sickness in children this proportion was 74%). People who visited government facilities were more dissatisfied with the services (30.88%) than those who visited private facilities (18.31%). This difference was significant (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 2.88; ?2 =15.95, df=1, P=0.007). The main barriers to health care identified were waiting time long, affordability, poor quality of care, distance, and attitude of health workers. Conclusion: The underprivileged in India continue to have poor access to basic determinants of good health as well as to curative services from government sources during illness. PMID:24478995

Banerjee, Amitav; Bhawalkar, J.S.; Jadhav, S.L.; Rathod, Hetal; Khedkar, D.T.

2012-01-01

41

Status of Iodized Salt Coverage in Urban Slums of Cuttack City, Orissa  

PubMed Central

Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ?15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD. PMID:19966962

Panigrahi, Ansuman; Mishra, Kaushik; Mohapatra, Bijayeeni

2009-01-01

42

Determinants of growth failure in 12–24-month-old children in a high-density urban slum community in East London, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study's main objectives were the identification of determinants of growth failure in 12–24-month-old children from an urban slum community attending a day hospital as well as the identification of focus areas for intervention.Design: The research was executed as a case–control study with a one-to-two design. A hypothetical causal model was developed for the undernutrition situation in Duncan Village.

A de Villiers; M Senekal

2002-01-01

43

Women-focused development intervention reduces delays in accessing emergency obstetric care in urban slums in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral

Shamsun Nahar; Morsheda Banu; Hashima E Nasreen

2011-01-01

44

Children's health in slum settings.  

PubMed

Rapid urbanisation in the 20th century has been accompanied by the development of slums. Nearly one-third of the world's population and more than 60% of urban populations in the least developed countries live in slums, including hundreds of millions of children. Slums are areas of broad social and health disadvantage to children and their families due to extreme poverty, overcrowding, poor water and sanitation, substandard housing, limited access to basic health and education services, and other hardships (eg, high unemployment, violence). Despite the magnitude of this problem, very little is known about the potential impact of slum life on the health of children and adolescents. Statistics that show improved mortality and health outcomes in cities are based on aggregated data and may miss important intraurban disparities. Limited but consistent evidence suggests higher infant and under-five years mortality for children residing in slums compared with non-slum areas. Children suffer from higher rates of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness, malnutrition and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance. Adolescents have earlier sexual debut and higher rates of HIV, and adopt risky behaviours influenced by their social environment. We also know little about the consequences of this form of early childhood on long-term health-related behaviour (eg, diet and exercise) and non-communicable disease outcomes, such as obesity, heart disease and mental illness. Further attention to understanding and addressing child health in slum settings is an important priority for paediatricians and those committed to child health worldwide. PMID:23899920

Unger, Alon

2013-10-01

45

Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.  

PubMed

Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

2013-10-01

46

Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

2013-01-01

47

Community-based health programmes: role perceptions and experiences of female peer facilitators in Mumbai's urban slums  

PubMed Central

Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using qualitative methods we explore their role perceptions and experiences. Our findings focus on how the facilitators understand and enact their role in the community setting, how they negotiate relationships and health issues with peer groups, and the influence of credibility. We contextualize this within broader conceptualizations of peer-led health interventions and offer recommendations for similar community-based health initiatives. PMID:19651641

Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

2009-01-01

48

Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.  

PubMed

The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study. PMID:23542227

Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

2013-06-15

49

The sanitation environment in urban slums: implications for child health  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the effect of improved sanitation on child health in urban Bangladesh to assess the relative importance of household\\u000a versus neighborhood characteristics and of adult latrine usage versus safe disposal of children’s feces. Using fixed-effects\\u000a regression, I calculate the change in weight-for-height in 153 children as a function of changes in latrine usage in the surrounding\\u000a community. The use

Alison M. Buttenheim

2008-01-01

50

Association of urban slum residency with infant mortality and child stunting in low and middle income countries.  

PubMed

This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15-1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies. PMID:24151612

Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

2013-01-01

51

Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India  

PubMed Central

Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year) was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year). Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens. PMID:23020794

2012-01-01

52

Partnership in Action: Introducing family?based intervention for children with disability in urban slums of Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the processes and findings of a three?year action research project implemented in a small number of urban slums in the city of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the state of West Bengal in Eastern India. The project involved partnership between an established institute for cerebral palsy in Kolkata, two United Kingdom (UK) universities and

Reena Sen; Juliet Goldbart

2005-01-01

53

Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar

Jürg Graf; Regula Meierhofer; Martin Wegelin; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2008-01-01

54

The 2005 census and mapping of slums in Bangladesh: design, select results and application  

PubMed Central

Background The concentration of poverty and adverse environmental circumstances within slums, particularly those in the cities of developing countries, are an increasingly important concern for both public health policy initiatives and related programs in other sectors. However, there is a dearth of information on the population-level implications of slum life for human health. This manuscript describes the 2005 Census and Mapping of Slums (CMS), which used geographic information systems (GIS) tools and digital satellite imagery combined with more traditional fieldwork methodologies, to obtain detailed, up-to-date and new information about slum life in all slums of six major cities in Bangladesh (including Dhaka). Results The CMS found that Bangladeshi slums are very diverse: there are wide intra- and inter-city variations in population size, density, the percent of urban populations living in slums, and sanitation conditions. Findings also show that common beliefs about slums may be outdated; of note, tenure insecurity was found to be an issue in only a small minority of slums. Conclusion The methodology used in the 2005 Bangladesh CMS provides a useful approach to mapping slums that could be applied to urban areas in other low income societies. This methodology may become an increasingly important analytic tool to inform policy, as cities in developing countries are forecasted to continue increasing their share of total global population in the coming years, with slum populations more than doubling in size during the same period. PMID:19505333

Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter; Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Islam, Nazrul; Mahbub, AQM; Nazem, Nurul Islam

2009-01-01

55

Nutritional anthropometry of 1000 children dwellling in slum areas of jaipur compared to that of 500 children of the elite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study was conducted on 1000 children belonging to 493 families living in the slum areas of Jaipur. On analysis\\u000a the control children had anthropometric measurements equal to those of I.C.M.R. figures. The measurements of children of the\\u000a slum areas were significantly lower than the controls, indicating the presence of malnutrition.

B. S. Rathor; H. C. Mathur; S. Saxena

1975-01-01

56

Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

2013-03-01

57

Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR?=?1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR?=?1.13, 95% CI?=?1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. Conclusion Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs. PMID:24886046

2014-01-01

58

Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married adolescent women and their families live in conditions of poverty and socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:22376023

2011-01-01

59

Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

Cameron, Stuart

2011-01-01

60

Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: Optimisation of the filtration medium.  

PubMed

Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. PMID:25169645

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2014-12-15

61

Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

2010-01-01

62

Prevalence of Osteoarthritis of Knee Among Elderly Persons in Urban Slums Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of osteoarthritis among elderly is high and it majorly affects the quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis. Timely diagnosis using clinical criteria and effective intervention is of utmost importance. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of osteoarthritis of knee joint among elderly persons residing in an urban slum of Delhi using ACR clinical criteria. Materials and Methods: We did a community-based cross-sectional study among 496 elderly (>= 60 years) persons residing in urban slum of Delhi, India from December 2009 to February 2010. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria was used to clinically diagnose osteoarthritis knee. Statistical Analysis: Bivariate analysis using Chi-square test and multivariate analysis was done to identify the determinants. Sensitivity and specificity of individual factors to diagnose osteoarthritis knee was calculated. Results: The prevalence of osteoarthritis was estimated to be 41.1% (95% C.I., 36.7-45.6). Female sex and age >= 70 y were found to be independent risk factor for osteoarthritis knee. Among those having knee pain, presence of crepitus and tenderness were the most sensitive factors whereas bone overgrowth and bone warmth were most specific factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoarthritis knee was high among this elderly population and increased with age. Overall, individual factors of ACR criteria were both sensitive and specific in diagnosing osteoarthritis knee. In resource constrained setting of urban India, it can be an effective tool in clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis knee. PMID:25386465

Kalaivani, Mani; Krishnan, Anand; Aggarwal, Praveen Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2014-01-01

63

A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18?years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8?hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of???11.1?mmol/l and a FBS of???7.0?mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4?years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54?year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings have important implications for NCD prevention and care. For this rapidly growing youthful urban slum population policy makers need to focus their attention on strategies that address not just communicable diseases but non communicable diseases as well. PMID:23601475

2013-01-01

64

The perspectives of clients and unqualified allopathic practitioners on the management of delivery care in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh - a mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: BRAC is implementing a program to improve maternal and newborn health among the urban poor in the slums of Bangladesh (Mansohi), funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Formative research has demonstrated that unqualified allopathic practitioners (UAPs) are commonly assisting home-delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the role of unqualified allopathic practitioners during home delivery

Tasnuva Wahed; Allisyn C Moran; Mohammad Iqbal

2010-01-01

65

Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035  

E-print Network

Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035 The 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Monroe Urbanized Area Developed for The Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization and The Louisiana Department of Transportation... and Development Developed by In association with Neel-Schaffer, Inc. **DRAFT** Adopted Date Here This document was prepared in cooperation with: The Monroe Urbanized Area MPO Technical Advisory Committee and The Louisiana Department...

Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

2010-10-31

66

Slum residence and child health in developing countries.  

PubMed

Continued population growth and increasing urbanization have led to the formation of large informal urban settlements in many developing countries in recent decades. The high prevalence of poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation observed in these settlements-commonly referred to as "slums"-suggests that slum residence constitutes a major health risk for children. In this article, we use data from 191 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 73 developing countries to investigate this concern empirically. Our results indicate that children in slums have better health outcomes than children living in rural areas yet fare worse than children in better-off neighborhoods of the same urban settlements. A large fraction of the observed health differences appears to be explained by pronounced differences in maternal education, household wealth, and access to health services across residential areas. After we control for these characteristics, children growing up in the slums and better-off neighborhoods of towns show levels of morbidity and mortality that are not statistically different from those of children living in rural areas. Compared with rural children, children living in cities (irrespective of slum or formal residence) fare better with respect to mortality and stunting but not with respect to recent illness episodes. PMID:24895049

Fink, Günther; Günther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth

2014-08-01

67

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

68

Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.  

PubMed

To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children. PMID:23243080

Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

2013-06-01

69

Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2012-04-01

70

Cost of behavior change communication channels of Manoshi -a maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) program in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The cost of behavior change communication (BCC) interventions has not been rigorously studied in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to assess the implementation costs of a BCC intervention in a maternal, neonatal and child health program (Manoshi) run by BRAC, which has been operating in the urban slums of Dhaka since 2007. The study estimates the costs of BCC tools per exposure among the different types of BCC channels: face-to-face, group counseling, and mass media. Methods The study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in the Dhaka urban slum area. A micro-costing approach was applied using primary and secondary data sources to estimate the cost of BCC tools. Primary data were collected through interviews with service-providers and managers from the Manoshi program, observations of group counseling, and mass media events. Results Per exposure, the cost of face-to-face counseling was found to be 3.08 BDT during pregnancy detection, 3.11 BDT during pregnancy confirmation, 12.42 BDT during antenatal care, 18.96 BDT during delivery care and 22.65 BDT during post-natal care. The cost per exposure of group counseling was 22.71 BDT (95% CI 21.30-24.87) for Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) meetings, 14.25 BDT (95% CI 12.37-16.12) for Women Support Group meetings, 17.83 BDT (95% CI 14.90-20.77) for MNCH committee meetings and 6.62 BDT (95% CI 5.99-7.26) for spouse forum meetings. We found the cost per exposure for mass media interventions was 9.54 BDT (95% CI 7.30-12.53) for folk songs, 26.39 BDT (95% CI 23.26-32.56) for street dramas, 0.39 BDT for TV-broadcasting and 7.87 BDT for billboards. Considering all components reaching the target audience under each broader type of channel, the total cost per exposure was found to be 60.22 BDT (0.82 USD) for face-to-face counseling, 61.40 BDT (0.82 USD) for group counseling and 44.19 BDT (0.61 USD) for mass media. Conclusions The total cost for group counseling was the highest per exposure, followed by face-to-face counseling and mass media. The cost per exposure varied substantially across BCC channels due to differences in cost drivers such as personnel, materials and refreshments. The cost per exposure can be valuable for planning and resource allocation related to the implementation of BCC interventions in low resource settings. PMID:24228844

2013-01-01

71

Mycetes and urban areas.  

PubMed

Mycetes are ubiquitous organisms that can cause mycoses in human and animals. The role of animals in the epidemiology of human mycoses in urban areas is multiform, but here will be discuss only two features: A) animals as vectors of mycoses and B) animal substrates as growth factor of pathogenic fungi. A) Animals as vectors of mycoses: this role is important as zoofilic dermatophytes are very important agents of zoonosis; the urban dermatophytozoonoses are prevalent caused by Microsporum canis which is prevalent in cats and dogs. Cats are often asymptomatic carriers. The pattern of human dermatomycoses has changed in Italy during the past century: at the beginning of the century anthropophilic fungi were prevalent while at present the zoophilic fungi are the most important causes. B) Animal substrata as growth factor of pathogenic fungi: soil "animalization" (i.e., the addition of such debris as hair, skin scales, dropping and other organic matters) creates an optimal substratum for the growth and the multiplication of geophilic or saprophyitic fungi, such as Microsporum gypseum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The present human lifestyle, which favours a an overpopulation of birds, wild animals, domestic mammals and sinanthropic together with man in crowded areas seems to favour the formation of environments adapted to the abundant growth of some pathogenic fungi with consequent infection for man and animals. Finally, an environment heavily populated by fungi can cause allergic pulmonary reactions as well as reactions in other organs and tissues. The control of human and animal fungi, and the efficient use of a monitoring system require ample knowledge of mycological problems both in human and veterinary medicine and of efficient laboratories capable of resolving the needs of both disciplines. Close collaboration between veterinarians, doctors and mycologists is necessary in order to resolve health problems linked to mycosis. PMID:16881412

Tampieri, M P

2006-06-01

72

Acute diarrhoeal disease in children under 7 years of age in a peri-urban slum of Santiago, Chile.  

PubMed Central

A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7.1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44.2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14.4% with rotavirus, 38.4% with parasites and in 27.9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11.5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected. PMID:4067299

Araya, M.; Figueroa, G.; Espinoza, J.; Montesinos, N.; Spencer, E.; Brunser, O.

1985-01-01

73

Soil-transmitted helminth infection and nutritional status among urban slum children in Kenya.  

PubMed

To evaluate the nutritional impact of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 205 pre-school (PSC) and 487 school-aged children (SAC) randomly selected from the surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Kibera slum in Kenya. Hemoglobin, iron deficiency (ID), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), inflammation, malaria, anthropometry, and STH ova were measured. Poisson regression models evaluated associations between STH and malnutrition outcomes and controlled for confounders. Approximately 40% of PSC and SAC had STH infection, primarily Ascaris and Trichuris; 2.9% of PSC and 1.1% of SAC had high-intensity infection. Malnutrition prevalence among PSC and SAC was anemia (38.3% and 14.0%, respectively), ID (23.0% and 5.0%, respectively), VAD (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively), and stunting (29.7% and 16.9%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, STH in PSC was associated with VAD (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.6) and ID (PR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.6) but not anemia or stunting. No associations were significant in SAC. Integrated deworming and micronutrient supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population. PMID:24343884

Suchdev, Parminder S; Davis, Stephanie M; Bartoces, Monina; Ruth, Laird J; Worrell, Caitlin M; Kanyi, Henry; Odero, Kennedy; Wiegand, Ryan E; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

2014-02-01

74

Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).  

PubMed

During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in AIDS awareness, knowledge about risky HIV behaviour, information about correct condom use, and acceptance of lower-risk, alternative ritual blood practices and decreases (P < 0.001) in prejudicial attitudes related to HIV transmission were found among mobilized healers as compared to 100 untrained controls. Respected Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS. PMID:9204729

Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

1997-01-01

75

Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

76

Institutional synergies in the delivery of urban upgrading services : lessons from the Slum Networking Program in Ahmedabad, India  

E-print Network

This thesis examines factors associated with the limited success of the Slum Networking Project (SNP) implemented in the city of Ahmedabad, India between 1995 and 2001. The SNP was conceived as a partnership between ...

Samad, Taimur

2006-01-01

77

Energy services for the urban poor: NGO participation in slum electrification in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 40% of the world’s urban poor—living predominantly in informal settlements—lack access to legal electricity. Urban upgradation programmes, if they exist, prioritize water supply over electrification since water is nonsubstitutable and more essential for sustaining human life. Illegal electricity—albeit unreliable, expensive and dangerous—is also already widely available in informal settlements. I share the experiences of the Self-Employed Women’s Association and

Bipasha Baruah

2010-01-01

78

Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums  

PubMed Central

Background While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this reversal movement is critical in sustainable sanitation services and should be a concern for all actors. PMID:24948084

2014-01-01

79

Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations  

PubMed Central

Background Urban slums, like refugee communities, comprise a social cluster that engenders a distinct set of health problems. With 1 billion people currently estimated to live in such communities, this neglected population has become a major reservoir for a wide spectrum of health conditions that the formal health sector must deal with. Discussion Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations. Summary Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums is urgently needed. PMID:17343758

Riley, Lee W; Ko, Albert I; Unger, Alon; Reis, Mitermayer G

2007-01-01

80

The perspectives of clients and unqualified allopathic practitioners on the management of delivery care in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh - a mixed method study  

PubMed Central

Background BRAC is implementing a program to improve maternal and newborn health among the urban poor in the slums of Bangladesh (Mansohi), funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Formative research has demonstrated that unqualified allopathic practitioners (UAPs) are commonly assisting home-delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the role of unqualified allopathic practitioners during home delivery in urban slums of Dhaka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2008 and June 2009 in Kamrangirchar slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through a door-to-door household survey, quantitative data were collected from 463 women with a home birth and/or trial of labor at home. We also conducted seven in-depth interviews with the UAPs to explore their practices. Results About one-third (32%) of the 463 women interviewed sought delivery care from a UAP. We did not find an association between socio-demographic characteristics and care-seeking from a UAP, except for education of women. Compared to women with three or more pregnancies, the highest odds ratio was found in the primi-gravidity group [odds ratio (OR): 3.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-7.25)], followed by women with two pregnancies (OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36-4.77) to use a UAP. Of women who reported at least one delivery-related complication, 45.2% received care from the UAPs. Of 149 cases where the UAP was involved with delivery care, 133 (89.3%) received medicine to start or increase labor with only 6% (9 of 149) referred by a UAP to any health facility. The qualitative findings showed that UAPs provided a variety of medicines to manage excessive bleeding immediately after childbirth. Conclusion There is demand among slum women for delivery-related care from UAPs during home births in Bangladesh. Some UAPs' practices are contrary to current World Health Organization recommendations and could be harmful. Programs need to develop interventions to address these practices to improve perinatal care outcomes. PMID:20822521

2010-01-01

81

Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India  

PubMed Central

Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population.

Mohan, Yogesh

2014-01-01

82

Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959

2012-01-01

83

Women-focused development intervention reduces delays in accessing emergency obstetric care in urban slums in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. Results The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in income-generating activities. Conclusions Manoshi program reduces the first delay for life-threatening conditions but not non-life-threatening complications even though providing financial assistance. Programme should give more emphasis on raising awareness through couple/family-based education about maternal complications and dispel fear of clinical care to accelerate seeking EmOC. PMID:21276263

2011-01-01

84

[Blood donation in urban areas].  

PubMed

Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

Charpentier, F

2013-05-01

85

Organic carbon storage in China's urban areas.  

PubMed

China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577 ± 60 Tg C (1 Tg = 10(12) g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1 ± 1.8 kg C m(-2), about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km(2) urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

2013-01-01

86

Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg ?=?1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m?2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

2013-01-01

87

Rhetoric of the ‘slum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Gilbert's recent identification of the ‘return of the slum’ as a dangerous trend (2007), scholars such as Rao (2006) assure us that there is a broader theoretical interest in applying the term ‘slum’ in a normative sense, as it offers a new analytic framework for understanding the global cities of the South. Using the recent politics of large-scale slum

Pushpa Arabindoo

2011-01-01

88

The Return of the Slum: Does Language Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'cities without slums' initiative has resuscitated an old and dangerous term from the habitat vocabulary. Use of the word 'slum' will recreate many of the myths about poor people that years of careful research have discredited. The UN has employed the word in order to publicize the seriousness of urban problems and to improve its ability to attract funding

ALAN GILBERT

2007-01-01

89

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!  

E-print Network

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

Minnesota, University of

90

Trends in childhood mortality in Kenya: The urban advantage has seemingly been wiped out  

PubMed Central

Background We describe trends in childhood mortality in Kenya, paying attention to the urban–rural and intra-urban differentials. Methods We use data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) collected between 1993 and 2008 and the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) collected in two Nairobi slums between 2003 and 2010, to estimate infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR). Results Between 1993 and 2008, there was a downward trend in IMR, CMR and U5MR in both rural and urban areas. The decline was more rapid and statistically significant in rural areas but not in urban areas, hence the gap in urban–rural differentials narrowed over time. There was also a downward trend in childhood mortality in the slums between 2003 and 2010 from 83 to 57 for IMR, 33 to 24 for CMR, and 113 to 79 for U5MR, although the rates remained higher compared to those for rural and non-slum urban areas in Kenya. Conclusions The narrowing gap between urban and rural areas may be attributed to the deplorable living conditions in urban slums. To reduce childhood mortality, extra emphasis is needed on the urban slums. PMID:25024120

Kimani-Murage, E.W.; Fotso, J.C.; Egondi, T.; Abuya, B.; Elungata, P.; Ziraba, A.K.; Kabiru, C.W.; Madise, N.

2014-01-01

91

A Comparative Study on the Nutritional Status of the Pre-School Children of the Employed Women and the Unemployed Women in the Urban Slums of Guntur  

PubMed Central

Background The early childhood development is most crucial and the mother’s care and attention is essential. The inevitable changes like women entering the work field have an effect on the child care and development. Aim To study the selected anthropometric indices of the children of employed and unemployed women. Settings and Design This study was done in the urban slums of Guntur city by using a cross sectional, descriptive design. Methods and Material This study was conducted during January – April 2011 with a sample of 312 children of non working women and 311 children of working women, who were selected through the systemic random quota sampling method in 6 randomly selected slums. The data was collected through questionnaires who were named as the Mother’s schedule and the Child schedule, which consisted of close-ended questions which were coded for an easy data entry. The Mother’s schedule looked at the information regarding the mother, like the caretaker during the mother’s absence, the time which was spent with her child each day, etc. The Child schedule looked for information like whether the child was exclusively breast fed, its age in months when the weaning started, whether the government sponsored crèche services (Anganwadi center) were utilized, etc. It also included the anthropometrical measurements of the child like its current weight, current height and mid arm circumference, which were obtained by using standardized tools. Statistical Analysis For each schedule, a separate table was created in a relational basis in MS Access, with suitable key fields to connect the information for the analysis. Results The children of the unemployed mothers weighed significantly higher than the children of the employed mothers. The children of the unemployed mothers also stood significantly taller than the children of the employed mothers. Conclusion In the absence of the mothers who are at work, a childcare service is essential and this should be facilitated through legislation, NGO efforts, etc. Breast feeding and the bonding time with children are to be encouraged for the employed mothers. PMID:23373036

Yeleswarapu, Bharani Krishna; Nallapu, Samson Sanjeeva Rao

2012-01-01

92

Experience with Under Fives' Clinic in Malavani, a slum area near Bombay.  

PubMed

3 models of Under Fives Clinics were tried successively at the Malavani Health Center beginning in 1978. Malavani is a village with a population of abourt 70,000 near the city of Bombay (India). In each model mothers were given a Road to Health Card for each child. Model I was a center-based model. The venue was the same center where outpatient departments were located for the convenience of the mothers. The staff comprised 1 pediatrician from the staff of the K.E.M. Hospital and rotating interns posted for 1 month at a time. Enrollment and follow-up of the children were done in the outpatient department. Model II, a subcenter-based model established in 1980, 5 satellite subcenters located in the community were established. The permanent staff consisted of a medical officer, a medico-social worker, and a records assistan. A detailed record of each child was maintained at the subcenter. The medico-social worker held group discussions with the attending mothers and an attempt was made to understand their views and beliefs about child care before trying to educate them. Model III, a community-based model, was established in April 1983. The staff was partly permanent (a medico-social worker, a student nurse, and local community health volunteer) and partly temporary (rotating interns). The staff visited different areas of Malavani village by rotation. An attempt was made to visit each area at least once in 2 months. Detailed recors were maintained as in Model II. In all models, the children were weighed at each visit. They were given oral polio and triple vaccines. Mothers were advised on foods to feed the children to improve nutrition and were given simple recipes and cooking demonstrations. An attempt was made to evaluate the regularity of attendance, weight gain in children, and immuniation coverage. With Model I 450 babies were registered in 6 months but only 48 of them were brought for further follow-up; only 21 of them completed primary immunization. 2034 babies were registered under Model II over a 2-year period. Of these, 1280 attended the clinic regularly for follow-up and completed the course of primary immunization. A striking feature was the weight gain in 1011 children. The number of family planning users increased significantly from 237 at the time of clinic registration to 384 after a few months. 856 babies were registered in 6 months under Model III and 764 attended regularly for follow-up. 613 of the 764 children gained weight and all 764 completed the primary course of immunization. The deficiencies of the center-based model, Model I, are evident. Models II and III proved effective in improving the care of children under 5. PMID:6716303

Kowli, S S; Kumar, R; Trivedi, M J; Bhalerao, V R

1984-01-01

93

Slum Upgrading: Interdisciplinary Perspective and Intersectoral Action  

E-print Network

regions at a very fast pace. And around one billion of people (with a perspective of 2 billion in 2030), the third of the world's total urban population, live in such conditions of precariousness. Confronted,000 impoverished city- dwellers living in this vast slum in the suburbs of Douala. Behind him

94

Geospatial intelligence about urban areas using SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar satellites are important for geospatial intelligence about urban areas and urban situational awareness, since these satellites can collect data at day and night and independently of weather conditions ensuring that the information can be obtained at regular intervals and in time. For this purpose we have applied change detection techniques developed at TNO to Radarsat I fine beam imagery

A. C. van den Broek; R. J. Dekker

2007-01-01

95

Improving the health and lives of people living in slums.  

PubMed

Urban poverty, ill health, and living in slums are intrinsically interwoven. Poverty is multidimensional and there is no agreement on a universal definition. UN-HABITAT has introduced an operational definition of slums that is restricted to legal aspects and excludes the more difficult social dimensions. The World Health Organization definition is more comprehensive and uses a health and social determinants approach that is strongly based on the social conditions in which people live and work. Health and improving the lives of people living in slums is at the top of international development agenda. Proactive strategies to contain new urban populations and slum upgrading are the two key approaches. Regarding the latter, participatory upgrading that most often involves the provision of basic infrastructure is currently the most acceptable intervention in developing countries. In urbanization of poverty, participatory slum upgrading is a necessary but not sufficient condition to reduce poverty and improve the lives of slum dwellers. Empowering interventions that target capacity development and skill transfer of both individuals and community groups--as well as meaningful negotiations with institutions, such as municipal governments, which can affect slum dwellers' lives--appear to be the most promising strategies to improve the slum dwellers' asset bases and health. Non-governmental organizations, training institutions, and international development partners are best placed to facilitate horizontal relationships between individuals, community groups, and vertical relationships with more powerful institutions that affect the slum dwellers' lives. The main challenge appears to be lack of commitment from the key stakeholders to upgrade interventions citywide. PMID:17954669

Sheuya, Shaaban A

2008-01-01

96

23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted...

2013-04-01

97

23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted...

2012-04-01

98

23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted...

2010-04-01

99

23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted...

2011-04-01

100

23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted...

2014-04-01

101

Photogrammetry and remote sensing on urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas can be considered as complex and dynamic systems, the study of which requires broad and reliable information. The required information must be improved and updated and can be collected by different sources, including photogrammetry and remote sensing. The continuous advances of these scientific disciplines in acquisition and processing of their data, but also their synergy with other modern methods and technologies (as laser scanning), make their contribution on urban areas studies (including axes of urban wide surroundings) particularly interesting. This paper refers to the above and includes a relevant example of the city of Thessaloniki, using high resolution satellite data.

Lazaridou, Maria A.

2014-08-01

102

Slum upgrading in India and Kenya: investigating the sustainability  

E-print Network

; The Royal Academy of Engineering, Cambridge University Engineering Department, The Gilbert iii Murray Trust, St Edmunds College, Cambridge Philosophical Society, The Bernard Butler Trust Fund, Fred and Pat Tuckman Foundation and Gilchrist Educational... that the poor are sitting on huge amounts of ‘dead capital’ (de Soto 2000). Urban slums are also often interesting communities in their own right. Many of the most important movements in music, dance and politics originated in slums. Many people who...

Cronin, Victoria Louise Molly

2012-04-10

103

DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

Pontes, Zelia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araujo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

2013-01-01

104

A study on health status of women engaged in a home-based "Papad-making" industry in a slum area of Kolkata  

PubMed Central

Background: The ‘papad-making’ industries of India have provided ample opportunity of employment for the women workers of low socio-economic class although their problems are not much explored. In this study an attempt had been made for the same. Aims: 1. To find out the health status of the women. 2. To find out the factors, in the working conditions, influencing their health status. 3. To assess their felt needs. Settings: A slum area of Kolkata. Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive type of observational study. Methods and Materials: The slum was chosen by random sampling method. Following this, complete enumeration method was adopted. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination of the women engaged in this occupation with a predesigned and pretested schedule. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: 77.5% were in the reproductive age group and none were below 14 years. Most of them belonged to poor socioeconomic status. Sixty per cent were in this occupation for more than 10 years and they spent 5 hours for this work daily over and above their household job. Musculoskeletal problem was their commonest health problem. Pallor, angular stomatitis, pedal edema, chronic energy deficiency were found on examination. Personal hygienic measures taken were far from satisfactory. A focus group discussion revealed their health and family problems, dissatisfaction about their working conditions and wage. Other needs identified were home visits for their health care, free medicines and health education. Conclusion: Need exists for a participatory occupational health programme for this working population. PMID:20040996

Roy, Sima; Dasgupta, Aparajita

2008-01-01

105

Overview of migration, poverty and health dynamics in Nairobi City's slum settlements.  

PubMed

The Urbanization, Poverty, and Health Dynamics research program was designed to generate and provide the evidence base that would help governments, development partners, and other stakeholders understand how the urban slum context affects health outcomes in order to stimulate policy and action for uplifting the wellbeing of slum residents. The program was nested into the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, a uniquely rich longitudinal research platform, set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Findings provide rich insights on the context in which slum dwellers live and how poverty and migration status interacts with health issues over the life course. Contrary to popular opinions and beliefs that see slums as homogenous residential entities, the findings paint a picture of a highly dynamic and heterogeneous setting. While slum populations are highly mobile, about half of the population comprises relatively well doing long-term dwellers who have lived in slum settlements for over 10 years. The poor health outcomes that slum residents exhibit at all stages of the life course are rooted in three key characteristics of slum settlements: poor environmental conditions and infrastructure; limited access to services due to lack of income to pay for treatment and preventive services; and reliance on poor quality and mostly informal and unregulated health services that are not well suited to meeting the unique realities and health needs of slum dwellers. Consequently, policies and programs aimed at improving the wellbeing of slum dwellers should address comprehensively the underlying structural, economic, behavioral, and service-oriented barriers to good health and productive lives among slum residents. PMID:21713552

Zulu, Eliya M; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex C; Bocquier, Philippe; Madise, Nyovani J; Cleland, John; Falkingham, Jane

2011-06-01

106

Controlling Tree Squirrels in Urban Areas  

E-print Network

T ree squirrels inhabit many parts of Texas. The three types of tree squirrels found in the state are the fox squirrel, the gray squir- rel and the flying squirrel. Tree squirrels are interesting animals, but in urban and suburban areas... there are no toxicants or fumi- gants registered for use against tree squirrels in Texas. Registered commercial repellents are available. Shooting It is not advisable to shoot squirrels in urban areas because of the danger to other animals and people. Also, most cities...

Texas Wildlife Services

2006-09-06

107

Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

2011-01-01

108

Factors influencing sexual initiation, multiple partners and condom use among male slum youth in Pune, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use

Rukmini Potdar; Kristin Mmari

2010-01-01

109

Factors influencing sexual initiation, multiple partners and condom use among male slum youth in Pune, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use

Rukmini Potdar; Kristin Mmari

2011-01-01

110

Numerical simulation air pollution in urban areas  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional, grid-based numerical air pollution model for the estimation and prediction of air pollutant concentrations in an urban area is developed. Based on the species continuity equation, the modeling system incorporates the combined influences of advective transport, turbulent diffusion, chemical transformation, source emissions and surface removal processes. The model is applied to study the behavior of SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration distributions in an urban area using the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. Statistical techniques for the evaluation of the numerical model performance include paired analysis and resampling analysis. The comparisons of the numerical model with the new version of Pollution Episodic Model (PEM-2) and the RAM, a Gaussian model, are also performed using RAPS data base. A comparison between predicted and observed concentrations indicates that the numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the dynamics of the pollutant concentrations in the urban area. The results indicate that besides the uncertainty in the emission rate, the proper characterization of the emissions-as a point source or as an area source-is also critical to the accurate simulation of the concentration field in the urban areas.

Ku, J.Y.

1984-01-01

111

Rainwater Harvesting and Consumption in urban Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soaring rate of urban demand for soft water and the rising cost associated with construction and protection of centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems associated with expansion of cities and immigrations of rural population to cities have contributed to increase acceptance of water harvesting systems in urban areas at least. This issue requires special attention in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East semitropical area. In this context, a recent pilot project has been proposed to analyze the performance of rainwater harvesting systems as an answer to some parts of soft water demand in Iranian urban society. A system of rainwater draining and storage has been implemented in a two hectares urban area. Observations and analyses related to runoff quantity and quality have been performed between November 2007 and November 2009 at the basin outlet as well as inside a storage tank which has been set up in the area for water harvesting purposes. The potential of the harvested rainwater to be employed in different consumption contexts has been analyzed in light of national and international standards. Although most of the sampling results support the idea that the quality of harvested water is adequate for any field of consuption, including drinking use (especially during rainfall period of time), a comparison between biological quality evaluation plus turbidity and color of samples with the related standards has led to identify limitations of harvested water usage with particular reference to plant consumptions. Keywords- rainwater harvesting system, runoff, water quality standards

Akbar Abbasi, Ali; Tabatabaee, Javad; Ranaee, Ehsan

2013-04-01

112

Rain Induced Pollutant Washing in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in urban areas is the pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. The rain washes and cleanses the air and the land surface and then, as runoff, transports a variety of materials to the nearest receiving water body. The pollution generation in storm runoff is a very complex process. It is an accepted view that a

G. Del Giudice; A. Leopardi; M. Greco

113

Influence of Urban Changes on Informal Settlements and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Nigerian Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of growth of cities and urban changes has left with it many footprints in different trajectories. The growth of large and medium cities in Nigeria overtime has resulted in sharp urban segregation between formal and informal areas. Next to the large and medium cities are the pockets of slums and unplanned informal settlements on the outskirts of large cities. The proliferation of urban slums in cities is exacerbated by the concentration of high population of urban poor in over-crowded living spaces in rapidly changing urban areas. Urban changes manifest in the changes of population, demography and livelihood characteristics of cities. These changes are the main factors that influence adaptive capacity of city dwellers and their vulnerability to climate change. Urban changes and their accompanying changes in the population, demographic and livelihood characteristics in Nigerian cities present both prospects and challenges for building future adaptive capacity to climate change. This study focuses on urban changes and the growth of urban slums in Nigerian cities and the influence of changes in population levels, demographic composition and livelihood characteristics on the adaptive capacity to climate change. The study examines (i) the typology of urban slums in time, space, scale, form and structure in the Northern and Southern Nigeria; (ii) the differentials in the perception of risk and response mechanisms to climate change in different demographic groups, cultures and regions; (iii) characterizes the potentials and challenges of future adaptive capacity to climate change; and (iv) assesses how livelihood strategies change in response to urban changes and how the range of potential adaptations to climate stresses is likely to change overtime. This study will profile urban slums and informal settlements in Nigeria, present comparisons of the socio-economic indicators for mapping of urban slums in Nigeria, provide a detailed analysis of adaptation capacity, and proffer a framework for the integration and governance of urban slums in Nigerian cities. Analyzing the way urban livelihoods, particularly those of the urban slums, are modified to adapt to urban and climate changes will help to define urban policies to re-direct urban growth and planning to respond better to climate stresses.

Elias, P. O.; Babatola, O.; Fasona, M.

2011-12-01

114

Numerical Simulation Air Pollution in Urban Areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, grid-based numerical air pollution model for the estimation and prediction of air pollutant concentrations in an urban area is developed. Based on the species continuity equation, the modeling system incorporates the combined influences of advective transport, turbulent diffusion, chemical transformation, source emissions and surface removal processes. Recent developments in plume rise and plume penetration processes, non-divergent wind field analysis procedures and numerical solution techniques are described and incorporated in the model. The model is applied to study the behavior of SO(,2) and sulfate concentration distributions in an urban area using the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. Statistical techniques for the evaluation of the numerical model performance include paired analysis and resampling analysis. The comparisons of the numerical model with the new version of Pollution Episodic Model (PEM-2) and the RAM, a Gaussian model, are also performed using RAPS data base. A comparison between predicted and observed concentrations indicates that the numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the dynamics of the pollutant concentrations in the urban area. The numerical model performs much better in the summer days than in the winter days. A tendency to underpredict the SO(,2) concentrations at the receptors located in the rural areas is observed. Much improvement over the PEM -2 model is the numerical model's consistent performance and accurate prediction for various meteorological conditions which include light winds and sudden changes of wind directions. The numerical model, as revealed by the resampling analysis, performed quite well considering the confidence intervals associated with the uncertainty or variability in the observed concentrations. Finally, the findings of the study regarding the behavior of point and area sources in an urban area provide insight into the complex interrelationships between the point and area source emissions and the various meteorological conditions in determining the surface concentration distribution. The results indicate that besides the uncertainty in the emission rate, the proper characterization of the emissions--as a point source or as an area source--is also critical to the accurate simulation of the concentration field in the urban areas.

Ku, Jia-Yeong

115

Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034  

E-print Network

. 736-10-0144 FEDERAL AID PROJECT NO. SPR-0010(031) LAKE CHARLES TRANSPORTATION PLAN UPDATE CALCASIEU PARISH _______________________________________________________________________ "The preparation of this report has been financed in part through... on August 4, 2009 by the Policy Committee of the Lake Charles Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). The MPO planning functions are housed at the Imperial Calcasieu Regional Planning and Development Commission (IMCAL), which also...

Lake Charles Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

2009-08-04

116

Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

2012-04-01

117

Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.  

PubMed

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. PMID:25157123

Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

2014-11-01

118

Combating the growth of slums using for-profit social business models  

E-print Network

With 1 billion people living in the slums of cities today and no signs of a decrease in the rate of urbanization and population growth, it is obvious that new approaches to combating poverty and the global housing crisis ...

Fusaro, Kurtis C

2009-01-01

119

Urban Area Segmentation Using Visual Words Lior Weizman Jacob Goldberger  

E-print Network

1 Urban Area Segmentation Using Visual Words Lior Weizman Jacob Goldberger Abstract--In this paper we address the problem of urban areas extraction by using a feature-free image representation concept appear mainly in urban areas. The proposed algorithm is based on a new pixel-level variant of visual

Goldberger, Jacob

120

Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

Yinger, John

121

Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

Grinnell, Max

2012-03-02

122

Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.  

PubMed

Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711

Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

2013-07-01

123

Introduction to Urban Studies Area A. Urban Sociology  

E-print Network

and Social Justice 4. Brazilian Culture and Society 5. Housing and Homelessness Policy 6. Asian Politics. The City in US History 2. Urban Anthropology 3. Imperial San Francisco 4. Memory Marks in Urban Space 5

Galles, David

124

77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Census Bureau delineates urbanized areas \\2\\ and urban clusters \\3\\ primarily on the basis of residential population density measured at the census tract and census block levels of geography, but also based on additional criteria that account...

2012-03-27

125

Inequalities in maternity care and newborn outcomes: one-year surveillance of births in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aggregate urban health statistics mask inequalities. We described maternity care in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai, and examined differences in care and outcomes between more and less deprived groups. METHODS: We collected information through a birth surveillance system covering a population of over 280 000 in 48 vulnerable slum localities. Resident women identified births in their own localities and

Neena Shah More; Ujwala Bapat; Sushmita Das; Sarah Barnett; Anthony Costello; Armida Fernandez; David Osrin

2009-01-01

126

The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to

Fei Tang; Hanqiu Xu

2010-01-01

127

Geospatial intelligence about urban areas using SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar satellites are important for geospatial intelligence about urban areas and urban situational awareness, since these satellites can collect data at day and night and independently of weather conditions ensuring that the information can be obtained at regular intervals and in time. For this purpose we have applied change detection techniques developed at TNO to Radarsat I fine beam imagery of various dates to find changes in Baghdad during and after the war in 2003. A drawback of SAR imagery is the poor ability to recognize the detected changes in the scene. In this paper we present a workflow for the characterization and classification of changes detected in SAR imagery. We show that these changes can be characterized using complementary data and context information. For this purpose we have used a digital surface model from Ikonos stereo imagery that contains building heights. We also have used so-called temporal features extracted from a multi-temporal data-set of Radarsat data to select the changes and to detect activity between 2003 and 2007, which has been classified with high-resolution optical data.

van den Broek, A. C.; Dekker, R. J.

2007-10-01

128

Pharaon Urbain, A Digital Radio Relay System for Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radio relay system Pharaon Urbain has been conceived to realize the interconnection between switching and transit centers in urban areas. The first practical use of this system is planned in the urban zone of Paris, using the Maine-Montparnasse tower as a nodal point. This paper describes the system conception and the equipment of this first French urban radio relay

M. Liger; P. Magne; J. Poitevin

1974-01-01

129

Invertebrate conservation in urban areas: Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the potential of different types of urban green spaces for conservation of ground-dwelling ants. The study area, which included 12 public squares, two urban parks, and three natural reserves, is within the highly threatened Cerrado biome of central Brazil. We compared ant species richness and composition among the different types of urban green spaces, and evaluated how ant

Renata Pacheco; Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

2007-01-01

130

A canopy model of mean winds through urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An urban canopy model is developed for spatially averaged mean winds within and above urban areas. The urban roughness elements are represented as a canopy-element drag carefully formulated in terms of morphological parameters of the building arrays and a mean sectional drag coefficient for a single building. Turbulent stresses are represented using a mixing-length model, with a mixing length that

O. Coceal; S. E. Belcher

2004-01-01

131

Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.  

PubMed

Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497

Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

2012-03-01

132

MODELING OF NONPOINT SOURCE WATER QUALITY IN URBAN AND NON-URBAN AREAS - NPSGUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonpoint source assessment procedures and modeling techniques are reviewed and discussed for both urban and non-urban land areas. Detailed reviews of specific methodologies and models arepresented, along with overview discussions focussing on urban methods and models, and on non-...

133

The effects of urban stream improving the thermal environment in urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas create distinctive urban climates by Urban Heat Island (UHI) that is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC) change, concentration of population and increase anthropogenic heat. In general, the study of thermal environment in urban area focused on UHI intensity and phenomenon. Recently, climate improvement has been studied using water and green belt of urban, as interest in UHI phenomenon mitigation or enhancement has been increased. Therefore in this study, effects of urban stream on urban thermal environment were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data acquired on 6 September 2009 were utilized to derive the surface Temperature (Ts) and surface energy balance using Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998). The surface energy budget consists of net radiation at the surface (Rn), sensible heat flux to the air (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G). The net radiation flux is computed by subtracting all outgoing radiant fluxes (K?: shortwave outgoing, L? longwave outgoing) from all incoming radiant fluxes (K? shortwave incoming, L?: longwave incoming). This is given in the surface energy budget equation: Rn = H + LE + G = K? - K? + L? - L?. The result indicates that the Ts of urban stream are1 °C lower than circumjacent urban area, LE flux of urban stream is higher than surrounding urban area. However, land covers of streamside and around stream with concrete, asphalt and barren belt are comprised of hot spot zone that deteriorates urban thermal environment. And urban stream does perform a role of cool spot zone that improves urban thermal environment.

Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-hwa

2012-10-01

134

Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the

Jukka Heinonen; Seppo Junnila

2011-01-01

135

Amazonian Native Youths and Notions of Indigeneity in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indigenous presence in urban areas of Amazonia has become more visible as Indian populations have negotiated their own spaces and acted in new contexts previously reserved for the dominant society. This article looks at ways in which today's young Indians in an urban area define and interpret their new cultural and social situations, drawing from research conducted with Apurinã,

Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen

2010-01-01

136

Population and Land Area in Distribution in Urban Coastal Zones  

E-print Network

In addition to risk from seaward hazards, coastal population and expansion of urban built up areas can1 Population and Land Area in Distribution in Urban Coastal Zones A Systematic Assessment Deborah for the Environment and Development 3 CIESIN, Columbia University #12;2 Preferences vs. Risks? Human settlement has

Columbia University

137

Decentralization and Community Control in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a project executed to assist in developing research policies on urban education. Data was gathered from several large cities, but detailed reports are included from Cleveland, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, and Oakland. Trends in urban education with respect to decentralization and community control are…

Marcson, Simon

138

Health seeking and hygiene behaviours predict nutritional status of pre-school children in a slum area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was done from March to May 1997 in four selected slum kebeles (villages) of Addis Ababa in which nutritional status of 758 children aged 6 to 36 months was examined and stratified into malnourished and well nourished groups. Analysis of hygiene and health seeking practices of randomly selected households of the two sets of children determined practices that significantly exacerbate childhood malnutrition. The rates of immunization for the malnourished (80.2%) and well nourished households (77.6%) were practically the same. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of home treatment or food withholding habits at times of diarrhoea episodes between the two groups. The study established six variables to predict childhood malnutrition in the slum section of Addis Ababa: 1) presence of child waste inside house (Odds Ratio = 7.44; p < 0.0001), 2) diarrhoea treatment at the hospital (OR = 0.47;p < 0.05), 3) prolonged storage of cooked foods (OR = 2.86;p < 0.05), 4) feeding with washed hands (OR = 0.44; p < 0.01), and 5) poor handling of drinking water (OR = 3.18; p < 0.01) and 6) foods (OR = 3.52; p < 0.01). Hence strong and sustainable advice with a view of changing the behaviours of households towards good personal and household hygiene practices, and increased utilization of health settings is recommended as these may limit the overall success of public health programmes. PMID:11125500

Abate, G; Kogi-Makau, W; Muroki, N M

2000-10-01

139

Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs. PMID:24149078

van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

2013-01-01

140

Mesh network model for urban area  

E-print Network

Decreasing population, high crime rate, and limited economic opportunities are all symptoms of urban decline. These characteristics are, unfortunately, evident in major cities and small towns. Local municipalities in these ...

Chiang, Nhan Tu

2008-01-01

141

Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas  

E-print Network

In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road ...

Wang, Pu

142

Characterizing long-term evaporation in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable prediction of evapotranspiration (ET) in urban areas would greatly improve our understanding of both urban heat islands and the urban water balance. Urban landscapes, however, exhibit complex surface and vegetative properties that make robust predictions difficult. Here we modify the Priestley-Taylor equation for urban environments by incorporating temperature-dependent and turbulence-dependent terms. The new equation for potential evaporation requires a minimal number of parameters yet accounts for changes in urban land-surface characteristics. Coupled to a minimal soil moisture model, our modified Priestly-Taylor equation constrains ET, allowing the effects of different scenarios of urban hydrological modification to be explored. Using the Budyko curve as a framework, we synthesize model results with observations of urban ET for a variety of climates, and explore hydroclimatic trajectories under different urbanization scenarios. Results explain the differences in ET between urban and natural catchments, illustrate the importance of irrigation in drier climates, and highlight the dominant controls on evapotranspiration and water balance partitioning in urban environments.

Penny, G.; Thompson, S. E.

2013-12-01

143

What does Access to Maternal Care Mean Among the Urban Poor? Factors Associated with Use of Appropriate Maternal Health Services in the Slum Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The study seeks to improve understanding of maternity health seeking behaviors in resource-deprived urban settings. The objective\\u000a of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the choice of place of delivery among the urban poor, with a distinction\\u000a between sub-standard and “appropriate” health facilities. Methods The data are from a maternal health project carried out in two

Jean-Christophe Fotso; Alex Ezeh; Nyovani Madise; Abdhallah Ziraba; Reuben Ogollah

2009-01-01

144

Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

Tsujita, Yuko

2013-01-01

145

77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval. The Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas survey...

2012-02-21

146

Value to Wildlife of Urban-Agricultural Parks: A Case Study from Rome Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban-agricultural parks could have some advantages to wildlife because of less intensive agricultural procedures, absence\\u000a of hunting pressure, and reduced human disturbance. In this study, the breeding and wintering bird communities and the small\\u000a mammal community in an urban-agricultural park of Rome were compared to those of a close urban park and a close agricultural\\u000a area just outside the city.

ALBERTO SORACE

2001-01-01

147

Growing up at the 'margins': Concerns, aspirations, and expectations of young people living in Nairobi's slums  

PubMed Central

We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4033 12-22 year olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with a subset of 75 youth when they were 13-24 years old (45.3% male). We observe that despite the challenges characteristic of urban slums, some youth maintain high aspirations and try to achieve them through education, delinquency, residential mobility, and religion. We note that others adjust their aspirations to account for limited opportunities. Overall, our findings highlight positive youth agency and underscore the need to improve the quality of life in urban slums. PMID:24999299

Kabiru, Caroline W; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

2014-01-01

148

INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

149

Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

150

Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

151

Generalized flood-frequency estimates for urban areas in Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is presented for estimating flood-frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.

Gann, Ector Eugene

1971-01-01

152

40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS...Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban area pretreatment...than effluent limits based on State water quality standards or water...

2010-07-01

153

76 FR 53029 - Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on population counts and residential population density, but also through criteria that account for nonresidential...Urban Area Cores. block population block population density, count, and density, count, and size thresholds. size...

2011-08-24

154

Modeling the runoff process in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, concern about the physical environment and its management has grown rapidly. This is reflected in the increasing attention given to the planning process. The growth and expansion of urban agglomerations represent a typical aggregation of some of man's activities having a marked environmental impact, such as air pollution, noise pollution, etc. Perhaps most vital among the different

Jacques W. Delleur; Stergios A. Dendrou; M. B. McPherson

1980-01-01

155

Sustainable water cycle design for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the argument that the environmental, social and economic benefits of decentralised systems are such that they should present a serious alternative to centralised systems in existing and future planned urban developments. It will be shown that the combination of technical, social and regulatory factors that influenced the popularity of centralised systems has altered, and that decentralised systems

M. Maher; T. Lustig

156

Modeling sediment in stormwater runoff from urban areas  

E-print Network

MODELING SEDIMENT IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM URBAN AREAS A Thesis by THOMAS WAYNE HASTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering MODELING SEDIMENT IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM URBAN AREAS A Thesis by THOMAS WAYNE HASTER Approved as to style and content by: W P mes (C air of ommittee) Bill Batchelor (Member) Donald L. Reddell (Member) James . . Yao (Head...

Haster, Thomas Wayne

2012-06-07

157

Seasonal Differences in Atmospheric Nitrous Acid near Mediterranean Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this paper is to provide insights to sources and sinks of nitrous acid in urban areas, and their seasonal\\u000a dependency on meteorology, photochemistry and long range transport. With this aim, nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios and other\\u000a compounds were measured in Ashdod (south of Tel Aviv, Israel), a typical Mediterranean urban area. Statistical data analysis\\u000a revealed

Antonio Amoroso; Harry J. Beine; Giulio Esposito; Cinzia Perrino; Maria Catrambone; Ivo Allegrini

2008-01-01

158

Carbon dioxide fluxes over an urban park area  

Microsoft Academic Search

From September 2006 to October 2007 turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured at an urban tower station (26 m above ground level, z\\/zh = 1.73) in Essen, Germany, using the eddy covariance technique. The site was located at the border between a public park area (70 ha) in the south–west of the station and suburban\\/urban residential as well as light commercial areas in

Klaus Kordowski; Wilhelm Kuttler

2010-01-01

159

Child Morbidity and Mortality in Slum Environments along Nairobi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem that guided this study was that child mortality and morbidity disparities continue to be observed in the era of improved expansion of the provision of health care services. Some areas have low mortality and morbidity while others such as the slums of Nairobi have high. Various factors may account for this scenario. On the one hand, this would

Margaret Nyanchoka Keraka; Wellington Nguya Wamicha

2003-01-01

160

Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.  

PubMed

We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21. PMID:16989508

Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl

2006-08-01

161

Interactive model of urban development in residential areas in Skopje  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of residential areas in Skopje in a period after the 1963 earthquake led to an emergence of continuous pressure to the physical structure of the city. It's essential to analyse, explore and understand the processes that are shaping our city. The study explores interactive tool that exercise the complex analysis of architectural and urban structure within the Skopje's residential areas and proposes a 3D model to investigate local dynamics and best fitting urban indicators for development. Through series of analysis of diverse typologies, programs, spatial and functional configurations of the dwelling within the city, the study presents an effort by use of Interactive Visualization Tool (InViTo) for modeling of urban development to explicate spatial distribution, the process of transformation and acknowledge the regularities and suitability of development of urban form in Skopje's residential area and, in particular, the relationship between functions and its localizations.

Marina, O.; Masala, E.; Pensa, S.; Stavric, M.

2012-10-01

162

Acceptability of the rainwater harvesting system to the slum dwellers of Dhaka City.  

PubMed

Urban area like Dhaka City, in Bangladesh, has scarcity of safe drinking water which is one of the prominent basic needs for human kind. This study explored the acceptability of harvested rainwater in a densely populated city like Dhaka, using a simple and low cost technology. A total of 200 random people from four slums of water-scarce Dhaka City were surveyed to determine the dwellers' perception on rainwater and its acceptability as a source of drinking water. The questionnaire was aimed at finding the socio-economic condition and the information on family housing, sanitation, health, existing water supply condition, knowledge about rainwater, willingness to accept rainwater as a drinking source etc. A Yield before Spillage (YBS) model was developed to know the actual rainwater availability and storage conditions which were used to justify the effective tank size. Cost-benefit analysis and feasibility analysis were performed using the survey results and the research findings. The survey result and overall study found that the low cost rainwater harvesting technique was acceptable to the slum dwellers as only the potential alternative source of safe drinking water. PMID:20351431

Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Kabir, M R

2010-01-01

163

Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitan, Jesus; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plinio; Ollero, Anibal; Sequeira, Joao; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

2010-01-01

164

THE MOSS FLORA IN THE CENTRAL URBAN AREA OF BELGRADE  

E-print Network

Abstract- In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

unknown authors

165

Numerical simulation of air pollution in urban areas: model performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical model developed in the first part of this investigation is applied to assess the behavior of sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentration distributions in an urban area using the St Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. Statistical techniques chosen to determine the accuracy and uncertainty associated with the numerical model results include paired analysis and resampling analysis. The results of the numerical model are also compared with those of RAM, a Gaussian plume model. Finally, the behavior of point and area emission sources in an urban area is assessed to provide an insight into the complex interrelationships between the emissions and meteorological conditions which determine the distribution of ground level concentrations.

Ku, Jia-Yeong; Rao, S. Trivikrama; Rao, K. Shankar

166

STORMWATER RUNOFF ON URBAN AREAS OF STEEP SLOPE  

EPA Science Inventory

A research is conducted to investigate the applicability of commonly used urban storm runoff prediction models to drainage basins with steep slopes. The hydraulics of runoff on steep slope areas is first reviewed and its difference from that for mild slope areas is discussed. Nex...

167

Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; Gonzalez, Marta C.

2012-01-01

168

Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

2012-12-01

169

Understanding road usage patterns in urban areas.  

PubMed

In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own--surprisingly few--driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C

2012-01-01

170

41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What is an urban area? 102-83...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL...Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83...an urban area? Urban area means any...by the Office of Management and Budget...

2012-01-01

171

41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What is an urban area? 102-83...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL...Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83...an urban area? Urban area means any...by the Office of Management and Budget...

2011-01-01

172

41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What is an urban area? 102-83...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL...Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83...an urban area? Urban area means any...by the Office of Management and Budget...

2013-07-01

173

41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is an urban area? 102-83...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL...Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83...an urban area? Urban area means any...by the Office of Management and Budget...

2010-07-01

174

Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.  

PubMed

The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

Desmond, Bree

2011-01-01

175

CHANGES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER QUALITY BENEATH RECENTLY URBANIZED AREAS IN THE MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE AREA1  

E-print Network

CHANGES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER QUALITY BENEATH RECENTLY URBANIZED AREAS IN THE MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE shallow aquifer to the underlying Memphis aquifer provided impetus for monitoring groundwater quality to the cur- rent urban land use also increases. Groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations greater than

176

Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and semi-urban areas in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) were collected in a semi-residential (AECD) area from June 2001 to June 2002 of Dhaka and in an urban area of Rajshahi, a city in northwestern region of Bangladesh from August 2001 to May 2002. The samples were collected using a ‘Gent’ stacked filter sampler in two fractions of

Bilkis A. Begum; Eugene Kim; Swapan K. Biswas; Philip K. Hopke

2004-01-01

177

The influence of urban design factors on urban heat environment in urban residential area with remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper mainly discusses the urban design factors how to affect the urban heat environment in urban residential area by remote sensing. The discussed urban design factors include floor area ratio, building height, green area ratio, and population density. The results indicate that when the green area ratio in residential area becomes 40%, the effect of weakening UHI is best. Higher than 40%, the effect of reducing the temperature begins to decline. The higher the residence buildings are, the higher the mean surface temperature of residential districts is. When floor area ratio ranges from 1.5 to 3, the change of mean surface temperature is abrupt. When floor area ratio is greater than 3, the growth of mean surface temperature would be slower. Surface temperature and population density have logarithm relationship. Overall, planners have the opportunity to gain significant insight into the physical manifestations of planning policies within cities by integrating quantitative analysis of electromagnetic energy measurements collected by remote sensing systems. Remote sensing would be a useful tool for planners to make scientific decisions.

Yang, Yingbao; Yao, Lin

2009-10-01

178

The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to improve people's living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built squatter settlements. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia area before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extractions of the thermal-related information of the area, such as the land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between ISA and LST suggested a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), the digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the investigated area from 1986 to 2006. The results showed that after the launch of the reconstruction project of this squatter settlement-dominated area, the UHI effect in the area had been greatly mitigated in the past 20 years, since the URI value had been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006. This owes greatly to the significant decrease in high-density ISAs and the notable increase in vegetation covers. The reconstruction is of benefit to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia area.

Tang, Fei; Xu, Hanqiu

2010-09-01

179

URBAN AFFAIRS The Greenspun College of Urban Affairs focuses on improving the quality of life in our urban area. The academic  

E-print Network

URBAN AFFAIRS College of GREENSPUN HigHligHts The Greenspun College of Urban Affairs focuses on improving the quality of life in our urban area. The academic interests united by this college are diverse, but all contribute to finding ways to better understand, sustain, and improve our urban community. We

Hemmers, Oliver

180

Son preference and sterilisation use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the ways in which women's sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most South Asian countries, relatively little research

Jeffrey Edmeades; Rohini Prabha Pande; Tina Falle; Suneeta Krishnan

2011-01-01

181

"Making It": Understanding Adolescent Resilience in Two Informal Settlements (Slums) in Nairobi, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adolescents living in contexts characterized by adversity achieve positive outcomes. We adopt a protection-risk conceptual framework to examine resilience (academic achievement, civic participation, and avoidance of risk behaviors) among 1,722 never-married 12-19 year olds living in two Kenyan urban slums. We find stronger associations…

Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Ndugwa, Robert P.; Zulu, Eliya M.; Jessor, Richard

2012-01-01

182

Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

2013-01-01

183

Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).  

PubMed

Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone?UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. PMID:21269746

Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

2011-01-01

184

Modelling muddy floods in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

2012-04-01

185

TRUE REALISTIC 3D MODELS OF BUILDINGS IN URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing realistic 3D models of cities provides designers, planners, the public, and the others with imagery closely coupled with the human expertise. This paper continues on the results of an earlier innovation in the field of texture creation for the construction of Virtually Realistic Model (VRM) of buildings in urban areas. Using a CCD camera mounted on a theodolite the

M. Varshosaz

186

Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

187

Large-scale bidirectional reflectance model for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) model for urban areas for pixel sizes of more than 500 m×500 m is developed. Possible applications include albedo calculation, improvement of classification, and change detection algorithms, simulated global BRF maps, and refinement of atmospheric correction algorithms. The model combines the BRF effects at several scales (street grid, intermediate-sized objects, and microscale). The authors present

Gerhard Meister; André Rothkirch; Hartwig Spitzer; Johann K. Bienlein

2001-01-01

188

Transport of traffic-related aerosols in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the influence of traffic on particulate air pollution in an urban area, and to characterise the short-range transport of the aerosols generated by traffic. The study was conducted in Kraków, a city located in southern Poland with a population of approximately 800000. Aerosol samples were collected using automatic sampling equipment at five sites located

A Wróbel; E Rokita; W Maenhaut

2000-01-01

189

Use-Value Assessment Tax Expenditures in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use-value assessment is the practice of valuing land for property tax purposes in its current use, rather than at its full market value. This practice is widespread in the U.S. and is intended to reduce the property tax burden on agricultural land near urban areas and slow the pace of land development. We examine the foregone property tax revenue, or

John E. Anderson; Marlon F. Griffing

2000-01-01

190

Multiple Classifier System for Urban Area’s Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, a land-cover extraction thematic mapping approach for urban areas from very high resolution aerial images is\\u000a presented. Recent developments in the field of sensor technology have increased the challenges of interpreting images contents\\u000a particularly in the case of complex scenes of dense urban areas. The major objective of this study is to improve the quality\\u000a of land-cover

Safaa M. Bedawi; Mohamed S. Kamel

191

Access to and Exclusion from Primary Education in Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 45  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bangladesh's urban population is rising fast. In the capital, Dhaka, some 4 million people live in slums. They are lacking in wealth, power and social connections; probably under-counted in national surveys; and under-served by both government and non-government organisations, many of whom still see poverty as a rural issue or see the urban poor…

Cameron, Stuart

2010-01-01

192

Environmental Consequences of Urbanization in Permafrost Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Most of northern cities are anthropo-natural systems with domination of anthropogenic components. The environmental framework of the permafrost zone is very insignificant, with green belts being represented by small parks and public gardens. Modern northern cities of Russia represent territories with dense and compact residential buildings having simple configuration to reduce heat loss under severe climatic conditions. In earlier settlements such buildings alternate quite often with private one-storey houses. The typical modern and old cities were investigated for study of its environmental impact. Purpose The goal of this presentation is analysis of main environmental problems in permafrost areas of Northern Russian territories using data of city infrastructure and permafrost and environmental processes monitoring for old and new developing cities. Results It was found that primary anthropogenic changes of cities' environments are following: soil devastation, change of surface water and groundwater, stationary and dynamic loads, pollution, change of thermal state of soils, accumulation of occupation layer, waste dumping. It is practically impossible to preserve natural permafrost conditions. Therefore we can observe in all cities of the permafrost zone degradation or, more rarely, aggradation of permafrost grounds depending on natural and permafrost conditions, construction principles, density and age of constructions, development of the territory and many other factors. The degree of change in various natural components of various permafrost zones varies, depending on the initial natural conditions in which economic activity is carried out, its type and duration. This entails various ecologic situations ranging from normal to crisis or disaster. Conclusion Significant changes of geocryological and an ecological situation are marked only at dense modern multi-storey building city territories. In these cases there is a degradation of permafrost soils irrespective of principles of preparation of the bases and constructions.

Khilimonyuk, D.; Brouchkov, A.

2010-03-01

193

Rainfall Modification by Urban Areas: New Perspectives from TRMM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48% - 116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work is extending the investigation to Phoenix, Arizona, an arid U.S. city, and several international cities like Mexico City, Johannesburg, and Brasilia. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.

Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold F.; Negri, Andrew

2002-01-01

194

A STUDY OF STABILITY CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN AREA  

SciTech Connect

Accurate numerical prediction of airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas depends, to a great extent, on the use of appropriate stability conditions. Due to the lack of relevant field measurements or sufficiently sophisticated turbulence models, modelers often assume that nearly neutral conditions are appropriate to use for the entire urban area being simulated. The main argument for such an assumption is that atmospheric stability (as defined by the Richardson number) is determined by both mechanical stresses and buoyant forcing but, for a typical urban setting with a given thermal stability or sensible heat flux, building-induced mechanical stresses can become so dominant to drive the resulting stability toward nearly neutral conditions. Results from our recent simulations of two Joint URBAN 2003 releases, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model - FEM3MP, appear to support partially the assumption that urban areas tend toward neutral stability. More specifically, based on a model-data comparison for winds and concentration in the near field and velocity and turbulence profiles in the urban wake region, Chan and Lundquist (2005) and Lundquist and Chan (2005) observed that neutral stability assumption appears to be valid for intensive operation period (IOP) 9 (a nighttime release with moderate winds) and also appears to be valid for IOP 3 (a daytime release with strong buoyant forcing) in the urban core area but is less valid in the urban wake region. Our model, developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm is based on finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex building geometries and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection scheme and modern iterative solvers developed by Gresho and Chan (1998) for efficient time integration. Physical processes treated in our code include turbulence modeling via Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches described in Chan and Stevens (2000), atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budgets, and vegetative canopies, etc. Predictions from our model are continuously being verified against measured data from wind tunnel and field experiments. Examples of such studies are discussed in Chan et al. (2001, 2004), Chan and Leach (2004), Calhoun et al. (2004, 2005), and Humphreys et al. (2004). In this study, the stability conditions associated with two more of the Joint URBAN 2003 releases are investigated. Through a model-data comparison of the wind and concentration fields, observed buoyancy production in the urban wake region, together with predicted values of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in various regions of the computational domain, a more definitive characterization of stability conditions associated with the simulated releases is presented. In the following, we first discuss briefly the field experiments being simulated, then present sample results from a model-data comparison for both the wind and concentration fields, examine the predicted TKE field and the observed buoyant forcing relative to the total TKE in the urban wake, and finally offer a few concluding remarks including the resulting stability conditions of the simulated releases.

Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

2005-11-01

195

Delivery Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dhaka Slums, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993- May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related com- plications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home- based birth attendants, and audits in 20

N. Fronczak; S. E. Arifeen; A. C. Moran; L. E. Caulfield; A. H. Baqui

2007-01-01

196

Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in complex urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.

2013-12-01

197

Evolution of the urban heat island at a large coastal urban area of Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHI) are in the focus of research interest during past decades, as they concern densely populated areas, thus having a great impact on health of citizens, but also on environment and economy of cities. The linkage between urban heat islands and climatic change is of particular importance, especially in areas where - according to future projections - significant warming is expected, as the urban effect amplifies regional warming. The study focuses on the city of Athens and concerns the temporal evolution on the mesoscale of UHI over the period 1975-2010. Although the study of the spatial distribution of the urban heat island in Athens has revealed large differences of the air temperature between the central zone of the city and surrounding rural stations (reaching up to 10 oC in certain cases), it is quite important to study the rates of UHI changes on the mesoscale and extract information on whether UHI is amplified, stabilized or has declined over time. It is mentioned that Athens has undergone dramatic changes during recent decades as regards land use/land cover map and population distribution. The knowledge of the rates of UHI changes will also reveal the 'true' rates of background warming which is observed in the area during the study period. Annual and seasonal values were calculated from daily average, maximum and minimum temperature at seven stations of different characteristics of the area of interest (urban/ suburban/ coastal/rural). From the comparison of the average air temperature between the rural and urban stations, it was found that the intensity of UHI increases by approximately +0.2 oC/decade on an annual basis over the study period, but the results are strongly dependent on the season. In summer and spring, the rate of UHI changes is more pronounced, amounting to +0.4 oC/decade (statistically significant at 0.05 CL). Moreover, it was found that the rate of change is higher in the maximum than in the minimum air temperature. It was also estimated that urban effect accounts almost for the half of the observed warming trends in the area, on an annual base.

Founda, D.; Pierros, F.; Nastos, P. T.; Petrakis, M.

2012-04-01

198

Public Health in Megacities and Urban Areas: A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, first, we will briefly discuss worldwide urbanisation processes with major dimensions of public health challenges\\u000a in megacities and urban areas. Second, we present some empirical findings from public health surveys conducted in the megacity\\u000a of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Third, a conceptual framework is proposed based on our research on megacities within the framework of\\u000a the German Research Foundation’s

Alexander Krämer; Heiko J Jahn

199

Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2012-04-01

200

Fatal injuries in the slums of Nairobi and their risk factors: results from a matched case-control study.  

PubMed

Injuries contribute significantly to the rising morbidity and mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases in the developing world. Unfortunately, active injury surveillance is lacking in many developing countries, including Kenya. This study aims to describe and identify causes of and risk factors for fatal injuries in two slums in Nairobi city using a demographic surveillance system framework. The causes of death are determined using verbal autopsies. We used a nested case-control study design with all deaths from injuries between 2003 and 2005 as cases. Two controls were randomly selected from the non-injury deaths over the same period and individually matched to each case on age and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modeling to identity individual- and community-level factors associated with fatal injuries. Intentional injuries accounted for about 51% and unintentional injuries accounted for 49% of all injuries. Homicides accounted for 91% of intentional injuries and 47% of all injury-related deaths. Firearms (23%) and road traffic crashes (22%) were the leading single causes of deaths due to injuries. About 15% of injuries were due to substance intoxication, particularly alcohol, which in this community comes from illicit brews and is at times contaminated with methanol. Results suggest that in the pervasively unsafe and insecure environment that characterizes the urban slums, ethnicity, residence, and area level factors contribute significantly to the risk of injury-related mortality. PMID:21630106

Ziraba, Abdhalah Kasiira; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

2011-06-01

201

Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28\\u000a urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and\\u000a natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land\\u000a use and natural habitat in surrounding

Paul G. R. Smith

2007-01-01

202

Dispersion of an urban photochemical plume in Phoenix metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality simulations were conducted using MM5/CMAQ modeling platform to study the intricacies introduced by photochemical reactions during the dispersion of urban pollution plume of Phoenix metropolis. The simulation days included the sole ozone episode recorded during 1996-2005, which violated the previous 1-h ozone standard (0.12 ppm). The modeling results suggest that the Phoenix urban plume can be described in terms of “inert passive dispersion” and “chemically active dispersion”. The former is exemplified by the CO distribution and takes the form of a Gaussian-like plume, for which the source is located at the ground level of the urban core or a freeway. The passive dispersion, nevertheless, is directly subjected to heterogeneities of topography and flow patterns, and hence cannot be strictly Gaussian. The case of active dispersion is much more complicated, and leads to a different plume shape, depending on the chemical reactivity of pollutant species. Secondary pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cause the plume core to have its maximum concentration far downwind of the urban area. Chemical species such as VOCs, which are directly emitted from a source as well as transformed by other primary pollutants, form a plume that qualitatively resembles a transition from an inert plume (CO) to a highly reactive plume (NOx).

Lee, Sang-Mi; Fernando, H. J. S.

2013-12-01

203

1 Introduction Over 70% of the population in developed countries lives in urbanized areas (Henderson  

E-print Network

1 Introduction Over 70% of the population in developed countries lives in urbanized areas, 1995). A major problem in urban area remote sensing from space is the heterogeneity of the urban, transportation nets), several different vegetation cover types (parks, gardens, agricultural areas), bare soil

Clarke, Keith

204

A Theory on the Ventilation over Hypothetical Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban roughness is one of the major factors affecting the flows and turbulence structures in the bottom of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Whereas, our understanding of their relation is limited. In this paper, we attempt to examine the interaction among aerodynamic resistance (friction factor f), ventilation (air exchange rate ACH), and pollutant removal (pollutant removal rate PCH). Using the method of characteristic, analytical solution shows that the turbulent ventilation of a hypothetical urban area is directly proportional to the square root of friction factor (ACH? f1-2) regardless of the building geometry. Next, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity tests are performed to verify the theory. In addition to the commonly employed rectangular building models, seven types of urban roughness elements, in the form of idealized building models, are tested. As a pilot study, the building models are of the same height so a roof level is easily defined across the entire hypothetical urban areas. Two configurations of passive scalar sources, ground-level-only (vehicular emission) and all-solid-boundary (heat dissipation), are employed to contrast their transport behaviors. To look into the mechanism of ventilation and pollutant removal, the ACH and PCH are partitioned into their respective mean and turbulent components. The CFD results show that both the ventilation and pollutant removal are mainly attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, the ACH? and f1-2 calculation from the CFD results agree very well with the analytical solution (correlation coefficient over 0.9). However, the pollutant and heat exhibit different removal behaviors so simple estimates using friction factor have not yet arrived. Because of the substantial aged air removal by ACH? and its linear relation with f1-2, it is proposed to use friction factor, which can be determined by wind tunnel experiments or mathematical modeling, as a parameterization for the (minimum) ventilation of urban areas. Additional tests for urban roughness elements of other geometries and non-uniform height are currently undertaken.

Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C. C.

2013-04-01

205

Vertical Village : towards a new typology of high-density low-income urban housing  

E-print Network

Apocalyptic global urbanization is old news. For generations statistically supported oracles have warned against the rising tide of rapid urban growth, one must only casually search the keywords "urban slum" on Goggle to ...

Harper, Caleb Benjamin

2014-01-01

206

VLES Study of Flow and Dispersion Patterns in Heterogeneous Urban Areas  

E-print Network

VLES Study of Flow and Dispersion Patterns in Heterogeneous Urban Areas Fernando E. Camelli of flow in cities is presented. The FEFLO-URBAN solver was used to analyze flow and dispersion patterns inside an urban layout for two scenarios. The first is a realistic urban setting in Tysons Corner

Löhner, Rainald

207

Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States  

E-print Network

Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States David J forestry Tree cover Forest inventory a b s t r a c t Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole

208

[Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area].  

PubMed

With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P < 0.05). The three nitrogen depositions of ring-road and railway station were higher than other functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area. PMID:24812938

He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang

2014-02-01

209

Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly dependent on tree density, we modeled transpiration as a function of both species and density to evaluate a likely range of values in irrigated urban forests. The results show that urban forests in irrigated, semi-arid regions can constitute a significant use of water, but water use can be mitigated by appropriate selection of site, management method, and species. PMID:21639035

Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

2011-04-01

210

Stillbirths and newborn deaths in slum settlements in Mumbai, India: a prospective verbal autopsy study  

PubMed Central

Background Three million babies are stillborn each year and 3.6 million die in the first month of life. In India, early neonatal deaths make up four-fifths of neonatal deaths and infant mortality three-quarters of under-five mortality. Information is scarce on cause-specific perinatal and neonatal mortality in urban settings in low-income countries. We conducted verbal autopsies for stillbirths and neonatal deaths in Mumbai slum settlements. Our objectives were to classify deaths according to international cause-specific criteria and to identify major causes of delay in seeking and receiving health care for maternal and newborn health problems. Methods Over two years, 2005–2007, births and newborn deaths in 48 slum areas were identified prospectively by local informants. Verbal autopsies were collected by trained field researchers, cause of death was classified by clinicians, and family narratives were analysed to investigate delays on the pathway to mortality. Results Of 105 stillbirths, 65 were fresh (62%) and obstetric complications dominated the cause classification. Of 116 neonatal deaths, 87 were early and the major causes were intrapartum-related (28%), prematurity (23%), and severe infection (22%). Bereavement was associated with socioeconomic quintile, previous stillbirth, and number of antenatal care visits. We identified 201 individual delays in 121/187 birth narratives (65%). Overall, delays in receiving care after arrival at a health facility dominated and were mostly the result of referral from one institution to another. Most delays in seeking care were attributed to a failure to recognise symptoms of complications or their severity. Conclusions In Mumbai’s slum settlements, early neonatal deaths made up 75% of neonatal deaths and intrapartum-related complications were the greatest cause of mortality. Delays were identified in two-thirds of narratives, were predominantly related to the provision of care, and were often attributable to referrals between health providers. There is a need for clear protocols for care and transfer at each level of the health system, and an emphasis on rapid identification of problems and communication between health facilities. Trial registration ISRCTN96256793 PMID:22646304

2012-01-01

211

The Work of Teachers and Others in and around a Birmingham Slum School 1891-1920  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Floodgate Street area" was a notorious slum district in the city of Birmingham in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article presents a case study, drawing on the rich archival sources available for this area, to examine the language that local authority and voluntary workers used to describe the local area, and their…

Wright, Susannah

2009-01-01

212

The Low Backscattering Targets Classification in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR) is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m) and slant range (0.4 m). In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO) with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow) in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

Shi, L.

2012-07-01

213

Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence. PMID:23568948

Murthy, Sharmila L

2012-01-01

214

A flexible urban health index for small area disparities.  

PubMed

Available urban health metrics focus primarily on large area rankings. Less has been done to develop an index that provides information about level of health and health disparities for small geographic areas. Adopting a method used by the Human Development Index, we standardized indicators for small area units on a (0, 1) interval and combined them using their geometric mean to form an Urban Health Index (UHI). Disparities were assessed using the ratio of the highest to lowest decile and measurement of the slope of the eight middle deciles (middle; 80 %) of the data. We examined the sensitivity of the measure to weighting, to changes in the method, to correlation among indicators, and to substitution of indicators. Using seven health determinants and applying these methods to the 128 census tracts in the city of Atlanta, USA, we found a disparity ratio of 5.92 and a disparity slope of 0.54, suggesting substantial inequality and heterogeneity of risk. The component indicators were highly correlated; their systematic removal had a small effect on the results. Except in extreme cases, weighting had a little effect on the rankings. A map of Atlanta census tracts exposed a swath of high disparity. UHI rankings, ratio, and slope were resistant to alteration in composition and to non-extreme weighting schemes. This empirical evaluation was limited to a single realization, but suggests that a flexible tool, whose method rather than content is standardized, may be of use for local evaluation, for decision making, and for area comparison. PMID:24733190

Rothenberg, Richard; Weaver, Scott R; Dai, Dajun; Stauber, Christine; Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi

2014-10-01

215

Community attitudes to pregnancy, anaemia, iron and folate supplementation in urban and rural Lagos, south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to identify community perspectives and attitudes to pregnancy, anaemia, iron and folate supplements during pregnancy in Lagos, south-western Nigeria.Design: qualitative using focus group discussions, observational data and in-depth interviews.Setting: Amukoko, a peri-urban slum area and Ibese a rural coastal area in Lagos, south-western Nigeria.Participants: 23 pregnant women and two health-care providers.Findings: maternal anaemia is not perceived as a priority

Oluwatoyin O. Ejidokun

2000-01-01

216

[Human African trypanosomiasis in an urban area: an emerging problem?].  

PubMed

The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district. PMID:14582296

Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J

2003-08-01

217

Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

Wilkening, E. A.

218

INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS ­ RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS M of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models these gaps. Keywords: COST-715, meso-scale models, surface energy balance, surface flux modelling, urban

Ribes, Aurélien

219

URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,  

E-print Network

URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR P. Gamba , A. Villa , , A. Plaza for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus on the simulation of urban area environment at a low spatial resolution, comparable to the new hyperspectral sensors

Plaza, Antonio J.

220

Forthcoming in Research in Transportation Business & Management Special Issue "Managing Freight in Urban Areas"  

E-print Network

1 Forthcoming in Research in Transportation Business & Management Special Issue "Managing Freight in Urban Areas" FREIGHT FLOWS AND URBAN HIERARCHY David GUERRERO1 , University Paris EST, IFSTTAR, AME.proulhac@enpc.fr ABSTRACT Varying hierarchy of freight flows between urban areas is the focus of this study. The results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas survey...Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Washington...HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as...

2012-05-17

222

The Concentration of Severely Disturbed CMI in a Core Urban Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted two needs assessment studies of chronically mentally ill (CMI). Examined differential concentration of CMI persons in areas of Colorado, finding a disproportionate concentration on CMI persons in core urban area of Denver. Comparison of core urban clients to national sample revealed that Denver's core urban CMI population was severely…

Shern, David; Dilts, Stephen L.

1987-01-01

223

Analysis of the performance of the TES algorithm over urban areas  

E-print Network

, such as the urban heat island effect. Thus, the retrieval of an accurate product of Land Surface Temperature (LST1 Analysis of the performance of the TES algorithm over urban areas Rosa Oltra-Carri�o, Manuel of this methodology over urban areas, which are characterized by a large number of different surface materials

Boyer, Edmond

224

IDENTIFYING FOREST LANDS IN URBAN AREAS IN THE CENTRAL, HARDWOOD REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests in urban areas are an important component of urban and suburban environments. They provide places for recreation and environmental education, wildlife habitat for species adapted to living near humans, contribute to general human physical and psychological health. Knowing how much and what type of forest exists in urban areas provides critical baseline data for evaluating changes in that resource,

Thomas W. Birch; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Philip Kern

225

Human pharmaceuticals in wastewaters from urbanized areas of Argentina.  

PubMed

The study contributes with a first survey of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters discharging into fresh and estuarine waters from areas with varying degrees of urbanization of Argentina. Analyses were done on the soluble fraction by HPLC-MS after SPE extraction. In all of the samples were detected caffeine and ibuprofen within the range of 0.9-44.2 and 0.4-13.0 ?g/L, and lower levels of carbamazepine, atenolol and diclofenac between 0.2-2.3, 0.2-1.7 and <0.03-1.2 ?g/L, respectively. Profiles of compounds were similar in all studied locations. PMID:23229304

Elorriaga, Yanina; Marino, Damián J; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Ronco, Alicia E

2013-04-01

226

Using Temperature Fluctuation Measurements to Estimate Meteorological Inputs for Modelling Dispersion During Convective Conditions in Urban Areas  

E-print Network

several urban areas using a surface energy balance proposedmodels in urban areas. Note that the energy balance methodenergy balance method to estimate surface micrometeorological parameters? How far can we apply MOST in urban

Qian, Wenjun; Princevac, Marko; Venkatram, Akula

2010-01-01

227

How peri-urban areas can strengthen animal populations within cities: A modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the extent to which inner-city fauna can be enhanced by source areas in peri-urban zones as a response to a decreasing quality and size of green habitats within cities. The objectives were to get a better understanding of the interaction between animal populations of urban and peri-urban areas, and the role of urban green structures within this relationship,

R. P. H. Snep; P. F. M. Opdam; J. M. Baveco; M. F. WallisDeVries; W. Timmermans; R. G. M. Kwak; V. H. M. Kuypers

2006-01-01

228

Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.  

PubMed

Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. PMID:22687155

Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

2012-07-01

229

Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

1991-01-01

230

Voluntary participation and poor women's work: a critical examination of a community health improvement initiative in a Kolkata slum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary participation is a development practice that incorporates and ‘empowers’ marginalized populations by recruiting them as volunteers in community improvement programs in the global south. In India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) commonly recruit female volunteers in urban slums to ‘participate’ in the improvement of reproductive and child health care needs in the community. In the volunteering literature, the practice is examined

Niharika Banerjea

2011-01-01

231

Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization transforms the natural landscape to anthropogenic urban land and changes surface biogeophysical characteristics.Urban growth affects the ecology of cities in a number of ways, such as eliminating and fragmenting native habitats, modifying local climate conditions, and generating anthropogenic pollutants.Urbanization has changed many landscapes throughout the world with serious ecological consequences.To understand the ecology of urban systems, it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization, which often requires dynamic modeling and spatial analysis. Geospatial information provided by satellite remote sensing sensors and biogeophysical field data are very useful for urban landuse-landcover dynamics and impacts analysis. The spatial and spectral variability of urban environments present fundamental challenges to deriving accurate remote sensing information for urban areas. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. Percent impervious surface was used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapour content. Land surface temperatures have been analysed for different land use and land cover categories both in urban as well as in periurban areas. Because of the removal of vegetative cover and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces, the urban heterogeneity of land surface and associated spatial extents influence surface thermal conditions. In situ meteorological data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a serious impact on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects. This papers aims to provide a spatio-temporal analysis of urban structure for Bucharest urban area based on multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite imagery (LANDSAT TM, ETM; MODIS, IKONOS) over 1987 - 2007 period. Understanding the structure of urban cover dynamics and land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas is very important to urban management for reasons such as runoff control, urban forest planning, air quality improvement, and mitigation of global climate change. Accurate maps of urban tree and other surface cover types can provide critical information to better understand urban ecosystems and help improve environmental quality and human health in urban areas. This paper demonstrates the potential of moderate-and high resolution, multispectral imagery to map and monitor the evolution of the physical urban environment in relation with micro and macroclimate conditions and their feedbacks.

Zoran, M.; Savastru, R.; Savastru, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Tautan, M. N.; Miclos, S.

2009-04-01

232

Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining collapses, with the opening of pits on the surface, circular or elliptical, formed by highly inclined or vertical walls. On the surface have been found sinkholes, large depressions with steep walls and slightly elongated forms, which have caused impacts to homes and roads infrastructure. Based on recent surveys carried out, was estimated that the risk area covers about 2.7 square kilometers, jutting out from the center of mining "Serbariu mine" and arrives conurbation of Sirai. To remember besides, in the eastern outskirts of Carbonia, (Cannas locality), and in the district of Serbariu - Perdas Biancas, in any major tectonic lineation Hercynian and Tertiary age, the presence of 9 sinkholes , 6 of which are newly formed, for the which are studying the possible causes due to the exploitation of groundwater. Referring to the geological and structural models of the study sites, were are made firsts geophysical investigation using GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), in "multi-frequency arrays," in the process of calibration and systematize of the sinkhole phenomenon.

Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

2012-04-01

233

Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai

Junying Wang; Liangjun Da; Kun Song; Bai-Lian Li

2008-01-01

234

Scintillometer measurements above the urban area of London  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial heterogeneity of urban surfaces presents a particular challenge to the measurement of turbulent fluxes. This is particularly true close to the urban surface (in the roughness sub-layer (RSL)) where the mosaic of roof top and street canyon surfaces present a complex three dimensional source area. Scintillometery, which offers the ability to make path-averaged measurements of turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum, provides an alternative approach to obtaining more spatially representative data sets in the RSL. In this study three Scintec small aperture scintillometers (SLS 20) were used to measure the sensible heat flux (QH) at a densely built up site at Strand Campus, King's College London, UK. Two different surfaces (courtyard and rooftop) characteristic of the urban environment were investigated simultaneously. One of the SLS was aligned just atop a courtyard (z/zH= 0.9), while the other two were set up in two different heights (z/zH= 1 and z/zH= 1.25) above a rooftop line. Where zH is the mean building height and z is the measurement height above ground level. Special consideration was given to the estimation of the displacement height and the influence of the Monin-Obukov function used for the analysis. To estimate the contribution of the different surface types to the observed fluxes a footprint analysis was carried out for the two rooftop SLS and the eddy covariance system. Fluxes from the two SLS above the rooftop generally agreed well with each other and exhibited a pronounced diurnal cycle. They also showed similar patterns and magnitudes as those measured by an eddy covariance system located close by. In contrast, diurnal flux patterns derived from the measurements atop the courtyard showed marked differences, especially during day time when fluxes often remained smaller.

Pauscher, Lukas; Salmond, Jennifer; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Foken, Thomas

2010-05-01

235

Dry deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The PCB dry deposition flux was measured in Chicago with a greased, Mylar-covered smooth plate with a sharp leading edge pointed into the wind. The dry deposition flux of PCBs in Chicago averaged 3.8 {mu}g/m{sup 2}{center dot}day between May and November 1989 and 6.0 {mu}g/m{sup 2}{center dot}day for May and June 1990. A comparison of the PCB flux measured in Chicago to an estimated nonurban PCB flux shows that the flux of PCBs is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher in urban areas than in nonurban areas, indicating that Chicago and other urban areas near the Great Lakes must be considered as major source terms for deposition of PCBs into the lakes. The distribution of atmospheric PCBs between the gas and particle phase and the size distribution of particle-phase PCBs were also measured. The airborne PCB concentration as measured by the Noll rotary impactor (NRI) A stage (particles with aerodynamic diameters of > 6.5 {mu}m) was higher in Chicago (0.94 ng/m{sup 3}) than in Los Angeles (0.52 ng/m{sup 3}), as was the mean particle-phase PCB concentration (47 vs 21 {mu}g/g). PCBs were found to be associated with all sizes of atmospheric particles; however, their particle mass normalized concentration decreased with increasing particle size. PCBs associated with particles, particularly coarse particles, represented a significant fraction of the total PCB dry deposition flux even though PCBs in the ambient air were present primarily in the gas phase.

Holsen, T.M.; Noll, K.E.; Shiping Liu, Wenjhy Lee (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States))

1991-06-01

236

Characterization and heterogeneity of coarse particles across an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse particles exposures are expected to be highly heterogeneous in an urban area. However, little data are available to explore the extent of heterogeneity of coarse particles, especially on a local scale. An extensive sampling program for the coarse particles was conducted using University of North Carolina (UNC) passive aerosol samplers. The samplers were deployed for 4-5 week periods during four seasons, fall, winter, spring, and summer at 25 different sites across Syracuse, a small city located in central New York. The substrates from the UNC passive samplers were analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) providing size, shape, and elemental composition in the form of fluoresced X-ray spectra. Adaptive resonance theory (ART-2a) based neural network algorithm was applied with processed X-ray data to identify homogenous particles classes of 25,437 coarse particles from all four seasons. Thirty-four particle classes were identified with similar chemical characteristics. The mass fractions of particles in each identified class were then used to assess the homogeneity of composition and concentration across the measurement domain for each season. Road/soil dust, carbonaceous dust, biological materials, and deicing road salt were identified as the major sources of the urban coarse particles. Spatial and seasonal variations in both composition and concentration were observed and a noticeable heterogeneity between adjacent sites is indicated by the coefficient of divergence and correlation coefficient analysis.

Kumar, Pramod; Hopke, Philip K.; Raja, Suresh; Casuccio, Gary; Lersch, Traci L.; West, Roger R.

2012-01-01

237

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

238

Persistent Scatterer InSAR monitoring of Bratislava urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique, covering the target area with 57 Envisat ASAR images from Ascending Track No. 229 (32) and Descending Track No. 265 (25) captured between years 2002 and 2010. Processing involves Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) a powerful software solution for obtaining differential interferograms and performing PSInSAR methodology. The area of interest to investigate the deformation phenomena is covering approximately 16 by 16 kilometers (256 sqkm). For evaluation of PSInSAR potential to detect and monitor ground displacements, PS derived time series of deformation signal were compared to the field GNSS data from three GNSS stations coded PIL1, BRAT and GKU4. By the detailed look on the deformation maps the investigated urban area of Bratislava is relatively stable with the deformation rates within the few (±5) millimeters. The comparison of PSInSAR derived time series with GNSS data indicates good correlation and confirms achievable precision and applicability of InSAR measurements for ground stability monitoring purposes. Data for this work were provided by European Space Agency within the Category-1 project ID 9981: "Detection of ground deformation using radar interferometry techniques". The authors are grateful to the Tatrabanka Foundation and The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic for the opportunity to work together. Data have been processed by the Sarproz (Copyright (c) 2009 Daniele Perissin) and visualised in Google Earth. This paper is also the result of the implementation of the project: the National Centre of Earth's Surface Deformation Diagnostic in the area of Slovakia, ITMS 26220220108 supported by the Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF and the grant No. 1/0642/13 of the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA.

Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan

2014-05-01

239

Developing Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States  

E-print Network

produce an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is manifest as warmer temperatures compared, Lodz, Poland. [3] Bornstein, R.D., 1968: Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York CityDeveloping Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States Jeff Milne1,2, M

Hall, Sharon J.

240

Fish Assemblage Responses to Urban Intensity Gradients in Contrasting Metropolitan Areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence

MICHAEL R. MEADOR; HUMBERT ZAPPIA

241

Spatio-temporal patterns of urban growth in the area around Taihu Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid urbanization and industrialization have been going with urban growth and pattern evolvement in relatively developed regions of China's coast. This paper presents an integrated study on the urban growth patterns of the area around Taihu Lake, China, by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing. High-resolution Landsat TM data in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2005, and socioeconomic data

Xiaosong Tu; Lijie Pu; Ming Zhu; Jun Wu

2009-01-01

242

Use of normalized difference built-up index in automatically mapping urban areas from TM imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely sensed imagery is ideally used to monitor and detect land cover changes that occur frequently in urban and peri-urban areas as a consequence of incessant urbanization. It is a lengthy process to convert satellite imagery into land cover map using the existing methods of manual interpretation and parametric image classification digitally. In this paper we propose a new method

Y. Zha; J. Gao; S. Ni

2003-01-01

243

Impact of the Urban Heat Island on Light Duty Vehicle Emissions for the Phoenix, AZ Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of our planet is impacted as regions are transformed from rural to urban engineered infrastructures resulting in alterations at the surface and atmosphere. These changes are manifested in urban areas experiencing increased temperatures with respect to their rural counterparts, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) Effect. The impact of the UHI on light duty gasoline vehicle emissions

Todd P. Otanicar; Joby D. Carlson; Jay S. Golden; Kamil E. Kaloush; Patrick E. Phelan

2010-01-01

244

Gender in urban food production in hazardous areas in Kampala, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is an important development process that is linked to land access, food production, and food security. This chapter focuses on a gender-analysis study of urban agriculture, specifi cally of farmers growing food crops in hazardous areas in Kampala city, investigating the division of labour, relationships, constraints, and initiatives within urban farming households. Such a study is important to ensure

Grace Nabulo; Juliet Kiguli; Lilian N. Kiguli

245

[Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].  

PubMed

By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. PMID:17974233

Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

2007-08-01

246

Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Gumma, K. M.; van, Rooijen, D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Aakuraju, R. V.; Amerasinghe, P.

2011-01-01

247

Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. PMID:23831797

Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

2013-10-01

248

Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

Kobayashi, Tetsuo [University of Utah; Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Cova, Thomas [University of Utah

2011-01-01

249

Deregionalization of Neonatal Intensive Care in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the extent of deregionalization of neonatal intensive care in urban areas of the United States in the 1980s and 1990s and the factors associated with it. Methods. We conducted a 15-year retrospective analysis of secondary data from US metropolitan statistical areas. Primary outcome measures are number of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) beds, number of NICU hospitals, and number of small NICUs. Results. Growth in the supply of NICU care has outpaced the need. During the study period (1980–1995), the number of hospitals grew by 99%, the number of NICU beds by 138%, and the number of neonatologists by 268%. In contrast, the growth in needed bed days was only 84%. Of greater concern, the number of beds in small NICU facilities continues to grow. Local regulatory and practice characteristics are important in explaining this growth. Conclusions. Local policymakers should examine the factors that facilitate the proliferation of services, especially the development of small NICUs. Policies that encourage cooperative efforts by hospitals should be developed. Eliminating small NICUs would not restrict the NICU bed supply in most metropolitan statistical areas. PMID:11772774

Howell, Embry M.; Richardson, Douglas; Ginsburg, Paul; Foot, Barbara

2002-01-01

250

Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management. PMID:21491706

Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

2011-01-01

251

Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer-scale microgravity survey was conducted over this area and will be repeated in spring. Efforts to quantify other components of the water cycle include: (1) deployment of an eddy covariance station for ET measurement; (2) mining flow metering records; (3) evaluation of long-term stream-flow data records; and (4) processing precipitation fields. The objective of the precipitation analysis is to obtain rainfall fields at a spatial scale of 1 sq km for the study area. Analyses are based on rain gage observations and radar reflectivity observations from the Sterling, Virginia WSR-88D radar. Radar rainfall analyses utilize the HydroNEXRAD system. Data is being managed using the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model housed on a HIS server. The dataset will be made accessible through web services and the Data Access System for Hydrology.

Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

2007-12-01

252

The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the urban core. Detailed modelling analyses (WRF-Chem) of a series of convective storms over the New York City metropolitan area, suggest that under certain meteorological conditions, increased concentrations of aerosols can lead to better organization of convection, higher vertical velocities and significantly increased convective rainfall accumulations. Higher vertical velocities were more widespread and reached deeper atmospheric levels when meteorological conditions were favourable, under increased aerosol concentrations. Areas that are downstream of sources of aerosols (i.e. New York City) are more prone to experience convective enhancement.

Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

2009-04-01

253

Are mental disorders more common in urban than rural areas of the United States?  

PubMed

Urban vs. rural residence is commonly cited as a risk factor for depression and other mental disorders, but epidemiological evidence for this relationship in the US is inconclusive. We examined three consecutive annual samples (2009-2011) of adolescents (age 12-17, N = 55,583) and adults (age 18 and over, N = 116,459) from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare the prevalence of major depression and other serious mental illness across four categories of urbanicity: (1) large metropolitan areas, (2) small metropolitan areas, (3) semi-rural areas, and (4) rural areas, with and without adjustment for other demographic risk factors. For adolescents, no association was observed between urbanicity and the prevalence of major depression, with or without statistical adjustments. For adults, no differences were found in the prevalence of major depression or serious mental illness between large metropolitan areas and rural areas, but the prevalence of both was slightly higher in the two intermediate urbanicity categories than in large metropolitan areas, with statistically significant odds ratios after adjustment ranging from 1.12 to 1.19. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of mental disorders was not higher in the most urban compared with the most rural areas, suggesting that the move to identify mechanistic explanations for risk associated with the urban environment is premature. Evidence of slightly higher prevalence in small urban and semi-rural areas relative to large urban areas, reported for the first time, requires additional investigation. PMID:24857610

Breslau, Joshua; Marshall, Grant N; Pincus, Harold A; Brown, Ryan A

2014-09-01

254

Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

Tedesco, Juan Carlos

255

Collective Human Mobility Pattern from Taxi Trips in Urban Area  

PubMed Central

We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Lio, Pietro

2012-01-01

256

Cholera vaccination in urban Haiti.  

PubMed

Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W

2013-10-01

257

Examining health status of women in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions. PMID:22666705

Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye

2009-01-01

258

Aerosol Retrieval over Urban Area in MODIS Dark Target Land Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air quality in many parts of the globe has reached at dangerous level (5 to 10 times higher than WHO guidelines) as urbanization and industrialization have amplified many folds during the last few decades. More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas and their number will increase 60% by 2030. Therefore it is very critical to monitor air quality (aerosol or PM) on a daily basis; especially in populated regions (urban areas) around the world. The new version (C6) of MODIS Dark Target Land Aerosol Algorithm (MDT) provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 10km2 and 3km2 spatial resolutions over dark vegetated regions. Initial validation efforts during DISCOVER-AQ field campaign over Baltimore-DC area shows that MDT overestimates AOD over urban areas, mainly because the bright and complex urban surface is not characterized properly. Accurate estimation of the surface signal within satellite-measured radiance is essential for aerosol retrieval. Surface characterization can be challenging and small error (~0.01) can produce large errors in retrieved AOD (~0.1). In this new approach, we have modified the surface characterization for urban areas, using the urban percentage information from the MODIS Land Product. We used the MODIS land surface spectral reflectance product to redefine the relationship between shortwave-IR and visible wavelengths over urban areas. We derived new surface characterization for urban area and used the DRAGON network measurements, during DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, to validate the new AOD retrievals both in 10km and 3km spatial resolution. Initial inter-comparison with AERONET data over US shows significant improvement in AOD retrieval over urban areas. This improved AOD retrieval will be an important step toward utilization of satellite based particulate matter estimation for surface air quality monitoring. We also evaluate whether the new 3km product can enable studies of small-scale gradients in aerosol loading around large urban foot prints around the world.

Gupta, P.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.

2013-12-01

259

Movin' on up : mainstreaming under-serviced urban communities in Colombo, Sri Lanka  

E-print Network

This thesis offers an early look at a radical shift in Sri Lankan urban housing policy regarding slums in the capital city of Colombo. During the 1980s, the Sri Lankan government achieved widespread urban improvements by ...

Wickrema, Marinne Dhakshike

2005-01-01

260

Planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban ecological networks are defined differently in ecology, urban planning and landscape ecology, but they all have linearity\\u000a and linkage in common. Early urban representations evolved from the constraints of deep ecological structure in the landscape\\u000a to built elements that must work around natural linear obstacles—rivers, coastlines, dunes, cliffs, hills and valley swamps.\\u000a Village commons were linked by roads. The

Maria IgnatievaGlenn; Glenn H. Stewart; Colin Meurk

2011-01-01

261

[An intervention policy for reducing noise pollution in urban areas].  

PubMed

The methodological methods for a reduction of the noise pollution in the urban areas, mainly, can be advised in 8 operative points: 1) reduction of the source's noise; 2) control of the traffic; 3) planning of the urban and regional development; 4) building's shelter against the noise; 5) compensation's and incentivation's interventions for the exposed people; 6) controls activity and restaining of the noise's sources; 7) scientific research; 8) health education. For executive motivations we must, necessarily, divide the intervention turned to a reduction of the noise's emissions caused by fixed source compared to the noise's emissions determined by motor or railway traffic (mobile sources). This operative criteria have been utilized recently (1988) from Italian Department of Ecology for a bill. The controls of fixed source are made by Public Health Services of U.S.L. (Local Sanitary Unit) assisted, in case, by multiarea country's districts. The regulations of traffic can be took in consideration, in short time, only in more simple problems, as the setting up of pedestrian island or the suspensions of the heavy traffic, etc. The traffic's regulation must care same general data: the halved of traffic's flow in same rilevation's point, involve a reduction of only 3 dBA of the sound pressure level previously measured; if the percentage of heavy traffic is higher than 10% of the traffic's flow, the first intervention must be the no thorough fare to heavy lorries. In general, then, the best way for the resolution of vehicular noise pollution is the noisy emission's control of the single vehicle, because only the regulation of traffic's flow doesn't suffice to realise a enough reduction of noise pollution. For the resolution of more complex problems is necessary a preliminary stage to study and to plan those before to can carry out a typology of intervention. This necessity is, of course, more expensive in time and money; in fact, the solution of the problem can be the building of a efficient subway network completed by car parks in the terminal stations. In alternation at this draft, we can pointed out, also, same compromise resolutions like the appoint areas to limited traffic in the town or the break of continuity of the bus-line in the town. The compensation or the incentivation to make defence works against noise is a very expensive way and, moreover, they don't solve the problem for all exposed people in a future.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2483630

Cosa, M; Cosa, G

1989-01-01

262

USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE  

E-print Network

USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

Irfanoglu, Ayhan

263

A ray-tracing propagation model for digital broadcast systems in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A propagation model is presented for characterizing the channel response for digital systems in urban areas where multiple reflections from buildings are encountered. A deterministic ray-tracing propagation model is used to predict the time delay and fading characteristics for the channel in a hypothetical urban area. The analysis shows that due to multiple reflection and diffraction sources, the RMS delay

Harry R. Anderson

1993-01-01

264

A drill-hole geodatabase as a tool to investigate geological hazard in Napoli Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological investigations in urban areas are complicated by the absence of good outcrops and field exposures, as a result of the density of civil buildings and railway and road network. On the other side, in urban areas geological investigation represents a basic tool to decisional support for the management of present private buildings and public works and for the planning

I. Albericoa; L. Lirer; P. Petrosino

2003-01-01

265

A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited

M. Nakamura; S. Sakai; K. Ono

2010-01-01

266

A Wing-Shaped Captive Balloon for Observation in Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many meteorological observations in urban area are made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. Among these methods, Captive balloons are the easiest way to make observations especially in urban area.

M. Nakamura; K. Ono; S. Sakai

2008-01-01

267

Factors Affecting Accident Severity Inside and Outside Urban Areas in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This research aims to identify and analyze the factors affecting accident severity through a macroscopic analysis, with focus on the comparison between inside and outside urban areas. Disaggregate road accident data for year 2008 in Greece were used.Methods: Two models were developed, one for inside and one for outside urban areas. Since the dependent variable had two categories, Killed\\/Severely

Athanasios Theofilatos; Daniel Graham; George Yannis

2012-01-01

268

Perceptions and Knowledge about Leukorrhea in a Slum Dwelling South Asian Community  

PubMed Central

Objective The problem of RTI/STI is of growing concern worldwide, especially in developing countries; where each year 340 million new cases curable STI occur. Out of these 151 million are in South and Southeast Asia (WHO, 2001). The present paper attempts to capture the prevalence of leukorrhea, its knowledge and perceptions among currently married women of the age-group, 15-49 years, in a south Asian urban-slum dwelling community. Materials and methods A total of 400 households were selected from an urban-slum of Delhi and 391 were interviewed in a house to house survey. Results The results showed that the awareness about leukorrhea was almost universal (97 percent), and around 33 percent reported to have experienced the same either at the time of survey or prior to 3 months of the survey date. The perceptions about leukorrhea were varied. Conclusion The study reports a high prevalence of leukorrhea among the slum dwelling women, and it also reports that there was not a marked difference in the perception and knowledge when it comes to respondent's education, occupational status, and husbands’ education. PMID:24971133

Kapoor, AK

2014-01-01

269

Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in public than private schools. Goitre was not detected. Overweight/obesity was low (2.3%) and affected significantly more children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p < 0.05). Thinness and stunting were significantly higher in peri-urban compared to urban schools (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 respectively). Almost 15% of the children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them. PMID:21504619

2011-01-01

270

Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process. PMID:12289002

Uduku, N O

1994-10-01

271

Ventilation of idealised urban area, LES and wind tunnel experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate the ventilation of vehicle pollution within street canyons, a wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation (LES) was performed. A model of an idealised urban area with apartment houses arranged to courtyards was designed according to common Central European cities. In the wind tunnel, we assembled a set-up for simultaneous measurement of vertical velocity and tracer gas concentration. Due to the vehicle traffic emissions modelling, a new line source of tracer gas was designed and built into the model. As a computational model, the LES model solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was used. In this paper, we focused on the street canyon with the line source situated perpendicular to an approach flow. Vertical and longitudinal velocity components of the flow with the pollutant concentration were obtained from two horizontal grids placed in different heights above the street canyon. Vertical advective and turbulent pollution fluxes were computed from the measured data as ventilation characteristics. Wind tunnel and LES data were qualitatively compared. A domination of advective pollution transport within the street canyon was determined. However, the turbulent transport with an opposite direction to the advective played a significant role within and above the street canyon.

Kuka?ka, L.; Fuka, V.; Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Ja?our, Z.

2014-03-01

272

Seismicity and Faulting in an Urbanized area: Flagstaff, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flagstaff, Arizona is a community of more than 60,000 and lies in an area of active tectonism. Well documented evidence exists of geologically recent volcanism and fault related seismicity. The urban area is located within a volcanic field that is considered active and the area is also the locus of numerous fault systems, some of whose members are considered to be potentially active. This suggestion of active faulting and seismicity for the area is supported by the recent 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake. Chief concern for Flagstaff is focused upon the Anderson Mesa fault which has a mapped surface length of 40 kilometers with the north end extending into the city limits of Flagstaff. A worse case scenario for rupture along the entire length of the fault would be the occurrence of an Mw 6.9 earthquake. The slip rate for this fault is low, however it is not well determined due to a lack of Neogene or Quaternary deposits. The historic record of seismicity adjacent to the surface expression of the Anderson Mesa fault includes two well recorded earthquake swarms (1979,2011) as well as other individual events over this time period all of which are of M< 4.0. The epicentral locations of these events are of interest with respect to the fault geometry which shows four prominent segments: North, Central, South, Ashurst. All of the historic events are located within the central segment. This distribution can be compared to evidence available for the orientation of regional stresses. The focal mechanism for the 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake shows a northwest striking preferred slip surface with a trend (300) parallel to that of the Central segment of the Anderson Mesa fault (300-305). The other three fault segments of the Anderson Mesa fault have north-south trends. The seismicity of the Central segment of the fault suggests that slip on this segment may occur in the future. Given the length of this segment a MCE event could be as large as Mw 6.3.

Brumbaugh, D. S.

2013-12-01

273

Tuberculosis in an Urban Area in China: Differences between Urban Migrants and Local Residents  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006–2008, among whom 440 (32.6%) were local residents and 908 (67.4%) were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population) had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population), and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.91–0.94, p<0.001), poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR?=?4.12, 95% CI: 2.65–5.72, p<0.001), and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR?=?0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.26, p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants). Conclusions/Significance A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006–2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). PMID:23226479

Shen, Xin; Xia, Zhen; Li, Xiangqun; Wu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yuan; Guo, Juntao; Chen, Jing; Hong, Jianjun; Yuan, Zheng'an; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Sun, Guomei; Gao, Qian; Mei, Jian

2012-01-01

274

Integrated research on subsurface environments in Asian urban areas.  

PubMed

The RIHN project "Human impacts on urban subsurface environments" aims to suggest improved development plans of urban centers for human well-being. This will be done by examining reconstructed past changes in urban environments, and by developing integrated nature-social models. Subsurface environmental indicators are developed from the points of view of: (1) human activities; (2) climate change; and (3) character of urban development and social policies. Water, heat, and material environments and transport vectors are being evaluated by a number of different approaches. Some of these include investigating changes in groundwater resources using satellite observations, reconstructing effects of climate change and urbanization using subsurface thermal regimes, and evaluating past contamination patterns from preserved subsurface records. In this overview paper, we describe the current status of urbanization in Asia, subsurface water conditions, material and contaminant transport to surface waters by groundwater, and subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect. The rapid pace of urbanization in Asia requires that we develop a better understanding of how to deal with environmental impacts, both above and below ground. PMID:18722645

Taniguchi, Makoto; Burnett, William C; Ness, Gayl D

2008-10-15

275

Urban heat island and air pollution--an emerging role for hospital respiratory admissions in an urban area.  

PubMed

The aim of the study discussed here was to determine the associations among the urban heat island (UHI), air quality, and hospital respiratory admissions in the warm center of an urban area. The authors collected and analyzed the data regarding air quality parameters, meteorological parameters, and the daily hospital respiratory admissions in the Taichung metropolis in the autumns of 2003 and 2004. By collecting the vertical meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations via the tethersonde balloon technique, the authors simulated convergence in Dali using The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) for the atmospheric conditions. The authors also examined the hypotheses with Duncan's Multiple Range test, and analyzed spatial patterns vis-à-vis air temperature, air quality, and hospital respiratory admissions with GIS. The results indicated that the UHI phenomenon-which generates convergence and then transports air pollutants to a metropolitan area-increases hospital respiratory admissions in the warm center of an urban area. PMID:20104832

Lai, Li-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li

2010-01-01

276

Clean Distributed Generation for Slum Electrification: The Case of Mumbai  

E-print Network

in poor urban settlements: "The fact that electricity is often `tapped off' illegally in urban poor areas access to electricity, many do not. In total, some 40% of the world's urban poor have little or no access to electricity (UN MDG, 2005). Lack of electricity can bring more hardships to the urban poor than the rural

Mauzerall, Denise

277

Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

2002-01-01

278

Source apportionment of PM10 by positive matrix factorization in urban area of Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Particulate Matter (PM(10)) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA-APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM(10) contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM(10) at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%). PMID:22645437

Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

279

Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

Particulate Matter (PM10) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%). PMID:22645437

Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

280

City Image. Perception of the Denver Urban Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using interviews in eight Denver neighborhoods, this study attempts to develop a relatively inexpensive and rapid method for measuring perception of the Denver urban scene (housing, landmarks, street patterns, shopping, and recreation availability). Perce...

S. H. Cohen

1973-01-01

281

Comparison of mass size distribution and flux of sulfate and nitrate in urban and non-urban areas  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric size distributions of total mass, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions were measured in Chicago, Illinois (urban area) and South Haven, Michigan (non-urban area) in March 1994 using a Wide Range Aerosol Classifier System (WRACS) including Noll Rotary Impactor (NRI) and Cascade Impactor. Dry deposition fluxes were simultaneously measured with a knife edged surrogate surface containing greased myler films. Data showed that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions exist in both fine and coarse particles and greater than 90% of the total flux was due to coarse particles for total mass, sulfate and nitrate. Results showed that (a) the total measured flux of particle mass and sulfate were four times higher at the urban site (Chicago), (b) the measured flux of nitrate at the urban site was two times higher than the non-urban site (c) the fine particulate nitrate concentrations were similar for both sites. Atmospheric size distribution analysis indicated that fine and coarse sulfate and nitrate particles had mass median diameter (MMD) of about 0.5 and 6.0 {micro}m, respectively while the MMD of the particle mass in urban site was at 23.6 {micro}m. Modeled percent cumulative flux of total particle mass, sulfate and nitrate in both urban and non-urban sites showed that majority of particle mass and ionic fluxes are due to particles larger than 6.8 {micro}m. Results of this study suggest that more than 99% of the total flux of particle mass and major ionic species are due to the coarse particles.

Khalili, N.R. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-11-01

282

Classification of Urban Areas: Inferring Land Use from the Interpretation of Land Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ancillary data are vital for successful image classification of urban areas. This chapter explores the role of ancillary data\\u000a (information from beyond remote sensing) for improving the contextual interpretation of satellite sensor imagery during spectral-based\\u000a and spatial-based classification. In addition, careful consideration is given to the crucial distinctions between urban land\\u000a cover and urban land use, and how the inherent

Victor Mesev

283

Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated summertime temperatures in urban ‘heat islands’ increase cooling-energy use and accelerate the formation of urban smog. Except in the city’s core areas, summer heat islands are created mainly by the lack of vegetation and by the high solar radiation absorptance by urban surfaces. Analysis of temperature trends for the last 100 years in several large U.S. cities indicate that,

H. AKBARI; M. POMERANTZ; H. TAHA

2001-01-01

284

Using real-time SAR simulation to assist pattern recognition applications in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the impact of current developments in urban modeling and graphics programming to the potential of SAR simulation\\u000a and interpretation in urban areas is presented. As it will be demonstrated, SAR simulation is feasible in real-time even for\\u000a complex urban environments by applying modern graphics cards. For this purpose, the SAR geometry is implemented using programmable\\u000a graphics processing

T. Balz; S. Becker; N. Haala; M. Kada

2008-01-01

285

New Estimates of Quality of Life in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit markets capture compensation for intraurban and interregional differe nces in amenities and yield differences in housing prices and wages. These pecuniary differences become preference-based weights in a qual ity-of-life index. Hedonic equations are estimated using microdata fr om the 1980 Census and assembled county-based amenity data on climati c, environmental, and urban conditions. Ranking of 253 urban counties reveals

Glenn C. Blomquist; Mark C. Berger; John P. Hoehn

1988-01-01

286

The Sharing of Urban Areas by Man and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction and close contact between humans and some animal species date from immemorial ages. Demographic evolution\\u000a of human populations and the tendency for urban concentration have radically changed the type of relation and fruition by\\u000a man of different animal species that have follow him up to urban environments. At the same time, there is an increase of the\\u000a biological

Armando C. Louzã

287

Transport of traffic-related aerosols in urban areas.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the influence of traffic on particulate air pollution in an urban area, and to characterise the short-range transport of the aerosols generated by traffic. The study was conducted in Kraków, a city located in southern Poland with a population of approximately 800,000. Aerosol samples were collected using automatic sampling equipment at five sites located at different distances from the main road in Kraków, ranging from 5 to 1500 m. The sampling set-up allowed standardisation of the results due to continuous determination of the meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, rainfall and humidity). Aerosol particles were separated according to aerodynamic diameter into two size fractions: > 1.9 microm (coarse fraction); and 1.9-72 microm (fine fraction). The concentrations of 27 elements were measured in both size fractions (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, Pb). The multielement analyses were performed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. Traffic contribution to particulate air pollution was determined on the basis of 13 elements which were present above the detection limit in all samples (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb). It was found that the traffic contribution in the coarse size fraction was approximately 80% up to 150 m from the road; it dropped abruptly by a factor of 2 over a distance of 150-200 m and declined further to 20% at 1500 m from the road. Traffic contribution for the fine particle concentrations of individual elements was 50-70% in the close vicinity of the road (5 m); then there was a decrease, followed by an increase at a greater distance from the road. Possible explanations for this behaviour of the fine particles are given. PMID:10989929

Wróbel, A; Rokita, E; Maenhaut, W

2000-08-10

288

75 FR 61553 - National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual and to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized Area Annual...Amendments to the 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) reporting requirements,...

2010-10-05

289

Excessive weight gain after pregnancy in urban areas: one important area to prevent diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been found to be common in people, including the women of child bearing age, in urban Nepal. There is a custom of feeding the women with foods rich in calories and fats, as much as possible, after delivery. Weights of 200 women of urban Kathmandu before the first pregnancy and 6 months and 1 year after delivery were studied. The mean + SD of weights before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 51.3 + 4.9, 67.2 + 6.3 and 63.4 + 6.4 respectively. Similarly, the mean + SD of body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 21.3 + 1.8, 27.9 + 2.5 and 26.7 + 2.8 respectively. The average increases in weight and BMI six months after delivery were 15.9 kg and 6.6; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). Six months later the average increased weight and BMI decreased by 3.8 kg and 1.2 respectively. Thus, the average increases in weight and BMI one year after first pregnancy were 12.1 kg and 5.4; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). The women seemed to have difficulty in losing weight gained. In view of the problem of overweight, the custom of excess feeding after delivery seems required to be discouraged in urban areas to prevent subsequent gestational and type 2 diabetes in women and the population. PMID:16519070

Bhattarai, Madhur Dev; Singh, Dhruba Lall

2005-12-01

290

Assessment of flooding in urbanized ungauged basins: a case study in the Upper Tiber area, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of a procedure for investigation of flooding into an ungauged river reach close to an urban area is investigated. The approach is based on the application of a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model for a gauged basin, including the flood-prone area, and that furnishes the inlet flow conditions for a two-dimensional hydraulic model, whose computational domain is the urban area.

T. Moramarco; F. Melone; V. P. Singh

2005-01-01

291

Slumdog cities: rethinking subaltern urbanism.  

PubMed

This article is an intervention in the epistemologies and methodologies of urban studies. It seeks to understand and transform the ways in which the cities of the global South are studied and represented in urban research, and to some extent in popular discourse. As such, the article is primarily concerned with a formation of ideas - "subaltern urbanism" - which undertakes the theorization of the megacity and its subaltern spaces and subaltern classes. Of these, the ubiquitous ‘slum’ is the most prominent. Writing against apocalyptic and dystopian narratives of the slum, subaltern urbanism provides accounts of the slum as a terrain of habitation, livelihood, self-organization and politics. This is a vital and even radical challenge to dominant narratives of the megacity. However, this article is concerned with the limits of and alternatives to subaltern urbanism. It thus highlights emergent analytical strategies, utilizing theoretical categories that transcend the familiar metonyms of underdevelopment such as the megacity, the slum, mass politics and the habitus of the dispossessed. Instead, four categories are discussed — peripheries, urban informality, zones of exception and gray spaces. Informed by the urbanism of the global South, these categories break with ontological and topological understandings of subaltern subjects and subaltern spaces. PMID:21542201

Roy, Ananya

2011-01-01

292

Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track more than 100 human targets with averaged tracking period (time length) longer than the performance of the current state-of-the-art.

Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

2014-06-01

293

Structural Impediments to Success: A Look at Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how recent economic, demographic, and social changes have created the conditions that are presently constricting the opportunities and future expectations of today's urban young men. While research indicates that all disadvantaged youth in urban areas are facing impediments to their success, the paper focuses on the realities…

Jones, Sarah E.

294

A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including

K C Clarke; S Hoppen; L Gaydos

1997-01-01

295

EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL Lock Wai Lek In an urban environment, the linkage between UAVs and ground control stations are subjected to multipath multipath can result in a nearly complete loss of command signals, which can limit the UAV's operational

Jenn, David C.

296

BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"  

EPA Science Inventory

This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

297

Functional Analysis of the Land-use System in Urban Residential Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the Sustainable Development Theory and the Theory of Urban Growth, this article which is based on the theoretical analysis of the function of the land-use system in urban residential areas has sorted out the function of it by using FAST technology and has preliminarily studied the calculation method of the functional level. This article

Liu Ling; Tan Shu-kui

2010-01-01

298

Avian Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds in Highly Urbanized Areas  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses. PMID:22761671

Verhagen, Josanne H.; Munster, Vincent J.; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B. G.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

2012-01-01

299

A model for evaluating the population exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area. The main objective was to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments with reasonable accuracy, instead of analysing in detail personal exposures for specific individuals. We have utilised

Anu Kousa; Jaakko Kukkonen; Ari Karppinen; Päivi Aarnio; Tarja Koskentalo

2002-01-01

300

Daily Change in Spatial Distribution of Jungle Crows in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) have increased in number in urban areas across Japan, creating various kinds of problems. In the present study, jungle crows were counted at 33 study plots located in large open spaces (>10 ha) in central Tokyo to clarify the role of urban open spaces in crows' daily flying. Three types of open spaces were recognized: ones

Kazuhiro KATOH; Takashi NAKAMURA

301

Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (1- and 2-year) effects of the Mexican "Oportunidades" CCT program on urban

Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-Garcia, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Velez-Grajales, Viviana

2012-01-01

302

Modelling urban growth and landscape changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use an urban growth model, closely coupled with a land transition model, to simulate future urban growth in the Atlanta metropolitan area, one of the fastest growing metropolises in the United States during the past three decades. We calibrate the model with historical data that are extracted from a time series of satellite images. We design three specific scenarios

Xiaojun Yang; C. P. Lo

2003-01-01

303

Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. METHODS: The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa

Jean-Christophe Fotso

2006-01-01

304

Human–Black Bear Conflict in Urban Areas: An Integrated Approach to Management Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human–black bear conflict is a persistent wildlife management problem in North America. Conflicts in urban areas are linked to continued growth and expansion of human populations as well as increased availability of anthropogenic attractants (e.g., garbage, birdfeed). Responding to urban bear conflicts can present difficult and highly publicized management decisions. This challenge highlights the need to understand the basis for

Andrew W. Don Carlos; Alan D. Bright; Tara L. Teel; Jerry J. Vaske

2009-01-01

305

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or...become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in...

2013-01-01

306

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or...become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in...

2010-01-01

307

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or...become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in...

2012-01-01

308

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or...become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in...

2011-01-01

309

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

...which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or...become in its entirety part of an urban area, will be serviced in...

2014-01-01

310

Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

1998-01-01

311

Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

312

[Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].  

PubMed

Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

2013-06-01

313

Urban heat island in a coastal urban area in northern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examines the characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI) in a medium-sized city in northern Spain (Bilbao) using 5-year climate data (2005-2009) and the results of three specific measurement campaigns (2009-2010). Urban climate variables are not only compared with those in rural sites but also local climatic differences occurring inside the city are analysed. The findings presented in this paper show the influence of complex topography and sea/land breeze in the urban climate. Spatial characteristics and temporal evolution of UHI is presented. Hourly maximum temperature anomaly (? T u-r, max) occurs just after sunrise and an urban cold island (UCI) is developed after midday. Along the year, mean UHI intensity is highest in autumn and the UCI effect increases in spring and summer in relation with sea breeze cooling potential. Diurnal and seasonal variation of air flow patterns appear to influence significantly on UHI intensity.

Acero, Juan A.; Arrizabalaga, Jon; Kupski, Sebastian; Katzschner, Lutz

2013-07-01

314

The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an urban core and a surrounding suburban landscape. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present preliminary data from a dense network of temperature sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the TCMA UHI with an emphasis on the contribution of different land use types on the UHI and the influence of wintertime temperature advection on less urbanized areas to the southeast of the TCMA. Finally, we offer evidence of the impact that the TCMA heat island has on energy consumption, human health, and the environment, and propose mitigation strategies that should be considered.

Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.

2011-12-01

315

Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0–20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct?=?C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

2014-01-01

316

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.  

PubMed

We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area. PMID:24604269

De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

2014-06-01

317

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

2014-04-01

318

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

2011-04-01

319

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

2013-04-01

320

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

2010-04-01

321

23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

2012-04-01

322

Survey on Cooling Costs and Related Factors for Apartments in an Urban Area of Osaka  

E-print Network

A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess cooling behaviors and cooling costs for 290 apartments in an urban area. 1) Cooling costs are strongly related to the number of air conditioners, the months of occupation, and the air conditioner...

Umemiya, N.; Lin, X.; Inoue, G.

2006-01-01

323

APPLICATION OF A DATA-ASSIMILATING PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODEL TO TWO URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study we have used a data-assimilating prognostic meteorological model, the Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (SAIMM), ot generate meteorological fields suitable for photochemical modeling of two urban areas; os Angeles, California and the Lower Lake Mich...

324

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

325

Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

1983-01-01

326

Urban Areas--Partial Creators of Their Own Atmospheric Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes typical urban-rural atmospheric differences, focuses on heat islands as an example of observable alternation-response effects, and briefly describes some simple exercises which are intended to illustrate the reason for such temperature differences. (Author/DE)

Marotz, Glen A.

1975-01-01

327

Improved Real-Time SAR Simulation in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the paper the applicability of modern graphic cards for SAR simulation is demonstrated. By these means SAR simulation, which is frequently used as a key tool for the analysis and interpretation of SAR scenes, is feasible in real-time even in complex urban environments. This is realised by the implementation of SAR geometry within standard graphics hardware, which offers 3D

Timo Balz; Norbert Haala

2006-01-01

328

OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...

329

OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...

330

Busing: Implications for Social Change in Urban and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Busing is examined as a tool of social change in the alteration of school structure from racial segregation to racial integration. A commentary is provided on the nexus between social change in education and other aspects of society and the utilization of busing as a tool of social change. Information is also presented on schools in urban and…

Henderson, Ronald D.

331

AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO URBANIZATION: FARM TYPES IN NORTHEAST METROPOLITAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metropolitan agriculture is not homogeneous. This paper delves beneath metropolitan county averages using data on individual farms in the Northeast classified into three statistically distinct types. A small group of adaptive farms profit from intensive production on smaller acreage to accommodate themselves to the urban environment. Traditional farms have increased costs and pressures on their more extensive operations without compensating

Ralph E. Heimlich; Charles H. Barnard

1992-01-01

332

Efficient Determination of Optimum Base Station Locations in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enormous number of applications are being ported from the wired to the wireless medium . This trend is bringing an almost exponential increase (7) in the density of wireless subscriber load in almost every geographical region. To handle this increasing subscriber load, urban cellular architectures are being divided into micro and pico-cells, allowing increased frequency reuse. With this demand for

Riddhi B Dattani

333

Slums' Access to and Coverage of Primary Health Care Services: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shiraz, a Metropolis in Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The United Nations has predicted that the population of slum dwellers will have grown from one billion people worldwide to 2 billion by 2030. This trend is also predictable in Iran. In the Iranian metropolis of Shiraz, more than 10% of the residents live in slum areas. There are several problems regarding the delivery of social services in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate slums dwellers’ access to and coverage of health care. Methods: This cross-sectional face-to-face study included 380 household of slum dwellers via stratified random sampling. Demographics, accessibility of health services, coverage of health care, and route of receiving health services were recorded through interviews. Results: Approximately, 21.6% of the households had no physical access to health centers. The coverage rate of family planning programs for safe methods was 51.4% (95% CI: 48.86-53.9%). Vaccination coverage among children under 5 years old was 98% (95% CI: 97-99%). Furthermore, 34% of pregnant women had not received standard health care due to a lack of access to health centers. Conclusion: Limited access to health services along with inadequate knowledge of slum residents about health care facilities was the main barrier to the utilization of the health care in the slums. PMID:24753641

Joulaei, Hassan; Bhuiyan, Azad R; Sayadi, Mehrab; Morady, Fariba; Afsar Kazerooni, Parvin

2014-01-01

334

Ground-Level Ozone Mapping in Large Urban Areas Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis: Application to the São Paulo Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical study on the behavior of ground-level O3 concentration in different regions of a large urban area was carried out, with emphasis on pollutant gas concentrations and meteorological variables. The study was based on data generated by a network of measuring stations distributed throughout the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, in regions with different characteristics of traffic and economic activities.

Roberto Guardani; José L. Aguiar; Claudio A. O. Nascimento; Carlos I. V. Lacava; Yoshio Yanagi

2003-01-01

335

Larger broods in the Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis near urban areas in southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined if the distance from densely-built (urban) areas is reflected in the brood size of the Northern Goshawk near the southern coast of Finland. The data were collected from 70 nesting territories in 1976-2007, including 270 fledged broods. Within an approxi- mate distance of less than 2.5 km from the nearest urban area, the average brood size was significantly

Tapio Solonen

2008-01-01

336

A cloud detection algorithm using edge detection and information entropy over urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at detecting cloud interference over urban area, an algorithm in this research is proposed to detect urban cloud area combining extracting edge information with information entropy, focusing on distinguishing complex surface features accurately to retain intact surface information. Firstly, image edge sharpening is used. Secondly, Canny edge detector and closing operation are applied to extract and strengthen edge features. Thirdly, information entropy extraction is adopted to ensure cloud positional accuracy. Compared with traditional cloud detection methods, this algorithm protects the integrity of urban surface features efficiently, improving the segmentation accuracy. Test results prove the effectiveness of this algorithm.

Zheng, Hong; Wen, Tianxiao; Li, Zhen

2013-10-01

337

Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach  

PubMed Central

The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

2012-01-01

338

Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

Black, Adam Leland

339

Urban Area Extent Extraction in Spaceborne HR and VHR Data Using Multi-Resolution Features.  

PubMed

Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an "urban area" is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, "urban area" extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro da; Gamba, Paolo

2014-01-01

340

Urban Area Extent Extraction in Spaceborne HR and VHR Data Using Multi-Resolution Features  

PubMed Central

Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an “urban area” is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, “urban area” extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; da Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro; Gamba, Paolo

2014-01-01

341

Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes—one based on occupation and the other on educational level—at the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50?×?50 m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic. PMID:23351567

2013-01-01

342

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

2014-01-01

343

Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to urbanization. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

Meador, M. R.; Coles, J. F.; Zappia, H.

2005-01-01

344

Contribution of Cooking to Organic Aerosols in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a few years, positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol mass spectra have become crucial to derive quantitative information on organic aerosol sources or components. This technique was used in several urban data sets and has shown that the contribution of cooking can be a significant source in London, Peking, Zurich, and Toronto. Recently we performed measurements in Barcelona and in Paris where the cooking factor could be clearly identified. Especially in the center of Paris we found very high contributions, averaging to more than 35% of organic mass during cooking time periods leading to very prominent diurnal patterns. The discussion of these recent ambient results will be put in context of on-going cooking emission and aging experiments. Potentially, cooking might explain a considerable fraction of the very non-fossil nature of urban organic carbon in particulate matter.

Prevot, A. S.; El Haddad, I.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Platt, S.; Poulain, L.; Slowik, J.; Baltensperger, U.

2011-12-01

345

Floristic diversity in urban forest area of NEERI Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India).  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment. PMID:19192928

Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

2008-01-01

346

Future change in wintertime urban heat island due to global climate change in Tokyo metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokyo metropolitan area is one of the largest urban areas all over the world. This study investigates the change in urban heat island intensity of Tokyo metropolitan area in winter season by the effects of global climate change. We performed present and future climate simulations are conducted using a regional climate model (WRF) including an urban canopy sub-model (Kusaka et al., 2001). Future climate simulation was conducted using Pseudo-Global-Warming (PGW) method (Kimura and Kitoh, 2008) assuming the boundary conditions estimated by CMIP3 GCMs under the SRES scenarios. The PGW method is one of the useful methods for future downscaling and adopted for some studies on urban heat island (Kusaka et al., 2012) and winter climate (Hara et al., 2008) over Japan. The simulation results indicated that UHII would be enhanced during night, due to the global climate change.

Hara, M.; Adachi, S. A.; Kusaka, H.; Kimura, F.

2013-12-01

347

Presence of sandflies infected with Leishmania infantum and Massilia virus in the Marseille urban area.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is considered a rural disease in Europe. However, circumstantial evidence has indicated urban transmission of leishmaniasis and phleboviruses in the urban area of Marseille, France. To investigate this urban transmission, sandflies were trapped in 33 locations in the urban area (horse farms, public gardens and a residential area). Sandflies were always captured: 87.8% were Phlebotomus perniciosus, a vector of Leishmania infantum and Toscana and Massilia viruses. RT-PCR and cell culture inoculation identified the Massilia virus in 2/99 pools of sandflies, and PCR identified Leishmania in 5/99. No dual infection was observed, but both pathogens were detected in samples from the same trapping site. PMID:24107240

Faucher, B; Bichaud, L; Charrel, R; Mary, C; Izri, A; de Lamballerie, X; Piarroux, R

2014-05-01

348

1 Introduction The analysis of urban built-up areas is a fascinating and complex topic (Batty, 2005;  

E-print Network

1 Introduction The analysis of urban built-up areas is a fascinating and complex topic (Batty, 2005 is complementary to the fractal dimension, which is a more global index. When com- puting curves for several built-up analysis of urban morphologies. Clustering patterns of urban built-up areas with curves of fractal scaling

Verleysen, Michel

349

[Organic carbon storage in urban built-up areas of China in 1997-2006].  

PubMed

With the increase of greenhouse gases emission in urban regions, urban carbon cycle plays a more and more important role in global carbon cycle. To estimate urban carbon emission and carbon storage is crucial for understanding urban carbon cycle. By using China's statistics data and the results from recent publications, this paper estimated the organic carbon storage in China's urban built-up areas in 1997-2006. From 1997 to 2006, the total organic carbon storage in the urban built-up areas increased from 0.13-0.19 Pg C (averagely 0.16 Pg C) to 0.28-0.41 Pg C (averagely 0.34 Pg C), and the organic carbon density increased from 9.86-14.03 kg C x m(-2) (averagely 11.95 kg C x m(-2)) to 10.54-15.54 kg C x m(-2) (averagely 13.04 kg C x m(-2)). The total organic carbon storage in the urban built-up areas was mainly contributed by soils (78% in 1997 and 73% in 2006), followed by buildings (12% in 1997 and 16% in 2006) and green spaces (9% in 1997 and 10% in 2006), while the carbon storage in resident bodies only accounted for less than 1%, which could be neglected. PMID:22919827

Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shu-Qing; Zhou, De-Cheng

2012-05-01

350

Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP?EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. PMID:23054786

Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

2013-05-01

351

Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California  

EPA Science Inventory

?Pest? control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

352

Evaluating Investments in Typhoid Vaccines in Two Slums in Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

New-generation vaccines against typhoid fever have the potential to reduce the burden of disease in areas where the disease is endemic. The case for public expenditure on typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccines for two low-income, high-incidence slums (Narkeldanga and Tiljala) in Kolkata, India, was examined. Three meas- ures of the economic benefits of the vaccines were used: private and public cost-of-illness

Joseph Cook; Dipika Sur; John Clemens; Dale Whittington

2009-01-01

353

40 CFR Appendix I to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas Greater Than 100,000, But Less Than 250,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas...122, App. I Appendix I to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas...by the Bureau of the Census State County Unincorporated urbanized...

2011-07-01

354

40 CFR Appendix I to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas Greater Than 100,000, But Less Than 250,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas...122, App. I Appendix I to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas...by the Bureau of the Census State County Unincorporated urbanized...

2012-07-01

355

40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the... County Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles...

2013-07-01

356

40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the... County Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles...

2012-07-01

357

40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the...Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the... County Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles...

2011-07-01

358

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

359

Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: Development of a research protocol.  

PubMed

Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper. PMID:25387534

van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

2014-01-01

360

Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example from ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected ants from six urban and one forest land-use types in Raleigh, NC to examine the effects of urbanization on species\\u000a richness and assemblage composition. Since urban areas are warmer (i.e., heat island effect) we also tested if cities were\\u000a inhabited by species from warmer\\/drier environments. Species richness was lower in industrial areas relative to other urban\\u000a and natural

Sean B. Menke; Benoit Guénard; Joseph O. Sexton; Michael D. Weiser; Robert R. Dunn; Jules Silverman

2011-01-01

361

Urban area change detection procedures with remote sensing data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying factors affecting the detection and identification of nonurban to urban land cover change using satellite data were studied. Computer programs were developed to create a digital scene and to simulate the effect of the sensor point spread function (PSF) on the transfer of modulation from the scene to an image of the scene. The theory behind the development of a digital filter representing the PSF is given as well as an example of its application. Atmospheric effects on modulation transfer are also discussed. A user's guide and program listings are given.

Maxwell, E. L. (principal investigator); Riordan, C. J.

1980-01-01

362

Dissimilarity in turbulent transport of scalar fluxes from urban areas following rain periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban modifications significantly alter the Bowen's Ratio and this fact has been confirmed by various urban experiments. Our study here focuses on how urbanization impacts partitioning of the surface energy budget and alters the turbulent transport of momentum, heat and water vapor. For this analysis, eddy covariance data from four different sites with varying degrees of urbanization will be utilized. Of the four sites, two (Princeton and UMBC) were located in a highly urbanized area, surrounded by medium height buildings and various built surfaces, while the other two sites (Cubhill and Broadmead) were located in a residential and a rural setting respectively. Our preliminary results confirm that the partitioning of incoming energy into various components of the surface energy budget is highly dependent on the climatic forcings, particularly, for wet and dry down periods. During wet periods, apart from increased evapotranspiration from the green cover, the built surfaces that dot the urban landscape, despite their reduced moisture retention capacity compared to green covers, contribute significantly toward latent heat fluxes. In fact, at the urban site, nearly one third of the evaporative fluxes were from built surfaces (rooftops, asphalts and concrete), following heavy precipitation events. Also, during these periods a pronounced dissimilarity exits between the turbulent transport of temperature and humidity. Our ongoing analysis focuses on understanding this impact of urbanization on scalar transport.

Ramamurthy, P.; Smith, J. A.; Bou-Zeid, E.

2012-12-01

363

Intimate partner violence against women during and after pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Mumbai slums  

PubMed Central

Background At least one-third of women in India experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at some point in adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and after delivery in an urban slum setting, to review its social determinants, and to explore its effects on maternal and newborn health. Methods We did a cross-sectional study nested within the data collection system for a concurrent trial. Through urban community surveillance, we identified births in 48 slum areas and interviewed mothers ~6 weeks later. After collecting information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic indicators, and maternal and newborn care, we asked their opinions on the justifiability of IPV and on their experience of it in the last 12 months. Results Of 2139 respondents, 35% (748) said that violence was justifiable if a woman disrespected her in-laws or argued with her husband, failed to provide good food, housework and childcare, or went out without permission. 318 (15%, 95% CI 13, 16%) reported IPV in the year that included pregnancy and the postpartum period. Physical IPV was reported by 247 (12%, 95% CI 10, 13%), sexual IPV by 35 (2%, 95% CI 1, 2%), and emotional IPV by 167 (8%, 95% CI 7, 9). 219 (69%) women said that the likelihood of IPV was either unaffected by or increased during maternity. IPV was more likely to be reported by women from poorer families and when husbands used alcohol. Although 18% of women who had suffered physical IPV sought clinical care for their injuries, seeking help from organizations outside the family to address IPV itself was rare. Women who reported IPV were more likely to have reported illness during pregnancy and use of modern methods of family planning. They were more than twice as likely to say that there were situations in which violence was justifiable (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.7, 3.4). Conclusions One in seven women suffered IPV during or shortly after pregnancy. The elements of the violent milieu are mutually reinforcing and need to be taken into account collectively in responding to both individual cases and framing public health initiatives. PMID:24015762

2013-01-01

364

USE OF VERY HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA FOR CHANGE DETECTION IN URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on s ome results obtained by using the QuickBird high resolution imagery for the analysis of urban changes. QuickBird satellite provides the highest-resolution multi-spectral and panchromatic commercial imagery. If suitable data processing is applied, very useful information can be derived for urban area monitoring such as the detection of new buildings or the discovery of

F. Del Frate; G. Schiavon; C. Solimini

365

Stochastic model to forecast ground-level ozone concentration at urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0)×(1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1)×(0,1,1)24 has been developed for

C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; S. Cañete; J. Carretero; E. Liger

2005-01-01

366

Logit Models for Estimating Urban Area Through Travel  

E-print Network

in that the model was developed small and medium sized study areas with up to 200,000 people (Han 2007; Han and Stone 2008). Han's stage one model is =Y ( )2000026.00012.0046.0000029.0 000104.0682.2671.1850.0353.3 EmpAreaTRKPop ADTMRSmall...; and =Emp employment in the study area. Han's stage two model for study areas with a population of less than 50,000 is =ijY ( )2_64.1 00.2_03.0_73.029.142.1 ZipfD Prob1PTTDLANEDRTECON + +?++ and his model for study areas with a population...

Talbot, Eric

2011-10-21

367

To settle or protect? A global analysis of net primary production in parks and urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test—at the global scale—the hypothesis that human beings tend to build settlements in areas of high biological productivity, and protect (as parks) areas of low productivity. Furthermore, we propose an alternative measure of the extent and effectiveness of the global protected areas network based on potential net primary production (NPP0). The average NPP0 in urban areas and parks is

Daniel W. O'Neill; David J. Abson

2009-01-01

368

Study of green areas and urban heat island in a tropical city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green areas in cities have been considered as potential measure in mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) effect. In this paper, a mobile survey was conducted to explore both the severity of UHI effect and cooling impacts of green areas at macro-level in Singapore. Islandwide temperature distribution was mapped relying on data derived from the mobile survey. This study has

Nyuk Hien Wong; Chen Yu

2005-01-01

369

Discrete Time Motion Model for Guiding People in Urban Areas using Multiple Robots  

E-print Network

Discrete Time Motion Model for Guiding People in Urban Areas using Multiple Robots Ana´is Garrell1 for people and robots respond to realistic situations, and for instance human behaviors such as "leaving people during emergency situations [5], [8]. Within the area of social and cooperative robots, arises one

Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

370

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

371

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

372

Local Economic Development in Area-based Urban Regeneration in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is intended to give insight into the state of the art of local economic development in area-based urban regeneration in Germany. The importance of local economic development has been widely recognised and a series of workshops, evaluation reports and programmes has been initiated to promote this policy area. A set of policy programmes has been developed to support

Sabine Weck

2009-01-01

373

Urban Boundary-Layer Height Determination from Lidar Measurements Over the Paris Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paris area is strongly urbanized and is exposed to atmospheric pollution events. To understand the chemical and physical processes that are taking place in this area it is necessary to describe correctly the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) dynamics and the ABL height evolution. During the winter of 1994 1995, within the framework of the Etude de la Couche Limite Atmosphe

Laurent Menut; Cyrille Flamant; Jacques Pelon; Pierre H. Flamant

1999-01-01

374

Planning method for large scale waste transfer station location of Xuzhou urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the statistical and analysis of transfer stations in Xuzhou urban area to determine the quantity and scale of large scale waste transfer station. Form qualitative conditions by the analysis of location factors to determine the weight of each factor to form a quantitative index, trying to use planning methods to narrow the scope of available site area. Ultimately,

Li Da; Zhang Jincui; Guo Hui

2011-01-01

375

Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?  

PubMed Central

Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

2014-01-01

376

The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability  

PubMed Central

Background Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Conclusions Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post-source contamination during storage in the household, except during the monsoon season, when there was some point-of-source water contamination. This suggests that safe storage and household water treatment interventions may improve water quality in slums. Problems of exorbitant expense, inadequate quantity, and poor point-of-source quality can only be remedied by providing unrecognized slums with equitable access to municipal water supplies. PMID:23442300

2013-01-01

377

Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban areas: A comparison of biomagnetic monitoring and urban scale modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban environments is designated as a priority area within current research. Biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both methodologies able to provide information about the spatial variation of particulate pollutant levels within urban environments. This study evaluates both methods by comparing results of a biomagnetic monitoring campaign at 110 locations throughout Antwerp, Belgium, with modelled pollutant concentrations of PM10 and NO2. Due to the relation of biomagnetic monitoring with railway traffic, analyses were conducted for both all locations (n = 110) and railway traffic excluded locations (n = 67). While the general spatial variation, land use comparison and the relation with traffic intensity were comparable between the two applied methodologies, an overall bad agreement is obtained when the methodologies are correlated to each other. While no correlation was found between SIRM and PM10 results (p = 0.75 for n = 110 and p = 0.68 for n = 67), a significant but low (r ? 0.33) correlation was found between SIRM and NO2 (p < 0.01 for n = 110 and p = 0.04 for n = 67). While biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both able to provide high spatial resolution information about urban pollutant levels, we need to take into account some considerations. While uncertainty in the biomagnetic monitoring approach might arise from the processes that determine leaf particulate deposition and the incorporation of multiple emission sources with diverging magnetic composition, air quality modelling remains an approximation of reality which implies its dependency on accurate emission factors, implication of atmospheric processes and representation of the urban morphology. Therefore, continuous evaluation of model performance against measured data is essential to produce reliable model results. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that in addition to telemetric monitoring networks, the combination of both air quality modelling and biomagnetic monitoring is a valuable approach to provide insights into the variation of atmospheric pollutants in heterogeneous urban environments.

Hofman, Jelle; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nackaerts, Ruben; Nuyts, Siegmund; Mattheyses, Lars; Samson, Roeland

2014-08-01

378

Cooperative Dispersed Urban Area Manpower Planning for Nonmetropolitan Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Federal economic development and manpower policies have seldom been coordinated, this study presents a critical examination of the effects of these policies on nonmetropolitan areas and suggests ways in which policy might be better integrated in the framework of substate planning and development districts. Examining the problems of rural areas,…

Hansen, Niles M.

379

Simple Methods of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple but physically realistic model is shown to be adequate for estimating long-term average pollutant concentrations due to area sources in cities. In this model, the surface concentration is directly proportional to the local area source strength and inversely proportional to the wind speed. The model performs nearly as well as much more…

Hanna, Steven R.

380

Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

381

A one-class classifier for identifying urban areas in remotely-sensed data  

SciTech Connect

For many remote sensing applications, land cover can be determined by using spectral information alone. Identifying urban areas, however, requires the use of texture information since these areas are not generally characterized by a unique spectral signature. We have designed a one-class classifier to discriminate between urban and non-urban data. The advantage to using our classification technique is that principles of both statistical and adaptive pattern recognition are used simultaneously. This prevents new data that is completely dissimilar from the training data from being incorrectly classified. At the same time it allows decision boundary adaptation to reduce classification error in overlap areas of the feature space. Results will be illustrated using a LANDSAT scene of the city of Albuquerque.

Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); White, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-01-01

382

A one-class classifier for identifying urban areas in remotely-sensed data  

SciTech Connect

For many remote sensing applications, land cover can be determined by using spectral information alone. Identifying urban areas, however, requires the use of texture information since these areas are not generally characterized by a unique spectral signature. We have designed a one-class classifier to discriminate between urban and non-urban data. The advantage to using our classification technique is that principles of both statistical and adaptive pattern recognition are used simultaneously. This prevents new data that is completely dissimilar from the training data from being incorrectly classified. At the same time it allows decision boundary adaptation to reduce classification error in overlap areas of the feature space. Results will be illustrated using a LANDSAT scene of the city of Albuquerque.

Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1992-05-01

383

Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

2014-06-01

384

Real-time modeling of complex atmospheric releases in urban areas  

SciTech Connect

If a nuclear installation in or near an urban area has a venting, fire, or explosion, airborne radioactivity becomes the major concern. Dispersion models are the immediate tool for estimating the dose and contamination. Responses in urban areas depend on knowledge of the amount of the release, representative meteorological data, and the ability of the dispersion model to simulate the complex flows as modified by terrain or local wind conditions. A centralized dispersion modeling system can produce realistic assessments of radiological accidents anywhere in a country within several minutes if it is computer-automated. The system requires source-term, terrain, mapping and dose-factor databases, real-time meteorological data acquisition, three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, and experienced staff. Experience with past responses in urban areas by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory illustrate the challenges for three-dimensional dispersion models.

Baskett, R.L. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Ellis, J.S.; Sullivan, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-08-01

385

Does Size Matter? Scaling of CO2 Emissions and U.S. Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Urban areas consume more than 66% of the world’s energy and generate more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With the world’s population expected to reach 10 billion by 2100, nearly 90% of whom will live in urban areas, a critical question for planetary sustainability is how the size of cities affects energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Are larger cities more energy and emissions efficient than smaller ones? Do larger cities exhibit gains from economies of scale with regard to emissions? Here we examine the relationship between city size and CO2 emissions for U.S. metropolitan areas using a production accounting allocation of emissions. We find that for the time period of 1999–2008, CO2 emissions scale proportionally with urban population size. Contrary to theoretical expectations, larger cities are not more emissions efficient than smaller ones. PMID:23750213

Fragkias, Michail; Lobo, Jose; Strumsky, Deborah; Seto, Karen C.

2013-01-01

386

Experimental characterization and modelling of the nighttime directional anisotropy of thermal infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of  

E-print Network

). Applications include monitoring the surface urban heat islands (SUHIs, tightly related to the air temperature infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of Toulouse (France) J.-P. Lagouarde a, , A. Hénon b May 2011 Accepted 3 June 2011 Available online 28 September 2011 Keywords: Anisotropy TIR Urban

Ribes, Aurélien

387

Experimental characterization and modelling of the nighttime directional anisotropy of thermal infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of  

E-print Network

). Applications include monitoring the surface urban heat islands (SUHIs, tightly related to the air temperature infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of Toulouse (France) J.-P. Lagouarde a, , A. Hénon b May 2011 Accepted 3 June 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Anisotropy TIR Urban Nighttime

Ribes, Aurélien

388

Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example  

E-print Network

Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example & Jules Silverman # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract We collected ants from six urban and one forest land-use types in Raleigh, NC to examine the effects of urbanization on species richness

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

389

Enhanced atmospheric deposition of semivolatile organic contaminants to surface waters adjacent to urban areas  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that elevated levels of atmospheric contaminants in urban areas result in enhanced atmospheric deposition to adjacent surface waters, air and precipitation were sampled at three stations along an urban to over-water to rural transect across southern Lake Michigan in 1994 and 1994 and across the northern Chesapeake Bay in 1995 and 1996. Rainwater was collected during several storms from south Chicago, from aboard the R/V Lake Guardian positioned in Lake Michigan 16 kilometers northeast of the Chicago metropolitan area, and from a rural site along the southern shoreline of the lake. PCB concentrations in Chicago precipitation were two to three orders of magnitude higher than the regional background, ranging from 4.1 ng/L in January, 1995 to 13, 190, and 8.2 ng/L during three consecutive storms in July, 1994. Urban precipitation contained significant amounts of particulate-bound PCB congeners, implying PCB enrichment due to efficient scavenging of highly contaminated particulate matter. PCB levels in precipitation falling over southern Lake Michigan were two to as much as 400 times greater than the regional background concentration, indicating that the urban plume of Chicago increases atmospheric deposition of contaminants to Lake Michigan over spatial scales of 10`s of kilometers. Air and precipitation samples collected at an urban site in Baltimore, MD and a down-wind rural site northeast of the city are currently being analyzed to map a similar urban plume signature in the northern Chesapeake Bay.

Baker, J.; Offenberg, J.; Nelson, E.; Bamford, H. [Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.; Eisenreich, S.; Zhang, H.; Simcik, M. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

390

The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the TCMA UHI with an emphasis on the contribution of different land use types on the UHI. We also present a comparison of thermal and radiative properties of two different roofing materials with data collected from the roof of the Science Museum of Minnesota in Saint Paul, MN. The impact of the TCMA UHI on thermal pollution into local water bodies is also investigated.

Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

2012-12-01

391

Regional urban area extraction using DMSP-OLS data and MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable night lights data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS) provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper proposed two new methods of extracting regional urban extents using DMSP-OLS data, MODIS NDVI data and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. MODIS NDVI data were used to reduce the over-glow effect, since urban areas generally have lower vegetation index values than the surrounding areas (e.g. agricultural and forest areas). On the other hand, urban areas generally show higher surface temperatures than the surrounding areas. Since urban area is the only class of interest, a one-class classifier, the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM), was selected as the classifier. The first method is classification of different data combinations for mapping: (1) OLS data and NDVI data, (2) OLS data and LST data, and (3) OLS data, NDVI data and LST data combined. The second one is a morphological reconstruction based method which combines classification results from OLS plus NDVI data and from OLS plus LST data. In the morphological reconstruction based method, the classification result using OLS and NDVI data was used as a mask image, while the classification result using OLS and LST data was used as a marker image. The north China area covering 14 provinces was selected as study area. Classification results from Landsat TM/ETM+ data from selected areas with different development levels were used as reference data to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed methods effectively reduced the over-glow effect caused by DSMP-OLS data and achieved better results compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique. The combination of all three datasets produces more accurate results than those of using any two datasets. The proposed morphological reconstruction based method achieves the best result in urban extent mapping.

Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, C.; Li, P. J.

2014-03-01

392

Storm water runoff concentration matrix for urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructure (roads, sidewalk, commercial and residential structures) added during the land development and urbanisation process is designed to collect precipitation and convey it out of the watershed, typically in existing surface water channels, such as streams and rivers. The quality of surface water, seepage water and ground water is influenced by pollutants that collect on impervious surfaces and that are carried by urban storm water runoff. Heavy metals, e.g. lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) and readily soluble salts in runoff, contribute to the degradation of water. An intensive literature search on the distribution and concentration of the surface-dependent runoff water has been compiled. Concentration variations of several pollutants derived from different surfaces have been averaged. More than 300 references providing about 1300 data for different pollutants culminate in a representative concentration matrix consisting of medians and extreme values. This matrix can be applied to long-term valuations and numerical modelling of storm water treatment facilities.

Göbel, P.; Dierkes, C.; Coldewey, W. G.

2007-04-01

393

Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.

Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.

2008-03-15

394

The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

2014-01-01

395

Flood risk management for the riverside urban areas of Hanoi : The need for synergy in urban development and risk management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons for an unusual over-development of flood-prone areas outside the river dyke in Hanoi, while analysing the urban development and disaster management policies, and to suggest policy measures for regulating the rapid urbanization incorporating catastrophic flood risk planning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Urban development and disaster management policies were analyzed and

Hoang Vinh Hung; Rajib Shaw; Masami Kobayashi

2010-01-01

396

Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

1982-06-01

397

The Footprint of Urban Areas on Global Climate as Characterized by MODIS.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One mechanism for climate change is the collected impact of changes in land cover or land use. Such changes are especially significant in urban areas where much of the world's population lives. Satellite observations provide a basis for characterizing the physical modifications that result from urbanization. In particular, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra satellite measures surface spectral albedos, thermal emissivities, and radiative temperatures. A better understanding of these measurements should improve our knowledge of the climate impact of urbanization as well as our ability to specify the parameters needed by climate models to compute the impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, it is useful to contrast urban areas with neighboring nonurban surfaces with regard to their radiative surface temperatures, emissivities, and albedos. Among these properties, surface temperatures have been most extensively studied previously in the context of the “urban heat island” (UHI). Nevertheless, except for a few detailed studies, the UHI has mostly been characterized in terms of surface air temperatures.To provide a global analysis, the zonal average of these properties are presented here measured over urban areas versus neighboring nonurban areas. Furthermore, individual cities are examined to illustrate the variations of these variables with land cover under different climate conditions [e.g., in Beijing, New York, and Phoenix (a desert city of the United States)]. Satellite-measured skin temperatures are related to the surface air temperatures but do not necessarily have the same seasonal and diurnal variations, since they are more coupled to surface energy exchange processes and less to the overlying atmospheric column. Consequently, the UHI effects from skin temperature are shown to be pronounced at both daytime and nighttime, rather than at night as previously suggested from surface air temperature measurements. In addition, urban areas are characterized by albedos much lower than those of croplands and deciduous forests in summer but similar to those of forests in winter. Thus, urban surfaces can be distinguished from nonurban surfaces through use of a proposed index formed by multiplying skin temperature by albedo.

Jin, Menglin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Zhang, Da

2005-05-01

398

Integration of spectral information and photogrammetric DSM for urban areas classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automated classification of urban areas in one of the main topic in the Geomatics domain. Several papers dealing with this topic have been already presented in the last decade. Most of these approaches uses multi-spectral or LiDAR data or both of them as input. In this paper, an algorithm for urban areas classification based only on overlapping RGB images is presented. The integration of radiometric and geometric information derived from aerial images is exploited in order to extract the three main classes of urban areas (i.e. building, vegetation and road) in automated way and without prior information. A photogrammetric Digital Surface Model (DSM) is firstly generated applying dense image matching techniques and this information as well as some spatial features provided by morphological filters are combined to derive a first classification. Subsequently, a thematic classification of the surveyed areas is performed considering the surface's reflectance in the visible spectrum of the used images and the multi-image information provided by the overlapping images. Range and image information are so merged in an algorithm that allows the reciprocal and iterative sharing of information in order to increase the reliability and completeness of the classification process. After a detailed description of the algorithm, the achieved results over dense urban areas are shown and discussed.

Nex, F.; Dalla Mura, M.; Remondino, F.

2013-10-01

399

OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF NOX IN AN URBAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from the Regional Air Pollution Study are surveyed to delineate the experience with NO and NO2 concentrations in St. Louis, a metropolitan area in the central United States. Two-year time series are produced for the daily maximum 1-h average in the monitoring network and the...

400

Simulation of urban heat island in Paris area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of a large city like Paris modifies the climatology of the area in part due to temperature increases particularly for low wind speed situations which are favorable to pollution events. This note presents the set of parameterization which must...

L. Musson-Genon

1994-01-01

401

Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

Wheeler, R. L.

2008-01-01

402

Stochastic model to forecast ground-level ozone concentration at urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0) x (1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1) x (0,1,1)24 has been developed for the rural area. In both sampling points, predictions of hourly ozone concentrations agree reasonably well with measured values. However, the prediction of hourly ozone concentrations in the rural point appears to be better than that of the urban point. The performance of ARIMA models suggests that this kind of modelling can be suitable for ozone concentrations forecasting. PMID:15975626

Dueñas, C; Fernández, M C; Cañete, S; Carretero, J; Liger, E

2005-12-01

403

Study on the information extraction of Evapotranspiration and its relation with the urban heat island and urban expansion in Fuzhou City with its surrounding areas of SE China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was based on two Landsat TM\\/ETM+ images acquired in 1996 and 2003 respectively and some necessary ground-based meteorological data. The surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) has been used in this thesis to extract the information of evapotranspiration. The urban heat island and urban expansion of the area were also extracted and related to the information of

Lin Wang; Han-qiu Xu

2008-01-01

404

Urban enhancement of the heat waves in Madrid and its metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban heat island (UHI) is a worldwide phenomenon that causes an increase of the temperatures in the centre of the cities. The process of urbanization has developed an intense urban heat island in Madrid, with temperature differences up to 10°C higher than the surrounding rural environment. Such differences may potentially increase the magnitude and duration of heat waves within cities, exacerbating their most negative effects over human health, particularly by night, as it deprives urban residents of the cool relief found in rural areas. In this contribution we study the long term trends on warm extreme temperature episodes in the Madrid metropolitan area, and their impact at local scale, on the onw city of Madrid. For the first task, we have compared maximum and minimum temperatures from rural (Barajas and Torrejón) and urban (El Retiro, Cuatro Vientos, Getafe) stations from 1961-2008; for the second one a local network of automated meteorological stations inside the city provided hourly data from the 2002-2004 years. Finally, the 2003 heat wave is used as an example of the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and ozone concentrations during those extreme episodes. Our results show a regional increase in the frequency and duration of those extreme warm episodes since the end of the 80´s, although their absolute magnitude remains unchanged. The urban environment exacerbates the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures during the night-time hours, as it is shown by the above average number of tropical nights (> 20°C) inside the urban spaces, simultaneous to the increasing trend of maximum temperatures. Besides, the diversity of urban morphologies introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas. The regional meteorological conditions associated to these warm episodes, characterized also by low wind speed and high values of sunshine and solar irradiation, are very favourable to increases of the levels of ozone, thus exacerbating the negative effects of the heat waves.

Fernandez, F.; Rasilla, D.

2009-04-01

405

Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption. PMID:24914598

Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

2014-01-01

406

Electrifying the bottom of the pyramid : improving access in slums  

E-print Network

Slums are expanding in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, and as a result, the lack of safe, reliable electricity access in these regions is expanding. Addressing this issue will require a comprehensive strategy that caters ...

Scott, Cecilia (Cecilia Lauren)

2010-01-01

407

Inadvertent Weather Modification in Urban Areas: Lessons for Global Climate Change.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the nation's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multi disciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioral implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally.

Changnon, Stanley A.

1992-05-01

408

Designing research to advance the management of birds in urbanizing areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers charged with maintaining self-sustaining populations of native wildlife in urbanizing areas can protect habitat reserves and encourage development styles that minimize negative impacts on wildlife. Unfortunately, few data are available to guide these activities with respect to bird conservation. Studies are needed that determine principles of reserve design and develop- ment pattern that maximize reproduction and survivorship of native

Roarke E. Donnelly; John M. Marzluff

2004-01-01

409

Attitudes and actions toward birds in urban areas: Human cultural differences influence bird behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans profoundly affect wildlife through environmental modification but they can also influence wildlife through direct interactions. We surveyed human attitudes and actions towards birds in two urban areas (Seattle, Washington, and Berlin, Germany) to determine whether encouraging (e.g., providing bird feeders) and discouraging (e.g., actively repelling) behavior directed at birds affected bird behavior. We studied human and bird behavior across

Barbara Clucas; John M. Marzluff

2012-01-01

410

Impact of Urban Parks on the Climatic Pattern of Mendoza's Metropolitan Area, in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mendoza's Metropolitan Area (MMA), in central-western Argentina, is the result of a development model where the man-made environment and the natural one conform an intermingled mosaic, resulting in a strong insertion of green open spaces in the city. In this context, the open spaces: parks, squares and urban forests significantly modify the climatic pattern of the built environment. In this

Erica Correa; Claudia Martínez; Graciela Lesino; Carlos de Rosa; Alicia Cantón

411

Fusion of Feature-and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery  

E-print Network

Fusion of Feature- and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery on Graph Cuts. The fusion pro- cess exploits the advantages of both information sources and thus yields the complete geometry of the build- ing. The fusion of those sparse features is very fragile as there is no way

Giger, Christine

412

Private Governments in Urban AreasPolitical Contracting and Collective Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are increasingly populated by new organizations called private governments that are created within the boundaries of existing local governments. Examples include homeowner associations, community benefits districts, and business improvement districts. Citizens attempting to form private governments that supply public goods may encounter collective action problems. Utilizing transaction resource theory, the article examines potential collective action problems in forming

Susan E. Baer; Richard C. Feiock

2005-01-01

413

Influence of Inversion Layers on the Distribution of Air Pollutants in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality in urban areas is on the one hand determined by the intensity of emissions. On the other hand atmospheric dispersion and chemical transformation conditions as well as topographic location have great influence on the ambient air concentrations. Within, this study the correlation between pollutant concentrations and the dynamics of atmospheric barrier and mixing layers has been experimentally

Günter Baumbach; Ulrich Vogt

2003-01-01

414

On the differences in psychotropic drug use between the three major urban areas in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marked differences in the utilisation of psychotropic drugs between the three major urban areas in Sweden were recorded from four sources of information: drug supplies from wholesalers to pharmacies, drug supplies to hospitals for in-patient use, drugs sold on prescription for out-patient use, and out-patient consultation and drug prescribing as recorded by physicians.

A. Wessling; U. Bergman; B. Westerholm

1991-01-01

415

Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

2014-01-01

416

INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL PARTICULATE MATTER ON SELECTED URBAN AREAS ACROSS THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the next few years, states will be required to develop state implementation plans for reducing concentrations of fine particles in air where, PM2.5 annual and or daily standards are exceeded. It is now well recognized that high concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas are in p...

417

Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1982 water year for drainage basins in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Rainfall-runoff computations are presented for 16 storm periods during the 1982 water year. (USGS)

Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Hutchinson, J.S.; Paul, E.M.

1985-01-01

418

Btexs Levels at Urban and SemiRural Area of Algiers City Using Air Passive Sampler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents the levels of air pollution by aromatic organic compounds BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylene) in the city of Algiers. The sampling was carried out using Radiello passive sampler. Three sampling campaigns were carried out in roadside, tunnel, urban background and semirural sites in Algiers areas. In order to determine the diurnal mean levels of

Yacine Kerchich; Rabah Kerbachi

2012-01-01

419

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman  

E-print Network

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman of insulators in winter due to road salt. We have started a research project at Arizona State University are more concerned with the effect that the road salts have on insulators, both ceramic and composite

420

Urban Area and Building Detection Using SIFT Keypoints and Graph Theory  

E-print Network

Member, IEEE, Cem ¨Unsalan, Member, IEEE, Abstract--Very high resolution satellite images provide valu is not straightforward if standard image processing and pattern recognition techniques are used. Therefore, to detect the urban area and buildings in satellite images, we propose using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT

Ã?nsalan, Cem

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