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Sample records for urea creatinine uric

  1. Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are relatively stable in postmortem serum and may, therefore, be used for diagnostic purposes when chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure are investigated as causes of death. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain in defining the best alternative to postmortem serum for the identification and assessment of significantly decreased kidney function. In this study, we investigated urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humor in a series of medico-legal cases (500 autopsies) with various causes of death. No postmortem interval-related differences were observed in any of the investigated fluids for any analyzed parameter, confirming the biochemical stability of all compounds after death. Data analysis failed to reveal statistically significant differences between postmortem serum and pericardial fluid urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. Conversely, statistically significant differences were observed in all analyzed biomarkers between postmortem serum and vitreous humor levels, with lower concentrations of all markers measured in vitreous. The results of this study suggest that, in order to estimate as accurately as possible blood analyte concentrations at the time of death, pericardial fluid should be preferred to vitreous humor. PMID:25194712

  2. Creatinine, urea, uric acid, water and electrolytes renal handling in the healthy oldest old

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos Guido; lvarez Gregori, Joaqun; Jauregui, Jos Ricardo; Macas Nez, Juan Florencio

    2012-01-01

    Renal physiology in the healthy oldest old has the following characteristics, in comparison with the renal physiology in the young: a reduced creatinine clearance, tubular pattern of creatinine back-filtration, preserved proximal tubule sodium reabsorption and uric acid secretion, reduced sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle, reduced free water clearance, increased urea excretion, presence of medulla hypotonicity, reduced urinary dilution and concentration capabilities, and finally a reduced collecting tubules response to furosemide which expresses a reduced potassium excretion in this segment due to a sort of aldosterone resistance. All physiological changes of the aged kidney are the same in both genders. PMID:24175249

  3. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  4. Plasma Levels of Uric Acid, Urea and Creatinine in Diabetics Who Visit the Clinical Analysis Laboratory (CAn-Lab) at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amartey, N.A.A.; Mensah, F.O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases worldwide. This metabolic disorder contributes greatly to the significant proportion of the burden of renal damage and dysfunction. The aim of the study was to investigate the renal function of the diabetic patients who visit the Clinical Analysis Laboratory (CAn-Lab) at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Demographic data as well as medical history were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire. Anthro-pometric measurements were taken and blood samples were analysed for glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 34 diabetic patients, aged from 40-77 y were recruited, 22 (64.7%) of them were males with mean age of 57.40 11.8 y (SD), while 12 (35.3%) were females with mean age of 58.17 7.47 y. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean duration of the disease, as the females had longer duration, 12.50 6.95 y, as compared to 7.32 4.48 y in males (p=0.033). The mean plasma creatinine level in the females was 84.17 54.73 ?mol/l. In the diabetic population, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma creatinine level, (r=0.375, p=0.029). In the female diabetics, there was a positive correlation between fasting blood sugar (FBS) and the measured metabolic end products (r>0.5, p<0.05), a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (r=0.576, p=0.005) and a positive correlation between BMI and FBS (r= 0.625, p= 0.030). Conclusion: Our results on the parameters measured; show that the diabetic population was experiencing mild kidney dysfunction, compared to non-diabetic controls. PMID:25859443

  5. The Urinary Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratio is An Adjuvant Marker for Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Bhongir, Aparna Varma; Yakama, Akhil Varma Venkata; Saha, Subhajit; Radia, Sejal B.; Pabbati, Jayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio (UA/Cr) in relation to Apgar score and cord blood gas analysis in identification of perinatal asphyxia and to define the cutoff values. Design case control study. Setting The newborns admitted in the department of pediatrics and NICU of Mediciti Institute of Medical Science, Ghanpur, Medchal mandal, Telangana from May-July 2011 were enrolled. Participants/patients The study was conducted on 31 (18 males, 13 females) controls and 18 (12males, 6 females) asphyxiated neonates. Outcome Measure(s) 5ml of arterial cord blood of newborn collected at the time of birth and spot urine samples were collected within 24-72 hours of life. Cord blood gas analysis were done immediately and Urinary uric acid was measured by modified Uricase method, urinary creatinine by modified kinetic Jaffe's reaction. Results The mean urinary uric acid and creatinine ratio (2.58± 0.48 vs 1.89 ± 0.59) is significantly higher in Asphyxiated group than in the control group. The umbilical cord blood pH had significant positive correlation with 1st minute Apgar score (r= 0.41, p=0.003), 5th minute Apgar (r= 0.44, p=0.002), while urinary UA/Cr ratio had significant negative correlation with cord blood pH (r= -0.63, p=0.002). Urinary UA/Cr ratio with criterion of >2.43 had 80% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity with AUC of 0.84 (p=0.003) had a better predictive value. Conclusions Urinary UA/Cr ratio is easy, non-invasive, painless and economical adjuvant parameter with better predictive value for diagnosing perinatal asphyxia with simple diagnostic equipment.

  6. Creatinine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... then passes out of the body in your urine. If you have kidney disease, the level of creatinine in your blood increases. Blood (serum) and urine tests can check your creatinine levels. The tests ...

  7. Very fast electrophoretic determination of creatinine and uric acid in human urine using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    PubMed

    Pavl?ek, Vclav; T?ma, Petr; Mat?j?kov, Jana; Samcov, Eva

    2014-04-01

    A capillary system formed by combining 25 and 100 ?m id capillaries was used in the short-end injection mode to determine creatinine and uric acid in human urine. The separation was performed at an electric field intensity of 2.3 kV/cm. Creatinine was determined in a BGE with a composition of 20 mM citric acid/NaOH (pH 3.0), and uric acid was determined in 20 mM MES/NaOH (pH 6.0). Under these conditions, migration times of 12.2 s for creatinine and 8.6 s for uric acid were achieved. The LOD value is 2.4 mg/L for creatinine and 0.9 mg/L for uric acid; the RSD for the migration time varies in the range 0.7-1.1% (intra day) to 1.0-7.5% (inter day); RSDs for the peak areas equalled 3.4-4.0% (intra day) and 4.3-4.7% (inter day). The determined creatinine values in seven urine samples vary in the range 221-1394 mg/L for creatinine and 87-615 mg/L for uric acid. t-Test did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the developed CE methodologies and reference methods - Jaff reaction for creatinine and enzymatic uricase test for uric acid. PMID:24114779

  8. Creatinine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or ankles Urine that is foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored A decrease in the amount of urine ... treatments. ^ Back to top What does the test result mean? Increased creatinine levels in the blood suggest ...

  9. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  10. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V K; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations. PMID:26529636

  11. The effects of a probiotic on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in large felids.

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie; Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward

    2011-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a common finding in older captive exotic felids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic to reduce blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in large felids. Fifteen adult, large felids (6 tigers [Panthera tigris], 5 lions [Panthera leo], 3 cougars [Puma concolor], and 1 leopard [Panthera pardus]) were administered a probiotic twice daily after a baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry panel was obtained. Plasma chemistry values were rechecked at 2 mo (n = 14) and 6 mo (n = 9). There was no significant change in blood urea nitrogen over time; however, there was a significant change in creatinine over time (P = 0.04). Creatinine concentration decreased significantly between 2 and 6 mo (P = 0.02), and a decrease was seen between 0 and 6 mo, but this change was not significant (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference noted for creatinine concentration between 0 and 2 mo (P = 0.35). This probiotic may be helpful in large felids with elevated creatinine concentrations because of chronic kidney disease; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:22950314

  12. Changes in Serum Electrolytes, Urea, and Creatinine in Aloe Vera-treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saka, WA; Akhigbe, RE; Popoola, OT; Oyekunle, OS

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Aloe vera extract (AvE) on serum electrolytes, urea, and creatinine as indices of renal function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 80 and 130 g were used. Rats were divided into two groups: The control and the test groups (n=6). The test group received 1 ml of AvE daily for 28 days. Both the groups fed on standard rat chow and water ad libitum. The results showed a decrease in serum levels of sodium, and potassium, but an increase in the serum levels of bicarbonate, urea, and creatinine in the test group. The changes seen were, however, statistically insignificant, except for the serum levels of sodium and creatinine (P<0.05). It is thus concluded that AvE impairs renal handling of electrolytes with consequent hyponatremia and hypercreatinemia. However, this might be of therapeutic value in conditions associated with hypernatremia. PMID:22754258

  13. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    PubMed

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found. PMID:26457736

  14. Determination of creatinine, uric and ascorbic acid in bovine milk and orange juice by hydrophilic interaction HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ruiting; Zhou, Si; Zuo, Yuegang; Deng, Yiwei

    2015-09-01

    Creatinine (Cr), uric (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are common constituents in human fluids. Their abnormal concentrations in human fluids are associated with various diseases. Thus, apart from the endogenous formation in human body, it is also important to examine their sources from food products. In this study, a rapid and accurate HILIC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Cr, UA and AA in bovine milk and orange juice. Milk samples were pretreated by protein precipitation, centrifugation and filtration, followed by HPLC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 column. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of UA, AA and Cr in milk and fruit juice samples. The milk samples tested were found to contain UA and creatinine in the concentration range of 24.1-86.0 and 5.07-11.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The orange juices contain AA over 212 μg mL(-1). PMID:25842333

  15. Analytical nanosphere sensors using quantum dot-enzyme conjugates for urea and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2010-11-01

    An enzyme-linked analytical nanosphere sensor (ANSor) is described, responding to enzyme-substrate turnover in the vicinity of a quantum dot (QD) due to coimmobilized enzyme and pH sensitive ligand. QD capping by mercapto-alkanoic acids were rejected as a pH sensitive ligand, but with the use of a layer-by-layer assembly on mercaptopropionic capped QDs and an intermediate poly(allylamine hydrochloride) layer, anthraquinone sulfonate (calcium red, CaR) was introduced to modify the pKa in the immobilized system > 8. QD-CaR absorption shows spectral overlap with QD530 emission at all pHs and gives a complex pH dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency, due to excited state proton transfer (?(ex) = 540 nm; ?(em) = 585 nm). In contrast QD615-CaR with spectral overlap between the QD and CaR gave a strong and reproducible pH response. QD-urease and QD-creatinine deiminase conjugates could be linked with pH changes produced by enzyme degradation of urea and creatinine, respectively. Close coupling between the pH sensitive QD and enzyme conjugate maximized signal compared with solution based assays: QD-urease and QD-CD bioconjugates were tested in model biological media (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium and fetal calf serum) and in urine, showing a response in 3-4 min. PMID:20939534

  16. Effects of Bed-Rest on Urea and Creatinine: Correlation with Changes in Fat-Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    Bilancio, Giancarlo; Lombardi, Cinzia; Pisot, Rado; De Santo, Natale G.; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Cirillo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Bed-rest experiments are designed for investigation on catabolic effects of hypokinetic conditions and/or for microgravity simulation in on-ground aerospace research. Bed-rest effects include a reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass. Urea and creatinine are catabolites of endogenous protein and of muscular energetic metabolism which are excreted mainly by the kidney. The study investigated on urea, creatinine, and kidney function during bed-rest. Methods Twenty healthy young men underwent a 7-day adaptation period (day-6 to day-0) and a 35-day bed-rest experiment (day1 to day35) during normocaloric diet. Urine were collected from day-3 to day0 (baseline) and from day1 to day35. Blood samples and anthropometrical data were collected at day0 (baseline) and bed-rest days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results Bed-rest reduced plasma volume, weight, fat-free mass, and muscle mass (P<0.001). During bed-rest there was a transient increase in plasma and urinary urea, a decrease in plasma creatinine, and no change in urinary creatinine. The overall integral of changes from day0 to day35 was on average +101.7 mg/dL for plasma urea (95%CI?=?+43.4/+159.9), +82.2 g/24 h for urinary urea (95%CI?=?+55.8/+108.7), ?2.5 mg/dL for plasma creatinine (95%CI?=??3.1/?1.9). Bed-rest reduced plasma cistatyn C also, which was used as mass-independent marker of glomerular filtration rate (?13.1%, P<0.05). Correlations with final reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass were significant for the overall integral of changes in urinary urea from day0 to day35 (R?=?0.706, P<0.001) and for early changes in urinary urea and plasma urea from day0 to day7 (R?=?0.566, P?=?0.009 and R?=?0.715, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Study results shows that urea is a marker of catabolic conditions secondary to hypokinetic conditions. PMID:25265226

  17. Simultaneous determination of plasma creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan by high-performance liquid chromatography: method validation and in application to the assessment of renal function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxing

    2015-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of a set of reliable markers of renal function, including creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan in plasma. Separation was achieved by an Agilent HC-C18 (2) analytical column. Gradient elution and programmed wavelength detection allowed the method to be used to analyze these compounds by just one injection. The total run time was 25 min with all peaks of interest being eluted within 13 min. Good linear responses were found with correlation coefficient >0.999 for all analytes within the concentration range of the relevant levels. The recovery was: creatinine, 101 1%; uric acid, 94.9 3.7%; kynurenine, 100 2%; and tryptophan, 92.6 2.9%. Coefficients of variation within-run and between-run of all analytes were ?2.4%. The limit of detection of the method was: creatinine, 0.1 mol/L; uric acid, 0.05 mol/L; kynurenine, 0.02 mol/L; and tryptophan, 1 mol/L. The developed method could be employed as a useful tool for the detection of chronic kidney disease, even at an early stage. PMID:25042392

  18. Availability of Blood Urea Nitrogen/Creatinine Ratio in Gastrointestinal Bleeding with Melena in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Kang, Chan Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of our study were to evaluate the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr ratio) for distinguishing between an upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and differentiating between the two most common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) presenting with melena in children. Methods Retrospective data of patients with GIB presenting with melena were analyzed. The data from 60 cases were reviewed including demographics, laboratory findings, diagnostic modalities and results, treatments, and transfusions. Results Among the 60 cases, UGIB and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) were found in 35 cases (58.3%) and 14 cases (23.3%), respectively. The two common causes of UGIB were varices (37.1%), and peptic ulcer diseases (PUD) (31.4%). The BUN/Cr ratio of 30 or greater was higher in UGIB than LGIB (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-37.2). In UGIB, the BUN/Cr ratio of the varices group was higher than that of the PUD group (p=0.015). The OR for the BUN/Cr ratio appeared as 1.2 per unit increase in the varices group than the PUD group (95% CI, 1.03-1.3). There was no difference between the PUD group and Meckel's diverticulum group. Conclusion The BUN/Cr ratio was not uneven in differentiating UGIB from LGIB of children with melena in our study. This suggests that BUN/Cr ratio should be interpreted carefully. PMID:25866731

  19. Ammonia production from uric acid, urea, and amino acids and its absorption from the ceca of the cockerel.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Karasawa Y

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in situ and in vitro in the ceca to measure ammonia production from uric acid, urea, and amino acids and its absorption. When uric acid was injected into a cecal sac containing mixed cecal microfloras, 77% disappeared within 1 hour, with a concomitant increase in ammonia concentration. When [15N]uric acid was added to the ceca in situ, 28% was converted to ammonia after 30 minutes. About 92% of the ammonia introduced into a cecal sac disappeared from the lumen fluid within 30 minutes. About 43% of each of urea nitrogen and glutamine-amide nitrogen was converted to ammonia-nitrogen, and 25% of uric acid-nitrogen and epsilon nitrogen of the arginine was found in ammonia. The conversion of aminonitrogen of glutamic acid and glycine to ammonia amounted to 19-20%, whereas that of alpha-alanine totaled 11%. It is concluded that dietary and urinary nitrogenous compounds that find their way into the ceca are useful nitrogen sources for ammonia production by microflora in the ceca of the chicken, and that ammonia is absorbed rapidly from the ceca.

  20. A multi-functional electrochemical sensing system using microfluidic technology for the detection of urea and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-June; Lin, Jiun-Lin; Chen, Ping-Hong; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2011-04-01

    This study presents a new microfluidic system capable of precise measurements of two important biomarkers, urea and creatinine, automatically. In clinical applications, high levels of these two biomarkers are early indicators of nephropathy or renal failure and should be monitored on a regular basis. The microfluidic system is composed of a microfluidic chip, a control circuit system, a compressed air source and several electromagnetic valves to form a handheld system. The microfluidic chip is fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and microfluidic techniques comprising electrochemical sensor arrays and polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic structures such as micropumps/micromixers, normally closed valves and microchannels. The microfluidic system performs a variety of critical processes including sample pretreatment, mixing, transportation and detection on a single chip. The experimental results show that the entire procedure takes approximately 40 min, which is much faster than the traditional method (more than 6 h). Furthermore, the total sample volume consumed in each operation is only 0.1 mL, which is significantly less than that required in a large system (5 mL). The developed automatic microfluidic system may provide a powerful platform for further clinical applications. PMID:21437917

  1. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  2. Validation of a multi-analyte HPLC-DAD method for determination of uric acid, creatinine, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2-methylhippuric acid in human urine.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Grunwald, Soeren; Hoeke, Henrike; Mueller, Andrea; Roeder, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-15

    During the last decades exposure sciences and epidemiological studies attracts more attention to unravel the mechanisms for the development of chronic diseases. According to this an existing HPLC-DAD method for determination of creatinine in urine samples was expended for seven analytes and validated. Creatinine, uric acid, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were separated by gradient elution (formate buffer/methanol) using an Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution column (4.6mm×100mm). No interfering signals were detected in mobile phase. After injection of blank urine samples signals for the endogenous compounds but no interferences were detected. All analytes were linear in the selected calibration range and a non weighted calibration model was chosen. Bias, intra-day and inter-day precision for all analytes were below 20% for quality control (QC) low and below 10% for QC medium and high. The limits of quantification in mobile phase were in line with reported reference values but had to be adjusted in urine for homovanillic acid (45mg/L), niacinamide 58.5(mg/L), and indole-3-acetic acid (63mg/L). Comparison of creatinine data obtained by the existing method with those of the developed method showing differences from -120mg/L to +110mg/L with a mean of differences of 29.0mg/L for 50 authentic urine samples. Analyzing 50 authentic urine samples, uric acid, creatinine, hippuric acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were detected in (nearly) all samples. However, homovanillic acid was detected in 40%, niacinamide in 4% and indole-3-acetic acid was never detected within the selected samples. PMID:26151191

  3. Serologic Investigation of Hantavirus Infection in Patients with Previous Thrombocytopenia, and Elevated Urea and Creatinine Levels in an Epidemic Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sevencan, Funda; Gzalan, Aysegl; Uyar, Yavuz; Kavakli, Ismet; Trkyilmaz, Bedia; Ertek, Mustafa; Lundkvist, Ake

    2015-11-20

    The first cases of Hantavirus infection in Turkey were reported in early 2009 in the Zonguldak and Bartin provinces. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Hantavirus antibodies in patients who had clinical and laboratory findings that were potentially associated with Hantavirus infection prior to the epidemic in Bartin in 2009. After screening 314,577 medical records from between 2007 and 2009, the clinical and laboratory data for 442 patients meeting the criteria of coexistent thrombocytopenia, and elevated urea and creatinine levels were transferred to a statistical program. Home visits were made to 170 patients, 84 of whom consented to participate in the study. The participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Commercial anti-Hantavirus IgG and IgM ELISA and immunoblotting assays were used, with seropositive samples being confirmed by focus reduction neutralization tests (FRNT). ELISA and/or immunoblotting assays detected 10 positive samples; however, only 7 of these were recorded as positive by FRNT. FRNT positivity was significantly associated with female sex, the presence of a barn near to the house, and working in a forest (P < 0.05). In a Hantavirus endemic region, physicians must keep in mind that thrombocytopenia, and elevated urea and creatinine levels may indicate Hantavirus infection. PMID:25866109

  4. Urea

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 10 / 005F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF UREA ( CAS No . 57 - 13 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in acc

  5. Urea

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Urea ; CASRN : 57 - 13 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  6. Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; de Sousa Vieira, Elzo Everton; Silveira, Landulfo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2013-08-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HT) diseases are predisposed to kidney diseases. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers in the urine of diabetic and hypertensive patients through Raman spectroscopy in order to predict the evolution to complications and kidney failure. Urine samples were collected from control subjects (CTR) and patients with diabetes and HT with no complications (lower risk, LR), high degree of complications (higher risk, HR), and doing blood dialysis (DI). Urine samples were stored frozen (-20°C) before spectral analysis. Raman spectra were obtained using a dispersive spectrometer (830-nm, 300-mW power, and 20-s accumulation). Spectra were then submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) followed by discriminant analysis. The first PCA loading vectors revealed spectral features of urea, creatinine, and glucose. It has been found that the amounts of urea and creatinine decreased as disease evoluted from CTR to LR/HR and DI (PC1, p<0.05), and the amount of glucose increased in the urine of LR/HR compared to CTR (PC3, p<0.05). The discriminating model showed better overall classification rate of 70%. These results could lead to diagnostic information of possible complications and a better disease prognosis.

  7. Influence of urate-lowering therapies on renal handling of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Wei, Lei; Chen, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhuojun; Yu, Qiang; Ji, Zongfei; Jiang, Lindi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of urate-lowering therapies (ULTs) on renal uric acid excretion in gout patients. This prospective observational study involved 106 primary gout patients and 51 healthy controls. Gout patients received ULT with either xanthine oxidase inhibitors or the uricosuric agent benzbromarone. Parameters such as 24-h urinary uric acid, creatinine clearance, uric acid clearance, glomerular filtration load of uric acid, fractional excretion of uric acid, excretion of uric acid per volume of glomerular filtration, and urinary uric acid to urinary creatinine ratio were used to evaluate the pre- and post-treatment renal capacity for uric acid clearance in gout patients and were compared with the values in the healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, gout patients had higher glomerular filtration load of uric acid and lower uric acid clearance, creatinine clearance, and fractional uric acid excretion. After ULT, both the xanthine oxidase inhibitor group and benzbromarone group patients showed reduction in glomerular filtration load of uric acid. Creatinine clearance was significantly improved in the xanthine oxidase inhibitor group. Excretion function was remarkably enhanced in patients who reached the treatment target (serum uric acid <6 mg/dl). Changes in glomerular uric acid filtration load were significantly correlated with changes in serum urate levels. Gout patients have impaired renal uric acid excretion. ULTs reduce renal urate load and enhance the renal capacity of uric acid clearance. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors showed superiority over benzbromarone in improving renal function. PMID:25373449

  8. Association of uric acid with traditional inflammatory factors in stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aiqun; Zou, Ting; Xiong, Guangzhong; Zhang, Jingping

    2016-04-01

    Uric acid (UA) plays an important role in the oxidant stress that causes inflammation. We assessed the association between UA and neutrophil ratio, white blood cell (WBC) count and blood lipid in 524 patients admitted with stroke. Stroke patients with a neutrophil ratio >70% displayed significantly lower UA levels than those with a neutrophil ratio ≤70% (p < 0.05). According to UA quartiles, neutrophil ratio, WBC count, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the UA grade 1 group (≤214.10 μmol/L) were significantly increased over those in other UA grade groups. The results of stepwise regression analysis found that UA levels were inversely associated with neutrophil ratios (B ± SE = -1.11 ± 0.35), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (B ± SE = -46.18 ± 14.17), total cholesterol (B ± SE = 9.82 ± 3.66), blood urea nitrogen (B ± SE = 6.30 ± 1.73), and creatinine (B ± SE = 0.63 ± 0.10). There is a correlationship between lower serum uric acid with neutrophil ratios in inflammation associated with stroke and the reasons need to be investigated further. PMID:26001205

  9. Colorimetric Detection of Creatinine Based on Plasmonic Nanoparticles via Synergistic Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianjun; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Shi; Sum, Tze Chien; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    A simple and portable colorimetric assay for creatinine detection is fabricated based on the synergistic coordination of creatinine and uric acid with Hg(2+) on the surface of gold nanoparticles, which exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity. Point-of-care clinical creatinine monitoring can be supported for monitoring renal function and diagnosing corresponding renal diseases at home. PMID:26037022

  10. Folic acid reverses uric acid crystal-induced surface OAT1 internalization by inhibiting RhoA activity in uric acid nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    WU, XINLIN; LIU, JIANXIANG; ZHANG, JIANQING; LIU, HENG; YAN, MIANSHENG; LIANG, BIRONG; XIE, HONGBO; ZHANG, SHIJUN; SUN, BAOGUO; ZHOU, HOUMING

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how organic anion transporter (OAT)-1 is involved in uric acid nephropathy (UAN), a rat model for UAN was established and the serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were all measured, and observed to be increased. It was additionally identified that in UAN rats the surface OAT1 expression levels were reduced. By treating HEK cells with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, it was observed that the cells exhibited a reduction in OAT1 levels. Furthermore, MSU crystals were observed to recruit Ras homolog family member A (RhoA), a small guanosine triphosphatase, to the membrane and activate it. Following RhoA activation, the OAT1 internalization rate was identified to be increased. The dominant-negative RhoA N19 mutation was able to block MSU-induced OAT1 internalization, indicating that the process was RhoA-dependent. Finally, the results indicated that folic acid, a daily nutritional supplement, was capable of rescuing MSU-induced nephropathy and OAT1 internalization. These observations indicated that uric acid crystals were able to reduce the OAT1 membrane distribution through activating RhoA, and that folic acid was capable of preventing MSU-induced OAT1 relocation by inhibiting the RhoA signaling pathway. PMID:26846716

  11. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  12. Close correlation between visceral fat accumulation and uric acid metabolism in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Yamamoto, T; Tsutsumi, Z; Moriwaki, Y; Yamakita, J; Higashino, K

    1997-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of accumulation of intraabdominal visceral fat on the metabolism of uric acid in 50 healthy male subjects to elucidate any relationship between such obesity and hyperuricemia. The area of abdominal fat (visceral fat and subcutaneous fat) was measured at the level of the umbilicus by abdominal computed tomographic scanning. Serum and urinary concentrations of uric acid and creatinine were determined with an autoanalyzer. Uric acid clearance and the ratio of urinary uric acid to creatinine excreted in urine were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between uric acid metabolism and body fat. The size of the area of visceral fat was significantly correlated with the serum concentration of uric acid (r = .37, P < .01), uric acid clearance (r = -.34, P < .05), and the urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio (r = .65, P < .0001). The size of the area of subcutaneous fat was significantly correlated only with the urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio (r = .38, P < .01). Multivariate analyses, including body mass index (BMI), showed that the size of the visceral fat area was the strongest contributor to an elevated serum concentration of uric acid, a decrease in uric acid clearance, and an increase in the urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio. These results suggest that accumulation of visceral fat may have a greater adverse effect on the metabolism of uric acid than BMI or accumulation of subcutaneous fat. Clearly, patients with hyperuricemia should lose weight to reduce excessive visceral fat stores, to help avoid attacks of gout. PMID:9322800

  13. Distribution of creatinine following intravenous and oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, J; Hirate, J; Iwamoto, K; Ozeki, S

    1981-05-01

    To evaluate the distribution of creatinine in rats, urinary, fecal and expiratory excretion, plasma levels and whole-body autoradiography following intravenous or oral administration of [carbonyl-14C]creatinine was investigated. More than 90% of the exogeneous creatinine was excreted in the urine in 24 hr following intravenous administration, and both fecal and expiratory excretion were only about 1%. In case of oral administration, however, it was found that expiratory excretion could not be neglected, ranging from about 1 to 30%. Plasma creatinine concentration-time curves following the intravenous administration (70.4 micrograms/kg or 400 mg/kg as creatinine) were analyzed according to a two-compartment open model. There were significant but very small differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters for these two doses. When these parameters were compared with those of urea, k12 and k21, which are transfer rate constants between compartment 1 and 2, for creatinine were significantly smaller than those of urea. On the other hand, k10 was larger in creatinine. Furthermore, (V'd)extrap for creatinine was about three times that of urea. Whole-body autoradiograms at 5 minutes following intravenous administration showed that exogeneous creatinine distributes with higher concentrations in liver, lung and kidney than in muscle and fat. This results was remarkably different from that of urea which distributes almost uniformly throughout the body at the same time. This difference observed in the autoradiograms would be the consequence of the fact that urea has larger k12 and k21 than creatinine. PMID:7288550

  14. Dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical determinants of uric acid in free-living adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High plasma uric acid (UA) is a prerequisite for gout and is also associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components and consequently risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the management of UA serum concentrations would be essential for the treatment and/or prevention of human diseases and, to that end, it is necessary to know what the main factors that control the uricemia increase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main factors associated with higher uricemia values analyzing diet, body composition and biochemical markers. Methods 415 both gender individuals aged 21 to 82 years who participated in a lifestyle modification project were studied. Anthropometric evaluation consisted of weight and height measurements with later BMI estimation. Waist circumference was also measured. The muscle mass (Muscle Mass Index – MMI) and fat percentage were measured by bioimpedance. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour recalls with later quantification of the servings on the Brazilian food pyramid and the Healthy Eating Index. Uric acid, glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, gamma-GT, albumin and calcium and HDL-c were quantified in serum by the dry-chemistry method. LDL-c was estimated by the Friedewald equation and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) by the immunochemiluminiscence method. Statistical analysis was performed by the SAS software package, version 9.1. Linear regression (odds ratio) was performed with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in order to observe the odds ratio for presenting UA above the last quartile (♂UA > 6.5 mg/dL and ♀ UA > 5 mg/dL). The level of significance adopted was lower than 5%. Results Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 OR = 2.28(1.13-4.6) and lower MMI OR = 13.4 (5.21-34.56) showed greater chances of high UA levels even after all adjustments (gender, age, CRP, gamma-gt, LDL, creatinine, urea, albumin, HDL-c, TG, arterial hypertension and glucose). As regards biochemical markers, higher triglycerides OR = 2.76 (1.55-4.90), US-CRP OR = 2.77 (1.07-7.21) and urea OR = 2.53 (1.19-5.41) were associated with greater chances of high UA (adjusted for gender, age, BMI, waist circumference, MMI, glomerular filtration rate, and MS). No association was found between diet and UA. Conclusions The main factors associated with UA increase were altered BMI (overweight and obesity), muscle hypotrophy (MMI), higher levels of urea, triglycerides, and CRP. No dietary components were found among uricemia predictors. PMID:23311699

  15. The assessment of glomerular function: creatinine clearance or plasma creatinine?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D. B.; Dillon, S.; Payne, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Plasma creatinine concentration is superior to creatinine clearance for the detection of abnormal glomerular function, of changes of glomerular function in patients with chronic renal disease. Creatinine clearance should be abandoned as the routine assessment of glomerular function. PMID:673986

  16. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment for cancer. Rapid cell turnover from such treatment can result in an increased uric acid level. The uric acid urine test is used to help diagnose the cause of recurrent kidney stones and to monitor people with gout for stone formation. ^ Back to top When is ...

  17. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  18. Spreadsheet Use to Calculate Creatinine Clearance From Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Shrewsberry, Timothy W.; Banoub, Ashraf; Fleming, Kevin; Snyder, Holly; Stehlik, James

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Spreadsheets may be created to include the Cockcroft-Gault Formula (CGF) for creatinine-based estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) provides a more accurate method for perioperative risk assessment of renal function than serum creatinine. CrCl may be used to develop guidelines for renal protective management strategies during cardiopulmonary bypass. CGF uses serum creatinine, age, kilogram weight, sex, and logical test functions within the spreadsheet to calculate the CrCl. Implementation of spreadsheets has the potential for numerous other calculations and may provide an accurate and consistent method of clinical perfusion management. PMID:18293814

  19. Serum creatinine. A CAP survey.

    PubMed

    Chinn, E K; Batsakis, J G; Pilon, H; Delbecg, K

    1978-09-01

    The results of the 1976--1977 College of American Pathologists Survey of serum creatinine measurements performed by more than 5,000 laboratories are presented. The most widely used method employs the colorimetric measurement of the alkaline picrate-creatinine (Jaffe) reaction. In general, all manual and automated systems yielded comparable creatinine concentrations except the centrifugal analyzers, which manifested a consistently high bias. Interlaboratory variation was lowest for continuous-flow and the DuPont discrete systems. Lloyd's reagent resulted in a clinically insignificant reduction of creatinine concentration in lyophilized sera. PMID:707415

  20. Four-week effects of allopurinol and febuxostat treatments on blood pressure and serum creatinine level in gouty men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong W

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men. PMID:25120316

  1. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  2. Relationship between Serum Uric Acid Concentration and Acute Kidney Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Baek, Seung-Hee; Ji, Sung-Mi; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Choi, In-Cheol

    2015-10-01

    An elevated serum concentration of uric acid may be associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of preoperative uric acid concentration on the risk of AKI after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Perioperative data were evaluated from patients who underwent CABG. AKI was defined by the AKI Network criteria based on serum creatinine changes within the first 48 hr after CABG. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to evaluate the association between preoperative uric acid and postoperative AKI. We evaluated changes in C statistic, the net reclassification improvement, and the integrated discrimination improvement to determine whether the addition of preoperative uric acid improved prediction of AKI. Of the 2,185 patients, 787 (36.0%) developed AKI. Preoperative uric acid was significantly associated with postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.26; P<0.001). Adding uric acid levels improved the C statistic and had significant impact on risk reclassification and integrated discrimination for AKI. Preoperative uric acid is related to postoperative AKI and improves the predictive ability of AKI. This finding suggests that preoperative measurement of uric acid may help stratify risks for AKI in in patients undergoing CABG. PMID:26425051

  3. Long-term activation of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase lowers circulating levels of uric acid in diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Carpn, C; Desquesnes, A; Gomez-Ruiz, A; Iffi-Soltsz, Z; Le Gonidec, S; Mercader, J

    2012-01-01

    Uric acid is involved in nitrogenous waste in animals, together with ammonia and urea. Uric acid has also antioxidant properties and is a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome. We observed that the elevated plasma uric acid of high-fat fed mice was normalized by benzylamine treatment. Indeed, benzylamine is the reference substrate of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), an enzyme highly expressed in fat depots and vessels, which generates ammonia when catalysing oxidative deamination. Ammonia interferes with uric acid metabolism/solubility. Our aim was therefore to investigate whether the lowering action of benzylamine on uric acid was related to an improvement of diabetic complications, or was connected with SSAO-dependent ammonia production. First, we observed that benzylamine administration lowered plasma uric acid in diabetic db/db mice while it did not modify uric acid levels in normoglycemic and lean mice. In parallel, benzylamine improved the glycemic control in diabetic but not in normoglycemic mice, while plasma urea remained unaltered. Then, uric acid plasma levels were measured in mice invalidated for AOC3 gene, encoding for SSAO. These mice were unable to oxidize benzylamine but were not diabetic and exhibited unaltered plasma uric levels. Therefore, activated or abolished ammonia production by SSAO was without influence on uric acid in the context of normoglycemia. Our observations confirm that plasma uric acid increases with diabetes and can be normalized when glucose tolerance is improved. They also show that uric acid, a multifunctional metabolite at the crossroads of nitrogen waste and of antioxidant defences, can be influenced by SSAO, in a manner apparently related to changes in glucose homeostasis. PMID:22480418

  4. Antioxidation mechanisms of uric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Simic, M.G. ); Jovanovic, S.V. )

    1989-07-19

    One-electron oxidation of uric acid generates the urate radical, which was studied in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis and oxygen-uptake measurements. Acid-base properties of the uric acid radical were determined, i.e., pK{sub a1} = 3.1 {plus minus} 0.1 and pK{sub a2} = 9.5 {plus minus} 0.1. The reaction of the radical with oxygen was too slow to be measured, k < 10{sup {minus}2} dm{sup 3} mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The one-electron-redox potential vs NHE, E{sub 7} = 0.59 V, was derived from the pH dependence of the redox potential, which was fitted through the values measured at pH 7 and 8.9 and those previously determined at pH 13. Rapid reactions of uric acid with oxidizing species and peroxy radicals were indicative of uric acid as a possible water-soluble physiological antioxidant. Rapid reaction of uric acid with the guanyl radical indicates that uric acid may also act as a repair agent of oxidative damage to DNA bases.

  5. Approach to managing elevated creatinine.

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Richard

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a systematic approach to finding the underlying cause of an elevated creatinine level. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: This diagnostic approach is based on a synthesis of information from reference works on nephrology, articles found through a MEDLINE search, and the author's personal experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Elevated creatinine levels suggest the differential diagnosis of renal failure (RF). History and a complete physical examination are important, keeping in mind that RF is often asymptomatic in the early stages. After repeating the creatinine test to verify results, baseline tests should be ordered to identify the cause of the RF. Comparing results of serial tests is essential for determining whether RF is acute or chronic, stable or progressive. An ultrasound scan is particularly useful for eliminating an obstructive cause; the size of the kidney can indicate whether disease is acute or chronic. Complementary blood tests and imaging studies might be useful. CONCLUSION: Diagnosing and managing RF can appear complex, but a systematic approach will help you find the cause and treat the condition. PMID:15171676

  6. The cystatin C/creatinine ratio, a marker of glomerular filtration quality: associated factors, reference intervals, and prediction of morbidity and mortality in healthy seniors.

    PubMed

    Purde, Mette-Triin; Nock, Stefan; Risch, Lorenz; Medina Escobar, Pedro; Grebhardt, Chris; Nydegger, Urs E; Stanga, Zeno; Risch, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The ratio of cystatin C (cysC) to creatinine (crea) is regarded as a marker of glomerular filtration quality associated with cardiovascular morbidities. We sought to determine reference intervals for serum cysC-crea ratio in seniors. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether other low-molecular weight molecules exhibit a similar behavior in individuals with altered glomerular filtration quality. Finally, we investigated associations with adverse outcomes. A total of 1382 subjectively healthy Swiss volunteers aged 60 years or older were enrolled in the study. Reference intervals were calculated according to Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline EP28-A3c. After a baseline exam, a 4-year follow-up survey recorded information about overall morbidity and mortality. The cysC-crea ratio (mean 0.0124 ± 0.0026 mg/μmol) was significantly higher in women and increased progressively with age. Other associated factors were hemoglobin A1c, mean arterial pressure, and C-reactive protein (P < 0.05 for all). Participants exhibiting shrunken pore syndrome had significantly higher ratios of 3.5-66.5 kDa molecules (brain natriuretic peptide, parathyroid hormone, β2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol-binding protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone, α1-acid glycoprotein, lipase, amylase, prealbumin, and albumin) and creatinine. There was no such difference in the ratios of very low-molecular weight molecules (urea, uric acid) to creatinine or in the ratios of molecules larger than 66.5 kDa (transferrin, haptoglobin) to creatinine. The cysC-crea ratio was significantly predictive of mortality and subjective overall morbidity at follow-up in logistic regression models adjusting for several factors. The cysC-crea ratio exhibits age- and sex-specific reference intervals in seniors. In conclusion, the cysC-crea ratio may indicate the relative retention of biologically active low-molecular weight compounds and can independently predict the risk for overall mortality and morbidity in the elderly. PMID:26637934

  7. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  8. Fabrication of dissolved O2 metric uric acid biosensor using uricase epoxy resin biocomposite membrane.

    PubMed

    Arora, Jyoti; Nandwani, Seep; Bhambi, Manu; Pundir, C S

    2009-08-11

    Uricase purified from 20-day-old leaves of cowpea was immobilized on to epoxy resin membrane with 80% retention of initial activity of free enzyme and a conjugation yield of 0.056 mg/cm(2). The uricase epoxy resin bioconjugate membrane was mounted over the sensing part of the combined electrode of 'Aqualytic' dissolved O(2) (DO) meter to construct a uric acid biosensor. The biosensor measures the depletion of dissolved O(2) during the oxidation of uric acid by immobilized uricase, which is directly proportional to uric acid concentration. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10-12s at a pH 8.5 and 35 degrees C. A linear relationship was found between uric acid concentration from 0.025 to 0.1 mM and O(2) (mg/l) consumed. The biosensor was employed for measurement of uric acid in serum. The mean value of uric acid in serum was 4.92 mg/dl in apparently healthy males and 3.11 mg/dl in apparently healthy females. The mean analytic recoveries of added uric acid in reaction mixture (8.9 and 9.8 mg/dl) were 93.6 +/- 2.34 and 87.18 +/- 3.17% respectively. The within and between batch CVs were < 6.5 and < 5.0%, respectively. The serum uric acid values obtained by present method and standard enzymic colorimetric method, showed a good correlation (r - 0.996) and regression equation being y - 0.984x + 0.0674. Among the various metabolites tested only, glucose (11%), urea (38%), NaCl (25%) and cholesterol (13%) and ascorbic acid (56%) caused decrease, while, MgSO(4) and CaCl(2) had no effect on immobilized enzyme. The enzyme electrode showed only 32% decrease during its use for 100 times over a period of 60 days at 4 degrees C. PMID:19591705

  9. URIC ACID AND TISSUE REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    NERY, Rodrigo Araldi; KAHLOW, Barbara Stadler; SKARE, Thelma L; TABUSHI, Fernando Issamu; CASTRO, Adham do Amaral e

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid, a metabolic product of purines, may exert a role in tissue healing. In this review we will explore its role as an alarm initiating the inflammatory process that is necessary for tissue repair, as a scavenger of oxygen free radicals, as a mobilizer of progenitor endothelial cells and as supporter of adaptive immune system. PMID:26734804

  10. Online measurement of urea concentration in spent dialysate during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Armitage, Ben; Arnold, Mark A.; Flanigan, Michael

    2002-05-01

    We describe on-line optical measurements of urea concentration during the regular hemodialysis treatment of several patients. The spectral measurements were performed in the effluent dialysate stream after the dialysis membrane using an FTIR spectrometer equipped with a flow-through cell. Spectra were recorded across the 5000-4000 cm-1 (2.0-2.5 micrometers at 1-minute intervals. Optically determined concentrations matched concentrations obtained from standard chemical assays with a root-mean-square error of 0.29 mM for urea (0.8 mg/dl urea nitrogen), 0.03 mM for creatinine, 0.11 mM for lactate, and 0.22 mM for glucose. The observed concentration ranges were 0-11 mM for urea, 0-0.35 mM for creatinine, 0-0.75 mM for lactate, and 9-12.5 mM for glucose.

  11. Uric acid transport and disease

    PubMed Central

    So, Alexander; Thorens, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. It has antioxidant properties that may be protective but can also be pro-oxidant, depending on its chemical microenvironment. Hyperuricemia predisposes to disease through the formation of urate crystals that cause gout, but hyperuricemia, independent of crystal formation, has also been linked with hypertension, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We discuss here the biology of urate metabolism and its role in disease. We also cover the genetics of urate transport, including URAT1, and recent studies identifying SLC2A9, which encodes the glucose transporter family isoform Glut9, as a major determinant of plasma uric acid levels and of gout development. PMID:20516647

  12. UREA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR UREA SCR NOX REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G.

    2000-08-20

    Urea SCR is currently the only proven NOX aftertreatment for diesel engines - high NOX reduction possible - some SCR catalyst systems are robust against fuel sulfur - durability has been demonstrated - many systems in the field - long history in other markets - Major limitations to acceptance - distribution of urea solution to end user - ensuring that urea solution is added to vehicle.

  13. Discovery of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Tan, Guanhong; Isoe, Jun; Wysocki, Vicki H; Wells, Michael A; Miesfeld, Roger L

    2008-01-15

    We demonstrate the presence of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that converts uric acid to urea via an amphibian-like uricolytic pathway. For these studies, female mosquitoes were fed a sucrose solution containing (15)NH4Cl, [5-(15)N]-glutamine, [(15)N]-proline, allantoin, or allantoic acid. At 24 h after feeding, the feces were collected and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. Specific enzyme inhibitors confirmed that mosquitoes incorporate (15)N from (15)NH4Cl into [5-(15)N]-glutamine and use the (15)N of the amide group of glutamine to produce labeled uric acid. More importantly, we found that [(15)N2]-uric acid can be metabolized to [(15)N]-urea and be excreted as nitrogenous waste through an uricolytic pathway. Ae. aegypti express all three genes in this pathway, namely, urate oxidase, allantoinase, and allantoicase. The functional relevance of these genes in mosquitoes was shown by feeding allantoin or allantoic acid, which significantly increased unlabeled urea levels in the feces. Moreover, knockdown of urate oxidase expression by RNA interference demonstrated that this pathway is active in females fed blood or (15)NH4Cl based on a significant increase in uric acid levels in whole-body extracts and a reduction in [(15)N]-urea excretion, respectively. These unexpected findings could lead to the development of metabolism-based strategies for mosquito control. PMID:18182492

  14. Treatment of patients with uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2016-02-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis and unduly acidic urinary pH are both considered a renal manifestation of insulin resistance but the underlying mechanisms for the development of low urinary pH and the propensity for uric acid stone formation are not completely elucidated. Nevertheless, excessive dietary acid intake, increased endogenous acid production and/or defective NH4+ excretion play an important role, among other factors. The main principles of therapy for uric acid nephrolithiasis are aimed at urinary alkalinization through diet modification or pharmacologic agents, increase of urinary volume, and less importantly at the reduction of uric acid excretion. PMID:26645868

  15. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, Franois; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bndicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.33.1 to 12.13.3 mmol/24 h (0.200.03 to 0.150.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ?60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.61.9 to 7.62.5 (0.160.03 to 0.120.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.530.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.280.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  16. Quantification of urinary uric acid in the presence of thymol and thimerosal by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Whitson, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed as an alternative to automated enzymatic analysis of uric acid in human urine preserved with thymol and/or thimerosal. Uric acid (tR = 10 min) and creatinine (tR = 5 min) were separated and quantified during isocratic elution (0.025 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5) from a mu Bondapak C18 column. The uric-acid peak was identified chemically by incubating urine samples with uricase. The thymol/thimerosal peak appeared at 31 min during the washing step and did not interfere with the analysis. We validated the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for linearity, precision and accuracy, and the results were found to be excellent.

  17. Type 2 Diabetes and Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Naim M.

    2008-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased propensity for uric acid nephrolithiasis. In individuals with diabetes, this increased risk is due to a lower urine pH that results from obesity, dietary factors, and impaired renal ammoniagenesis. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of uric acid stone disease in patients with diabetes are hereby reviewed, and potential molecular mechanisms are proposed.

  18. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  19. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  1. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  2. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: UREA MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the potential environmental effects of air emissions from the production of urea. Urea production in the U.S. was 3.45 million metric tons in 1975. Major products were urea solution (38%), granulated solid material (53%), and prilled s...

  3. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  4. Biosensors and flow-through system for the determination of creatinine in hemodialysate.

    PubMed

    Erlenktter, Ansgar; Fobker, Manfred; Chemnitius, Gabriele-Christine

    2002-01-01

    Biosensors for the determination of creatinine have been developed and integrated into a flow-through system. The sensors are based on a screen-printed three electrode transducer with a platinum working electrode. Applying the multi-enzyme sequence of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI) and sarcosine oxidase (SO) hydrogen peroxide has been detected amperometrically. An optimal enzyme load was found to be 4.4 U/0.28 U/0.20 U (CA/CI/SO) and 0.28 U/0.20 U (CI/SO) per electrode for the creatinine sensor and for the creatine sensor, respectively. Among a variety of polymers Nafion has shown the highest efficiency to exclude interfering substances like ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and uric acid. First determinations of creatinine in dialysate samples obtained during hemodialysis treatments have shown a good correlation to the conventional methods, the Jaff reaction (y=0.945x+ 2.8, R=0.9882, n=9) and the enzymatic photometric method (y=0.891x+3.5, R=0.9917, n=9). PMID:11936100

  5. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Patio-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrs; Latorre, Amparo; Peret, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria. PMID:25079497

  6. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Patio-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrs; Latorre, Amparo; Peret, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria. PMID:25079497

  7. Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia and Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ming; Yang, Fan; Yang, Irene; Yin, Ying; Luo, Jin Jun; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism. It is known that hyperuricemia, defined as high levels of blood uric acid, is the major etiological factor of gout. A number of epidemiological reports have increasingly linked hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Studies highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of uric acid point to an inflammatory response as the primary mechanism for inducing gout and possibly contributing to uric acid's vascular effects. Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce an inflammatory reaction, which are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These TLRs then activate NALP3 inflammasome. MSU also triggers neutrophil activation and further produces immune mediators, which lead to a proinflammatory response. In addition, soluble uric acid can also mediate the generation of free radicals and function as a pro-oxidant. This review summarizes the epidemiological studies of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease, takes a brief look at hyperuricemia and its role in neurological diseases, and highlights the studies of the advanced pathological mechanisms of uric acid and inflammation. PMID:22201767

  8. Picric acid capped silver nanoparticles as a probe for colorimetric sensing of creatinine in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Ankita K; Valand, Nikunj N; Solanki, Kalpesh B; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-02-01

    Creatinine is the most important parameter to be determined in the diagnosis of renal, muscular and thyroid function. The most common method for the determination of creatinine is Jaffe's reaction, a routine practice for blood and urine analysis. However, in cases of icteric and haemolyzed blood samples, interference occurs during the estimation of creatinine by other constituents present in the blood like bilirubin, creatine, and urea, which lead to wrong diagnosis. To overcome such difficulty, we have developed a silver nanoparticle (Ag NPs) based sensor for the selective determination of creatinine. In this study, a new approach has been given to the traditional Jaffe's reaction, by coating Ag NPs with picric acid (PA) to form an assembly that can selectively detect creatinine. The Ag NPs based sensor proficiently and selectively recognizes creatinine due to the ability of picric acid to bind with it and form a complex. The nanoassembly and the interactions were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and ESI-MS, which demonstrated the binding affinity of creatinine with PA-capped Ag NPs. A linear correlation was obtained in the range of 0.01 μM-1 μM with an R(2) value of 0.9998 and a lower detection limit of 8.4 nM. The sensor was successfully applied to different types of blood and CSF samples for the determination of creatinine, and the results were compared to that of the Jaffe's method. With the advantages of high sensitivity, selectivity and low sample volume, this method is potentially suitable for the on-site monitoring of creatinine. PMID:26793795

  9. Pretransplant uric acid levels may be predictive for prognosis of renal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Kulah, Eyup

    2016-05-01

    Background The living kidney donor counseling prior to the operation may be helpful to learn how to properly care for the remaining single kidney for the rest of their lives. Worsening kidney function is associated with elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels. In this study, we compared the baseline laboratory findings of renal transplant donors with their follow-up laboratory values. Methods The study consisted of 173 adult donors including 91 females and 82 males with a mean age of 46.82 ± 11.31 years. The follow-up clinical and laboratory examinations were performed on the third day at the end of the first and the sixth months of the surgery. According to donor's creatinine levels we constituted two groups: high creatinine and normal creatinine. Results Patients within the high creatinine group had significantly higher mean serum UA levels when compared with the normal creatinine group. In multivariate analysis, among the other effective variables, UA level alone was found to be the most effective parameter predicting the post-transplant creatinine levels (p = 0.004, odds ratio: 12.4, 95% CI: 2.3-68.3) at sixth month post-transplantation. In the ROC analysis for the effects of UA, the following cutoff values were found: >6 mg/dL in men (sensitivity 81.3%, specificity 76.9%, positive predictive value 89.7%, negative predictive value 62.5%, accuracy 80%) and ≥5 mg/dL in women (sensitivity 72.2, specificity 74.4%, positive predictive value 89.7%, negative predictive value 62.5%, accuracy: 73.7%). Conclusion Pretransplant serum UA levels can give important clues regarding the renal functions of the donors during the postoperative period. PMID:26888379

  10. Plasma exogenous creatinine clearance in clinically healthy cats: comparison with urinary exogenous creatinine clearance, tentative reference intervals and indexation to bodyweight.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, B S; Massal, M R; Nguyen, P; Grgoire, L L; Prigaud, A E; Concordet, D; Biourge, V; Lefebvre, H P

    2014-10-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be the best indicator of overall kidney function. The major objectives of this study were to compare plasma exogenous creatinine clearance (PECC) with a reference method, to establish reference intervals (RIs) for PECC and to assess the effects of indexation of GFR to bodyweight (BW) in cats. PECC was compared with urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine (UECC) in six clinically healthy domestic shorthair cats (experiment 1). Tentative RIs were determined according to current guidelines and the effects of indexation to BW and of covariables on GFR were assessed in 43 clinically healthy cats of various breeds (experiment 2). PECC was 15% higher than UECC (P?<0.01), but the two estimates were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P?=?0.001). RIs for PECC were 6.4-21.3?mL/min or 1.2-4.9?mL/min/kg. The absolute (i.e. non-indexed) GFR value was not dependent on BW. Thus, indexation of GFR to BW in cats would not standardize the GFR value, but could introduce bias in clinical interpretation. Significant effects of breed, plasma protein concentration and plasma albumin concentration on GFR were demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, when assessed separately, were also weakly correlated with GFR in healthy cats. These combined findings contribute to a better understanding of renal function assessment in cats. PMID:25193408

  11. Replication of the effect of SLC2A9 genetic variation on serum uric acid levels in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Franceschini, Nora; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; MacCluer, Jean W; Umans, Jason G; Comuzzie, Anthony G; North, Kari E; Cole, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia, a risk factor for gout, renal and cardiovascular diseases, is caused by either increased production or decreased excretion of uric acid or a mix of both. The solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) gene encodes a transporter that mediates urate flux across the renal proximal tubule. Genome-wide association studies have consistently shown the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene with SUA in majority populations. American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Family Study, belonging to multigenerational families, have high prevalence of hyperuricemia. We conducted measured genotype analyses, based on variance components decomposition method and accounting for family relationships, to assess whether the association between SUA and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms generalized to American Indians (n=3604) of this study. Seven polymorphisms were selected for genotyping based on their association with SUA levels in other populations. A strong association was found between SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms and SUA in all centers combined (P-values: 1.3 10(-31)-5.1 10(-23)) and also when stratified by recruitment center; P-values: 1.2 10(-14)-1.0 10(-5). These polymorphisms were also associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine but not albumin-creatinine ratio. In summary, the association of polymorphisms in the uric acid transporter gene with SUA levels extends to a new population of American Indians. PMID:24301058

  12. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  13. Uric acid in the etiology of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M

    1981-01-01

    The potential etiologic relationship between uric acid in its microcrystalline monosodium urate form and psoriasis was examined by 1) substantiating the reported correlation between hyperuricemia and psoriasis using the phosphotungstate method; 2) examining psoriatic tissue samples for the presence of urates under a microscope using polarized light and a compensator; 3) attempting to induce psoriasis-like symptoms in laboratory animals with purine-to-uric acid metabolism by increasing serum uric acid level; and 4) observing psoriasis-hyperuricemic patients following treatment for their hyperuricemia with Allopurinol. As expected, both men and women psoriatics had higher uric acid levels than did their counterparts in a control group. Monosodium urate crystals were found in samples from psoriatic plaques by both methods used. They were clustered particularly around sweat pores and Munro abscesses, but were found only occasionally in epidermal tissue taken from nonpsoriatics. Psoriasis-like symptoms were induced in laboratory animals (the South American boa, Constrictor constrictor) when they were fed doses of uric acid. Patients with psoriasis and hyperuricemia showed marked improvement in psoriasis when treated for their hyperuricemia. Psoriasis, like gout, may be, at least partly, a result of disorder of purine metabolism and monosodium urate crystals may be responsible for the cell proliferation that is characteristic of psoriatic plaques. Monosodium urate crystals were found by the author to be strikingly segmented. This structure may result in ease of fragmentation, thus increasing the difficulty in identifying urates in any tissue. PMID:7337193

  14. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques. PMID:22841040

  15. Reduction of urinary uric acid excretion in patients with proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huiqing; Xiang, Mingfeng; Ye, Xinming; Xiong, Yuanzhen; Xie, Baogang; Shao, Jianghua

    2015-12-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) concentration is positively associated with proteinuria. However, the relationship between proteinuria and urinary metabolites of purine metabolism remains unknown. This study developed a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-based HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (UV) to quantify creatinine (Cr), UA, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in human urine simultaneously. The urinary concentrations of UA and Cr obtained by our method are consistent with those measured by an autoanalyzer. The HPLC-HILIC-UV method was validated as selective and robust with simple sample preparation for measuring UA, xanthine, hypoxanthine and Cr, which is suitable for large clinical studies. The UA/Cr ratios in random urine samples were 5.5 times lower in proteinuria patients (0.0770.008) than in healthy individuals (0.4240.037). Moreover, the UA/hypoxanthine ratio in proteinuria patients was approximately 10 times lower than that in healthy individuals. Our findings revealed a reduced urinary UA excretion, which is one of the factors leading to increased serum UA in proteinuria patients. PMID:26523664

  16. Uric acid deposits in symbiotic marine algae.

    PubMed

    Clode, Peta L; Saunders, Martin; Maker, Garth; Ludwig, Martha; Atkins, Craig A

    2009-02-01

    The symbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellate algae is not understood at the cell or molecular level, yet this relationship is responsible for the formation of thousands of square kilometres of coral reefs. We have investigated the nature of crystalline material prominent within marine algal symbionts of Aiptasia sp. anemones. This material, which has historically been considered to be calcium oxalate, is shown to be uric acid. We demonstrate that these abundant uric acid stores can be mobilized rapidly, thereby allowing the algal symbionts to flourish in an otherwise N-poor environment. This is the first report of uric acid accumulation by symbiotic marine algae. These data provide new insight and considerations for understanding the physiological basis of algal symbioses, and represent a new and previously unconsidered aspect of N metabolism in cnidarian, and a variety of other, marine symbioses. PMID:19021889

  17. Quantification of creatinine in biological samples based on the pseudoenzyme activity of copper-creatinine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Krishna, Honnur

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the marker of chronic kidney disease can be analyzed by the concentration of cystatin C or creatinine and its clearance in human urine and serum samples. The determination of cystatin C alone as an indicator of GFR does not provide high accuracy, and is more expensive, thus measurement of creatinine has an important role in estimating GFR. We have made an attempt to quantify creatinine based on its pseudoenzyme activity of creatinine in the presence of copper. Creatinine in the presence of copper oxidizes paraphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPDD) which couples with dimethylamino benzoicacid (DMAB) giving green colored chromogenic product with maximum absorbance at 710 nm. Kinetic parameters relating this reaction were evaluated. Analytical curves of creatinine by fixed time and rate methods were linear at 8.8-530 ?mol L-1 and 0.221-2.65 mmol L-1, respectively. Recovery of creatinine varied from 97.8 to 107.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.55 and 8.52 ?mol L-1 respectively whereas Sandell's sensitivity and molar absorption coefficient values were 0.0407 ?g cm-2 and 0.1427 104 L mol-1 cm-1 respectively. Precision studies showed that within day imprecision was 0.745-1.26% and day-to-day imprecision was 1.55-3.65%. The proposed method was applied to human urine and serum samples and results were validated in accordance with modified Jaffe's procedure. Wide linearity ranges with good recovery, less tolerance from excipients and application of the method to serum and urine samples are the claims which ascertain much advantage to this method.

  18. THE REGULATION OF UREA-BIOSYNTHESIS ENZYMES IN VERTEBRATES.

    PubMed

    MORA, J; MARTUSCELLI, J; ORTIZ PINEDA, J; SOBERON, G

    1965-07-01

    1. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, the arginine-synthetase system and arginase were measured in the livers of ammoniotelic, ureotelic and uricotelic animals. The chelonian reptiles, whose nitrogen excretory patterns vary according to the habitat, and the Mexican axolotl, a neotenic species, were also studied. 2. The levels of the activities of the first three enzymes mentioned correlate with the amount of nitrogen excreted as urea. 3. The terrestrial turtle, which excretes mainly uric acid, maintains a high arginase activity but has very low levels of the activities of the other three enzymes. 4. The first three enzymes of the urea cycle vary in the phylogenic scale in a co-ordinated manner, which suggests that they are under the same regulatory mechanism. 5. Urea formation from endogenous arginine in vitro has a low efficiency in the Mexican axolotl. 6. The induction of metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl by the administration of l-tri-iodothyronine, which causes a shift from ammonio-ureotelism to complete ureotelism, is accompanied by an increase mainly in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and also by an improvement in the efficiency of hydrolysis of endogenous arginine in vitro to give urea. 7. The results obtained by differential centrifugation of the urea-cycle enzymes in rat and Mexican-axolotl livers are presented. The location requirements for the integration of a metabolic cycle are discussed. PMID:14343146

  19. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What to Expect Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  20. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  1. Osteonecrosis with renal damage in HIV patients undergoing HAART.

    PubMed

    Chitra, Pachiappan; Bakthavatsalam, Balakrishnan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis in HIV patients undergoing HAART is associated with increased risk of side effect. Elevation of uric acid (UA) is important in tissue damage, deposition of crystal in joints leads to the development of rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group. Moreover; the ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea and uric acid/creatinine were also studied. To analyze the progression of HIV, the immunological parameters were correlated with uric acid. Our result showed a statistically high significant increase in uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group when compared to HAART non-complaint group, early stage and control. The ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea, uric acid/creatinine were significantly increased in the HAART complaint group. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between uric acid and cystatin C, urea, creatinine, absolute CD4 and CD8 count. The increased level of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C and increased ratio of uric acid/cystatin C in the HAART complaint group might conclude the mechanism underlying the increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group which may relate to the combined effects of low-grade inflammation and renal dysfunction. PMID:25194446

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of creatinine in silver colloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Chen, Jiesi; Wu, Yanan; Chen, Yanping; Pan, Jianji; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Yongjian; Sun, Liqing; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology has already made great progress in bio-molecule detection. It can make the target molecules strongly absorbed onto the surface of metal nanoparticles, and then the Raman signal of its own has been greatly enhanced through physical and chemical enhancement mechanisms. We report the SERS spectra of creatinine in silver colloid, and study the silver colloid enhanced effects on the Raman scattering of creatinine. We can also find that creatinine concentration is linearly related to its SERS peak intensity and the detection limit of creatinine silver sol is found to be 10 mg/dl. In conclusion, we can observe that the silver colloid has very good enhanced effects for the creatinine. The potential applications of SERS in quantitative measurement of the creatinine liquor are demonstrated. The result shows that the SERS approach would provide a unique and fast test method for creatinine detection.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of creatinine in silver colloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Chen, Jiesi; Wu, Yanan; Chen, Yanping; Pan, Jianji; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Yongjian; Sun, Liqing; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology has already made great progress in bio-molecule detection. It can make the target molecules strongly absorbed onto the surface of metal nanoparticles, and then the Raman signal of its own has been greatly enhanced through physical and chemical enhancement mechanisms. We report the SERS spectra of creatinine in silver colloid, and study the silver colloid enhanced effects on the Raman scattering of creatinine. We can also find that creatinine concentration is linearly related to its SERS peak intensity and the detection limit of creatinine silver sol is found to be 10 mg/dl. In conclusion, we can observe that the silver colloid has very good enhanced effects for the creatinine. The potential applications of SERS in quantitative measurement of the creatinine liquor are demonstrated. The result shows that the SERS approach would provide a unique and fast test method for creatinine detection.

  4. Serum uric acid is inversely proportional to estimated stroke volume and cardiac output in a large sample of pharmacologically untreated subjects: data from the Brisighella Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Rosticci, Martina; Parini, Angelo; Baronio, Cristina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Serum uric acid is representative for xanthine-oxidase, the key enzyme involved in the production of uric acid, which is up-regulated in the failing heart, and may play an important role in the pathophysiologic process that leads to heart failure. In our study, we investigated the relation between stroke volume, cardiac output and serum uric acid in a large sample of overall healthy pharmacologically untreated subjects. The Brisighella Heart Study included 2,939 men and women between the ages of 14-84 without prior coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease who were not taking antihypertensive therapy at baseline. For this study, we selected 734 adult subjects enrolled in the last Brisighella population survey not taking antihypertensive, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering and uric acid-lowering drugs, and who were also not affected by chronic heart failure or by gout. The main predictors of cardiac functionality parameters were mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, SUA and age (all p < 0.001), while gender, BMI, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity and smoking habit were not significantly associated (all p > 0.05). In particular, there is a strong relation between estimated cardiac output and serum uric acid (B = -0.219, p < 0.001) and between stroke volume and serum uric acid (B = -3.684, p < 0.001). These observations might have an impact on future considerations about serum uric acid as an early inexpensive marker of heart function decline in the general population. PMID:24214336

  5. Acute poisoning of silver gulls (Larus novaehollandiae) following urea fertilizer spillage.

    PubMed

    Raidal, Shane R; Jaensch, Susan M

    2006-02-01

    Two episodes of accidental urea toxicosis are described in wild silver gulls (Larus novaehollandiae) following spillage of fertilizer grade urea at a commercial shipping facility near Perth, Western Australia. In both cases, urea spillage had been seen to contaminate freshwater wash-down pools on the wharves where ships were being unloaded and gulls were seen to be drinking and washing in the pools nearby the spillages. Affected birds were found moribund or dead. Necropsy and histopathological findings were non-specific and consisted of mild to moderate congestion of visceral organs and brain. Analysis of a water sample collected during Case 1 revealed a very high urea concentration of 4.124 mol/l (pH 5.5), and fluid from the proventriculus of two birds had urea concentrations of 382 and 308 mmol/l, respectively. Nine birds were examined during the second episode (Case 2) and, from heparinized heart blood samples collected (n = 5), the mean plasma urea (288 +/- 92.0 mmol/l), ammonia (43.9 +/- 34.2 mmol/l) and uric acid (7.45 +/- 1.99 mmol/l) concentrations were markedly elevated above the reference ranges for all bird species. Proventricular contents (n = 7) similarly contained high concentrations of urea (394 +/- 203 mmol/l) and ammonia (9.3 +/- 15 mmol/l). The probable mechanisms of urea and ammonia toxicity in these birds are discussed. PMID:16448941

  6. The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Haijiang; Huang, Zhijun; Deng, Qihong; Li, Ying; Xiao, Ting; Ning, Xingping; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood lead levels and both serum uric acid and hyperuricemia in adult residents living within an area of China with lead pollution. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2120 subjects (1180 of whom were male) between the ages of 20 and 75 years who had undergone health examinations at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a lead-polluted area of China between January 2013 and August 2014. Blood lead was positively correlated with serum uric acid in both males (r = 0.095, p = 0.001) and females (r = 0.134, p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that for males, blood lead (p = 0.006), age (p = 0.001), current smoking (p = 0.012), education (p = 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.001), and serum creatinine (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. For females, blood lead (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.009), and TG (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. After multiple adjustments, blood lead was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia when female subjects were categorized into quartiles (for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, odds ratio (OR) = 2.190; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1064.338; p = 0.025); however, no such association was observed for male subjects. Continuous lead exposure has an independent impact on serum uric acid for both males and females, although this impact is more pronounced for females than for males. Lead exposure is significantly associated with hyperuricemia for females but not for males. PMID:26295243

  7. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure. PMID:21411845

  8. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  9. Measurement of Serum Creatinine Current Status and Future Goals

    PubMed Central

    Peake, *Michael; Whiting, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    The first methods for the measurement of creatinine in serum and plasma were published over a century ago. Today, the Jaffe reaction using alkaline picrate remains the cornerstone of most current routine methods, after continuous refinements attempting to overcome inherent analytical interferences and limitations. With the recent introduction of the reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), inter-laboratory agreement of serum creatinine results has become an important international priority. Expert professional bodies have recommended that all creatinine methods should become traceable to a reference method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (IDMS). It is important that clinical biochemists have a good understanding of the relative performance of routine creatinine methods. Using a new commutable IDMS-traceable reference material (SRM 967), and a validated tandem IDMS assay developed in our laboratory, we assessed the accuracy of nine routine creatinine methods with assistance from other laboratories in our region. Three methods appeared to have patient sample bias that exceeded 5% in the range of creatinine concentrations where eGFR estimations are most important. Companies are currently recalibrating their creatinine assays. This task should be complete in 2007, and then creatinine results for eGFR calculations will require the use of a modified eGFR equation. Laboratories considering calibration changes before this time can seek advice from the Australasian Creatinine Working Group. PMID:17581641

  10. Increasing the sensitivity of the Jaffe reaction for creatinine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Study of analytical procedure has revealed that linearity of creatinine calibration curve can be extended by using 0.03 molar picric acid solution made up in 70 percent ethanol instead of water. Three to five times more creatinine concentration can be encompassed within linear portion of calibration curve.

  11. Replication of the effect of SLC2A9 genetic variation on serum uric acid levels in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Franceschini, Nora; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; MacCluer, Jean W; Umans, Jason G; Comuzzie, Anthony G; North, Kari E; Cole, Shelley A

    2014-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia, a risk factor for gout, renal and cardiovascular diseases, is caused by either increased production or decreased excretion of uric acid or a mix of both. The solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) gene encodes a transporter that mediates urate flux across the renal proximal tubule. Genome-wide association studies have consistently shown the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene with SUA in majority populations. American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Family Study, belonging to multigenerational families, have high prevalence of hyperuricemia. We conducted measured genotype analyses, based on variance components decomposition method and accounting for family relationships, to assess whether the association between SUA and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms generalized to American Indians (n=3604) of this study. Seven polymorphisms were selected for genotyping based on their association with SUA levels in other populations. A strong association was found between SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms and SUA in all centers combined (P-values: 1.3 × 10−31–5.1 × 10−23) and also when stratified by recruitment center; P-values: 1.2 × 10−14–1.0 × 10−5. These polymorphisms were also associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine but not albumin–creatinine ratio. In summary, the association of polymorphisms in the uric acid transporter gene with SUA levels extends to a new population of American Indians. PMID:24301058

  12. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Lin, Yanlin; Liu, Yuxiu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Bin; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies assessing the association between serum uric acid levels and neurological outcome after acute ischemic stroke reported conflicting results. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the impact of serum uric acid levels on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched through September 26, 2014 to identify eligible published or unpublished studies on the association between serum uric acid levels and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcome or mean differences of serum uric acid levels with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were pooled using meta-analysis. The primary outcome was occurrence of poor outcomes, while the secondary outcome was the mean differences of serum uric acid levels in patients with good or poor outcomes. Ten eligible studies with a total of 8131 acute ischemic stroke patients were included into the meta-analysis. Compared with low serum uric acid level, high serum uric acid level was associated better outcome after acute ischemic stroke (HR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.68-0.88, P = 0.0001). Sensitivity analysis further identified the prognostic role of serum uric acid levels on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Patients with good outcomes had a higher serum uric acid level compared with those with poor outcome (mean difference = 30.61 μmol/L, 95 % CI 20.13-41.08, P < 0.00001). There was no obvious risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. This meta-analysis supports that serum uric acid level has a protective effect on neurological outcome after acute ischemic stroke. High uric acid level at the onset is a biomarker of better prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25744569

  13. Creatinine Deiminase Adsorption onto Silicalite-Modified pH-FET for Creation of New Creatinine-Sensitive Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Svitlana V; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Soldatkin, Alexei P; Dzyadevych, Sergei V

    2016-12-01

    In the work, silicalite particles were used for the surface modification of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (pH-FETs) with the purpose of developing new creatinine-sensitive biosensor. Creatinine deiminase (CD) adsorbed on the surface of silicalite-coated pH-FET served as a bioselective membrane. The biosensor based on CD immobilized in glutaraldehyde vapor (GA) was taken as control. The creatinine-sensitive biosensor obtained by adsorption on silicalite was shown to have better analytical characteristics (two- to threefold increased sensitivity to creatinine, three- to fourfold lesser response and recovery times, a decrease of the detection limit of creatinine determination to 5 μM, etc.).Additionally, the biosensor based on CD adsorbed on silicalite (Sil/CD) was characterized by high signal reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) for creatinine measurement = 2.6 %) and stability during storage (over 13 months). It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed biosensor was not sensitive either to high concentrations of sodium chloride or to the macromolecular protein fractions and can be used for direct quantitative analysis of creatinine in the blood serum.It was concluded that the method of CD adsorption on silicalite is well-suited for the creation of creatinine-sensitive biosensor with improved working characteristics. PMID:27033849

  14. Nasal secretion of the ozone scavenger uric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, D.B.; Swiersz, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Hahn, B.; Emery, B.; Kaliner, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Uric acid, an important scavenger of ozone, has been identified as the major low molecular weight antioxidant in baseline and cholinergically induced nasal secretions. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific tissue source of uric acid in airway secretions. The secretion of uric acid is increased by cholinergic stimulation and correlates closely with the secretion of lactoferrin (a nasal glandular protein), suggesting that submucosal glands are involved. Indeed, nasal turbinate tissue was found to contain uric acid. However, careful analysis of nasal turbinate tissue failed to reveal the presence of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid synthesis. These data suggest that uric acid might be taken up secondarily by glands from plasma. This possibility was strengthened by the observation that lowering the plasma urate level with probenecid concomitantly lowered urate secretion. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that the principal source of uric acid in nasal secretions is plasma and that uric acid is taken up, concentrated, and secreted by nasal glands.

  15. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ali; Keles, Fatma; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57?mg/dL, P < 0.01). Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in control children aged >10 years (P < 0.01). Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the level of serum uric acid and age, body weight, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension. PMID:26464873

  16. Uric acid calculi: types, etiology and mechanisms of formation.

    PubMed

    Grases, F; Villacampa, A I; Costa-Bauz, A; Shnel, O

    2000-12-01

    The study of the composition and structure of 41 stones composed of uric acid was complemented by in vitro investigation of the crystallization of uric acid. Uric acid dihydrate (UAD) precipitates from synthetic urine under physiological conditions when the medium is supersaturated with respect to this compound, though uric acid anhydrous (UAA) represents the thermodynamically stable form. Solid UAD in contact with liquid transforms into UAA within 2 days. This transition is accompanied by development of hexagonal bulky crystals of UAA and appearance of cracks in the UAD crystals. Uric acid calculi can be classified into two groups, differing in outer appearance and inner structure. Type I includes stones with a little central core and a compact columnar UAA shell and stones with interior structured in alternating densely non-columnar layers developed around a central core; both of them are formed mainly by crystalline growth at low uric acid supersaturation. Type II includes porous stones without inner structure and stones formed by a well developed outermost layer with an inner central cavity; this type of stones is formed mainly by sedimentation of uric acid crystals generated at higher uric acid supersaturation. PMID:11074067

  17. [Monitoring urea content during hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Eventov, V L; Andrianova, M Iu; Nefedkin, S I; Eventova, O V

    2003-01-01

    The urea content monitoring during hemodialysis enables the feed-back within the system "patient--artificial kidney--patient". The existing methods of determining the concentration of urea in the dialyzing solution require an expendable reagent, i.e. urease, they are discrete and need often a calibration. The electrochemical urea analyzer, worked out by the authors, is easy in use, it provides a continues information about the urea concentration and does not virtually need any calibration. Besides, the plotter, belonging to the set, provides the graphic information about the dynamic changes of urea content. PMID:12924215

  18. The Role of Uric Acid in Pediatric Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Feig, Daniel I.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years increasing evidence has supported the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Both animal model data and tissue culture experiments suggest that uric acid might cause increased blood pressure by a two phase process. A first phase dominated by a uric acid mediated vasoconstriction followed by induction of renal afferent arteriolosclerosis and altered pressure natriuresis leading to a sodium dependent hypertension. We have assessed children with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and through cross-sectional studies and clinical trials. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in children and preliminary data suggests that lowering uric acid can lower blood pressure in some patients. Future studies will be needed to determine if the mechanisms shown in animal models can be extrapolated to children. PMID:17198939

  19. Linking uric acid metabolism to diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Kushiyama, Akifumi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeko; Kawazu, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia have been thought to be caused by the ingestion of large amounts of purines, and prevention or treatment of hyperuricemia has intended to prevent gout. Xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) is rate-limiting enzyme of uric acid generation, and allopurinol was developed as a uric acid (UA) generation inhibitor in the 1950s and has been routinely used for gout prevention since then. Serum UA levels are an important risk factor of disease progression for various diseases, including those related to lifestyle. Recently, other UA generation inhibitors such as febuxostat and topiroxostat were launched. The emergence of these novel medications has promoted new research in the field. Lifestyle-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus, often have a common pathological foundation. As such, hyperuricemia is often present among these patients. Many in vitro and animal studies have implicated inflammation and oxidative stress in UA metabolism and vascular injury because XDH/XO act as one of the major source of reactive oxygen species Many studies on UA levels and associated diseases implicate involvement of UA generation in disease onset and/or progression. Interventional studies for UA generation, not UA excretion revealed XDH/XO can be the therapeutic target for vascular injury and renal dysfunction. In this review, the relationship between UA metabolism and diabetic complications is highlighted. PMID:25512781

  20. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1997-12-16

    A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

  1. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S; Bylander, J; Reeves, W Brian; Demirel, Melik C

    2010-01-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 microg/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method. PMID:20459278

  2. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.

    2010-03-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

  3. Uric acid as a modulator of glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lima, William Gustavo; Martins-Santos, Maria Emlia Soares; Chaves, Valria Ernestnia

    2015-09-01

    In humans, uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism. The serum uric acid level is based on the balance between the absorption, production and excretion of purine. Uric acid is similarly produced in the liver, adipose tissue and muscle and is primarily excreted through the urinary tract. Several factors, including a high-fructose diet and the use of xenobiotics and alcohol, contribute to hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia belongs to a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities, called metabolic syndrome, characterised by abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Hyperuricaemia reduction in the Pound mouse or fructose-fed rats, as well as hyperuricaemia induction by uricase inhibition in rodents and studies using cell culture have suggested that uric acid plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome. These studies have shown that high uric acid levels regulate the oxidative stress, inflammation and enzymes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, suggesting a mechanism for the impairment of metabolic homeostasis. Humans lacking uricase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid degradation, are susceptible to these effects. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of the effects of uric acid on the regulation of metabolism, primarily focusing on liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. PMID:26133655

  4. Urine Creatinine Excretion and Clinical Outcomes in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Lucia; Quinn, Robert Ross; Ronksley, Paul Everett; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Lewin, Adriane Marlene; Cianciaruso, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Twenty-fourhour urine creatinine excretion is a reliable approximation of muscle mass. Whether changes in urine creatinine predict clinical outcomes in persons with CKD is unknown. This work studied the relationship between urine creatinine and patient and renal survival in people with CKD not requiring renal replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This longitudinal cohort study included incident stages 35 CKD patients referred to the renal clinic at the University Federico II in Naples between January of 1995 and December of 2005. Clinical data and urine creatinine were updated at each visit. Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring dialysis. Results This study enrolled 525 individuals and followed them for a median of 6 years (range of 4 months to 15 years). Urine creatinine excretion declined by 16 mg/d per year (95% confidence interval, 14 to 19) in participants with CKD stages 3a, 3b, and 4, and it remained stable in participants with stage 5 CKD. Per each 20 mg/d decline in urine creatinine, mortality increased by 3% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05), and the risk of initiating dialysis increased by 2% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.03). These associations were independent of body mass index and GFR. Conclusions In persons with CKD stages 3 and 4, urine creatinine declines at a rate of 16 mg/d per year. Lower urine creatinine excretion predicts greater risk of kidney failure and patient mortality. PMID:24158796

  5. Automated measurement of urinary creatinine by multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-01-15

    Urinary creatinine analysis is required for clinical diagnosis, especially for evaluation of renal function. Creatinine adjustment is also widely used to estimate 24-h excretion from spot samples. Few convenient validated approaches are available for in-house creatinine measurement for small- to medium-scale studies. Here we apply the Jffe reaction to creatinine determination with zone fluidic multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry. Diluted urine sample and reagent, alkaline picric acid, were mixed by a computer-programmed dispenser and rapidly delivered to a four-channel detection cell. The absorbance change was monitored by a flow-through light-emitting diode-photodiode-based detector. Validation results against high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV)/mass spectrometry (MS) are presented. Responses for 10-fold diluted samples were linear within clinically relevant ranges (0-250 mg/L after dilution). The system can analyze 70 samples per hour with a limit of detection of 0.76 mg/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.29% at 100 mg/L creatinine (n=225). Correlation with the HPLC (UV quantitation/MS confirmation) system was excellent (linear, r2=0.9906). The developed system allows rapid, simple, cost-effective, and robust creatinine analysis and is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of urine samples. PMID:18977332

  6. [The role of uric acid in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Alcano, Hernn; Greig, Douglas; Castro, Pablo; Verdejo, Hugo; Mellado, Rosemarie; Garca, Lorena; Daz-Araya, Guillermo; Quiroga, Clara; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Complications and mortality of heart failure are high, despite the availability of several forms of treatment. Uric acid, the end product of purine metabolism would actively participate in the pathophysiology of heart failure. However, there is no consensus about its action in cardiovascular disease. Serum uric acid would have a protective antioxidant activity. This action could help to reduce or counteract the processes that cause or appear as a result of heart failure. However, these protective properties would vanish in the intracellular environment or in highly hydrophobic areas such as atherosclerotic plaques and adipose tissue. This review discusses the paradoxical action of uric acid in the pathophysiology of heart failure. PMID:21879191

  7. High Uric-Acid Levels, Lower Risk of Parkinson's?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html High Uric-Acid Levels, Lower Risk of Parkinson's? Link found only in men, researchers say To ... their blood may be less likely to develop Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. Researchers compared about ...

  8. SERS quantitative urine creatinine measurement of human subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tsuei Lian; Chiang, Hui-hua K.; Lu, Hui-hsin; Hung, Yung-da

    2005-03-01

    SERS method for biomolecular analysis has several potentials and advantages over traditional biochemical approaches, including less specimen contact, non-destructive to specimen, and multiple components analysis. Urine is an easily available body fluid for monitoring the metabolites and renal function of human body. We developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique using 50nm size gold colloidal particles for quantitative human urine creatinine measurements. This paper shows that SERS shifts of creatinine (104mg/dl) in artificial urine is from 1400cm-1 to 1500cm-1 which was analyzed for quantitative creatinine measurement. Ten human urine samples were obtained from ten healthy persons and analyzed by the SERS technique. Partial least square cross-validation (PLSCV) method was utilized to obtain the estimated creatinine concentration in clinically relevant (55.9mg/dl to 208mg/dl) concentration range. The root-mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) is 26.1mg/dl. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using SERS for human subject urine creatinine detection, and establishes the SERS platform technique for bodily fluids measurement.

  9. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist. PMID:25568178

  10. Chemiluminescence of creatinine/H2O2/Co(2+) and its application for selective creatinine detection.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Saima; John, Peter; Gao, Wenyue; Saqib, Muhammad; Qi, Liming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-15

    Creatinine is an important biomarker in clinical diagnosis and biomonitoring programs as well as urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. Current methods are either nonselective, time consuming or require heavy and expensive instruments. In this study, chemiluminescence of creatinine with hydrogen peroxide has been reported for the first time, and its chemiluminescence is remarkably enhanced in the presence of cobalt ions. By utilizing these phenomena, we have developed a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence method for creatinine determination by coupling with flow injection analysis. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 110(-7)-310(-5)mol/L with a limit of detection (S/N=3) of 7.210(-8)mol/L, which is adequate for detecting creatinine in the clinically accepted range. The relative standard deviation for seven measurements of 310(-5)mol/L creatinine is 1.2%. The chemiluminescence method was then utilized to detect creatinine in human urine samples after simple dilution with water. It takes less than 1min each measurement and the recoveries for spiked urine samples were 100-103%. The interference study demonstrates that some common species in urine, such as amino acids, ascorbic acid and creatine, have negligible effects on creatinine detection. The present method does not use expensive instruments, enzymes and separation technique. This method has the advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. It holds great promise for basic or comprehensive metabolic panel, drug screening, anti-dopping, and urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. PMID:26339931

  11. Associations between blood pressure responses to acute stress and impaired renal function and serum uric acid level.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sachi; Miyata, Masaaki; Kohjitani, Atsushi; Tohya, Akina; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to examine correlations between blood pressure (BP) responses to direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation and parameters of renal function, serum uric acid (SUA) level, and mean preoperative BP. Fifty-four patients (?40 years) who were scheduled for oral surgery were analyzed. General anesthesia was induced by the rapid sequence method without opioid analgesics. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP) in the operation room were measured when an electrocardiogram, a BP cuff, and a pulse oximetry probe were attached to the patients (T1) and immediately after the trachea was intubated (T2). The ?SBP was defined as the difference between SBP at T2 and T1. The increasing rate of SBP (?SBPr) was defined as ?SBP/SBP at T1. SBP at T2 was associated with increasing age (R?=?0.44), serum creatinine (R?=?0.32), SUA (R?=?0.30), mean preoperative SBP and DBP (R?=?0.54 and 0.37, respectively), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (R?=?-0.44). Serum creatinine and SUA were positively associated, and eGFR was negatively associated with ?SBP (R?=?0.36, 0.34, and -0.29) and ?SBPr (R?=?0.39, 0.37, and -0.29). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age and mean preoperative SBP was independently associated with SBP at T2, and serum creatinine was independently associated with ?SBP and ?SBPr. These findings suggested that elevated serum creatinine level, as well as elevated preoperative BP level, was associated with enhanced BP responses to acute stress in middle-aged to elderly patients. PMID:26114353

  12. Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Simpson, Christine A; Sullivan, Rebecca R; Caseria, Donna M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-03-01

    To determine the usefulness of urinary urea as an index of dietary protein intake, 10 postmenopausal women were enrolled in and completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over feeding trial from September 2008 to May 2010 that compared 10 days of a 45-g whey supplement with 10 days of a 45-g maltodextrin control. Urinary nitrogen, urinary calcium, urinary urea, and bone turnover markers were measured at days 0, 7, and 10. Paired sample t tests, Pearson's correlation statistic, and simple linear regression were used to assess differences between treatments and associations among urinary metabolites. Urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine rose from 12.3±1.7 g/g (99.6±13.8 mmol/mmol) to 16.8±2.2 g/g (135.5±17.8 mmol/mmol) with whey supplementation, but did not change with maltodextrin. Whey supplementation caused urinary calcium to rise by 4.76±1.84 mg (1.19±0.46 mmol) without a change in bone turnover markers. Because our goal was to estimate protein intake from urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we used our data to develop the following equation: protein intake (g/day)=71.221+1.719×(urinary nitrogen, g)/creatinine, g) (R=0.46, R(2)=0.21). As a more rapid and less costly alternative to urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we next determined whether urinary urea could predict protein intake and found that protein intake (g/day)=63.844+1.11×(urinary urea, g/creatinine, g) (R=0.58, R(2)=0.34). These data indicate that urinary urea/urinary creatinine is at least as good a marker of dietary protein intake as urinary nitrogen and is easier to quantitate in nutrition intervention trials. PMID:23438496

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury after Radical Cystectomy: Importance of Preoperative Serum Uric Acid Level

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Yu, Jihion; Lim, Jinwook; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after surgery and increases costs, morbidity, and mortality of hospitalized patients. While radical cystectomy associates significantly with an increased risk of serious complications, including AKI, risk factors of AKI after radical cystectomy has not been reported. This study was performed to determine the incidence and independent predictors of AKI after radical cystectomy. Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy in 2001-2013 in a single tertiary-care center were identified. Their demographics, laboratory values, and intraoperative data were recorded. Postoperative AKI was defined and staged according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria on the basis of postoperative changes in creatinine levels. Independent predictors of AKI were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 238 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 91 (38.2%) developed AKI. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, high serum uric acid level, and long operation time associated with the development of AKI. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, preoperative serum uric acid concentration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.251; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.048-1.493; P = 0.013) and operation time (OR = 1.005; 95% CI = 1.002-1.008; P = 0.003) remained as independent predictors of AKI after radical cystectomy. Conclusions: AKI after radical cystectomy was a relatively common complication. Its independent risk factors were high preoperative serum uric acid concentration and long operation time. These observations can help to prevent AKI after radical cystectomy. PMID:26283877

  14. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. Uric acid and chronic kidney disease: which is chasing which?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Jalal, Diana; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Kang, Duk-Hee; Ritz, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    Serum uric acid is commonly elevated in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but was historically viewed as an issue of limited interest. Recently, uric acid has been resurrected as a potential contributory risk factor in the development and progression of CKD. Most studies documented that an elevated serum uric acid level independently predicts the development of CKD. Raising the uric acid level in rats can induce glomerular hypertension and renal disease as noted by the development of arteriolosclerosis, glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Pilot studies suggest that lowering plasma uric acid concentrations may slow the progression of renal disease in subjects with CKD. While further clinical trials are necessary, uric acid is emerging as a potentially modifiable risk factor for CKD. Gout was considered a cause of CKD in the mid-nineteenth century [1], and, prior to the availability of therapies to lower the uric acid level, the development of end-stage renal disease was common in gouty patients. In their large series of gouty subjects Talbott and Terplan found that nearly 100% had variable degrees of CKD at autopsy (arteriolosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis) [2]. Additional studies showed that during life impaired renal function occurred in half of these subjects [3]. As many of these subjects had urate crystals in their tubules and interstitium, especially in the outer renal medulla, the disease became known as gouty nephropathy. The identity of this condition fell in question as the presence of these crystals may occur in subjects without renal disease; furthermore, the focal location of the crystals could not explain the diffuse renal scarring present. In addition, many subjects with gout also had coexistent conditions such as hypertension and vascular disease, leading some experts to suggest that the renal injury in gout was secondary to these latter conditions rather than to uric acid per se [4]. Indeed, gout was removed from the textbooks as a cause of CKD, and the common association of hyperuricemia with CKD was solely attributed to the retention of serum uric acid that is known to occur as the glomerular filtration rate falls. Renewed interest in uric acid as a cause of CKD occurred when it was realized that invalid assumptions had been made in the arguments to dismiss uric acid as a risk factor for CKD [5]. The greatest assumption was that the mechanism by which uric acid would cause kidney disease would be via the precipitation as crystals in the kidney, similar to the way it causes gout. However, when laboratory animals with CKD were made hyperuricemic, the renal disease progressed rapidly despite an absence of crystals in the kidney [6]. Since this seminal study, there has been a renewed interest in the potential role uric acid may have in both acute and CKD. We briefly review some of the major advances that have occurred in this field in the last 15 years. PMID:23543594

  1. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Tin C; Assimos, Dean G

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of urolithiasis has been increasing for the past few decades in industrialized nations. Uric acid calculi account for a significant percentage of urinary stones. Certain risk factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis, including hyperuricosuria, low urinary volume, and persistently low urinary pH. Patients with medical conditions that promote profound hyperuricosuria are at high risk of developing uric acid calculi. These conditions include chronic diarrheal states; myeloproliferative disorders; insulin resistance, including diabetes mellitus; and monogenic metabolic disorders, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Computed tomography can provide a definitive diagnosis. Except in cases in which there is severe obstruction, progressive azotemia, serious infection, or unremitting pain, the initial treatment of patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis should be medical dissolution therapy because this approach is successful in the majority of cases. A thorough review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis is crucial for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stones in patients with this condition. PMID:17396168

  2. Renal transport of uric acid: evolving concepts and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Moe, Orson W

    2012-11-01

    In addition to its role as a metabolic waste product, uric acid has been proposed to be an important molecule with multiple functions in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes and may be linked to human diseases beyond nephrolithiasis and gout. Uric acid homeostasis is determined by the balance between production, intestinal secretion, and renal excretion. The kidney is an important regulator of circulating uric acid levels by reabsorbing about 90% of filtered urate and being responsible for 60% to 70% of total body uric acid excretion. Defective renal handling of urate is a frequent pathophysiologic factor underpinning hyperuricemia and gout. Despite tremendous advances over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms of renal urate transport are still incompletely understood. Many transport proteins are candidate participants in urate handling, with URAT1 and GLUT9 being the best characterized to date. Understanding these transporters is increasingly important for the practicing clinician as new research unveils their physiologic characteristics, importance in drug action, and genetic association with uric acid levels in human populations. The future may see the introduction of new drugs that act specifically on individual renal urate transporters for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:23089270

  3. Renal Transport of Uric Acid: Evolving Concepts and Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role as a metabolic waste product, uric acid has been proposed to be an important molecule with multiple functions in human physiology and pathophysiology and may be linked to human diseases beyond nephrolithiasis and gout. Uric acid homeostasis is determined by the balance between production, intestinal secretion, and renal excretion. The kidney is an important regulator of circulating uric acid levels, by reabsorbing around 90% of filtered urate, while being responsible for 6070% of total body uric acid excretion. Defective renal handling of urate is a frequent pathophysiologic factor underpinning hyperuricemia and gout. In spite of tremendous advances over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms of renal urate transport are still incompletely understood. Many transport proteins are candidate participants in urate handling, with URAT1 and GLUT9 being the best characterized to date. Understanding these transporters is increasingly important for the practicing clinician as new research unveils their physiology, importance in drug action, and genetic association with uric acid levels in human populations. The future may see the introduction of new drugs that specifically act on individual renal urate transporters for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:23089270

  4. Increased Levels of Serum Uric Acid among Ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Masako; Mizuno, Shoichi; Yokota, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether serum uric acid level increases after the cessation of smoking. Methods In 2000, we conducted a cross-sectional study on the effects of smoking cessation on serum uric acid levels by analyzing the results of annual health check-ups in the Japanese male working population (n = 16,642). Results The serum uric acid level (6.18 mg/dL) was the highest in ex-smokers, followed by that in never-smokers (6.10 mg/dL) and that in current smokers (5.98 mg/dL). Ex-smokers weighed 0.6 kg more than the never-smokers and 1.5 kg more than the current smokers. The frequency of alcohol intake was closely correlated to the smoking habits. The serum uric acid levels declined in all groups, after adjustments for age, body mass index, and alcohol intake, though the levels in ex-smokers were 0.2 mg/dL higher than those in current smokers. Conclusion The results suggested that alcohol intake contributed considerably to the serum uric acid levels and that smoking itself may have suppressed these levels via metabolic effects or the action of superoxides. PMID:18469491

  5. Impact of Different Creatinine Measurement Methods on Liver Transplant Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Thorsten; Kinny-Kster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Parthaune, Tanja; Schmidt, Michael; Thiery, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is used in many countries to prioritize organ allocation for the majority of patients who require orthotopic liver transplantation. This score is calculated based on the following laboratory parameters: creatinine, bilirubin and the international normalized ratio (INR). Consequently, high measurement accuracy is essential for equitable and fair organ allocation. For serum creatinine measurements, the Jaff method and enzymatic detection are well-established routine diagnostic tests. Methods A total of 1,013 samples from 445 patients on the waiting list or in evaluation for liver transplantation were measured using both creatinine methods from November 2012 to September 2013 at the university hospital Leipzig, Germany. The measurements were performed in parallel according to the manufacturers instructions after the samples arrived at the institute of laboratory medicine. Patients who had required renal replacement therapy twice in the previous week were excluded from analyses. Results Despite the good correlation between the results of both creatinine quantification methods, relevant differences were observed, which led to different MELD scores. The Jaff measurement led to greater MELD score in 163/1,013 (16.1%) samples with differences of up to 4 points in one patient, whereas differences of up to 2 points were identified in 15/1,013 (1.5%) samples using the enzymatic assay. Overall, 50/152 (32.9%) patients with MELD scores >20 had higher scores when the Jaff method was used. Discussion Using the Jaff method to measure creatinine levels in samples from patients who require liver transplantation may lead to a systematic preference in organ allocation. In this study, the differences were particularly pronounced in samples with MELD scores >20, which has clinical relevance in the context of urgency of transplantation. These data suggest that official recommendations are needed to determine which laboratory diagnostic methods should be used when calculating MELD scores. PMID:24587188

  6. Liver Enzymes and Uric acid in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vakilian, Farveh; Rafighdoost, Abbas Ali; Rafighdoost, Amir Hossein; Amin, Ahmad; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute heart failure (AHF) is defined as the new onset or recurrence of gradual or rapidly worsening signs and symptoms of heart failure, requiring urgent or emergent therapy. Objectives: This study attempts to assess the association of liver function tests (LFT) and uric acid level with in hospital outcome and echocardiography parameters, in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients (aged 16 - 90 years, 60% men) admitted with AHF were enrolled. LFTs and uric acid levels were assessed on first day and before discharge, and patients were followed for 3 months. Results: In-hospital outcomes were considered. Mean Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) was 35% (20 - 45%). Mean Uric acid level was 8.4 mg/dL, significantly higher than chronic HF and normal groups (P < 0.02). Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 52% patients, mostly (87%) in transaminases. Liver enzymes were decreased in 85% patients before discharge. LFT and uric acid levels were inversely and significantly correlated with LVEF on echocardiography (P = 0.02), but not with diastolic parameters. Although there was no significant correlation between uric acid level and in-hospital mortality, risk of intubation and rehospitalization in 3 months, enzyme levels increased in these groups. Increased aspartate transaminase (AST level) was associated with inotrope infusion in AHF patients (42 vs. 82 mg/dL, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Abnormal transaminases and uric acid levels are seen in AHF patients. Increased AST levels may be a predictor of the need for inotrope during hospital course in these patients. PMID:26528447

  7. A Double-edged Sword: Uric Acid and Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pu; Li, Xinyuan; Luo, Jin Jun; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2014-01-01

    Uric Acid (UA), historically considered as a waste of cellular metabolism, has now received increasing attention because it was found to directly participate in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including neurological disorders. On one hand, low levels of UA are detrimental to the neurons because of its induction it impairs antioxidant capacity in the cell. High levels of UA, on the other hand, lead to an inflammatory response contributing to gout or neuroprotection. In this review, we summarize this biphasic function of uric acid and highlight potential therapeutic targets to treat UA-related neurological diseases. PMID:24511458

  8. Serum uric acid level, blood pressure, and vascular angiotensin II responsiveness in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Arian; Ramesh, Sharanya; Turin, Tanvir C.; MacRae, Jennifer M.; Sarna, Magdalena A.; Reimer, Raylene A.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Ahmed, Sofia B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Uric acid is associated with hypertension and increased reninangiotensin system activity, although this relationship diminishes after chronic exposure to high levels. Uric acid is more strongly associated with poor outcomes in women compared to men, although whether this is due to a sex?specific uric acid?mediated pathophysiology or reflects sex differences in baseline uric acid levels remains unknown. We examined the association between uric acid and vascular measures at baseline and in response to angiotensin?II challenge in young healthy humans. Fifty?two subjects (17 men, 35 premenopausal women) were studied in high?salt balance. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in men compared to women (328 14 ?mol/L vs. 248 10 ?mol/L, P < 0.001), although all values were within normal sex?specific range. Men demonstrated no association between uric acid and blood pressure, either at baseline or in response to angiotensin?II. In stark contrast, a significant association was observed between uric acid and blood pressure at baseline (systolic blood pressure, P = 0.005; diastolic blood pressure, P = 0.02) and in response to angiotensin?II (systolic blood pressure, P = 0.035; diastolic blood pressure, P = 0.056) in women. However, this sex difference lost significance after adjustment for baseline uric acid. When all subjects were stratified according to high (>300 ?mol/L) or low (?300 ?mol/L) uric acid levels, only the low uric acid group showed a positive association between uric acid and measures of vascular tone at baseline and in response to angiotensin?II. Differences in uric acid?mediated outcomes between men and women likely reflect differences in exposure to increased uric acid levels, rather than a sex?specific uric acid?mediated pathophysiology. PMID:25501427

  9. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  10. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA) concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002). The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000), diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007), waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003), BMI ( r=.269, p=.018), fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002), triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000), HDL ( r=.237, p=.036) and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023). Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach. PMID:22515434

  11. Direct determination of creatinine based on poly(ethyleneimine)/phosphotungstic acid multilayer modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Xu, Shimei; Feng, Shun; Hao, Yanjun; Wang, Jide

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the direct determination of creatinine was achieved using a poly(ethyleneimine)/phosphotungstic acid multilayer modified electrode with the assistance of Copper(II) ions by cyclic voltammetry. The quantity of creatinine were determined by measuring the redox peak current of Cu(II)-creatinine complex/Cu(I)-creatinine complex. Factors affecting the response current of creatinine at the modified electrode were optimized. A linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of creatinine ranging from 0.125 to 62.5μM was obtained with a detection limit of 0.06μM. The proposed method was applied to determine creatinine in human urine, and satisfied results were gotten which was validated in accordance with high performance liquid chromatography. The proposed electrode provided a promising alternative in routine sensing for creatinine without enzymatic assistance. PMID:26946017

  12. Importance of creatinine clearance for drug dosing in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jignesh; Fogel, Joshua; Balsam, Leah

    2014-02-01

    Serum creatinine is often not an adequate measure of renal function, especially in advanced age or in physically debilitated patients. Estimated creatinine clearance is necessary to decide on usage of drugs such as Metformin. This study included 64 nursing home residents with diabetes treated with Metformin. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation modified for ideal body weight. CrCl more than or equal to 60/mL min was used as a cut-off for appropriate use of Metformin. In our sample, 20.3% had renal failure when measured by serum creatinine while 56.3% had renal failure when measured by CrCl. Age >65 years and women were more likely to be classified as normal for serum creatinine but have abnormal creatinine clearance. Use of estimated creatinine clearance should be advocated instead of serum creatinine when prescribing Metformin, especially for those of older age and among women. PMID:24111696

  13. Nitric oxide inhibits prooxidant actions of uric acid during copper-mediated LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Silvia M; Batthyny, Carlos; Trostchansky, Andrs; Botti, Horacio; Lpez, Graciela I; Wikinski, Regina L W; Rubbo, Homero; Schreier, Laura E

    2004-03-15

    Interactions between uric acid and physiologically relevant fluxes of nitric oxide ((?)NO) during copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were evaluated. In the absence of (?)NO, a dual pro- and antioxidant action of uric acid was evident: low concentrations of uric acid enhanced lipid oxidation and alpha-tocopherol consumption, while its protective role was observed at higher concentrations. The prooxidant effects of uric acid were mostly related to its copper-reducing ability to form Cu(+), an initiator of lipid oxidation processes. While the prooxidant action of uric acid was completely inhibited by (?)NO, the antioxidant action of (?)NO was slightly counterbalanced by uric acid. Enhancement of alpha-tocopherol consumption by uric acid was inhibited in the presence of (?)NO while additive antioxidant effects between (?)NO and uric acid were observed in conditions where uric acid spared alpha-tocopherol. Altogether, these results suggest that in the artery wall, the (?)NO/uric acid pair may exert antioxidant actions on LDL, even if increased amounts of redox active copper were available at conditions favoring prooxidant activities of uric acid. PMID:15001394

  14. New enzymatic assay for serum urea nitrogen using urea amidolyase.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shigeki; Iyama, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2003-01-01

    We established an enzymatic assay for measurement of serum urea nitrogen using urea amidolyase (EC 3.5.1.45) from yeast species. The method is based on hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme. In this assay, we eliminated endogenous ammonium ion by use of glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.4). Then in the presence of urea amido-lyase, ATP, bicarbonate, magnesium, and potassium ions, ammonium ion was produced proportionally to urea concentration in serum. The concentra-tion of ammonium ion formed was determined by adding GLDH to produce NADP(+) in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH. We then monitored the change of absorbance at 340 nm. The inhibitory effect of calcium ion on this assay was eliminated by adding glyco-letherdiamine-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid to the reaction system. The with-in-assay coefficient of variations (CVs) of the present method were 1.80-3.76% (n = 10) at 2.8-19.0 mmol/L, respectively. The day-to-day CVs were 2.23-4.59%. Analytical recovery was 92-115%. The presence of ascorbic acid, bilirubin, hemoglobin, lipemic material, ammo-nium ion, or calcium ion did not affect this assay system. The correlation be-tween values obtained with the present method (y) and those by another enzy-matic method (x) was 0.997 (y = 1.02x - 0.10 mmol/L, Sy/x = 0.841, n = 100), with a mean difference of -0.18 +/- 0.86 mmol/L [(values by reference method - that of present method) +/- SD] using the Bland-Altman technique. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 17:52-56, 2003. PMID:12640627

  15. A candidate reference method for uric acid in serum. I. Optimization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, P H; Gochman, N; Cooper, T; Smith, E; Bayse, D

    1982-02-01

    We describe our optimization and evaluation of a candidate Reference Method for uric acid in serum. Reaction parameters were optimized for a manual, enzymic method for uric acid in which highly purified microbial uricase is used to quantitate uric acid by a differential ultraviolet procedure. We evaluated the method in terms of freedom from interferences, analytical recovery, precision, and comparison with five other uric acid methods. We conclude that (a) the candidate uric acid Reference Method exhibits the least interference; (b) all six methods exhibit satisfactory analytical recoveries and precision; and (c) results by all six methods agree well. As a result of this evaluation study, the manual ultraviolet uricase method for uric acid, with Tris as buffer, was chosen as the candidate Reference Method for uric acid. PMID:7055949

  16. What Is a Urea Cycle Disorder?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. What is the incidence of these disorders? Urea cycle disorders are included ... and death among newborns and infants. The estimated incidence of urea cycle disorders is 1 in 8500 ...

  17. Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

  18. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-01

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (?20 ?m) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time. PMID:26479269

  19. Phytotoxicity of foliar-applied urea.

    PubMed

    Krogmeier, M J; McCarty, G W; Bremner, J M

    1989-11-01

    Recent work in our laboratory showed that the adverse effect of urea fertilizer on seed germination and seedling growth in soil is due to ammonia produced through hydrolysis of urea by soil urease (NH(2)CONH(2) + H(2)O --> 2NH(3) + CO(2)) and can be eliminated by amending the fertilizer with a small amount of a urease inhibitor such as phenylphosphorodiamidate. Because the leaf-tip necrosis often observed after foliar fertilization of plants with urea is usually attributed to ammonia formed through hydrolysis of urea by plant urease, we studied the possibility that this necrosis could be eliminated or reduced by adding phenylphosphorodiamidate to the urea fertilizer. We found that, although addition of this urease inhibitor to foliar-applied urea increased the urea content and decreased the ammonia content and urease activity of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] leaves fertilized with urea, it increased the leaf-tip necrosis observed after fertilization. We conclude that this necrosis resulted from accumulation of toxic amounts of urea rather than from formation of toxic amounts of ammonia. This conclusion was supported by our finding that the necrotic areas of soybean leaves treated with urea or with urea and phenylphosphorodiamidate contained much higher concentrations of urea than did the nonnecrotic areas. PMID:16594077

  20. Detection of urinary creatinine using gold nanoparticles after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Unob, Fuangfa

    2015-03-01

    Label-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in the detection of creatinine in human urine after a sample preparation by extraction of creatinine on sulfonic acid functionalized silica gel. With the proposed sample preparation method, the interfering effects of the urine matrix on creatinine detection by AuNPs were eliminated. Parameters affecting creatinine extraction were investigated. The aggregation of AuNPs induced by creatinine resulted in a change in the surface plasmon resonance signal with a concomitant color change that could be observed by the naked eye and quantified spectrometrically. The effect of AuNP concentration and reaction time on AuNP aggregation was investigated. The method described herein provides a determination of creatinine in a range of 15-40mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 13.7mgL(-1) and it was successfully used in the detection of creatinine in human urine samples. PMID:25546357

  1. Detection of urinary creatinine using gold nanoparticles after solid phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Unob, Fuangfa

    2015-03-01

    Label-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in the detection of creatinine in human urine after a sample preparation by extraction of creatinine on sulfonic acid functionalized silica gel. With the proposed sample preparation method, the interfering effects of the urine matrix on creatinine detection by AuNPs were eliminated. Parameters affecting creatinine extraction were investigated. The aggregation of AuNPs induced by creatinine resulted in a change in the surface plasmon resonance signal with a concomitant color change that could be observed by the naked eye and quantified spectrometrically. The effect of AuNP concentration and reaction time on AuNP aggregation was investigated. The method described herein provides a determination of creatinine in a range of 15-40 mg L-1 with a detection limit of 13.7 mg L-1 and it was successfully used in the detection of creatinine in human urine samples.

  2. Serum uric acid and AKI: is it time?

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish; Choo, Jason Chon Jun

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-recognized complication in hospitalized patients, with associated mortality and morbidity. Studies that aim to prevent or reverse AKI using pharmacological and interventional therapies in clinical practice have been disappointing. Work is continuing to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for AKI. Early identification and modification of these risk factors may help prevent or favorably influence the outcome of AKI. The role of uric acid as a potential risk factor is being revisited in chronic kidney disease and AKI. Apart from the established crystal precipitation with profound hyperuricemia, various non-crystal mechanisms have also been proposed in the pathogenesis of AKI. The association of serum uric acid levels with the development of AKI has been reported in various clinical settings. Together, the results of these studies highlight hyperuricemia as a potential risk factor of AKI and the need for further work on this subject. PMID:26798460

  3. Serum uric acid and AKI: is it time?

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Manish; Choo, Jason Chon Jun

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-recognized complication in hospitalized patients, with associated mortality and morbidity. Studies that aim to prevent or reverse AKI using pharmacological and interventional therapies in clinical practice have been disappointing. Work is continuing to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for AKI. Early identification and modification of these risk factors may help prevent or favorably influence the outcome of AKI. The role of uric acid as a potential risk factor is being revisited in chronic kidney disease and AKI. Apart from the established crystal precipitation with profound hyperuricemia, various non-crystal mechanisms have also been proposed in the pathogenesis of AKI. The association of serum uric acid levels with the development of AKI has been reported in various clinical settings. Together, the results of these studies highlight hyperuricemia as a potential risk factor of AKI and the need for further work on this subject. PMID:26798460

  4. Uric Acid as a Target of Therapy in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Diana I.; Chonchol, Michel; Chen, Wei; Targher, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has risen and will continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. This is alarming considering that CKD remains an irreversible condition and patients who progress to chronic kidney failure suffer reduced quality of life and high mortality rates. As such, it is imperative to identify modifiable risk factors to develop strategies to slow CKD progression. One such factor is hyperuricemia. Recent observational studies have associated hyperuricemia with kidney disease. In addition, hyperuricemia is largely prevalent in patients with CKD. Data from experimental studies have revealed several potential mechanisms by which hyperuricemia may contribute to the development and progression of CKD. In this manuscript we offer a critical review of the experimental evidence linking hyperuricemia to CKD, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge on the topic as it stands today, and we review the observational and interventional studies that have examined the potential nephro-protective effect of lowering uric acid in CKD patients . While uric acid may also be linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with CKD, this review will focus only on uric acid as a potential therapeutic target to prevent kidney disease onset and progression. PMID:23058478

  5. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  6. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  7. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

  8. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: From an innocent bystander to a central player.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Jensen, Thomas; Solak, Yalcin; Le, Myphuong; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Uric acid, once viewed as an inert metabolic end-product of purine metabolism, has been recently incriminated in a number of chronic disease states, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. Several experimental and clinical studies support a role for uric acid as a contributory causal factor in these conditions. Here we discuss some of the major mechanisms linking uric acid to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. At this time the key to understanding the importance of uric acid in these diseases will be the conduct of large clinical trials in which the effect of lowering uric acid on hard clinical outcomes is assessed. Elevated uric acid may turn out to be one of the more important remediable risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26703429

  9. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares Filho, S C; Valadares, R F D; Prates, L L; Renn, L N; Paulino, M F

    2016-01-01

    Effects of supplemental RDP and RUP on nutrient digestion, N metabolism, urea kinetics, and muscle protein degradation were evaluated in Nellore heifers () consuming low-quality signal grass hay (5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis). Five ruminally and abomasally cannulated Nellore heifers (248 9 kg) were used in a 5 5 Latin square. Treatments were the control (no supplement) and RDP supplementation to meet 100% of the RDP requirement plus RUP provision to supply 0, 50, 100, or 150% of the RUP requirement. Supplemental RDP (casein plus NPN) was ruminally dosed twice daily, and RUP supply (casein) was continuously infused abomasally. Jugular infusion of [NN]-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to evaluate urea kinetics. The ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was used to estimate skeletal muscle protein degradation. Forage NDF intake (2.48 kg/d) was not affected ( ? 0.37) by supplementation, but supplementation did increase ruminal NDF digestion ( < 0.01). Total N intake (by design) and N retention increased ( < 0.001) with supplementation and also linearly increased with RUP provision. Urea entry rate and gastrointestinal entry rate of urea were increased by supplementation ( < 0.001). Supplementation with RUP linearly increased ( = 0.02) urea entry rate and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase gastrointestinal entry rate of urea. Urea use for anabolic purposes tended ( = 0.07) to be increased by supplementation, and RUP provision also tended ( = 0.08) to linearly increase the amount of urea used for anabolism. The fraction of recycled urea N incorporated into microbial N was greater ( < 0.001) for control (22%) than for supplemented (9%) heifers. Urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine of control heifers was more than double that of supplemented heifers ( < 0.001). Control heifers reabsorbed a greater ( < 0.001) fraction of urea from the renal tubule than did supplemented heifers. Overall, unsupplemented heifers had greater mobilization of AA from myofibrillar protein, which provided N for urea synthesis and subsequent recycling. Supplemental RUP, when RDP was supplied, not only increased N retention but also supported increased urea N recycling and increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:26812327

  10. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for urinary creatinine and the statistical significance of other variables in the model to be independent of effects of creatinine concentration. PMID:15687057

  11. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-11-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ?18years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (? creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48hours (P = .011) and 72hours (P = .013) as also ? creatinine at 48hours (P = .042) and 72hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or ? creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% ? creatinine at 48 and 72hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and ? creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, ? creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance. PMID:26558505

  12. Enzymatic degradation of uric acid by uricase-loaded human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ihler, G; Lantzy, A; Purpura, J; Glew, R H

    1975-01-01

    Erythrocytes containing pig liver uricase have been prepared by hypotonic hemolysis in the presence of the enzyme. Uricase is shown to be active within the erythrocytes and to degrade uric acid as rapidly as it enters the cells when high intracellular enzyme concentrations are employed. The kinetics and characteristics of uric acid entry are shown to be the same for hemolysed and normal erythrocytes. At physiological concentrations of uric acid, loaded erythrocytes can degrade a maximum of about 21 mumol uric acid/liter erythrocytes per min. The possible application of enzyme-loaded erythrocytes to medicine is discussed. PMID:1159075

  13. Impulsivity is Associated with Uric Acid: Evidence from Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Camandola, Simonetta; Uda, Manuela; Feldman, Neil H.; Cucca, Francesco; Zonderman, Alan B.; Mattson, Mark P.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to control impulses varies greatly, and difficulty with impulse control can have severe consequences; in the extreme, it is the defining feature of many psychiatric disorders. Evidence from disparate lines of research suggests that uric acid is elevated in psychiatric disorders characterized by high impulsivity, such as ADHD and bipolar disorder. The present research tests the hypothesis that impulsivity is associated with higher uric acid in humans and mice. Methods Using two longitudinal, non-clinical community samples (total N=6883), we test whether there is an association between uric acid and normal variation in trait impulsivity measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. We also examined the effect of uric acid on behavior by comparing wild-type mice (WT), which naturally have low levels of uric acid, to mice genetically modified (UOX) to accumulate high levels of uric acid. Results In both human samples, the emotional aspects of trait impulsivity, specifically Impulsiveness and Excitement-Seeking, were associated with higher levels of uric acid concurrently and when uric acid was measured 35 years later. Consistent with the human data, the UOX mice displayed significantly more exploratory and novelty-seeking behavior than the WT mice. Conclusion Higher uric acid was associated with impulsivity in both humans and mice. The identification of biological markers of impulsivity may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in impulsivity, and may suggest potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23582268

  14. Serum uric acid may not be involved in the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Lau, S; Tong, M; Wei, J; Shen, F; Zhao, J; Zhao, M

    2016-02-01

    Higher serum levels of uric acid are associated with preeclampsia and may signal an early change in preeclampsia. However there is less evidence suggesting there is a meaningful association between uric acid and the development of preeclampsia. A total of 877 women with preeclampsia at presentation and 580 normotensive pregnancies were retrospectively recruited from January 2009 to May 2014. In addition, 5556 pregnant women were also prospectively recruited from September 2012 to December 2013. Retrospective serum levels of uric acid were obtained from women with preeclampsia at the time of presentation (n=877), and serum levels of uric acid in the first, second and third trimester were prospectively collected in women who later developed preeclampsia (n=78), as well as those who did not (n=5478). The serum levels of uric acid were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia at presentation from retrospective samples and this increase correlated with the time of onset and the severity of preeclampsia. However, in prospective samples, serum levels of uric acid were not increased in the first and second trimesters in women who later developed preeclampsia compared with those who did not. The serum level of uric acid in the first and second trimesters in women who developed preeclampsia was not different. Our results demonstrate that the serum levels of uric acid were only increased after the presentation of clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. Therefore, it is likely that uric acid is not involved in the development of preeclampsia and cannot be an early prediction biomarker of this disease. PMID:25994995

  15. Pro-inflammatory effects of uric acid in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K.; Mongiardo, Krystin M.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that also generates hydrogen peroxide. It has been assumed that the product of XO responsible for the pro-inflammatory effects of this enzyme is hydrogen peroxide. Recent literature on uric acid, however, has indicated that uric acid itself may have biological effects. We tested whether uric acid itself has detectable pro-inflammatory effects using an in vivo model using ligated rabbit intestinal segments (loops) as well as in vitro assays using cultured cells. Addition of exogenous uric acid increased the influx of heterophils into rabbit intestinal loops, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, white blood cells adhered avidly to uric acid crystals, forming large aggregates of cells. Uric acid acts as a leukocyte chemoattractant in the GI tract. The role of uric acid in enteric infections and in non-infectious disorders of the GI tract deserves more attention. PMID:24377830

  16. Two-stage magnetic orientation of uric acid crystals as gout initiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Miyashita, Y.; Mizukawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the magnetic behavior of uric acid crystals, which are responsible for gout. Under a sub-Tesla (T)-level magnetic field, rotational motion of the crystals, which were caused by diamagnetic torque, was observed. We used horizontal magnetic fields with a maximum magnitude of 500 mT generated by an electromagnet to observe the magnetic orientation of the uric acid microcrystals by a microscope. The uric acid crystals showed a perpendicular magnetic field orientation with a minimum threshold of 130 mT. We speculate that the distinct diamagnetic anisotropy in the uric acid crystals resulted in their rotational responses.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No....

  18. Creatinine elevation in patients receiving amiodarone correlates with serum amiodarone concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, P T; Sharma, A D; Carruthers, S G

    1993-01-01

    Serum creatinine and drug concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in 30 consecutive patients started on amiodarone. In 28 of these patients with no obvious cause for altered renal function, mean serum creatinine increased to 11% above baseline (P < 0.005). Rising creatinine concentrations correlated with amiodarone concentrations (y = 93.9 + 8.6x, r = 0.51, P < 0.0001). When assessing elevation of serum creatinine in a patient receiving amiodarone, physicians should be aware that it may be related to this drug. PMID:8398580

  19. Assessment of microalbuminuria and albumin creatinine ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karar, Tarig; Alniwaider, Rashed Ahmed R.; Fattah, Mohamed Abdel; Al Tamimi, Waleed; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to evaluate the levels of urine microalbumin, urine albumin creatinine ratio, plasma creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among type 2 diabetic patients and assessed the correlation between microalbuminuria and plasma creatinine levels. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted at Department of Clinical Chemistry, King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during August to December 2014. The study included 100 male and female patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and excluding patients with type 1 DM. Medical history and biochemical laboratory data were obtained from medical records and from biochemistry laboratory database. Results: Increase in mean level of plasma creatinine (138 ?mol/L), urine microalbuminuria (240 mg/L), albumin creatinine ratio (82) and HbA1c (8.7%) was observed among type 2 DM patients. Moderate positive correlation was observed between microalbuminuria and urine albumin creatinine ratio (r = 0.509 P = 0.0006) and between urine albumin creatinine ratio and plasma creatinine (r = 0.553 P = 0.017). Conclusion: We concluded that type 2 DM patients who are at risk of developing renal impairment must be regularly monitored for microalbuminuria, urine albumin creatinine ratio, and HbA1c levels. PMID:26604628

  20. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erik M; Sobus, Jon R; Strynar, Mark J; Pleil, Joachim D; Nakayama, Shoji F

    2014-01-01

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously produced chemical that is routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function and sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaff (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change, and can therefore require automated processing equipment for moderate- to high-throughput analysis (hundreds to thousands of samples per day). This study evaluates an alternative colorimetric method, the "plateau Jaff" (PJ) method, which utilizes the chemistry of the KJ method, a commercially available kit, and a multipoint calibration curve. This method is amenable to moderate-throughput sample analysis and does not require automated processing equipment. Thirty-two spot urine samples from healthy adult volunteers were analyzed for creatinine concentration (CRc) using the KJ and PJ methods. Samples were also analyzed using a liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) method, which acted as an analytical control. Replicate measurements of spot samples (natural log-transformed values) were used to estimate method precision, and linear regression models were used to evaluate method accuracy (LC-TOF/MS measurements were considered the analytical benchmark). Measurement precision was comparable across all three methods, with coefficent of variation estimates ranging from 3 to 6%. Regression models generally showed good agreement across methods with R(2) estimates ranging from .996 to .998, slope estimates ranging from .944 to .986, and y-intercept estimates ranging from 0.111 to 0.303. Minor bias (between 2 and 16%) was observed across methods at the tails of the measurement distributions. The provided regression equations can be used to adjust for this bias and to improve CR measurement comparisons across studies employing different methods. Considering these results, the PJ method is a suitable alternative to the industry standard KJ method for urinary CRc determination. It can be implemented for moderate-throughput sample analysis using modest and commonly available lab instrumentation and manual sample preparation techniques. PMID:25072898

  1. Metabolic Syndrome, Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Factors Are Associated with Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. Methods The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18–65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii) the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii) selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C), SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A) and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A). A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables. Results The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24827988

  2. Potential mechanisms for low uric acid in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sampat, Radhika; Young, Sarah; Rosen, Ami; Bernhard, Douglas; Millington, David; Factor, Stewart; Jinnah, H A

    2016-04-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have described an association between low serum uric acid (UA) and Parkinson disease (PD). Uric acid is a known antioxidant, and one proposed mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD is oxidative damage of dopamine neurons. However, other complex metabolic pathways may contribute. The purpose of this study is to elucidate potential mechanisms of low serum UA in PD. Subjects who met diagnostic criteria for definite or probable PD (n = 20) and controls (n = 20) aged 55-80 years were recruited. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from all participants, and both uric acid and allantoin were measured and corrected for body mass index (BMI). Urinary metabolites were compared using a twoway ANOVA with diagnosis and sex as the explanatory variables. There were no significant differences between PD and controls for total UA (p = 0.60), UA corrected for BMI (p = 0.37), or in the interaction of diagnosis and sex on UA (p = 0.24). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PD and controls for allantoin (p = 0.47), allantoin corrected for BMI (p = 0.57), or in the interaction of diagnosis and sex on allantoin (p = 0.78). Allantoin/UA ratios also did not significantly differ by diagnosis (p = 0.99). Our results imply that low serum UA in PD may be due to an intrinsic mechanism that alters the homeostatic set point for serum UA in PD, and may contribute to relatively lower protection against oxidative damage. These findings provide indirect support for neuroprotection trials aimed at raising serum UA. PMID:26747026

  3. Contribution of uric acid to cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Fini, Mehdi A; Elias, Anthony; Johnson, Richard J; Wright, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Two risk factors for the development and progression of cancers that are amenable to life style modification are chronic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. This review proposes two new targets that may mechanistically integrate inflammation and metabolic syndrome, have been largely ignored, and are known to be druggable. Recent evidence has demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is associated with excess cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality. Although uric acid (UA) can function as a systemic antioxidant, its pro-inflammatory properties have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Furthermore, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also associated with excess cancer, chronic inflammation, and with hyperuricemia, suggesting that UA may represent an important link between these disorders and the development of cancer. While pharmacological modulation of hyperuricemia could in principal augment anti-cancer therapeutic strategies, some cancer cells express low intracellular levels of the enzyme Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) that are associated with increased cancer aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome. Thus, systemic pharmacological inhibition of XOR may worsen clinical outcome, and specific strategies that target serum uric acid (SUA) without inhibiting tumor cell XOR may create new therapeutic opportunities for cancer associated with hyperuricemia. This review will summarize the evidence that elevated SUA may be a true risk factor for cancer incidence and mortality, and mechanisms by which UA may contribute to cancer pathogenesis will be discussed in the hope that these will identify new opportunities for cancer management. PMID:23369448

  4. Contribution of uric acid to cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two risk factors for the development and progression of cancers that are amenable to life style modification are chronic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. This review proposes two new targets that may mechanistically integrate inflammation and metabolic syndrome, have been largely ignored, and are known to be druggable. Recent evidence has demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is associated with excess cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality. Although uric acid (UA) can function as a systemic antioxidant, its pro-inflammatory properties have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Furthermore, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also associated with excess cancer, chronic inflammation, and with hyperuricemia, suggesting that UA may represent an important link between these disorders and the development of cancer. While pharmacological modulation of hyperuricemia could in principal augment anti-cancer therapeutic strategies, some cancer cells express low intracellular levels of the enzyme Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) that are associated with increased cancer aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome. Thus, systemic pharmacological inhibition of XOR may worsen clinical outcome, and specific strategies that target serum uric acid (SUA) without inhibiting tumor cell XOR may create new therapeutic opportunities for cancer associated with hyperuricemia. This review will summarize the evidence that elevated SUA may be a true risk factor for cancer incidence and mortality, and mechanisms by which UA may contribute to cancer pathogenesis will be discussed in the hope that these will identify new opportunities for cancer management. PMID:23369448

  5. Higher Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Higher Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dian-dian; Jiao, Pei-lin; Yu, Jing-jia; Wang, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Lin; Xuan, Yan; Sun, Li-hao; Tao, Bei; Wang, Wei-qing; Ning, Guang; Liu, Jian-min; Zhao, Hong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress is associated with osteoporosis. Serum uric acid (UA) is a strong endogenous antioxidant. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the serum UA and BMD in Chinese men with T2DM. In this cross-sectional study of 621 men with T2DM, BMDs at lumbar spine (L2–4), femoral neck (FN), and total hip (TH) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum levels of UA, calcium (Ca), 25-OH vitamin D3 (vitD3), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and creatinine (Cr) were also tested. Data analyses revealed that serum UA levels were positively associated with BMD at all sites (p < 0.05) in men with T2DM after adjusting for multiple confounders. The serum UA levels were positively correlated with body weight (r = 0.322), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.331), Ca (r = 0.179), and Cr (r = 0.239) (p < 0.001) and were also positively associated with the concentrations of PTH (r = 0.10, p < 0.05). When compared with those in the lowest tertile of UA levels, men with T2DM in the highest tertile had a lower prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (adjusted odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–0.95). These data suggest that higher serum levels of UA are associated with higher BMDs and lower risks of osteoporosis in Chinese men with T2DM.

  6. Uric Acid Secretion from Adipose Tissue and Its Increase in Obesity*

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  7. Urea in rainwater and atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, S. E.; Jickells, T. D.; Thornton, C. A.

    The measurement of urea (CO(NH 2) 2) in rainwater samples from predominantly marine-influenced locations in Bermuda, and Ireland, and in rains and aqueous aerosol extracts from a rural site at UEA, Norwich indicates that urea is not generally a major contributor to atmospheric water-soluble organic nitrogen. At UEA, where anthropogenic and natural sources of urea are expected to be most intense, urea accounts for <10% of rainwater dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and <1% of the water-soluble fraction of aerosol organic nitrogen. The analysis of size-segregated aerosol samples indicates that the size distribution of urea is quite different from those of ammonium and nitrate. In the less anthropogenically impacted Atlantic sites, rainwater urea was below the detection limits of the colorimetric method used in this study, consistent with expected dilution processes or reaction of urea during transport. However, in a small set of rain samples collected in Tahiti, urea concentrations ranged from 1 to 8 ?mol l -1, accounting for >40% of the DON measured in those samples. This may be a consequence of strong local sources, or it could possibly result from the partial breakdown of other DON compounds to urea during sample transport and storage. However, the similarity in urea concentrations observed in Pacific samples in this present study and in a previous one ( Timperley et al., 1985, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science42, 1171-1177) suggests that this may reflect a difference in rain chemistry between Atlantic and Pacific rains, perhaps resulting from differences in levels of agricultural urea usage between Asia and the rest of the world.

  8. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  9. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R.; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R.L.C.; Mercier, Patrick P.; Wang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  10. Automated urinalysis technique determines concentration of creatine and creatinine by colorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous urinalysis technique is useful in the study of muscle wastage in primates. Creatinine concentration in urine is determined in an aliquot mixture by a color reaction. Creatine is determined in a second aliquot by converting it to creatinine and measuring the difference in color intensity between the two aliquots.

  11. Urea Transporter Physiology Studied in Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuechen; Chen, Guangping; Yang, Baoxue

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, there are two types of urea transporters; urea transporter (UT)-A and UT-B. The UT-A transporters are mainly expressed in kidney epithelial cells while UT-B demonstrates a broader distribution in kidney, heart, brain, testis, urinary tract, and other tissues. Over the past few years, multiple urea transporter knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different urea transporters. In the kidney, deletion of UT-A1/UT-A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. Since UT-B has a wide tissue distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities have been found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, exacerbated heart blockage with aging, depression-like behavior, and earlier male sexual maturation. This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs, gleaned from studies of urea transporter knockout mice, and explores some of the potential pharmacological prospects of urea transporters. PMID:22745630

  12. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1923 Urea....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea....

  14. Renal disease in systemic sclerosis with normal serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Reem H A; Zayed, Hania S; Amin, Amr

    2010-07-01

    Prognosis of systemic sclerosis largely depends on involvement of internal organs. The aim was to evaluate renal impairment in patients with systemic sclerosis by measuring the Glomerular filteration rate (GFR) and then calculating the GFR using the Cockgroft and Gault formula and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equation (MDRD) formula. Thirty one scleroderma patients were recruited from the Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Cairo University Hospitals, mean age 43.25 +/- 11.28 years, 31 healthy controls were included. Disease severity was done using Medsger score. GFR was measured using classical Gates method TC99mDTPA. The modified Cockcroft and Gault formula and equation 7 from the MDRD were used for calculation of GFR. All patients had within normal serum creatinine levels. A normal GFR (>89ml/min) was found in 45.1%. Gates method showed reduced GFR was reported in 54.9%. Stage II chronic kidney disease (60-89 ml/min) found 32.3%, and stage III (30-59 ml/min) in 22.6%. The formulae used showed reduction of GFR in 35.29% of those affected by the Cockcroft-Gault and in 41.17% of those affected using the MDRD. No correlation to patients' age, disease duration, or severity. A positive correlation was also reported between the presence of renal involvement and pulmonary vascular involvement p = 0.04. Gates method showed reduction of the GFR in 54.9% of the systemic sclerosis patients. The formulae used were not as precise as the measured GFR in diagnosing all cases with subclinical renal involvement. Patients with systemic sclerosis should be screened for renal involvement irrespective of disease severity or duration. PMID:20174989

  15. Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

  16. Serum creatinine role in predicting outcome after cardiac surgery beyond acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is still the most important determinant in the assessment of perioperative renal function and in the prediction of adverse outcome in cardiac surgery. Many biomarkers have been studied to date; still, there is no surrogate for serum creatinine measurement in clinical practice because it is feasible and inexpensive. High levels of serum creatinine and its equivalents have been the most important preoperative risk factor for postoperative renal injury. Moreover, creatinine is the mainstay in predicting risk models and risk factor reduction has enhanced its importance in outcome prediction. The future perspective is the development of new definitions and novel tools for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury largely based on serum creatinine and a panel of novel biomarkers. PMID:25276301

  17. Transport characteristics of urea transporter-B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    UT-B represents the major urea transporter in erythrocytes, in addition to being expressed in kidney descending vasa recta, brain, spleen, ureter, bladder, and testis. Expression of urea transporter UT-B confers high urea permeability to mammalian erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membranes are also permeable to various urea analogues, suggesting common transport pathways for urea and structurally similar solutes. UT-B is highly permeable to urea and the chemical analogues formamide, acetamide, methylurea, methylformamide, ammonium carbamate, and acrylamide, each with a Ps > 5.0 10(-6) cm/s at 10 C. The amides formamide, acetamide, acrylamide, and butyramide efficiently diffuse across lipid bilayers. The urea analogues dimethylurea, acryalmide, methylurea, thiourea, and methylformamide inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport by >60 % by a pore-blocking mechanism. UT-B is also a water channel in erythrocytes and has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to aquaporin-1. Whether UT-B is an NH3 channel still needs further study. Urea permeability (Purea) in erythrocytes differs between different mammals. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibit high Purea. In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) show much lower Purea. Erythrocyte Purea in human and pig (omnivores) was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) have Purea intermediate between carnivores and omnivores. Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes have very low values. In contrast to Purea, water permeability is relatively similar in all mammals studied. This chapter will provide information about the transporter characteristics of UT-B. PMID:25298342

  18. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  19. Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072

  20. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on chitosan-carbon nanotubes electrospun nanofiber on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Numnuam, Apon; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-06-01

    A novel amperometric uric acid biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing uricase on an electrospun nanocomposite of chitosan-carbon nanotubes nanofiber (Chi-CNTsNF) covering an electrodeposited layer of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a gold electrode (uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au). The uric acid response was determined at an optimum applied potential of -0.35V vs Ag/AgCl in a flow-injection system based on the change of the reduction current for dissolved oxygen during oxidation of uric acid by the immobilized uricase. The response was directly proportional to the uric acid concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the fabricated uric acid biosensor had a very wide linear range, 1.0-400?molL(-1), with a very low limit of detection of 1.0?molL(-1) (s/n?=?3). The operational stability of the uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au biosensor (up to 205 injections) was excellent and the storage life was more than six weeks. A low Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.21mmolL(-1) indicated that the immobilized uricase had high affinity for uric acid. The presence of potential common interfering substances, for example ascorbic acid, glucose, and lactic acid, had negligible effects on the performance of the biosensor. When used for analysis of uric acid in serum samples, the results agreed well with those obtained by use of the standard enzymatic colorimetric method (P?>?0.05). PMID:24718436

  1. Molecularly imprinted titania nanoparticles for selective recognition and assay of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Khan, Aimen Idrees; Afzal, Adeel; Hussain, Tajamal; Raza, Muhammad Hamid; Shah, Asma Tufail; uz Zaman, Waheed

    2015-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted titania nanoparticles are su ccessfully synthesized by sol-gel method for the selective recognition of uric acid. Atomic force microscopy is used to study the morphology of uric acid imprinted titania nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 100-150 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images of thick titania layer indicate the formation of fine network of titania nanoparticles with uniform distribution. Molecular imprinting of uric acid as well as its subsequent washing is confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy measurements. Uric acid rebinding studies reveal the recognition capability of imprinted particles in the range of 0.01-0.095 mmol, which is applicable in monitoring normal to elevated levels of uric acid in human blood. The optical shift (signal) of imprinted particles is six times higher in comparison with non-imprinted particles for the same concentration of uric acid. Imprinted titania particles have shown substantially reduced binding affinity toward interfering and structurally related substances, e.g. ascorbic acid and guanine. These results suggest the possible application of titania nanoparticles in uric acid recognition and quantification in blood serum.

  2. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  3. Rapid dissolution of cellulose in LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina

    2005-06-24

    Rapid dissolution of cellulose in LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions was studied systematically. The dissolution behavior and solubility of cellulose were evaluated by using (13)C NMR, optical microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, and viscometry. The experiment results revealed that cellulose having viscosity-average molecular weight ((overline) M eta) of 11.4 x 104 and 37.2 x 104 could be dissolved, respectively, in 7% NaOH/12% urea and 4.2% LiOH/12% urea aqueous solutions pre-cooled to -10 degrees C within 2 min, whereas all of them could not be dissolved in KOH/urea aqueous solution. The dissolution power of the solvent systems was in the order of LiOH/urea > NaOH/urea > KOH/urea aqueous solution. The results from DSC and (13)C NMR indicated that LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions as non-derivatizing solvents broke the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding of cellulose and prevented the approach toward each other of the cellulose molecules, leading to the good dispersion of cellulose to form an actual solution. PMID:15954076

  4. Colorimetric test-systems for creatinine detection based on composite molecularly imprinted polymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Sergeyeva, T A; Gorbach, L A; Piletska, E V; Piletsky, S A; Brovko, O O; Honcharova, L A; Lutsyk, O D; Sergeeva, L M; Zinchenko, O A; El'skaya, A V

    2013-04-01

    An easy-to-use colorimetric test-system for the efficient detection of creatinine in aqueous samples was developed. The test-system is based on composite molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes with artificial receptor sites capable of creatinine recognition. A thin MIP layer was created on the surface of microfiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes using method of photo-initiated grafting polymerization. The MIP layer was obtained by co-polymerization of a functional monomer (e.g. 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, itaconic acid or methacrylic acid) with N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. The choice of the functional monomer was based on the results of computational modeling. The creatinine-selective composite MIP membranes were used for measuring creatinine in aqueous samples. Creatinine molecules were selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes and quantified using color reaction with picrates. The intensity of MIP membranes staining was proportional to creatinine concentration in an analyzed sample. The colorimetric test-system based on the composite MIP membranes was characterized with 0.25 mM detection limit and 0.25-2.5mM linear dynamic range. Storage stability of the MIP membranes was estimated as at least 1 year at room temperature. As compared to the traditional methods of creatinine detection the developed test-system is characterized by simplicity of operation, small size and low cost. PMID:23498699

  5. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  6. Uric acid, a nucleic acid degradation product, down-regulates dsRNA-triggered arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zare, Fariba; Magnusson, Mattias; Bergstrm, Tomas; Brisslert, Mikael; Josefsson, Elisabet; Karlsson, Anna; Tarkowski, Andrej

    2006-03-01

    Uric acid, the naturally occurring degradation product of purine metabolism, is a danger signal, driving maturation of dendritic cells. It is well known that uric acid crystals display potent proinflammatory properties--the cause of gout--whereas the biological properties of soluble uric acid are less well documented. We have demonstrated previously that nucleic acids of endogenous and exogenous origin display proinflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of soluble uric acid on in vivo inflammatory responses. Mice were administered with uric acid suspension in saline or saline alone prior to induction of neutrophil-mediated inflammation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, histamin-induced edema (measure of vasodilation capacity), as well as double-stranded (ds)RNA-triggered arthritis. Frequency and severity of arthritis were decreased significantly in mice exposed to dsRNA and simultaneously treated with uric acid as compared with saline-treated controls. Also, granulocyte-mediated inflammatory response and vasodilation capacity were reduced significantly in mice treated with uric acid as compared with their control group. The data suggest that down-regulation of inflammation was mediated by skewing the inflammatory response from the peripheral sites to the peritoneal cavity and down-regulating vasodilatatory capacity and thereby affecting leukocyte migration. In contrast, the T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was not affected significantly in mice exposed to uric acid. These findings demonstrate that uric acid displays a potent, distant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. This property seems to be mediated by down-regulation of neutrophil influx to the site of inflammatory insult. PMID:16387838

  7. Is it time to revise the normal range of serum uric acid levels?

    PubMed

    Desideri, G; Castaldo, G; Lombardi, A; Mussap, M; Testa, A; Pontremoli, R; Punzi, L; Borghi, C

    2014-01-01

    The actual reference range of serum uric acid has been assessed according to its variations among healthy individuals. i.e. those without clinical evidence of gout. By this approach, serum uric acid values between 3.5 and 7.2 mg/dL in adult males and postmenopausal women and between 2.6 and 6.0 mg/dL in premenopausal women have been identified as normal in many countries. However, this definition of normal range of serum uric acid in the general population is inevitably influenced by what we consider as "normal", since the absence of gout flares does not necessarily imply the absence of uric acid-related damage. Indeed, a growing body of evidence indicates that silent deposition of monosodium urate crystals as a result of hyperuricaemia may occur and lead to early destructive skeletal changes. In addition, a growing body of evidences demonstrates that uric acid might play a pathophysiological role in many "cardio-nephro-metabolic" disorders, which seems to be independent of the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, since it is evident also for serum uric acid concentrations below the saturation point for monosodium urate. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest to carefully reconsider the concept of "asymptomaticity" for chronic hyperuricemia and to consequently revise the normal range of serum uric acid levels also considering the progressive worldwide increase of circulating levels of uric acid, which could lead to a "shift to right" (i.e. toward higher values) of normal range. In the light of the new scientific knowledge on the pathophysiological role of uric acid in human disease, a threshold value < 6.0 mg/dL (< 360 mol/L) seems to better identify true "healthy subjects" and should reasonably be considered for all subjects. PMID:24867507

  8. Creatinine Change on Vasoconstrictors as Mortality Surrogate in Hepatorenal Syndrome: Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Justin M.; Coca, Steven G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of cirrhosis and associates with significant mortality. Vasoconstrictor medications improve renal function in patients with hepatorenal syndrome. However, it is unclear to what extent changes in serum creatinine during treatment may act as a surrogate for changes in mortality. We have performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials of vasoconstrictors assessing the association between changes in serum creatinine, taken as a continuous variable, and mortality, both while on treatment and during the follow-up period for survivors. Methods The electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science and Embase were searched for randomized trials evaluating the efficacy of vasoconstrictor therapy for treatment of HRS type 1 or 2. The relative risk (RR) for mortality was calculated against delta creatinine. The proportion of treatment effect explained (PTE) was calculated for delta creatinine. Results Seven trials enrolling 345 patients were included. The correlation between delta creatinine and ln (RR) was moderately good (R2 = 0.61). The intercept and parameter estimate indicated a fall in creatinine while on treatment of 1 mg/dL resulted in a 27% reduction in RR for mortality compared to the control arm. In patients surviving the treatment period, a fall in creatinine while on treatment of 1 mg/dL resulted in a 16% reduction in RR for post-treatment mortality during follow-up. The PTE of delta creatinine for overall mortality was 0.91 and 0.26 for post-treatment mortality. Conclusions Changes in serum creatinine in response to vasoconstrictor therapy appear to be a valid surrogate for mortality, even in the period following the completion of treatment. PMID:26295585

  9. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY ; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ; Jaar, Bernard G.; Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD ; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY ; Todd, Andrew C.; and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  10. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G; Steuerwald, Amy J; Todd, Andrew C; Simon, David; Schwartz, Brian S

    2011-11-01

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) ?g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (rs=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential. PMID:21871619

  11. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    West, Caroline E.; Rhodes, Blaine N.

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R2 = 0.9797, ρ ≤ 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  12. Defining the at risk patients for contrast induced nephropathy after coronary angiography; 24-h urine creatinine versus Cockcroft-Gault equation or serum creatinine level

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Ahmadreza; Yazdankhah, Saeed; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yadollahzadeh, Mahdi; Nasehi, Nasim; Haybar, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Background: Definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in many catheterization laboratories have relied on the serum creatinine (Scr) rather than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Regarding that CKD is the primary predisposing factor for contrast induced nephropathy (CIN), we compared the sensitivity of calculated GFR by 24-h Urine creatinine with Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation and Scr level to define at risk patients for CIN who were undergone coronary angiography (CAG). Materials and Methods: Two hundred fifty four subjects who were candidate for CAG and had normal creatinine level were enrolled. Before CAG, GFR was calculated from a 24-h urine collection, CG equation and a single Scr sample regarding to previously described protocol. Contrast volume used for each case <100 ml. CIN was defined as a 0.5 mg/dL or 25% elevation in the Scr. Results: CIN occurred in 10.6%. Baseline GFR, the volume of contrast agent, and diabetes were the independent risk factors for CIN. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 28% and 23.2% of patients regarding to 24-h urine creatinine and CG equation, respectively. In CIN prediction, 24-h urine creatinine estimated GFR had 85.2%, 59.3% and CG equation GFR had 78.9%, 81.1% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion: Although, GFR estimated by CG equation has less sensitivity than GFR calculated from 24-h creatinine in CIN probability, but it is better than Scr alone and because of cost-effectiveness and convenience using of this method, we suggest at least using CG equation for GFR calculation before CIN, especially in diabetic and/or older than 60 years cases. PMID:23826014

  13. A candidate reference method for uric acid in serum. II. Interlaboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Duncan, P; Gochman, N; Bayse, D; Burnett, R; Carey, N; Carter, R; Fellows, W D; Garber, C; Kessler, G; McComb, R; Miller, W; Nast, P; Ryan, W; Schaffer, R; Tejeda, B; Vanderlinde, R; Widdowson, G

    1982-02-01

    We describe the interlaboratory testing of a candidate Reference Method (Part I) for uric acid in serum. The method is based on the ultrasound spectrophotometric quantitation of uric acid before and after incubation with uricase. A comprehensive investigation involving 12 laboratories was organized to document the transferability, intra- and interlaboratory precision, and general reliability of the candidate Reference Method. The interlaboratory CV with this method was about 2 to 6% for uric acid concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 0.60 mmol/L. The results detailed here demonstrate that the method can be successfully duplicated among different laboratories. PMID:7055950

  14. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M. Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S.; Bull, C. L.; Klotz, S.

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  15. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M; Bull, C L; Husband, R J; Frantzana, A D; Klotz, S; Loveday, J S

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D2 mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa. PMID:25833592

  16. Coulometric titration of urea with electrogenerated hypobromite.

    PubMed

    Kato, Jun; Koseki, Takuma; Aoki, Yukie; Yamada, Ayako; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A definitive method is described for the indirect assay of several tens of milligrams of urea by coulometric titration. Urea was decomposed in concentrated sulfuric acid using a Kjeldahl flask. Subsequently, the formed ammonium ion was titrated with electrogenerated hypobromite ion in a sodium bromide-sodium tetraborate medium of pH 8.6, with amperometric end-point detection. Parameters affecting the pretreatment procedure were evaluated. The optimized conditions included the heating of 2 g of urea at around 300C for 2 h with 10 cm(3) of sulfuric acid. Under the proposed conditions, the assay value with expanded uncertainty (k = 2), 99.870 0.026%, agreed well with the certified value of NIST SRM 912a urea, 99.9 0.1%. PMID:23842420

  17. Nutritional management of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rani H; Rhead, William J; Smith, Wendy; Lee, Brendan; Sniderman King, Lisa; Summar, Marshall

    2005-10-01

    Nutritional management of patients who have urea cycle disorders is one of the most challenging tasks in clinical nutrition. The degree to which protein intake should be restricted in urea cycle disorders requires complex calculations which depend on many variables such as specific enzyme defect, age-related growth rate, current health status, level of physical activity, amount of free amino acids administered, energy intake, residual urea cycle function, family lifestyle, use of nitrogen-scavenging medications, and the patient's eating behaviors. This paper presents two case histories and a series of recommendations outlining the nutrition management of urea cycle disorders. It also identifies difficulties that arise in the course of treatment, and suggests practical solutions for overcoming them. PMID:16227113

  18. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    PubMed Central

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9?N, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  19. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria.

    PubMed

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-10-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UE(UA)) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UE(UA), suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UE(UA). The increase in UE(UA) was correlated with an increase in urinary D-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UE(UA) is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9?N, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and D-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [(14) C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm D-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [(14) C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm D-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UE(UA) could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  20. Xenobiotic-urea conjugates; chemical or biological?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C

    2014-12-01

    1. Although the major pathways involved in drug metabolism have been elucidated, there remain those routes that may be considered as minor, esoteric, or even artifactual. 2. Conjugation with urea, an abundant, non-toxic, small water soluble molecule, is such a disputed and debatable Phase II pathway. 3. The present article collates data gleaned from the literature concerning xenobiotic-urea conjugation, presents pertinent information resurrecting the controversy and poses questions as to the nature of the phenomenon. PMID:25144804

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous urea solution: is urea a structure breaker?

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Dibyendu; Mohan, Sadhana; Ghosh, Swapan K; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2014-10-01

    An aqueous solution of urea is a very important mixture of biological relevance because of the definitive role of urea as protein denaturant at high concentrations. There has been an extended debate over the years on urea's influence on the structure of water. On the basis of a variety of analysis methods employed, urea has been described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as neutral toward water structure. Using molecular dynamics simulation and a nearest neighbor approach of analyzing water structure, we present here a detailed analysis of the effect of urea on water structure. By carefully choosing the nearest neighbors, allowing urea also to be a neighbor of a reference water molecule, we have conclusively shown that urea does not break the local tetrahedral structure of water even at high concentrations. A slight change in the distribution of tetrahedral order parameters as a function of urea concentration has been shown to be a result of change in the proportions of n-hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The present result thus suggests that urea is able to substitute for water in the hydrogen-bonded network nicely without breaking the tetrahedral, hydrogen-bonded structure of water. PMID:25257762

  2. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and...

  5. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  6. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  7. Measurement of creatinine in human plasma using a functional porous polymer structure sensing motif

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Sitansu Sekhar; An, Seong Soo A; Yi, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new method for detecting creatinine was developed. This novel sensor comprised of two ionic liquids, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) chloride, in the presence of 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). PLGA and BMIM chloride formed a functional porous polymer structure (FPPS)-like structure. Creatinine within the FPPS rapidly hydrolyzed and released OH?, which in turn converted DCFH-DA to DCFH, developing an intense green color or green fluorescence. The conversion of DCFH to DCF+ resulted in swelling of FPPS and increased solubility. This DCF+-based sensor could detect creatinine levels with detection limit of 5 M and also measure the creatinine in blood. This novel method could be used in diagnostic applications for monitoring individuals with renal dysfunction. PMID:26347475

  8. Lower Serum Creatinine Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Subjects without Overt Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Hye; Choi, Soo In; Lim, Jung Soo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Lee, Mi Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with deterioration of bone mineral density. Because serum creatinine can serve as a marker of muscle mass, we evaluated the relationship between serum creatinine and bone mineral density in an older population with normal renal function. Methods Data from a total of 8,648 participants (4,573 men and 4,075 postmenopausal women) aged 4595 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were analyzed from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20082010). Bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular muscle mass (ASM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut points of serum creatinine for sarcopenia were below 0.88 mg/dl in men and 0.75 mg/dl in women. Subjects were divided into two groups: low creatinine and upper normal creatinine according to the cut point value of serum creatinine for sarcopenia. Results In partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, serum creatinine was positively associated with both BMD and ASM. Subjects with low serum creatinine were at a higher risk for low BMD (T-score ? 1.0) at the femur neck, total hip and lumbar spine in men, and at the total hip and lumbar spine in women after adjustment for confounding factors. Each standard deviation increase in serum creatinine was significantly associated with reduction in the likelihood of low BMD at the total hip and lumbar spine in both sexes (men: odds ratio (OR) = 0.84 [95% CI = 0.74?0.96] at the total hip, OR = 0.8 [95% CI = 0.68?0.96] at the lumbar spine; women: OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.730.95] at the total hip, OR=0.81 [95% CI = 0.670.99] at the lumbar spine). Conclusions Serum creatinine reflected muscle mass, and low serum creatinine was independently associated with low bone mineral density in subjects with normal kidney function. PMID:26207750

  9. [New topics regarding equations for GFR estimation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C].

    PubMed

    Horio, Masaru

    2014-02-01

    Japanese GFR equations and CKD-EPI equations based on standardized serum creatinine and standardized cystatin C are recommended in recent Japanese CKD guides and KDIGO guidelines for CKD management, respectively. CKD-EPIcreat overestimates GFR in Japanese subjects, probably due to the difference in muscle mass between Japanese and Caucasians. Unlike CKD-EPIcreat, CKD-EPIcys performs well in Japanese subjects, indicating the advantages of using cystatin C as a GFR marker. KDIGO guidelines suggest measuring eGFRcys in adults with eGFRcreat of 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 who do not have markers of kidney damage if confirmation of CKD is required. Creatinine is excreted by glomerular filtration, but also secreted by the tubules. Alteration of the tubular secretion of creatinine may influence the performance of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR and serum albumin levels were independent parameters affecting the fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr). Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons for the bias of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Low GFR is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a general population. However, the relationship between eGFR and the hazard risk of events is different depending on whether cystatin C or creatinine is used to calculate eGFR. The association between eGFRcys and the hazard risk is much stronger compared with eGFRcreat. Cystatin C may be a useful alternative to creatinine for detecting a high risk of complications in a general population and subjects with CKD. PMID:24800491

  10. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    PubMed

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (440 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries. PMID:26452908

  11. Synthesis of positively charged CdTe quantum dots and detection for uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiliang; Sun, Xiangying; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    The CdTe dots (QDs) coated with 2-Mercaptoethylamine was prepared in aqueous solution and characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectra, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. When the ?ex = 350 nm, the fluorescence peak of positively charged CdTe quantum dots is at 592 nm. The uric acid is able to quench their fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the change of fluorescence intensity is linearly proportional to the concentration of uric acid in the range 0.4000-3.600 ?mol L -1, and the limit of detection calculated according to IUPAC definitions is 0.1030 ?mol L -1. Compared with routine method, the present method determines uric acid in human serum with satisfactory results. The mechanism of this strategy is due to the interaction of the tautomeric keto/hydroxyl group of uric acid and the amino group coated at the CdTe QDs.

  12. Plasma Uric Acid Levels Correlate with Inflammation and Disease Severity in Malian Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; van de Hoef, Diana L.; Doumbia, Saibou; Konat, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Traor, Karim; Diakit, Seidina A. S.; Remaley, Alan T.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P.; Long, Carole A.; Diakit, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum elicits host inflammatory responses that cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. One proposed mechanism involves formation of immunostimulatory uric acid (UA) precipitates, which are released from sequestered schizonts into microvessels. Another involves hypoxanthine and xanthine, which accumulate in parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) and may be converted by plasma xanthine oxidase to UA at schizont rupture. These two forms of parasite-derived UA stimulate immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Methods and Findings We measured plasma levels of soluble UA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNF?, IP-10, IFN?, GM-CSF, IL-1?) in 470 Malian children presenting with uncomplicated malaria (UM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) or cerebral malaria (CM). UA levels were elevated in children with NCSM (median 5.74 mg/dl, 1.21-fold increase, 95% CI 1.091.35, n?=?23, p?=?0.0007) and CM (median 5.69 mg/dl, 1.19-fold increase, 95% CI 0.971.41, n?=?9, p?=?0.0890) compared to those with UM (median 4.60 mg/dl, n?=?438). In children with UM, parasite density and plasma creatinine levels correlated with UA levels. These UA levels correlated with the levels of seven cytokines [IL-6 (r?=?0.259, p<0.00001), IL-10 (r?=?0.242, p<0.00001), sTNFRII (r?=?0.221, p<0.00001), MCP-1 (r?=?0.220, p<0.00001), IL-8 (r?=?0.147, p?=?0.002), TNF? (r?=?0.132, p?=?0.006) and IP-10 (r?=?0.120, p?=?0.012)]. In 39 children, UA levels were 1.49-fold (95% CI 1.341.65; p<0.0001) higher during their malaria episode [geometric mean titer (GMT) 4.67 mg/dl] than when they were previously healthy and aparasitemic (GMT 3.14 mg/dl). Conclusions Elevated UA levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria by activating immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines. While this study cannot identify the cause of elevated UA levels, their association with parasite density and creatinine levels suggest that parasite-derived UA and renal function may be involved. Defining pathogenic roles for parasite-derived UA precipitates, which we have not directly studied here, requires further investigation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669084 PMID:23071567

  13. Uric Acid Spherulites in the Reflector Layer of Firefly Light Organ

    PubMed Central

    Goh, King-Siang; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hua, Tzu-En; Kang, Mei-Hua; Li, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background In firefly light organs, reflector layer is a specialized tissue which is believed to play a key role for increasing the bioluminescence intensity through reflection. However, the nature of this unique tissue remains elusive. In this report, we investigated the role, fine structure and nature of the reflector layer in the light organ of adult Luciola cerata. Principal Findings Our results indicated that the reflector layer is capable of reflecting bioluminescence, and contains abundant uric acid. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the cytosol of the reflector layer's cells is filled with densely packed spherical granules, which should be the uric acid granules. These granules are highly regular in size (?700 nm in diameter), and exhibit a radial internal structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that an intense single peak pattern with a d-spacing value of 0.320 nm is specifically detected in the light organ, and is highly similar to the diffraction peak pattern and d-spacing value of needle-formed crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate. However, the molar ratio evaluation of uric acid to various cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the light organ deduced that only a few uric acid molecules were in the form of urate salts. Thus, non-salt uric acid should be the source of the diffraction signal detected in the light organ. Conclusions In the light organ, the intense single peak diffraction signal might come from a unique needle-like uric acid form, which is different from other known structures of non-salt uric acid form. The finding of a radial structure in the granules of reflector layer implies that the spherical uric acid granules might be formed by the radial arrangement of needle-formed packing matter. PMID:23441187

  14. Uric Acid Promotes Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Mice Fed a Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Bostick, Brian P.; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Aroor, Annayya R.; Hayden, Melvin R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Sowers, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The rising obesity rates parallel increased consumption of a western diet, high in fat and fructose, which is associated with increased uric acid. Population based data support that elevated serum uric acids are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which excess uric acid promotes these maladaptive cardiac effects has not been explored. In assessing the role of western diet-induced increases in uric acid, we hypothesized that reductions in uric acid would prevent western diet-induced development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac stiffness and impaired diastolic relaxation by reducing growth and pro-fibrotic signaling pathways. Four week-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125mg/L), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, for 16 weeks. The western diet induced increases in serum uric acid along with increases in cardiac tissue xanthine oxidase activity temporally related to increases in body weight, fat mass, and insulin resistance without changes in blood pressure. The western diet induced cardiomyocte hypertrophy, myocardial oxidative stress, interstitial fibrosis, and impaired diastolic relaxation. Further, the western diet enhanced activation of the S6 kinase-1 growth pathway and the pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway, and macrophage pro-inflammatory polarization. All results improved with allopurinol treatment, which lowered cardiac xanthine oxidase as well as serum uric acid levels. These findings support the notion that increased production of uric acid with intake of a western diet, promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and oxidative stress that lead to myocardial fibrosis and associated impaired diastolic relaxation. PMID:25489061

  15. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yong, Kok-Khun; Yao, Yan-Dong; Shen, Huan-Ting; Hsieh, Shiu-Man; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm2), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 13 array configuration (UAB-13-ZnO2) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 ?A/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.20.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-13-ZnO2. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established. PMID:25061289

  16. Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J.; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease. Aim To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. Main Outcome Measures The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test. Results 149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR. Conclusion Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. PMID:24433559

  17. Uric acid promotes left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in mice fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Bostick, Brian P; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Aroor, Annayya R; Hayden, Melvin R; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R

    2015-03-01

    The rising obesity rates parallel increased consumption of a Western diet, high in fat and fructose, which is associated with increased uric acid. Population-based data support that elevated serum uric acids are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which excess uric acid promotes these maladaptive cardiac effects has not been explored. In assessing the role of Western diet-induced increases in uric acid, we hypothesized that reductions in uric acid would prevent Western diet-induced development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac stiffness, and impaired diastolic relaxation by reducing growth and profibrotic signaling pathways. Four-weeks-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125 mg/L), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, for 16 weeks. The Western diet-induced increases in serum uric acid along with increases in cardiac tissue xanthine oxidase activity temporally related to increases in body weight, fat mass, and insulin resistance without changes in blood pressure. The Western diet induced cardiomyocte hypertrophy, myocardial oxidative stress, interstitial fibrosis, and impaired diastolic relaxation. Further, the Western diet enhanced activation of the S6 kinase-1 growth pathway and the profibrotic transforming growth factor-?1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway and macrophage proinflammatory polarization. All results improved with allopurinol treatment, which lowered cardiac xanthine oxidase as well as serum uric acid levels. These findings support the notion that increased production of uric acid with intake of a Western diet promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and oxidative stress that lead to myocardial fibrosis and associated impaired diastolic relaxation. PMID:25489061

  18. Higher Serum Uric Acid on Admission Is Associated with Higher Short-term Mortality and Poorer Long-term Survival After Myocardial Infarction: Retrospective Prognostic Study

    PubMed Central

    Car, Sinia; Trkulja, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess serum uric acid (SUA) levels determined on admission as a potential predictor of short-term mortality and long-term survival in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Method Data for this retrospective prognostic study were drawn from the patient database of the Varadin County General Hospital in Varadin, Croatia. We included consecutive patients with verified AMI admitted within 48 hours since the symptom onset during the period between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001. Long-term survival/mortality data were collected through direct contacts with patients and search of the community death registries. Relative risks (RR) and hazard ratios (HR) by 10 mol/L increase in SUA were determined using modified Poisson regression with robust error variance and proportional hazard regression, respectively. Results A total of 621 patients (age 27-90 years, 64.7% men, 77.5% AMI with ST elevation, SUA 63-993 mol/L) were included. Higher SUA on admission was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.016; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.031, P?=?0.043) and higher thirty-day mortality (RR, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.003-1.029, P?=?0.018). Considered covariates were demographics, pre-index event cardiovascular morbidity and treatment, on-admission serum creatinine, total cholesterol and triglycerides, AMI characteristics, and peak creatine phosphokinase. Higher SUA on admission was also independently associated with poorer long-term survival (ie, higher all-cause mortality) (HR, 1.105; 95% CI, 1.020-1.195, P?=?0.010). Considered covariates were demographics, laboratory variables on admission, AMI characteristics, peak creatine phosphokinase, acute complications, and treatment at discharge. Conclusion Higher serum uric acid determined on admission is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and thirty-day mortality and poorer long-term survival after AMI. PMID:20017224

  19. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with PUA. • Arsenic-endemic hypertensive study subjects had elevated levels of PUA. • Increased PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs.

  20. Activity and Stability of Biofilm Uricase of Lactobacillus plantarum for Uric Acid Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswantini, Dyah; Rachmatia, Rescy; Diana, Novita Rose; Nurhidayat, Novik; Akhiruddin; Saprudin, Deden

    2016-01-01

    Research of uric acid biosensor used a Lactobacillus plantarum was successfully conducted. Lactobacillus plantarum could produce uricase that could be used as uric acid biosensor. Therefore, lifetime of bacteria were quite short that caused the bacteria could not detect uric acid for a long time. To avoid this problem, development of biofilm for uric acid biosensor is important. Biofilms is a structured community of bacterial cells, stick together and are able to maintain a bacteria in an extreme environments. The purpose of present study was to determine and compare the activity of uricase produced by L. plantarum, deposited whithin biofilm and planktonic bacteria on glassy carbon electrode (GCEb & GCE), also to determine the stability of biofilm. The optimization process was conducted by using temperature, pH, and substrate concentration as the parameters. It showed that the activity of uricase within biofilm was able to increase the oxidation current. GCEb and GCE yielded the oxidation current in the amount of 47.24 μA and 23.04 μA, respectively, under the same condition. Results indicated that the optimum condition for uric acid biosensor using biofilm were pH 10, temperature of 40 oC, and uric acid concentration of 5 mM. The stability of GCEb decreased after 10 hours used, with decreasing percentage over 86.33%. This low stability probably caused by the unprotected active site of the enzyme that the enzyme is easier to experience the denaturation.

  1. Relationship between serum uric acid level and cardiometabolic risks in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Shirley; Zalpuri, Isheeta; Harrington, Amy; Cimpeanu, Cezar; Song, Xueqin; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between serum levels of uric acid and insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia. Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Fasting blood samples were obtained to determine serum levels of metabolic measures. A total of 135 patients were recruited for the study. A significant positive relationship was found between serum levels of uric acid and the homeostasis model of assessing insulin resistance (log transformed, r=0.394, P<0.001), and a significant negative relationship was found between serum levels of uric acid and low-density lipoprotein particle size (log transformed, r=-0.306, P=0.001) after controlling for potential confounding variables. Hierarchical multiple regression suggested that serum uric acid level is a significant predictor of insulin resistance (P=0.001) and of low-density lipoprotein particle size (P<0.015). Further, logistic regression showed that serum uric acid levels strongly predicted the condition of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.630, 95% confidence interval 0.463-0.856, P=0.003). This study suggested that uric acid may be a clinically useful biomarker to indicate cardiometabolic risks in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26550697

  2. Effect of canagliflozin on serum uric acid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Davies, M J; Trujillo, A; Vijapurkar, U; Damaraju, C V; Meininger, G

    2015-04-01

    Hyperuricaemia is associated with an increased risk of gout, kidney stones and cardiovascular disease. The present post hoc analysis of pooled data from four placebo-controlled phase III studies assessed the effect of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on serum uric acid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in a subset of patients with hyperuricaemia [defined as baseline serum uric acid ≥475 µmol/l (∼8 mg/dl)]. At week 26, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were associated with a ∼13% reduction in serum uric acid compared with placebo. In the subset of patients with hyperuricaemia, placebo-subtracted percent reductions in serum uric acid were similar to those in the overall cohort. More patients in the hyperuricaemic group achieved a serum uric acid level of <360 µmol/l (∼6 mg/dl) with both canagliflozin 100 mg (23.5%) and 300 mg (32.4%) compared with placebo (3.1%). Incidences of gout and kidney stones were low and similar across groups. In conclusion, canagliflozin treatment decreased serum uric acid in patients with T2DM, including those with baseline hyperuricaemia. PMID:25600248

  3. Heat Stress Nephropathy From Exercise-Induced Uric Acid Crystalluria: A Perspective on Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Garca-Trabanino, Ramn; Barregard, Lars; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Wesseling, Catharina; Harra, Tamara; Aragn, Aurora; Grases, Felix; Jarquin, Emmanuel R; Gonzlez, Marvin A; Weiss, Ilana; Glaser, Jason; Snchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic in Central America, is a chronic kidney disease of unknown cause. In this article, we argue that MeN may be a uric acid disorder. Individuals at risk for developing the disease are primarily male workers exposed to heat stress and physical exertion that predisposes to recurrent water and volume depletion, often accompanied by urinary concentration and acidification. Uric acid is generated during heat stress, in part consequent to nucleotide release from muscles. We hypothesize that working in the sugarcane fields may result in cyclic uricosuria in which uric acid concentrations exceed solubility, leading to the formation of dihydrate urate crystals and local injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present pilot data documenting the common presence of urate crystals in the urine of sugarcane workers from El Salvador. High end-of-workday urinary uric acid concentrations were common in a pilot study, particularly if urine pH was corrected to 7. Hyperuricemia may induce glomerular hypertension, whereas the increased urinary uric acid may directly injure renal tubules. Thus, MeN may result from exercise and heat stress associated with dehydration-induced hyperuricemia and uricosuria. Increased hydration with water and salt, urinary alkalinization, reduction in sugary beverage intake, and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis should be tested for disease prevention. PMID:26455995

  4. Plasmodium falciparum-Derived Uric Acid Precipitates Induce Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    van de Hoef, Diana L.; Coppens, Isabelle; Holowka, Thomas; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Branch, OraLee; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is characterized by cyclical fevers and high levels of inflammation, and while an early inflammatory response contributes to parasite clearance, excessive and persistent inflammation can lead to severe forms of the disease. Here, we show that Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes contain uric acid precipitates in the cytoplasm of the parasitophorous vacuole, which are released when erythrocytes rupture. Uric acid precipitates are highly inflammatory molecules that are considered a danger signal for innate immunity and are the causative agent in gout. We determined that P. falciparum-derived uric acid precipitates induce maturation of human dendritic cells, increasing the expression of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86, while decreasing human leukocyte antigen-DR expression. In accordance with this, uric acid accounts for a significant proportion of the total stimulatory activity induced by parasite-infected erythrocytes. Moreover, the identification of uric acid precipitates in P. falciparum- and P. vivax-infected erythrocytes obtained directly from malaria patients underscores the in vivo and clinical relevance of our findings. Altogether, our data implicate uric acid precipitates as a potentially important contributor to the innate immune response to Plasmodium infection and may provide a novel target for adjunct therapies. PMID:23405174

  5. De-crystallization of Uric Acid Crystals in Synovial Fluid Using Gold Colloids and Microwave Heating

    PubMed Central

    Kioko, Bridgit; Ogundolie, Taiwo; Adebiyi, Morenike; Ettinoffe, Yehnara; Rhodes, Caleb; Gordon, Brittney; Thompson, Nishone; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Abel, Biebele

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a unique application of our Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique for the de-crystallization of uric acid crystals, which causes gout in humans when monosodium urate crystals accumulate in the synovial fluid found in the joints of bones. Given the shortcomings of the existing treatments for gout, we investigated whether the MA-MAEC technique can offer an alternative solution to the treatment of gout. Our technique is based on the use of metal nanoparticles (i.e., gold colloids) with low microwave heating to accelerate the de-crystallization process. In this regard, we employed a two-step process; (i) crystallization of uric acid on glass slides, which act as a solid platform to mimic a bone, (ii) de-crystallization of uric acid crystals on glass slides with the addition of gold colloids and low power microwave heating, which act as nano-bullets when microwave heated in a solution. We observed that the size and number of the uric acid crystals were reduced by >60% within 10 minutes of low power microwave heating. In addition, the use of gold colloids without microwave heating (i.e. control experiment) did not result in the de-crystallization of the uric acid crystals, which proves the utility of our MA-MAEC technique in the de-crystallization of uric acid. PMID:25745585

  6. Serum Uric Acid and Hypertension in Adults: a Paradoxical Relationship in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Wadwa, R. Paul; Sirota, Jeffrey C.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; McFann, Kimberly; Rewers, Marian; Rivard, Christopher J.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel B.; Johnson, Richard J.; Maahs, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Adults with type 1 diabetes have lower serum uric acid levels compared to non-diabetic adults. Little is known about the relationship between serum uric acid and blood pressure in type 1 diabetes and whether it differs from the positive relationship found in non-diabetic adults. We assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships over 6-years between serum uric acid and blood pressure in adults with (359 years, n=393) and without (389 years n=685) T1D in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. In non-diabetic adults, serum uric acid was associated with systolic blood pressure in multivariable-models adjusted for cardiovascular risk-factors. In adults with type 1 diabetes, a negative association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure after multivariable-adjustments. A positive association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic adults. In contrast, an inverse relationship was demonstrated after multivariable-adjustments in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24667019

  7. The Role of Uric Acid in Kidney Fibrosis: Experimental Evidences for the Causal Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Young; Lee, Dong Won; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is a common finding in chronic kidney disease due to decreased uric acid clearance. The role of uric acid as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease has been largely debated, and recent studies suggested a role of uric acid in the causation and progression of kidney fibrosis, a final common pathway in chronic kidney disease. Uric acid and xanthine oxidase may contribute to kidney fibrosis mainly by inducing inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Besides, hyperuricemia induces alterations in renal hemodynamics via afferent arteriolopathy and contributes to the onset and progression of kidney fibrosis. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors may prevent kidney damage via lowering uric acid and/or inhibiting xanthine oxidase. However, there is still no sufficient evidence from interventional clinical researches supporting the causal relationship between uric acid and kidney fibrosis. The effect and role of xanthine oxidase inhibitors in preventing kidney fibrosis and chronic kidney disease progression must be further explored by performing future large scale clinical trials. PMID:24877124

  8. Quantitative determination of uric acid using CdTe nanoparticles as fluorescence probes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dongri; Seo, Min-Ho; Huy, Bui The; Pham, Quoc-Thai; Conte, Maxwell L; Thangadurai, Daniel; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-03-15

    A convenient enzymatic optical method for uric acid detection was developed based on the fluorescence quenching of ligand-capped CdTe nanoparticles by H2O2 which was generated from the enzymatic reaction of uric acid. The interactions between the CdTe nanoparticles capped with different ligands (glutathione, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and thioglycerol) and H2O2 were investigated. The fluorescence quenching studies of GSH-capped CdTe nanoparticles demonstrated an excellent sensitivity to H2O2. The effects of uric acid, uricase and H2O2 on the fluorescence intensity of CdTe nanoparticles were also explored. The detection conditions, reaction time, pH value, incubation period and the concentration of uricase and uric acid were optimized. The detection limit of uric acid was found to be 0.10µM and the linear range was 0.22-6µM under the optimized experimental conditions. These results typify that CdTe nanoparticles could be used as a fluorescent probe for uric acid detection. PMID:26433069

  9. Uric Acid Key Ingredient in the Recipe for Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Kunal; Malhotra, Kunal; Sowers, James; Aroor, Annayya

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels are a frequent finding in persons with obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular and kidney disease as well as in those with the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The increased consumption of a fructose-rich Western diet has contributed to the increasing incidence of the CRS, obesity and diabetes especially in industrialized populations. There is also increasing evidence that supports a causal role of high dietary fructose driving elevations in uric acid in association with the CRS. Animal and epidemiological studies support the notion that elevated serum uric acid levels play an important role in promoting insulin resistance and hypertension and suggest potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of the CRS and associated cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. To this point, elevated serum levels of uric acid appear to contribute to impaired nitric oxide production/endothelial dysfunction, increased vascular stiffness, inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, enhanced oxidative stress, and maladaptive immune and inflammatory responses. These abnormalities, in turn, promote vascular, cardiac and renal fibrosis as well as associated functional abnormalities. Small clinical trials have suggested that uric acid-lowering therapies may be beneficial in such patients; however, a consensus on the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia is lacking. Larger randomized controlled trials need to be performed in order to critically evaluate the beneficial effect of lowering serum uric acid in patients with the CRS and those with diabetes and/or hypertension. PMID:24454316

  10. Winter Wheat and Maize Response to Urea Ammonium Nitrate and a New Urea Formaldehyde Polymer Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slow release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have potential to improve yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). A slow release urea formaldehyde polymer (UFP) was compared with conventional aqueous urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) [(NH2)2CO, NH4NO3]...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Poly(ester urea)s with Different Branch Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiayi; Becker, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    A new class of L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) was developed that possess tunable mechanical properties, water uptake ability and degradation rates. Our preliminary data has shown that 1,6-hexanediol L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possesses an elastic modulus nearly double that of poly(lactic acid). My work details the synthesis of a series of L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possessing a variation in diol chain length and in branch density and shows how these subtle structural differences influence the mechanical properties and in vitro biodegradation rates. The elastic moduli span a range of values that overlap with several currently clinically available degradable polymers. Increasingly the diol chain lengths increases the amount of flexible segment in the chemical structure, which results in reduced elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. Increasing the amount of branch monomer incorporated into the system reduces the molecular entanglement, which also results in decreased elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. The L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s also exhibited a diol length dependent degradation process that varied between 1-5 % over 16 weeks. Compared with PLLA, PEUs degrade more quickly and the rate can be tuned by changing the diol chain length. PEUs absorb more water and the water uptake ability can be tuned by changing the branch density. This work was supported by Akron Functional Materials Center.

  12. Nitrous Oxide Gas Fluxes in a Potato Field Following Application of Urea and Coated Urea Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of urea and other forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer can generate atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a potent greenhouse gas. Field experiments were conducted on a loamy sand soil in Becker, Minnesota to evaluate the effects of soluble and coated forms of urea on N2O fl...

  13. Nitrogen in stored poultry litter: uric Acid and xanthine.

    PubMed

    Mowrer, Jake; Cabrera, Miguel; Rasmussen, Todd; Cassity-Duffey, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Laboratory incubations of four broiler litter (BL) samples at 30C were performed to investigate the effect of water content on the decay of uric acid nitrogen (UAN) and xanthine nitrogen (XN). UAN and XN concentrations increased in all samples during a period of 1 to 8 d before declining for the remaining 30 d. The increases may be the result of guanine and adenine catabolism. The slopes of linear equations fit to the natural log of the observations from 16 sampling points over 38 d were compared using the GLM procedure in SAS and results indicate that both UAN and XN decay significantly ( = 0.05) more rapidly with increasing water content (?). A second study showed significant effects in one of three samples on the decay rate of UAN with additions of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum or alum at a water content of 750 g kg BL. The decay rate of XN was not significantly affected. Finally, a simple two-point sampling study on the effect of water potential for the estimation of first order rate equation constants showed a positive relationship between the rate of UAN and XN decay over 28 d as a function of water potential (?): UAN = 0.0054 ? + 0.1010 ( = 0.9987) and XN = 0.0066 ? + 0.1101 ( = 0.9285). This is the first study of UAN and XN decay in BL and the findings add to our understanding of mineralizable N from BL. PMID:25602230

  14. Label free sensing of creatinine using a 6 GHz CMOS near-field dielectric immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Guha, S; Warsinke, A; Tientcheu, Ch M; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Wenger, Ch

    2015-05-01

    In this work we present a CMOS high frequency direct immunosensor operating at 6 GHz (C-band) for label free determination of creatinine. The sensor is fabricated in standard 0.13 ?m SiGe:C BiCMOS process. The report also demonstrates the ability to immobilize creatinine molecules on a Si3N4 passivation layer of the standard BiCMOS/CMOS process, therefore, evading any further need of cumbersome post processing of the fabricated sensor chip. The sensor is based on capacitive detection of the amount of non-creatinine bound antibodies binding to an immobilized creatinine layer on the passivated sensor. The chip bound antibody amount in turn corresponds indirectly to the creatinine concentration used in the incubation phase. The determination of creatinine in the concentration range of 0.88-880 ?M is successfully demonstrated in this work. A sensitivity of 35 MHz/10 fold increase in creatinine concentration (during incubation) at the centre frequency of 6 GHz is gained by the immunosensor. The results are compared with a standard optical measurement technique and the dynamic range and sensitivity is of the order of the established optical indication technique. The C-band immunosensor chip comprising an area of 0.3 mm(2) reduces the sensing area considerably, therefore, requiring a sample volume as low as 2 ?l. The small analyte sample volume and label free approach also reduce the experimental costs in addition to the low fabrication costs offered by the batch fabrication technique of CMOS/BiCMOS process. PMID:25782697

  15. Effect of Pre-Transplant Serum Creatinine on the Survival Benefit of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pratima; Schaubel, Douglas E.; Guidinger, Mary K.; Merion, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    More candidates with creatinine ?2mg/dl have undergone liver transplantation (LT) since implementation of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based allocation. These candidates have higher post-transplant mortality. This study examined the effect of serum creatinine on survival benefit among candidates undergoing LT. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were analyzed for adult LT candidates listed between September 2001 and December 2006 (n=38,899). The effect of serum creatinine on survival benefit (contrast between waitlist and post-LT mortality rates) was assessed by sequential stratification, an extension of Cox regression. At the same MELD score, serum creatinine at LT was inversely associated with survival benefit within certain defined MELD categories. The survival benefit significantly decreased as creatinine increased for candidates with MELD 15-17 and 24-40 at LT (MELD 15-17, p<0.0001; MELD 24-40, p=0.04). Renal replacement therapy at LT was also associated with significantly decreased LT benefit for patients with MELD scores 21-23 (p=0.04) and 24-26 (p=0.01). In conclusion, serum creatinine at LT significantly affects survival benefit at MELD 15-17 and 24-40. Given the same MELD score, patients with higher creatinine have less benefit on average and the relative ranking of a large number of wait-listed candidates with MELD scores 15-17 and 24-40 would be markedly affected if these findings were incorporated into the allocation policy. PMID:19938142

  16. The Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements (SCREAM) project: protocol overview and regional representativeness

    PubMed Central

    Runesson, Bjrn; Gasparini, Alessandro; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Norin, Olof; Evans, Marie; Barany, Peter; Wettermark, Bjrn; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Carrero, Juan Jess

    2016-01-01

    Background We here describe the construction of the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurement (SCREAM) cohort and assess its coverage/representativeness of the Stockholm county in Sweden. SCREAM has the principal aims to estimate the burden and consequences of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to identify inappropriate drug use (prescription of nephrotoxic, contraindicated or ill-dosed drugs). Methods SCREAM is a repository of laboratory data of individuals, residing or accessing healthcare in the region of Stockholm, who underwent creatinine assessments between 200611. Laboratory tests were linked to administrative databases with complete information on socioeconomic status, demographic data, healthcare utilization, diagnoses, vital status and dispensed prescription medicines. Results SCREAM identified 1 118 507 adult Stockholm citizens with available creatinine tests between 200611. This corresponded to 66% of the complete population in the region. Geographical coverage was uniform, ranging between 62 and 72% throughout its 26 municipalities. Population coverage was higher across older age strata (50% coverage for age range 1844 years, >75% for 4564 years and >90% coverage for ?65 years). Of note, 97 and 98% of all individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease, respectively, were captured by SCREAM. Further, 89% of all deaths registered in the period occurred in individuals with a creatinine test undertaken. Conclusion SCREAM represents the largest cohort to estimate the burden and healthcare implications of CKD in Sweden. The coverage and representativeness of the region of Stockholm was high and in accordance to both the commonness of creatinine assessment, and the medical indications for creatinine testing. The inclusion of individuals who sought medical care and had a creatinine test undertaken resulted in a slight over-representation of elderly and comorbid patients. PMID:26798472

  17. Evolutionary aspects of urea utilization by fungi

    PubMed Central

    Navarathna, Dhammika H.M.L.P.; Harris, Steven D.; Roberts, David D.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    The higher fungi exhibit a dichotomy with regard to urea utilization. The hemiascomycetes use urea amidolyase (DUR1,2) whereas all other higher fungi use the nickel-containing urease. Urea amidolyase is an energy dependent biotin-containing enzyme. It likely arose prior to the Euascomycete/Hemiascomycete divergence ca. 350 million years ago by insertion of an unknown gene into one copy of a duplicated methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (MccA). The dichotomy between urease and urea amidolyase coincides precisely with that for the Ni/Co transporter (Nic1p) which is present in the higher fungi that use urease and absent in those that do not. We suggest that the selective advantage for urea amidolyase is that it allowed the hemiascomycetes to jettison all Ni2+ and Co2+ dependent metabolism and thus to have two fewer transition metals whose concentrations need to be regulated. Also, the absence of MccA in the hemiascomycetes coincides with and may explain their production of fusel alcohols. PMID:20100286

  18. Differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodine using dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Qu, M.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C. H.

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the feasibility of differentiating uric acid from non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodinated contrast material was evaluated using dual-energy CT (DECT). Iodine subtraction was accomplished with a commercial three material decomposition algorithm to create a virtual non-contrast (VNC) image set. VNC images were then used to segment stone regions from tissue background. The DE ratio of each stone was calculated using the CT images acquired at two different energies with DECT using the stone map generated from the VNC images. The performance of DE ratio-based stone differentiation was evaluated at five different iodine concentrations (21, 42, 63, 84 and 105 mg/ml). The DE ratio of stones in iodine solution was found larger than those obtained in non-iodine cases. This is mainly caused by the partial volume effect around the boundary between the stone and iodine solution. The overestimation of the DE ratio leads to substantial overlap between different stone types. To address the partial volume effect, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach was implemented to estimate the contribution of iodine and stone within each image pixel in their mixture area. The DE ratio of each stone was corrected to maximally remove the influence of iodine solutions. The separation of uric-acid and non-uric-acid stone was improved in the presence of iodine solution.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. Conclusions The UPCR in samples with low or high specific gravity is more likely to overestimate or underestimate actual daily urine protein amount, respectively, especially in a dilute urine sample with its creatinine below 38.8 mg/dL or a concentrated sample with its creatinine above 61.5 mg/dL. In particular, UPCR results should be interpreted with caution in cases that involve dilute urine samples because its overestimation may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of proteinuric renal disease or an incorrect staging of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26353117

  20. Effect of uric acid and chemical analogues on oxidation of human low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schlotte, V; Sevanian, A; Hochstein, P; Weithmann, K U

    1998-11-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is implicated in the early development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, attention has been focused toward the potential protective effects of uric acid and purine-based chemical analogues in copper-promoted oxidative changes to human LDL in vitro. Between 5-100 mumol/l uric acid protected LDL from oxidative degradation in a concentration dependent manner. However, 5 mumol/l were not capable of inhibiting the consumption of LDLs natural antioxidative components, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, but led to a more than two-fold prolongation, up to 3 h, of the lag phase before onset of polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) oxidation. 100 mumol/l uric acid, which is still below the human serum level of 300 mumol/l, reduced consumption of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene by about 50% and largely suppressed PUFA oxidation for up to 4 h. A more lipophilic series of methyl analogues of uric acid exhibited less activity. Neither 1,3-dimethyl uric acid, nor the 1,3,7- or 1,7- or 3,7-methylated compounds, all at 100 mumol/l, exceeded the antioxidative potential of 10 mumol/l uric acid. At concentrations up to 100 mumol/l xanthine and its analogues lacked virtually any protective effects toward the LDL constituents. In conclusion, the present study indicates that uric acid at concentrations similar to its physiological levels, and also related analogues are able to suppress oxidative degradation of LDL components. In view of the various mechanisms underlying atherogenesis in vivo, the protective effect in terms of modulating redox reactions and oxidative events in the blood or at the arterial wall appears of potential importance. PMID:9823550

  1. Creatinine measurements in 24 h urine by liquid chromatography--tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Watanabe, Takaho; Gee, Shirley J; Schenker, Marc B; Hammock, Bruce D

    2008-01-23

    A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining urinary creatinine was developed and used to evaluate 24 h urine samples collected during an exposure study. Urine (1 microL) was diluted with methanol and then directly applied to LC-MS/MS. Under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, the transition molecules of creatinine and creatinine- d3 were observed at m/ z 114 > 44 and m/ z 117 > 47, respectively. The retention time of creatinine was 0.59 min. The linear range was 1-2000 ng/mL, with a detection limit in urine of 1 ng/mL. LC-MS/MS and colorimetric end-point methods were significantly associated ( R2 = 0.8785, p < 0.0001). The LC-MS/MS method to determine creatinine in 24 h urine samples had shorter retention times, was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, simple, selective, and used a smaller sample size than other LC-MS/MS or commercial methods. PMID:18092755

  2. Two low-cost digital camera-based platforms for quantitative creatinine analysis in urine.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Yaroshenko, Irina; Sidorova, Alla; Piven, Alena; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    In clinical analysis creatinine is a routine biomarker for the assessment of renal and muscular dysfunctions. Although several techniques have been proposed for a fast and accurate quantification of creatinine in human serum or urine, most of them require expensive or complex apparatus, advanced sample preparation or skilled operators. To circumvent these issues, we propose two home-made platforms based on a CD Spectroscope (CDS) and Computer Screen Photo-assisted Technique (CSPT) for the rapid assessment of creatinine level in human urine. Both systems display a linear range (r(2) = 0.9967 and 0.9972, respectively) from 160 ?mol L(-1) to 1.6 mmol L(-1) for standard creatinine solutions (n = 15) with respective detection limits of 89 ?mol L(-1) and 111 ?mol L(-1). Good repeatability was observed for intra-day (1.7-2.9%) and inter-day (3.6-6.5%) measurements evaluated on three consecutive days. The performance of CDS and CSPT was also validated in real human urine samples (n = 26) using capillary electrophoresis data as reference. Corresponding Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression models provided for mean relative errors below 10% in creatinine quantification. PMID:26454461

  3. Uric Acid Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV In Vitro is Dependent on the Intracellular Formation of Triuret

    PubMed Central

    Mohandas, Rajesh; Sautina, Laura; Beem, Elaine; Schuler, Anna; Chan, Wai-Yan; Domsic, John; McKenna, Robert; Johnson, Richard J.; Segal, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid affects endothelial and adipose cell function and has been linked to diseases such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Interestingly uric acid has been shown to increase endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization, a potential mechanism to repair endothelial injury. Since EPC mobilization is dependent on activity of the enzyme CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)IV, we examined the effect uric acid has on CD26/DPPIV activity. Uric acid inhibited the CD26/DPPIV associated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells but not human recombinant (hr)CD26/DPPIV. However, triuret, a product of uric acid and peroxynitrite, could inhibit cell associated and hrCD26/DPPIV. Increasing or decreasing intracellular peroxynitrite levels enhanced or decreased the ability of uric acid to inhibit cell associated CD26/DPPIV respectively. Last, protein modeling demonstrates how triuret can act as a small molecule inhibitor of CD26/DPPIV activity. This is the first time that uric acid or a uric acid reaction product has been shown to affect enzymatic activity and suggests a novel avenue of research in the role of uric acid in the development of clinically important diseases. PMID:24925478

  4. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350mmolL(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175mmol?L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175mmolL(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175mmolL(-1)) to those of urea (175mmolL(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane. PMID:23638369

  5. Urea synthesis in enterocytes of developing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wu, G

    1995-12-15

    Urea synthesis from ammonia, glutamine and arginine was determined in enterocytes from newborn (0-day-old), 2-21-day-old suckling, and 29-58-day-old post-weaning pigs. Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age. Cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) containing (i) 0.5-2 mM NH4Cl plus 0.05-2 mM ornithine and 2 mM aspartate, (ii) 1-5 mM glutamine, or (iii) 0.5-2 mM arginine. In enterocytes from newborn and suckling pigs, there was no measurable synthesis of urea from ammonia, glutamine or arginine, and analysis of amino acids by a sensitive fluorimetric HPLC method revealed the formation of negligible amounts of ornithine from arginine. In contrast, in cells from post-weaning pigs, relatively large amounts of urea and ornithine were produced from ammonia, glutamine and arginine in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism of the developmental change of urea synthesis in pig enterocytes, the activities of urea-cycle enzymes were determined. The activities of enterocyte carbamoyl phosphate synthase I and ornithine carbamoyltransferase were lower in post-weaning pigs than in suckling ones, whereas there was no difference in arginino-succinate lyase. The activities of argininosuccinate synthase and arginase were increased by 4-fold and 50-100-fold, respectively, in enterocytes from post-weaning pigs compared with suckling pigs. The induction of arginase appears to be sufficient to account for the formation of urea from ammonia, glutamine and arginine in post-weaning pig enterocytes. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of synthesis of urea from extracellular or intramitochondrially generated ammonia in enterocytes of post-weaning pigs. This hitherto unrecognized urea synthesis in these cells may be a first line of defence against the potential toxicity of ammonia produced by the extensive intestinal degradation of glutamine (a major fuel for enterocytes) and derived from diet and luminal micro-organisms. PMID:8554511

  6. The rate and pattern of urea infusion into the rumen of wethers alters nitrogen balance and plasma ammonia.

    PubMed

    Recavarren, M I; Milano, G D

    2014-12-01

    Changes in N balance, urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD), urea, creatinine and ammonia and plasma ammonia, glucose, urea, insulin and IGF-1 were examined in four wethers (37 ± 2.6 kg BW). The animals were fitted with permanent ruminal catheters, fed lucerne hay (9.4 MJ/day; 23 g N/day; 7 g soluble N/day, 6 equal meals/day) and treated with contrasting rates of urea infusion into the rumen: first, a continuous infusion (CT), at 3.2 mg urea-N/min for 10 days and then a discontinuous infusion (DT) at 156 mg urea-N/min for 4 min; in 6 daily doses with the meals for 7 days. N balance was calculated from pooled samples of faeces and urine. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 1.5 h after the morning meal (M1) on days CT10, DT2, DT4 and DT6. N retention decreased during DT (p = 0.01) due to a significant increase of N excretion in urine (4 g/day; p = 0.009) and faeces (1 g/day; p = 0.02). Dry matter (p < 0.001) and N digestibility in vivo (p = 0.01) decreased significantly during DT. Urinary urea and PD excretion were not altered by treatment. Significant linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.001) effects were observed for plasma ammonia in M1 (from 170 CT10 to 235 μm DT2 and returned to 120 μm DT6). No changes were observed in plasma glucose, urea, insulin and IGF-1. Results indicate that changes from CT to DT reduced N retention in sheep due to enhanced urinary N excretion, but it was not associated with changes in urinary urea or PD excretion; or plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-1. As the dry matter (DM) an N digestibility could account a 0.23 of the decrease in N retention; the largest fraction of the reduction in N retention remained unexplained by the results. PMID:24611997

  7. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with ( sup 14 C)urea

    SciTech Connect

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R. )

    1990-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, (14C)urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of (14C)urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed.

  8. [Effects of urea and coated urea on harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Zeng, Qingru; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Litian; Liao, Bohan; Tie, Baiqing; Liao, Zongwen

    2006-09-01

    With simulation test and plastic greenhouse experiment, this paper studied the effects of urea and minerals- coated urea on the soil pH and harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse. The results showed that under simulated condition, the application of these'two N fertilizers led to an initial increase of soil pH, which reached the maximum (an increment of > 50%) within the first week and dropped to the initial level by the end of the fifth week. In plastic greenhouse, applying urea and coated urea resulted in the increase of NH3, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The daily volatilization amount of NH3 and NO2 was higher in urea treatment than in coated urea treatment, and the highest value in urea treatment was 42.36 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NH3, 41.95 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NO2, and 86.00 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for O3. The volatilization intensity of NH3 and NO2 was influenced by temperature and sunlight, while the O3 concentration was influenced by sunlight. PMID:17147165

  9. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  10. [Determination and stability studies of urea in urea creams by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Akama, T; Ikawa, H

    1992-02-01

    A method was developed for determining urea in urea creams by high-performance liquid chromatography using strong acidic cation exchange gel. Elution was carried out with 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.4) at 40 degrees C, and detection was made with a UV-spectrometer at 200 nm. This method was used for studying and comparing the stability of urea creams produced by ourselves and by other manufactures. The assay showed that there were differences in the stability of the tested creams. PMID:1517978

  11. Uric acid: a modulator of prostate cells and activin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sangkop, Febbie; Singh, Geeta; Rodrigues, Ely; Gold, Elspeth; Bahn, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) or urate is associated with inflammation and gout. Recent evidence has linked urate to cancers, but little is known about urate effects in prostate cancer. Activins are inflammatory cytokines and negative growth regulators in the prostate. A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is activin insensitivity; however, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We propose that elevated SUA is associated with prostate cancer counteracting the growth inhibitory effects of activins. The expression of activins A and B, urate transporter GLUT9 and tissue urate levels were examined in human prostate disease. Intracellular and secreted urate and GLUT9 expression were assessed in human prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of urate and probenecid, a known urate transport inhibitor, were determined in combination with activin A. Activin A expression was increased in low-grade prostate cancer, whereas activin B expression was reduced in high-grade prostate cancer. Intracellular urate levels decreased in all prostate pathologies, while GLUT9 expression decreased in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and high-grade prostate cancer. Activin responsive LNCaP cells had higher intracellular and lower secreted urate levels than activin-insensitive PC3 cells. GLUT9 expression in prostate cancer cells was progressively lower than in prostate epithelial cells. Elevated extracellular urate was growth promoting in vitro, which was abolished by the gout medication probenecid, and it antagonized the growth inhibitory effects of activins. This study shows for the first time that a change in plasma or intracellular urate levels, possibly involving GLUT9 and a urate efflux transporter, has an impact on prostate cancer cell growth, and that lowering SUA levels in prostate cancer is likely to be therapeutically beneficial. PMID:26910779

  12. Creatinine and myoglobin are poor predictors of anaerobic threshold in colorectal cancer and health

    PubMed Central

    Nyasavajjala, Sitaramachandra M; Phillips, Beth E; Lund, Jon N; Williams, John P

    2015-01-01

    Aims Myoglobin is a haem protein produced in skeletal muscles. Serum concentrations of myoglobin have been proposed as a surrogate marker of muscle mass and function in both cachectic cancer patients and healthy non-cancer individuals. Creatinine, a metabolite of creatine phosphate, an energy store found in skeletal muscle, is produced at a constant rate from skeletal muscle. Urinary and plasma creatinine have been used in clinical practice as indicators of skeletal muscle mass in health and disease. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that plasma myoglobin and creatinine concentration could accurately predict skeletal muscle mass and aerobic capacity in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and matched healthy controls and thereby an indicative of aerobic performance. Methods We recruited 47 patients with CRC and matching number of healthy volunteers for this study. All participants had their body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, aerobic capacity measured to anaerobic threshold (AT) by cardiopulmonary exercise testing and filled in objective questionnaires to assess the qualitative functions. This study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, after approval by the local National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. Results Age-matched groups had similar serum myoglobin and creatinine concentrations in spite of differences in their aerobic capacity. AT was significantly lower in the CRC group compared with matched controls (1.18 ± 0.44 vs. 1.41 ± 0.71 L/min; P < 0.01). AT had significant correlation with lean muscle mass (LMM) among these groups, but myoglobin and creatinine had poor correlation with LMM and AT. Conclusions Serum myoglobin is a poor predictor of muscle mass, and serum myoglobin and creatinine concentrations do not predict aerobic performance in CRC patients or healthy matched controls. PMID:26136188

  13. The relative contribution of urine extravasation to elevate plasma creatinine levels in acute unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Barak; Pinthus, Jehonathan H.; Kleinmann, Nir; Joffe, Erel; Erlich, Tomer; Fridman, Eddie; Winkler, Harry; Mor, Yoram; Ramon, Jacob; Dotan, Zohar A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rising levels of plasma creatinine in the setting of acute unilateral ureteral obstruction (AUUO) often reflects acute renal failure, mandating kidney drainage. We hypothesize that re-absorption of peri-renal urine extravasation (PUE), a common result of UUO, contributes significantly to the elevation in plasma creatinine, rendering the latter an inaccurate benchmark for renal function. We explored this hypothesis in a rat model of AUUO and PUE. Methods: In total, 20 rats were equally divided into 4 groups. Groups 1 and 2 underwent unilateral ligation of the ureter with infiltration of rats urine (index group) or saline (control) into the peri-renal space. Two additional control groups underwent peri-renal injection of either urine or saline without AUUO. Plasma creatinine levels were determined immediately prior to the procedure (T0), and hourly for 3 hours (T1, T2 and T3). Renal histology was investigated after 3 hours. Results: Rats in the index group had a significantly greater increase in plasma creatinine levels over 3 hours compared to all other groups (p < 0.05). At T3, average plasma creatinine levels for the index group increased by 96% (0.49 0.18 mg/dL) compared to 46% (0.23 0.06 mg/dL increase) in the AUUO and saline group, and less than 15% rise in both the non-obstructed control groups. Our study limitations includes lack of spontaneous PUE and intraperitoneal surgical approach. Conclusions: Absorption of peri-renal urine in the presence of AUUO is a significant contributor to rising plasma creatinine levels, beyond those attributable to the obstruction alone, and may overestimate the extent of the true renal functional impairment. PMID:26279711

  14. Creatinine measurements often yielded false estimates of progression in chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, M.; Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.

    1988-09-01

    In 9 of 22 observation periods (lasting an average of 15 months) in 17 patients with moderate to severe chronic renal failure (GFR 4 to 23 ml/min), rates of progression as estimated from the linear regression on time of 24-hour creatinine clearance (b1) differed significantly from rates of progression as estimated from the regression on time of urinary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA (b2), during all or part of the period of observation. b1 exceeded b2 in four cases and was less than b2 in the other five. Thus there were gradual changes in the fractional tubular secretion of creatinine in individual patients, in both directions. Owing to these changes, measurements of creatinine clearance gave erroneous impressions of the rate or existence of progression during all or a portion of the period of observation in nearly half of these patients. In the 22 studies as a group, using the entire periods of observation, b1 indicated significantly more rapid progression (by 0.18 +/- 0.06 ml/min/month, P less than 0.01) than did b2, and had a significantly greater variance. Measurements of progression based on the rate of change of reciprocal plasma creatinine (multiplied by an average rate of urinary creatinine excretion in each study) were equally misleading, even though less variable. We conclude that sequential creatinine measurements are often misleading as measures of progression and should, when feasible, be replaced by urinary clearance of isotopes in following patients with chronic renal failure.

  15. Uric acid-driven Th17 differentiation requires inflammasome-derived IL-1 and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Conforti-Andreoni, Cristina; Spreafico, Roberto; Qian, Hong Liang; Riteau, Nicolas; Ryffel, Bernhard; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Mortellaro, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    Uric acid is released from damaged cells and serves as a danger signal that alerts the immune system to potential threats, even in the absence of microbial infection. Uric acid modulation of innate immune responses has been extensively studied, but the impact of this damage-associated molecular pattern on adaptive responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that, in the presence of NF-?B signaling, uric acid crystals were capable of stimulating dendritic cells to promote the release of cytokines associated with Th17 polarization. Accordingly, naive CD4(+) T cells cocultured with uric acid-treated dendritic cells differentiated toward the Th17 lineage. Th17 differentiation required the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1?/? and IL-18 in both in vitro and in vivo models, and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC and caspase-1 were essential for Th17 responses. Collectively, our findings indicate a novel role for the danger signal uric acid, in cooperation with NF-?B activation, in driving proinflammatory Th17 differentiation. Our data indicate that sterile inflammation shapes adaptive immunity, in addition to influencing early innate responses. PMID:22058415

  16. Comparison between Procalcitonin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, and Uric Acid in Children with Cardiomyopathy and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Noor Mohammad; Mahjoubifard, Maziar; Shahramian, Iraj; Teimouri, Alireza; Jahangirifard, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was performed to determine the level of procalcitonin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), and uric acid in children with cardiomyopathy in comparison with controls and the association with echocardiographic findings. Methods. The levels of BNP, procalcitonin, and serum uric acid were measured and the amounts of biomarkers compared with echocardiographic findings. Results. In this study mean age of participants was the same (p=0.321). The majority of echocardiographic indices in left and right heart have different means in case and controls (p<0.05). Means of BNP, procalcitonin, and uric acid were 213.814 ± 309.601, 9.326 ± 3.881, and 6.846 ± 1.814 for case group and 2.76 ± 1.013, 1.851 ± 1.466, and 3.317 ± 0.924 for control (p<0.001), respectively. In the patients group there was relationship of Ross classification with BNP (χ2 = 15.845, p<0.05) and with age (χ2 = 8.946, p<0.05). For uric acid and procalcitonin no significant relationships were observed. Conclusions. procalcitonin, uric acid, and BNP had significant relationship with many echocardiographic findings in participants. For patients, procalcitonin did not show correlation. The severity of illness based on the Ross classification showed significant correlation with BNP level and age in patients. PMID:26495299

  17. The GLUT9 Gene Is Associated with Serum Uric Acid Levels in Sardinia and Chianti Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Andrea; Busonero, Fabio; Usala, Gianluca; Mulas, Antonella; Lai, Sandra; Dei, Mariano; Orr, Marco; Albai, Giuseppe; Bandinelli, Stefania; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Guralnik, Jack; Naitza, Silvia; Crisponi, Laura; Cao, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonalo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Chen, Wei-Min; Nagaraja, Ramaiah

    2007-01-01

    High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatorystate gout crystal arthropathy and place individuals at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide scans in the genetically isolated Sardinian population identified variants associated with serum uric acid levels as a quantitative trait. They mapped within GLUT9, a Chromosome 4 glucose transporter gene predominantly expressed in liver and kidney. SNP rs6855911 showed the strongest association (p = 1.84 10?16), along with eight others (p = 7.75 10?16 to 6.05 10?11). Individuals homozygous for the rare allele of rs6855911 (minor allele frequency = 0.26) had 0.6 mg/dl less uric acid than those homozygous for the common allele; the results were replicated in an unrelated cohort from Tuscany. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in GLUT9 could affect glucose metabolism and uric acid synthesis and/or renal reabsorption, influencing serum uric acid levels over a wide range of values. PMID:17997608

  18. The associations of serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiang; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Zhang, Yi; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations of the serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia (HU) with the radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), including osteophytes (OST) and joint space narrowing (JSN), a total of 4685 subjects were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn from all subjects. Serum uric acid and some other indexes were detected. OST and JSN were assessed for each subject according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the target associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. The prevalence of OST was increased in the highest tertile of uric acid compared to the lowest in female subjects (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.07-1.99, P for trend = 0.02). Meanwhile, a positive association between OST and HU was observed in female subjects (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.03, P = 0.05). However, serum uric acid and HU were not significantly associated with JSN in male subjects. The findings of this study indicated that the serum uric acid concentration and prevalence of HU are positively associated with OST of the knee in the female population. Level of evidence Cross-sectional study, Level III. PMID:26743214

  19. The role of uric acid in the insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda, Josiane Aparecida; Almeida, Guilherme Gomide; Martins, Raissa Isabelle Leão; Cunha, Mariana Botrel; Belo, Vanessa Almeida; dos Santos, José Eduardo Tanus; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Lanna, Carla Márcia Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between serum uric acid levels and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 245 children and adolescents (134 obese and 111 controls), aged 8-18 years. The anthropometric variables (weight, height and waist circumference), blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected. The clinical characteristics of the groups were analyzed by t-test or chi-square test. To evaluate the association between uric acid levels and insulin resistance the Pearson's test and logistic regression were applied. Results: The prevalence of insulin resistance was 26.9%. The anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biochemical variables were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001), except for the high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a positive and significant correlation between anthropometric variables and uric acid with HOMA-IR in the obese and in the control groups, which was higher in the obese group and in the total sample. The logistic regression model that included age, gender and obesity, showed an odds ratio of uric acid as a variable associated with insulin resistance of 1.91 (95%CI 1.40-2.62; p<−0.001). Conclusions: The increase in serum uric acid showed a positive statistical correlation with insulin resistance and it is associated with and increased risk of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. PMID:26300523

  20. Low Serum Levels of Uric Acid are Associated With Development of Poststroke Depression.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingying; Han, Bin; Wang, Liping; Chang, Yaling; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Wenwei; Yan, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-11-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is a frequent complication of stroke that has been associated with poorer outcome of stroke patients. This study sought to examine the possible association between serum uric acid levels and the development of PSD.We recruited 196 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 100 healthy volunteers. Serum uric acid levels were tested by uricase-PAP method within 24?hr after admission. Neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at 3-month poststroke. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Diagnosis of PSD was made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models.Fifty-six patients (28.6%) were diagnosed as having PSD at 3 months. PSD patients showed significantly lower levels of uric acid at baseline as compared to non-PSD patients (237.02??43.43 vs 309.10??67.44??mol/L, t?=?-8.86, P?uric acid levels (?239.0 and ?328.1??mol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSD (OR, 7.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56-23.47, P?uric acid levels at admission are found to be correlated with PSD and may predict its development at 3 months after stroke. PMID:26559256

  1. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

  2. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine ? creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jrgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine ? creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ?240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  3. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with hematological malignancies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). PMID:26699701

  4. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure: mendelian randomisation analysis of two large cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index. Design Mendelian randomisation analysis, using variation at specific genes (SLC2A9 (rs7442295) as an instrument for uric acid; and FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313), and TMEM18 (rs6548238) for body mass index). Setting Two large, prospective cohort studies in Denmark. Participants We measured levels of uric acid and related covariables in 58?072 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 10?602 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, comprising 4890 and 2282 cases of ischaemic heart disease, respectively. Main outcome Blood pressure and prospectively assessed ischaemic heart disease. Results Estimates confirmed known observational associations between plasma uric acid and hyperuricaemia with risk of ischaemic heart disease and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. However, when using genotypic instruments for uric acid and hyperuricaemia, we saw no evidence for causal associations between uric acid, ischaemic heart disease, and blood pressure. We used genetic instruments to investigate body mass index as a potentially confounding factor in observational associations, and saw a causal effect on uric acid levels. Every four unit increase of body mass index saw a rise in uric acid of 0.03 mmol/L (95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.04), and an increase in risk of hyperuricaemia of 7.5% (3.9% to 11.1%). Conclusion By contrast with observational findings, there is no strong evidence for causal associations between uric acid and ischaemic heart disease or blood pressure. However, evidence supports a causal effect between body mass index and uric acid level and hyperuricaemia. This finding strongly suggests body mass index as a confounder in observational associations, and suggests a role for elevated body mass index or obesity in the development of uric acid related conditions. PMID:23869090

  5. APPLICATION OF MILK UREA NITROGEN VALUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical analyses using both linear and multi-component regression and mixed effects models have been applied to a number of databases relating milk urea nitrogen (MUN) to factors important for N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of MUN are highly correlated to BUN, which is a s...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  8. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  9. Characterization of urease from Sporosarcina ureae.

    PubMed

    McCoy, D D; Cetin, A; Hausinger, R P

    1992-01-01

    Alkaline stable (pH 7.75-12.5) urease from Sporosarcina ureae was purified over 400-fold by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The cytoplasmic enzyme was remarkably active with a specific activity of greater than 9300 mumol urea degraded min-1 mg protein-1 at pH 7.5, where it has optimal activity. Although S. ureae is closely related to Bacillus pasteurii, known to possess a homopolymeric urease containing 1 nickel per subunit [M(r) = 65000], the S. ureae enzyme is comprised of three subunits [apparent M(r) = 63,100 (alpha), 14,500 (beta), and 8500 (gamma)] in an estimated alpha beta gamma 2 stoichiometry and contains 2.1 +/- 0.6 nickel ions per alpha beta gamma 2 unit as measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Stationary phase cultures sometimes possessed low levels of urease activity, but the specific activity of cell extracts of partially purified urease preparations from such cultures could be elevated by heat treatment, dilution, or dialysis to values comparable to those observed in samples from exponentially grown cells. PMID:1510567

  10. Continuous Crystallization of Urea-Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokamura, Taku; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Seki, Mitsuo; Murakoshi, Hiromichi

    Ice slurries have been used as environmentally-friendly secondary refrigerants. In addition to such ice slurries, aqueous solutions in slurry-state have also been put to practical use at temperatures below 0 oC. Urea-water mixture is a multi-component substance that has a eutectic point. If we can form a two-phase fluid substance by the liquid-solid phases at the eutectic point, it can be used as a fluid latent heat storage material, which will maintain the secondary refrigerant in a heat exchanger at constant temperature. In the present study, we propose a urea-water mixture as a novel functional thermal fluid that can be used as a fluid latent heat material. To demonstrate its feasibility, we first measured the latent heat and density of a urea-water mixture, and then used a counter-flow double tube heat exchanger to produce a liquid-solid two-phase flow of the urea-water mixture. This work demonstrates that it is possible to make a fluid latent heat storage material continuously from an aqueous solution at the eutectic point by flowing it through a double tube heat exchanger equipped with a stirrer.

  11. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-02-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  12. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  13. Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-05-15

    Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. PMID:24631876

  14. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium... the provisions of this section. (a) Sodium nitrate-urea complex is a clathrate of approximately...

  15. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a..., packaging, transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium... the provisions of this section. (a) Sodium nitrate-urea complex is a clathrate of approximately...

  17. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  18. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  19. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF CYCLIC UREAS FROM DIAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rajender S. Varma* and Yong-Jin Kim
    Cyclic ureas are useful intermediates for a variety of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. One of the attractive approaches for the synthesis of cyclic ureas uses condensation of diamines with urea as a carbonyl source under dynamic evacuation. ...

  20. Estimation of urea production rate with [(15)n(2)]urea and [(13)c]urea to measure catabolic rates in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Freyse, E J; Knospe, S

    1997-07-01

    Abstract For verifying catabolic states in insulin-dependent patients and dogs the method estimating urea production rates with (13)C and with doubly (15)N labeled urea, respectively, has been established. For a fast steady state of urea tracer dilution, a prime of 600 times the continuous infusion rate had to be injected. Urea was isolated from plasma samples by protein precipitation and cation exchange chromatography with a consecutive derivatization of the dried urea fraction (trimethylsilyl derivatives). The masses of the fragment ions m/z 189 ((14)N(14)N), 190 ((14)N(15)N) and 191 ((15)N(15)N) urea are monitored to estimate the [(15)N(2)]urea frequency in the overall body urea pool in mol percent excess (MPE). 1 to 15 ng of derivatized urea were measured efficiently. An excellent correlation between expected standard and measured MPE (r = 0.9977) was achieved from solutions containing 1 to 7% [(15)N(2)]urea. The interassay coefficient of variation amounted to < 10% for a [(15)N(2)]urea portion of ? 3%. Normoglycemic diabetic patients who were treated with insulin overnight showed significantly higher urea production compared to healthy controls (9.22 2.07 vs. 5.4 0.32 ?molkg(-1) min(-1); p < 0.05). Measurements in chronic diabetic dogs proved an increased rate of amino acid catabolism (+ 20% urea production) in systemic versus portal application of insulin in paired studies. This increased nitrogen load in diabetics may accelerate progression of diabetic nephropathy. - Thus, the established stable isotope technique may serve as a sensitive and useful indicator of amino acid catabolism in clinical and experimental research. PMID:22087488

  1. Estimation of urea production rate with [15N2]urea and [13C]urea to measure catabolic rates in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Freyse, E J; Knospe, S

    1998-01-01

    For verifying catabolic states in insulin-dependent patients and dogs the method estimating urea production rates with 13C and with doubly 15N labeled urea, respectively, has been established. For a fast steady state of urea tracer dilution, a prime of 600 times the continuous infusion rate had to be injected. Urea was isolated from plasma samples by protein precipitation and cation exchange chromatography with a consecutive derivatization of the dried urea fraction (trimethylsilyl derivatives). The masses of the fragment ions m/z 189 (14N14N), 190 (14N15N) and 191 (15N15N) urea are monitored to estimate the [15N2] urea frequency in the overall body urea pool in mol percent excess (MPE). 1 to 15 ng of derivatized urea were measured efficiently. An excellent correlation between expected standard and measured MPE (r = 0.9977) was achieved from solutions containing 1 to 7% [15N2]urea. The interassay coefficient of variation amounted to < 10% for a [15N2]urea portion of > or = 3%. Normoglycemic diabetic patients who were treated with insulin overnight showed significantly higher urea production compared to healthy controls (9.22 +/- 2.07 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.32 mumol.kg-1.min-1; p < 0.05). Measurements in chronic diabetic dogs proved an increased rate of amino acid catabolism (+20% urea production) in systemic versus portal application of insulin in paired studies. This increased nitrogen load in diabetics may accelerate progression of diabetic nephropathy. Thus, the established stable isotope technique may serve as a sensitive and useful indicator of amino acid catabolism in clinical and experimental research. PMID:9854845

  2. Serum uric acid levels and long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tokiko; Mochizuki, Toshio; Takei, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2014-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but data regarding the relationship between serum uric acid levels and the long-term outcomes of CKD patients have been limited. The present study evaluated the associations between baseline serum uric acid levels with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The subjects of this study were 551 stage 2-4 CKD patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid tertiles and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and development of ESRD, initially without adjustment, and then after adjusting for several groups of covariates. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.5 years, 59.3 % were men, and 10.0 % had diabetes. The mean eGFR was 42.02 18.52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In all subjects, the mean serum uric acid level was 6.57 1.35 mg/dl, and 52.2 % of study subjects were on hypouricemic therapy (allopurinol; 48.3 %) at baseline. Thirty-one patients (6.1 %) died during a follow-up period of approximately 6 years. There was no significant association between serum uric acid level and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR in the unadjusted Cox models. In the adjusted models, hyperuricemia was found to be associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality after adjustment with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol, but not associated with development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR. The results of this study showed that hyperuricemia but not serum uric acid levels were associated with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality after adjustments with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol in stage 2-4 CKD patients. PMID:23929090

  3. Copy number polymorphisms near SLC2A9 are associated with serum uric acid concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperuricemia is associated with multiple diseases, including gout, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Serum urate is highly heritable, yet association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum uric acid explain a small fraction of the heritability. Whether copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) contribute to uric acid levels is unknown. Results We assessed copy number on a genome-wide scale among 8,411 individuals of European ancestry (EA) who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. CNPs upstream of the urate transporter SLC2A9 on chromosome 4p16.1 are associated with uric acid (χ2df2=3545, p=3.19×10-23). Effect sizes, expressed as the percentage change in uric acid per deleted copy, are most pronounced among women (3.974.935.87 [ 2.55097.5 denoting percentiles], p=4.57×10-23) and independent of previously reported SNPs in SLC2A9 as assessed by SNP and CNP regression models and the phasing SNP and CNP haplotypes (χ2df2=3190,p=7.23×10-08). Our finding is replicated in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), where the effect size estimated from 4,089 women is comparable to ARIC in direction and magnitude (1.414.707.88, p=5.46×10-03). Conclusions This is the first study to characterize CNPs in ARIC and the first genome-wide analysis of CNPs and uric acid. Our findings suggests a novel, non-coding regulatory mechanism for SLC2A9-mediated modulation of serum uric acid, and detail a bioinformatic approach for assessing the contribution of CNPs to heritable traits in large population-based studies where technical sources of variation are substantial. PMID:25007794

  4. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  5. Measurement of bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine in serum and plasma, by solid-phase reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J F; Tsang, W; Newall, R G

    1983-01-01

    The Seralyzer chemistries for total bilirubin, cholesterol, and creatinine have been examined in the routine hospital laboratory, and have demonstrated good correlation and precision when compared to established routine methodologies. The system has proved to be reliable and easy to use. PMID:6841652

  6. A New Equation to Estimate Muscle Mass from Creatinine and Cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Kwang-il; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Background With evaluation for physical performance, measuring muscle mass is an important step in detecting sarcopenia. However, there are no methods to estimate muscle mass from blood sampling. Methods To develop a new equation to estimate total-body muscle mass with serum creatinine and cystatin C level, we designed a cross-sectional study with separate derivation and validation cohorts. Total body muscle mass and fat mass were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 214 adults aged 25 to 84 years who underwent physical checkups from 2010 to 2013 in a single tertiary hospital. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were also examined. Results Serum creatinine was correlated with muscle mass (P < .001), and serum cystatin C was correlated with body fat mass (P < .001) after adjusting glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After eliminating GFR, an equation to estimate total-body muscle mass was generated and coefficients were calculated in the derivation cohort. There was an agreement between muscle mass calculated by the novel equation and measured by DXA in both the derivation and validation cohort (P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.829, β = 0.95, P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.856, β = 1.03, respectively). Conclusion The new equation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels can be used to estimate total-body muscle mass. PMID:26849842

  7. HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

  8. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions might be due to the consumption of UA to neutralize the enhanced production of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species that occurs during type 2 reactions. The maintenance of the reduced levels in the follow-up assessments may indicate persistence of oxidative stress in the initial post-treatment stages, despite improved clinical conditions. The results of this study suggest that serum UA may play an antioxidative role during type 2 leprosy reactions. PMID:26989632

  9. Prognostic Significance of Uric Acid Levels in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Zhi-Chao; Lu, Tao-Sheng; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The importance and function of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with cardiovascular disease or stroke are unclear. We sought to evaluate the appropriate UA levels for stroke patients and the association between endogenous UA levels and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, particularly regarding the possible interaction between gender and UA levels with respect to AIS prognosis. We examined 303 patients who had an onset of ischemic stroke within 48h. Of those, 101 patients received thrombolytic treatment. Serum UA (?mol/L) levels were measured the second morning after admission. Patient prognosis was evaluated 90days after clinical onset by modified Rankin Scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to serum UA quartiles. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess clinical relevance in regard to functional outcome and endogenous UA levels. Analysis of subgroups by gender and normal glomerular filtration rate were also been done. Poor functional outcome was associated with older age, history of atrial fibrillation, or higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with higher UA levels (>380?mol/L) or lower UA levels (?250?mol/L) were 2-3 times more likely to have a poor outcome (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.14-7.61; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02-7.58, respectively) compared to the baseline group (UA level 316-380?mol/L). The same results were observed in thrombolyzed patients. Patients with high and low UA levels were 9-18 times more likely to having poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 316-380?mol/L; OR 18.50, 95% CI: 2.041-167.67; OR 9.66, 95% CI 1.42-65.88, respectively). In men, patients with high UA levels were 6 times more likely to have poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 279-334?mol/L; OR 6.10, 95% CI 1.62-22.93). However, female patients with UA level 271-337?mol/L were seven times more likely to perform badly compared to the baseline group (UA level >337?mol/L, OR 7.06, 95% CI 1.00-49.81). Serum UA levels in an appropriate range were associated with better outcome in patients with AIS but may be harmful when too high or too low. The association of UA levels with AIS prognosis differed in male and female patients, which highlights the necessity of stratifying by gender in investigations of cerebrovascular risk factors. PMID:26376636

  10. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes.

    PubMed

    Morato-Conceicao, Yvelise T; Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Arruda, Talita A; Lopes, Jose C; Fontes, Cor J F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18-69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions might be due to the consumption of UA to neutralize the enhanced production of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species that occurs during type 2 reactions. The maintenance of the reduced levels in the follow-up assessments may indicate persistence of oxidative stress in the initial post-treatment stages, despite improved clinical conditions. The results of this study suggest that serum UA may play an antioxidative role during type 2 leprosy reactions. PMID:26989632

  11. Uric acid attenuates nitric oxide production by decreasing the interaction between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and calmodulin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: a mechanism for uric acid-induced cardiovascular disease development.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Soojin; Cho, Du-Hyong; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-08-01

    The elevated level of uric acid in the body is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which is mediated by endothelial dysfunction. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood, although dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production is likely to be involved. Using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), we explored the molecular mechanism of uric acid on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. Although high dose of uric acid (12mg/dl for 24h treatment) significantly decreased eNOS activity and NO production, it did not alter eNOS expression and phosphorylations at eNOS-Ser(1177), eNOS-Thr(495) and eNOS-Ser(114). Under this condition, we also found no alterations in the dimerization and acetylation of eNOS, compared with the control. Furthermore, uric acid did not change the activity of arginase II, an enzyme degrading l-arginine, a substrate of eNOS, and intracellular level of calcium, a cofactor for eNOS activation. We also found that uric acid did not alter xanthine oxidase activity, suggesting no involvement of xanthine oxidase-derived O2(-) production in the observed inhibitory effects. In vitro and in cell coimmunoprecipitation studies, however, revealed that uric acid significantly decreased the interaction between eNOS and calmodulin (CaM), an eNOS activator, although it did not change the intracellular CaM level. Like in HUVEC, uric acid also decreased eNOS-CaM interaction in bovine aortic EC. Finally, uric acid attenuated ionomycin-induced increase in the interaction between eNOS and CaM. This study suggests firstly that uric acid decreased eNOS activity and NO production through reducing the binding between eNOS and CaM in EC. Our result may provide molecular mechanism by which uric acid induces endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23624269

  12. Comparison between Cystatin C- and Creatinine-Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cardiology Patients

    PubMed Central

    kerblom, Axel; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Flodin, Mats; Larsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for identification, evaluation and risk prediction in patients with kidney disease. Estimated GFR (eGFR) is also needed for the correct dosing of drugs eliminated by the kidneys and to identify high-risk individuals in whom coronary angiography or other procedures may lead to kidney failure. Both cystatin C and creatinine are used for the determination of GFR, and we aimed to investigate if eGFR by the two methods differ in cardiology patients. Methods We compared cystatin C and creatinine (CKD-EPI) eGFR calculated from the same request from a cardiology outpatient unit (n = 2,716), a cardiology ward (n = 980), a coronary care unit (n = 1,464), and an advanced coronary care unit (n = 518) in an observational, cross-sectional study. Results The median creatinine eGFR results are approximately 10 ml/min/1.73 m2 higher than the median cystatin C eGFR that is up to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, irrespective of the level of care. Creatinine eGFR resulted in a less advanced eGFR category in the majority of patients with a cystatin C eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a difference between creatinine and cystatin C eGFR in cardiology patients. It is important to be aware of which marker is used for the reported eGFR to minimize erroneous interpretations of the test results, as this could lead to under- or overmedication. Further studies are needed to determine the best method of estimating the GFR in cardiology units. PMID:26648945

  13. Performance of Creatinine and Cystatin C GFR Estimating Equations in an HIV-positive population on Antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    INKER, Lesley A; WYATT, Christina; CREAMER, Rebecca; HELLINGER, James; HOTTA, Matthew; LEPPO, Maia; LEVEY, Andrew S; OKPARAVERO, Aghogho; GRAHAM, Hiba; SAVAGE, Karen; SCHMID, Christopher H; TIGHIOUART, Hocine; WALLACH, Fran; KRISHNASAMI, Zipporah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of CKD-EPI creatinine, cystatin C and creatinine-cystatin C estimating equations in HIV-positive patients. Methods We evaluated the performance of the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI creatinine 2009, CKD-EPI cystatin C 2012 and CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C 2012 glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations compared to GFR measured using plasma clearance of iohexol in 200 HIV-positive patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. Creatinine and cystatin C assays were standardized to certified reference materials. Results Of the 200 participants, median (IQR) CD4 count was 536 (421) and 61% had an undetectable HIV-viral load. Mean (SD) measured GFR (mGFR) was 87 (26) ml/min/1.73m2. All CKD-EPI equations performed better than the MDRD Study equation. All three CKD-EPI equations had similar bias and precision. The cystatin C equation was not more accurate than the creatinine equation. The creatinine-cystatin C equation was significantly more accurate than the cystatin C equation and there was a trend toward greater accuracy than the creatinine equation. Accuracy was equal or better in most subgroups with the combined equation compared to either alone. Conclusions The CKD-EPI cystatin C equation does not appear to be more accurate than the CKD-EPI creatinine equation in patients who are HIV-positive, supporting the use of the CKD-EPI creatinine equation for routine clinical care for use in North American populations with HIV. The use of both filtration markers together as a confirmatory test for decreased estimated GFR based on creatinine in individuals who are HIV-positive requires further study. PMID:22842844

  14. Osmoregulation in Drosophila melanogaster selected for urea tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pierce, V A; Mueller, L D; Gibbs, A G

    1999-09-01

    Animals may adapt to hyperosmolar environments by either osmoregulating or osmoconforming. Osmoconforming animals generally accumulate organic osmolytes including sugars, amino acids or, in a few cases, urea. In the latter case, they also accumulate 'urea-counteracting' solutes to mitigate the toxic effects of urea. We examined the osmoregulatory adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae selected to live in 300 mmol l(-)(1) urea. Larvae are strong osmoregulators in environments with high NaCl or sucrose levels, but have increased hemolymph osmolarity on urea food. The increase in osmolarity on urea food is smaller in the selected larvae relative to unselected control larvae, and their respective hemolymph urea concentrations can account for the observed increases in total osmolarity. No other hemolymph components appear to act as urea-counteractants. Urea is calculated to be in equilibrium across body compartments in both selected and control larvae, indicating that the selected larvae are not sequestering it to lower their hemolymph osmolarity. The major physiological adaptation to urea does not appear to involve increased tolerance or improved osmoregulation per se, but rather mechanisms (e.g. metabolism, decreased uptake or increased excretion) that reduce overall urea levels and the consequent toxicity. PMID:10441086

  15. Atomic scale insights into urea-peptide interactions in solution.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Nicola; Gillams, Richard J; Pardo, Luis Carlos; Lorenz, Christian D; McLain, Sylvia E

    2016-01-27

    The mechanism by which proteins are denatured by urea is still not well understood, especially on the atomic scale where these interactions occur in vivo. In this study, the structure of the peptide GPG has been investigated in aqueous urea solutions in order to understand the combination of roles that both urea and water play in protein unfolding. Using a combination of neutron diffraction enhanced by isotopic substitution and computer simulations, it was found, in opposition with previous simulations studies, that urea is preferred over water around polar and charged portions of the peptides. Further, it appears that while urea directly replaces water around the nitrogen groups on GPG that urea and water occupy different positions around the peptide bond carbonyl groups. This suggests that urea may in fact weaken the peptide bond, disrupting the peptide backbone, thus ultimately causing denaturation. PMID:26764567

  16. Renal urea transporters. Direct and indirect regulation by vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Bankir, L T; Trinh-Trang-Tan, M M

    2000-03-01

    Urea is the most abundant urinary solute and is excreted in urine at a much higher concentration than in other body fluids. Urea concentration is achieved in the kidney through complex urea movements between blood vessels and renal tubules, which involve facilitated urea transport. Three major urea transporters expressed in the kidney have been cloned, UT-A1, UT-A2 and UT-B1, the first two derived from the same gene by differential transcription. These membrane proteins enable facilitated diffusion of urea through specific parts of the nephron (UT-A) and through renal vasculature (UT-B) in the medulla. UT-A1 is localised in the terminal part of the inner medullary collecting ducts and accounts for the vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability of this segment. UT-A2 is found in the descending thin limbs of Henle's loops. UT-B1 is expressed in the endothelium of the descending vasa recta supplying blood to the renal medulla, and in red cells. All three urea transporters are primarily involved in the process of intrarenal urea recycling, which enables the establishment, and prevents the dissipation, of a high concentration of urea in the inner medulla. This is an essential feature for producing a concentrated urine and thus for water economy in mammals. Vasopressin, upon binding to V2 receptors in the inner medullary collecting ducts, increases urea permeability through activation of UT-A1 molecules, thus enabling urea to diffuse into the inner medullary interstitium. Urea then taken up in ascending vasa recta is returned to the inner medulla via UT-A2 and UT-B1 by countercurrent exchange. These latter two urea transporters are not influenced acutely by vasopressin, but UT-A2 expression is markedly increased in the descending thin limbs of the loops of Henle after sustained exposure to vasopressin or its V2 agonist dDAVP. This effect is indirect because vasopressin receptors are lacking in the descending limbs. The acute direct and delayed indirect actions of vasopressin on renal urea transporters will increase medullary urea accumulation and thus the ability of the kidney to conserve water. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits the vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability in the inner medullary collecting ducts. The interruption of urea recycling probably contributes to the natriuresis. Impairing in this way the capacity of the kidney to concentrate urea enhances its capacity to concentrate sodium in the urine. PMID:10795928

  17. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  18. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents

  19. Volatile disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination of uric acid: implications for swimming pools.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lian L; E Y; Li J; Blatchley ER 3rd

    2014-03-18

    Cyanogen chloride (CNCl) and trichloramine (NCl3) are important disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools. However, some unknowns exist regarding the precursors of their formation. In this study, uric acid is shown to be an efficient precursor to formation of CNCl and NCl3. The molar yields of CNCl and NCl3 were observed to be as high as 44% (pH = 6.0, chlorine/precursor molar ratio [Cl/P] = 6.4) and 108% (pH = 7.0, Cl/P = 30), respectively, both being strong functions of Cl/P, pH, and temperature. Analysis of swimming pool water samples, combined with the results of experiments involving chlorination of uric acid, and chlorination of body fluid analog mixtures, indicated that uric acid chlorination may account for a large fraction of CNCl formation in swimming pools. Moreover, given that uric acid introduction to pools is attributable to urination, a voluntary action for most swimmers, these findings indicate important benefits to pool water and air chemistry that could result from improved hygiene habits on the part of swimmers.

  20. Volatile disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination of uric acid: implications for swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Lian, Lushi; E, Yue; Li, Jing; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2014-03-18

    Cyanogen chloride (CNCl) and trichloramine (NCl3) are important disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools. However, some unknowns exist regarding the precursors of their formation. In this study, uric acid is shown to be an efficient precursor to formation of CNCl and NCl3. The molar yields of CNCl and NCl3 were observed to be as high as 44% (pH = 6.0, chlorine/precursor molar ratio [Cl/P] = 6.4) and 108% (pH = 7.0, Cl/P = 30), respectively, both being strong functions of Cl/P, pH, and temperature. Analysis of swimming pool water samples, combined with the results of experiments involving chlorination of uric acid, and chlorination of body fluid analog mixtures, indicated that uric acid chlorination may account for a large fraction of CNCl formation in swimming pools. Moreover, given that uric acid introduction to pools is attributable to urination, a voluntary action for most swimmers, these findings indicate important benefits to pool water and air chemistry that could result from improved hygiene habits on the part of swimmers. PMID:24568660

  1. The association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome among adolescents in northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Nan; Li, Ping; Jiang, Ran-Hua; Li, Ling; Li, Xue; Li, Liang; Liu, Cong; Tian, Cong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Data about the association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in healthy adolescents are sparse. This study examined this association and determined the optimal cutoffs for serum uric acid to predict metabolic syndrome among healthy adolescents. Methods: During 2010-2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 927 adolescents (53.0% boys) aged 11-16 years from junior and senior high schools in northeast China. All participants received a physical examination and gave venous blood samples. Results: Serum uric acid was positively associated with abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension in boys and with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia in girls. For those with hyperurecemia, the odds ratios (95% CI) for metabolic syndrome were 7.67 (95% CI, 2.58~22.78) for boys and 4.77 (95% CI, 1.01~22.60) for girls. SUA was a better predictor of metabolic syndrome than fasting glucose, though not as good as waist circumference. Conclusions: Among adolescents in China, serum uric acid level may be a useful predictor of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26885044

  2. Construction of an uricase nanoparticles modified au electrode for amperometric determination of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Kumar, Arun; Pundir, C S

    2014-10-01

    A method is described for preparation of uricase nanoparticles (100 nm in size) and their direct immobilization onto the Au electrode. The enzyme electrode along with Ag/AgCl as reference and Pt as auxiliary electrode were connected through potentiostat/galvanostat to construct an amperometric uric acid biosensor. The enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The enzyme electrode detected uric acid level as low as 5.0 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, within 7 s at pH 8.5 and 40 °C. The biosensor showed a linear working range, 0.005 to 0.8 mM for uric acid with a sensitivity of 0.03 mA μM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor was evaluated. The biosensor lost only 15 % of its initial activity over a period of 7 months, when stored at 4 °C. The fabricated biosensor was successfully employed for determination of uric acid in human serum and urine. PMID:25141984

  3. The association between blood pressure level and serum uric acid concentration in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Sagheb, Mohammad-Mahdi; Vafaie, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is a common condition in hemodialysis patients. Uric acid, which is high in these patients due to decreased clearance, had been shown to positively correlate with blood pressure in animal studies. Objectives: The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of high uric acid level on blood pressure in these patients. Patients and Methods: Ninety-one patients, on three times weekly hemodialysis, were studied. Uric acid levels were measured just before and after hemodialysis along with blood pressures before, during and after each session. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 40 (44%) of patients had serum uric acid ?6 mg/dl. Before dialysis 51 (61%) and 19 (21%) had high systolic blood and diastolic blood pressures respectively. Also, 50 (55%) were with wide pulse pressure and 63 (69%) had high mean arterial pressure (MAP). Additionally 62 (68%) developed inter-dialysis hypotension. After measuring odds ratio for hyperuricemia in each group, we observed low risk of hypruricemia in the group with high systolic pressure (OR = 0.352; 95% CI: 0.147-0.844; P = 0.01), the high MAP group (OR = 0.382; 95% CI: 0.153-0.955; P = 0.03) and wide pulse pressure group (OR = 0.416; 95% CI: 0.177-0.975; P = 0.04). There was no association between high uric acid level and diastolic pressure (P = 0.11) and inter-dialysis hypotension (P = 0.33). No relationship was found between serum uric acid and KT/V (P = 0.2), normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) (P = 0.07) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.4). Conclusions: This study showed paradoxical association between high uric acid level and high systolic pressure, high MAP and wide pulse pressure and these effects were independent of dialysis duration, dialysis efficacy and nutrition, assuming that these relationships could be due to reverse epidemiology in dialysis patients. PMID:26312236

  4. Impact on creatinine renal clearance by the interplay of multiple renal transporters: a case study with INCB039110.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Warren, Mark S; Zhang, Xuexiang; Diamond, Sharon; Williams, Bill; Punwani, Naresh; Huang, Jane; Huang, Yong; Yeleswaram, Swamy

    2015-04-01

    Serum creatinine is commonly used as a marker of renal function, but increases in serum creatinine might not represent changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). INCB039110 (2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-day]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile) is an inhibitor of the Janus kinases (JAKs) with selectivity for JAK1. In a phase 1 study, a modest and reversible increase in serum creatinine was observed after treatment with INCB039110. However, a dedicated renal function study with INCB039110, assessed by iohexol plasma clearance, conducted in healthy volunteers indicated no change in GFR. In vitro studies were therefore conducted to investigate the interaction of INCB039110 with five transporters that are likely involved in the renal clearance of creatinine. Cell systems expressing individual or multiple transporters were used, including a novel quintuple-transporter model OAT2/OCT2/OCT3/MATE1/MATE2-K. INCB039110 potently inhibited OCT2-mediated uptake of creatinine as well as MATE1-/MATE2-K-mediated efflux of creatinine. Given the interactions of INCB039110 with multiple transporters affecting creatinine uptake and efflux, an integrated system expressing all five transporters was sought; in that system, INCB039110 caused a dose-dependent decrease in transcellular transport of creatinine with weaker net inhibition compared with the effects on individual transporters. In summary, a molecular mechanism for the increase in serum creatinine by INCB039110 has been established. These studies also underline the limitations of using serum creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:25605813

  5. Conversion of Uric Acid into Ammonium in Oil-Degrading Marine Microbial Communities: a Possible Role of Halomonads.

    PubMed

    Gertler, Christoph; Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Hai, Tran; Amer, Ranya A; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Malkawi, Hanan; Magagnini, Mirko; Cherif, Ameur; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Uric acid is a promising hydrophobic nitrogen source for biostimulation of microbial activities in oil-impacted marine environments. This study investigated metabolic processes and microbial community changes in a series of microcosms using sediment from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea amended with ammonium and uric acid. Respiration, emulsification, ammonium and protein concentration measurements suggested a rapid production of ammonium from uric acid accompanied by the development of microbial communities containing hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria after 3 weeks of incubation. About 80 % of uric acid was converted to ammonium within the first few days of the experiment. Microbial population dynamics were investigated by Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and Illumina sequencing as well as by culture-based techniques. Resulting data indicated that strains related to Halomonas spp. converted uric acid into ammonium, which stimulated growth of microbial consortia dominated by Alcanivorax spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Several strains of Halomonas spp. were isolated on uric acid as the sole carbon source showed location specificity. These results point towards a possible role of halomonads in the conversion of uric acid to ammonium utilized by hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. PMID:25916483

  6. Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costa, A; Igual, I; Bedini, J; Quint, L; Conget, I

    2002-03-01

    High uric acid concentration is a common finding in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including some characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. However, its exact role in this setting and in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is not well understood and could be affected by confounding factors such as hypertriglyceridemia. Our study aimed to establish the relationship between uric acid (avoiding the interference of high triglyceride levels), insulin sensitivity, and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of subjects at high risk of developing DM. Among 201 subjects included in the study, 111 (55.2%) showed an abnormal oral glucose tolerance and uric acid levels higher than those measured in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and 2-hour glycemia in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) contributed independently to uric acid concentration (R2 =.59). However, uric acid did not affect either insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance. The recovery tests revealed that a triglyceride concentration > or = 3 mmol/L interfered with the measurement of uric acid level when a colorimetric method was used, but not when a dry-chemistry method was used. In conclusion, uric acid concentration is higher in subjects at high risk of DM with abnormal glucose tolerance and is independently determined by various components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:11887176

  7. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Hilgefort, Jordan; Banks, George; Gilliam, Chelsea; Stevens, Sarah; Ansinelli, Hayden A.; Getty, Morghan; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels. PMID:26681956

  8. Uric acid induces fat accumulation via generation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and SREBP-1c activation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yea-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Hack Sun; Park, Joo-Won; Jo, Inho; Oh, Eok-Soo; Lee, Kang-Yo; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Johnson, Richard J; Kang, Duk-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently one of the most common types of chronic liver injury. Elevated serum uric acid is a strong predictor of the development of fatty liver as well as metabolic syndrome. Here we demonstrate that uric acid induces triglyceride accumulation by SREBP-1c activation via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes. Uric acid-induced ER stress resulted in an increase of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/94), splicing of the X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), the phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? (eIF-2?) in cultured hepatocytes. Uric acid promoted hepatic lipogenesis through overexpression of the lipogenic enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) via activation of SREBP-1c, which was blocked by probenecid, an organic anion transport blocker in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes. A blocker of ER stress, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and an inhibitor of SREBP-1c, metformin, blocked hepatic fat accumulation, suggesting that uric acid promoted fat synthesis in hepatocytes via ER stress-induced activation of SREBP-1c. Uric acid-induced activation of NADPH oxidase preceded ER stress, which further induced mitochondrial ROS production in hepatocytes. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms by which uric acid stimulates fat accumulation in the liver. PMID:25111690

  9. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Komal; Hilgefort, Jordan; Banks, George; Gilliam, Chelsea; Stevens, Sarah; Ansinelli, Hayden A; Getty, Morghan; Abraham, Nader G; Shapiro, Joseph I; Khitan, Zeid

    2016-01-01

    Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBP?, PPAR?, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels. PMID:26681956

  10. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine): Based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Hasanah, Aliya Nur; Gozali, Dolih; Wahyuni, Yeni; Fauziah, Lia Layusa

    2014-01-01

    The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI) and poly (allylamine) (PAA) respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm). The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H2O2-selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of correlation (r) analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 1.13% and 3.27 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor. PMID:24696812

  11. Normalisation of urinary biomarkers to creatinine for clinical practice and research when and why

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai Wen Aaron; Toh, Qi Chun; Teo, Boon Wee

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major health problems. Urinary biomarkers have both diagnostic and prognostic utility in AKI and CKD. However, how biomarker excretion rates should be reported, especially whether they should be normalised to urinary creatinine concentration (uCr), is controversial. Some studies suggest that normalisation to uCr may be inappropriate at times, as urinary creatinine excretion rate may vary greatly, depending on the situation. Notably, recent studies suggest that while normalisation of values to UCr may be valid for the evaluation of CKD and prediction of AKI sequelae and occurrences, it could be inappropriate for the diagnosis of AKI, or in the presence of certain acute kidney disease states. PMID:25640093

  12. [EXPERIENCE OF USE OF BLEMAREN® IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS IN URIC ACID AND CALCIUM OXALATE UROLITHIASIS].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, O V; Yanenko, E K

    2015-01-01

    154 patients with urolithiasis were under outpatient observation for 2-8 years. Among them there were 76 women and 78 men aged 21-66 years, of which 46 patients with uric acid urolithiasis, and 88--with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Treatment of patients was carried out systematically, depending on their condition. Indications for the application of Blemaren® included the presence of uric acid stones, uric acid and/or oxalate crystalluria. The duration of treatment was 6.1 months. The dosage of the drug varied from 6 to 18 g per day and was selected individually, depending on the purpose of the appointment of Blemaren®. Reduction of the urine pH to 6.2- 6.8-7.2 was the criterion for properly selected dose. To dissolve uric acid stones in the presence of hyperuricemia and/or hyperuricuria, Blemaren® was administered in combination with allopurinol at a dose of 0.1 g 3-4 times a day. Besides pharmacotherapy, treatment included diet therapy. It was found that the morning urine pH in urate urolithiasis is sustainable and has a range of 5.0-6.0, in 80.4% of cases--range of 5.0-5.5. In calcium oxalate urolithiasis this parameter is also stable and has a range of 5.0-6.7, in 82.9% of cases--range of 5.5-6.0. Optimal urine pH to eliminate uric acid and oxalate crystalluria in patients with uric acid and calcium oxalate urolithiasis is the interval of 6.2-6.4. It was shown that Blemaren® is a highly effective agent for treatment and prevention of uric acid and calcium oxalate crystalluria in calcium oxalate and uric acid urolithiasis. Further, its effectiveness in dissolving of uric acid stones in the absence of an infectious inflammatory process is 82.3%. PMID:26859932

  13. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–control data. Methods Using a directed acyclic graph framework, we defined six causal scenarios for epidemiologic studies of environmental chemicals measured in urine or serum. The scenarios include variables known to influence creatinine (e.g., age and hydration) or serum lipid levels (e.g., body mass index and recent fat intake). Over a range of true effect sizes, we analyzed each scenario using seven adjustment approaches and estimated the corresponding bias and confidence interval coverage across 1,000 simulated studies. Results For urinary biomarker measurements, our novel method, which incorporates both covariate-adjusted standardization and the inclusion of creatinine as a covariate in the regression model, had low bias and possessed 95% confidence interval coverage of nearly 95% for most simulated scenarios. For serum biomarker measurements, a similar approach involving standardization plus serum lipid level adjustment generally performed well. Conclusions To control measurement error bias caused by variations in serum lipids or by urinary diluteness, we recommend improved methods for standardizing exposure concentrations across individuals. Citation O’Brien KM, Upson K, Cook NR, Weinberg CR. 2016. Environmental chemicals in urine and blood: improving methods for creatinine and lipid adjustment. Environ Health Perspect 124:220–227; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509693 PMID:26219104

  14. Detection of urinary estrogen conjugates and creatinine using near infrared spectroscopy in Bornean orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Kuze, Noko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Narita, Hiromitsu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-01

    For promoting in situ conservation, it is important to estimate the density distribution of fertile individuals, and there is a need for developing an easy monitoring method to discriminate between physiological states. To date, physiological state has generally been determined by measuring hormone concentration using radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods. However, these methods have rarely been applied in situ because of the requirements for a large amount of reagent, instruments, and a radioactive isotope. In addition, the proper storage of the sample (including urine and feces) on site until analysis is difficult. On the other hand, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy requires no reagent and enables rapid measurement. In the present study, we attempted urinary NIR spectroscopy to determine the estrogen levels of orangutans in Japanese zoos and in the Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Reflectance NIR spectra were obtained from urine stored using a filter paper. Filter paper is easy to use to store dried urine, even in the wild. Urinary estrogen and creatinine concentrations measured by EIA were used as the reference data of partial least square (PLS) regression of urinary NIR spectra. High accuracies (R (2) > 0.68) were obtained in both estrogen and creatinine regression models. In addition, the PLS regressions in both standards showed higher accuracies (R (2) > 0.70). Therefore, the present study demonstrates that urinary NIR spectra have the potential to estimate the estrogen and creatinine concentrations. PMID:26561334

  15. [Amylase/creatinine clearance in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gonzlez Espinoza, G; Garca Garduo, J R; Esquivel Lpez, A; Gutirrez Samperio, C

    1978-01-01

    In the Department of Gastroenterology of "El Centro Mdico La Raza, I.M.S.S.", three groups of 20 patients were studied: group I with acute pancreatitis; group II with acute abdomen without pancreatic pathology, in both groups the diagnosis was demonstrated surgically or in necropsy; group III was formed by 20 normal voluntary persons, and served as control. A 4 per cent amilase/creatinine clearence index was considered as a high normal value. The diagnosis accuracy in group I was 90 per cent. In group II there was five false positive results, in 80 per cent of the cases the results of the amilase/creatinine clearence index was found within normal limits. The difference between group I and group III was significant (P less than 0.002). The difference between group I and group II was also significant (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference between group II and group III. The amilase/creatinine clearence index has the advantage that it can be obtained with only one blood and urine samples taken simultaneously. We concluded that amilase/creatine clearence index is useful for the differential diagnosis in acute pancreatitis and that is probably due to an alteration in the tubular renal reabsorption. PMID:704529

  16. Fluorescence-based assay for reactive oxygen species: A protective role for creatinine

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, A.N. )

    1988-06-01

    Attack by reactive oxygen species leads to a decay in phycoerythrin fluorescence emission. This phenomenon provides a versatile new assay for small molecules and macromolecules that can function as protective compounds. With 1-2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} M phycoerythrin, under conditions where peroxyl radical generation is rate-limiting, the fluorescence decay follows apparent zero-order kinetics. On reaction with HO{center dot}, generated with the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system, the fluorescence decays with apparent first-order kinetics. Examination of the major components of human urine in this assay confirms that at physiological concentrations, urate protects against both types of oxygen radicals. A novel finding is that creatinine protects efficiently by a chelation mechanism against radical damage in the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system at creatinine, ascorbate, and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations comparable to those in normal urine. Urate and creatinine provide complementary modes of protection against reactive oxygen species in the urinary tract.

  17. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A.; Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  18. Formation of mutagens during the frying of Hawaiian fish: correlation with creatine and creatinine content.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N L; Iwaoka, W T; Mower, H F

    1990-11-01

    Compounds mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat-liver homogenates (S9) were formed when fish flesh was fried at 199 degrees C. Three species of Hawaiian fish commonly consumed in Hawaii (skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis; yellowfin tuna, Neothunnus macropterus; and milkfish, Chanos chanos) were cooked in an electric skillet, along with samples of sole (Microstomus pacificus). Organic extracts of the fish were tested in the Ames Salmonella mutagenic assay using tester strain TA98 and S9. Basic organic extracts of fried, but not raw, samples exhibited significant mutagenicity. The levels of mutagenicity were also higher among the red flesh Hawaiian fish ('ahi, aku and awa) than with the white flesh sole. Creatine and creatinine contents were highest in the Hawaiian fish and lower in the sole. Creatine levels in the fish were 50-100 times greater than the creatinine content and varied from a high of 645 mg/100 g wet weight of fish for yellowfin tuna to a low value of 251 mg/100 g for sole. Mutagen levels are only approximately related to creatine/creatinine levels suggesting that other components contained in these fish may be as important as the guanidines in determining the levels of mutagen in the cooked fish. PMID:2270090

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Serum Creatinine Levels during Vancomycin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Driest, Sara L.; McGregor, Tracy L.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Saville, Ben R.; Kitchner, Terrie E.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Brilliant, Murray; Jouni, Hayan; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Creech, C. Buddy; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Vear, Susan I.; Brothers, Kyle B.; Bowton, Erica A.; Shaffer, Christian M.; Patel, Neelam; Delaney, Jessica T.; Bradford, Yuki; Wilson, Sarah; Olson, Lana M.; Crawford, Dana C.; Potts, Amy L.; Ho, Richard H.; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Josh C.

    2015-01-01

    Vancomycin, a commonly used antibiotic, can be nephrotoxic. Known risk factors such as age, creatinine clearance, vancomycin dose / dosing interval, and concurrent nephrotoxic medications fail to accurately predict nephrotoxicity. To identify potential genomic risk factors, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum creatinine levels while on vancomycin in 489 European American individuals and validated findings in three independent cohorts totaling 439 European American individuals. In primary analyses, the chromosome 6q22.31 locus was associated with increased serum creatinine levels while on vancomycin therapy (most significant variant rs2789047, risk allele A, ? = -0.06, p = 1.1 x 10-7). SNPs in this region had consistent directions of effect in the validation cohorts, with a meta-p of 1.1 x 10-7. Variation in this region on chromosome 6, which includes the genes TBC1D32/C6orf170 and GJA1 (encoding connexin43), may modulate risk of vancomycin-induced kidney injury. PMID:26030142

  20. Fasting Urinary Calcium-to-Creatinine and Oxalate-to-Creatinine Ratios in Dogs with Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Breed-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Furrow, E.; Patterson, E.E.; Armstrong, P.J.; Osborne, C.A.; Lulich, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. Objective To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Animals Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Methods Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. Results UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. PMID:25581880

  1. Functional Nanomaterials from Bis-urea Macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawn, Sandipan

    Self-assembly of bis-urea macrocycles usually give tubular crystals with nano-sized channels that we use as molecular container. These molecular containers alter the reactivity, stability, and chemical behavior of the reactants entrapped within them. This dissertation is focused on bulk synthesis, material characterization and applications of a self-assembled tubular molecular container. This crystalline straw-like container is developed from cyclic bis-urea macrocycles containing two C-shaped phenylethynylene units and two urea groups. These macrocycles afford a large open channel with a diameter of 9 A and it can accommodate larger solid guests such as coumarin and its methylated derivatives, stilbenes, acenaphthylene and styrenes. We developed the method to introduce these solid guests into the channel from its solution. We characterized the tubular host as well as different host*guest complexes by solid-state techniques including PXRD, CP MAS 13C NMR, fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy. These guests usually undergo non selective photoreaction in solid-state with very low percent conversion and produce different photodimers and/or isomers. Within our molecular container, a number of guests showed photo-dimerization with amazing selectivity and enhanced conversion in the solid-state. We also performed molecular modeling studies to find out the reason behind this unprecedented selectivity. We found the orientation of the guest molecules inside the channel as well as the stability of the photoproducts within the confinement determines the outcome of the reactions. We also developed a 5,5'-bipyridine containing bis-urea macrocycle and formed its complexes with metals. These complexes have potential to further assemble through dative bonds, hydrogen bonding and aryl stacking interactions to afford metal organic framework (MOF). We found the Ag complex forms oligomers and polymers. In the polymer structure it forms infinite chains comprised of "box" like unit cell. In one unit cell, two silver atoms are 3.13 A apart suggesting a very interesting Ag-Ag bond interaction. We probed the Ag-Ag interaction by solid-state spectroscopic techniques as well as ESI-MS and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that there is indeed an interaction between the two silver atoms and their proximity is not merely a packing artifact.

  2. Urea formaldehyde foam: a dangerous insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, C.

    1980-12-01

    Insulating a home with urea formaldehyde foam can lead to severe health problems due to poisoning from formaldehyde gas. Respiratory problems, allergies, memory loss, and mental problems can result from exposure to foam insulation fumes. Research is now under way at the Chemical Industry Inst., Univ. of Washington, and other institutions to learn more about the health effects of formaldehyde foam and to develop possible remedies to these problems. Several states are either banning or controlling the use of this type of home insulation.

  3. Genetic counseling issues in urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Sniderman King, Lisa; Singh, Rani H; Rhead, William J; Smith, Wendy; Lee, Brendan; Summar, Marshall L

    2005-10-01

    The goal of counseling families that have a urea cycle disorder (UCD) is to facilitate the process of scientific understanding, emotional acceptance, and decision-making in a nondirective way. A proper understanding of the genes involved, inheritance patterns, available testing, and complicating factors is critical to serving the families' needs. This article summarizes the needed information, in particular describing the complexities of prenatal testing and counseling issues for each UCD. Included case histories illustrate the genetic counseling process and the decision-making scenarios for two families. PMID:16227114

  4. Urea kinetics of a carnivore, Felis silvestris catus.

    PubMed

    Russell, K; Lobley, G E; Rawlings, J; Millward, D J; Harper, E J

    2000-11-01

    The effect of two levels of dietary protein energy, moderate (20%; MP) and high (70%; HP), on urea kinetics in eleven domestic cats was studied. After a 3-week prefeed, a single dose of [(15)N(15)N]urea was administered, and urine and faeces collected over the subsequent 5 d. For each 24 h period, total urea and enrichment of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(15)N(14)N]urea in urine were determined, and a model applied to calculate urea production, entry into the gastrointestinal tract, recycling to urine or faeces and, by difference, retention by the body and potentially available for anabolism. Urea production and excretion increased with dietary protein level Most of the urea produced was excreted, with only a small proportion entering the gut, and with the pattern of urea disposal not significantly different between the HP and MP diets. Thus, the percentages of urea production available to the gut were 15% (MP) and 12% (HP), of which 57% (MP) and 59% (HP) was recycled in the ornithine cycle, 40% (MP and HP) was potentially available for anabolism and the rest lost as faecal N. As a percentage of urea produced the amount potentially available for anabolism was very low at 6.41% (MP diet) and 4.79% (HP diet). In absolute terms urea entering the gut, being recycled in the ornithine cycle and potentially available for anabolism was significantly higher on the HP diet These results show that cats operate urea turnover, but at a lower rate, and with less nutritional sensitivity than has been reported for other species. PMID:11177172

  5. The SLC14 gene family of urea transporters.

    PubMed

    Shayakul, Chairat; Hediger, Matthias A

    2004-02-01

    Carrier-mediated urea transport allows rapid urea movement across the cell membrane, which is particularly important in the process of urinary concentration and for rapid urea equilibrium in non-renal tissues. Urea transporters mediate passive urea uptake that is inhibited by phloretin and urea analogues. Facilitated urea transporters are divided into two classes: (1) the renal tubular/testicular type of urea transporter, UT-A1 to -A5, encoded by alternative splicing of the SLC14A2 gene, and (2) the erythrocyte urea transporter UT-B1 encoded by the SLC14A1 gene. The primary structure of urea transporters is unique, consisting of two extended, hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains and an extracellular glycosylated-connecting loop. UT-A1 is the result of a gene duplication of this two-halves-structure, and the duplicated portions are linked together by a large intracellular hydrophilic loop, carrying several putative protein kinase A (PKA) and -C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. UT-A1 is located in the apical membrane of the kidney inner medullary collecting duct cells, where it is stimulated acutely by cAMP-mediated phosphorylation in response to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin also up-regulates UT-A2 mRNA/protein expression in the descending thin limb of the loops of Henle. UT-A1 and UT-A2 are regulated independently and respond differently to changes in dietary protein content. UT-A3 and UT-A4 are located in the rat kidney medulla and UT-A5 in the mouse testis. The widely expressed UT-B participates in urea recycling in the descending vasa recta, as demonstrated by a relatively mild "urea-selective" urinary concentrating defect in transgenic UT-B null mice and individuals with the Jk(null) blood group. PMID:12856182

  6. Serum uric acid level, longitudinal blood pressure, renal function, and long-term mortality in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jesse; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Hetherington, Lucy; Judd, Caitlin; Hastie, Claire; Schulz, Christin; Sloan, William; Muir, Scott; Jardine, Alan; McInnes, Gordon; Morrison, David; Dominiczak, Anna F; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Walters, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Uric acid may have a role in the development of hypertension and renal dysfunction. We explored the relationship among longitudinal blood pressure, renal function, and cardiovascular outcomes in a large cohort of patients with treated hypertension. We used data from the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic database. Patients with a baseline measure of serum uric acid and longitudinal measures of blood pressure and renal function were included. Mortality data were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Generalized estimating equations were used to explore the relationship among quartiles of serum uric acid, blood pressure, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Cox proportional hazard models were developed to assess mortality relationships. In total, 6984 patients were included. Serum uric acid level did not influence the longitudinal changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure but was related to change in glomerular filtration rate. In comparison with patients in the first quartile of serum uric acid, the relative decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the fourth was 10.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.9-13.6 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) in men and 12.2 (95% confidence interval, 9.2-15.2 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) in women. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality differed across quartiles of serum uric acid in women only (P<0.001; hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.38 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.67] for the fourth quartile of serum uric acid compared with the first). Serum uric acid level was not associated with longitudinal blood pressure control in adults with treated hypertension but was related to decline in renal function and mortality in women. PMID:23690348

  7. Magnetic rotations of uric acid crystals and uratic crystals by static magnetic fields of up to 500 mT.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuka; Mizukawa, Yuri; Iwasaka, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the disease concerning ureteral calculus is increasing possibly due to the changing lifestyles. For example, it is well known that the urinary calculi have a large impact to gout. As eating habitual diseases, gout and the hyper-uricemia are related to the formation of urinary calculus. In the previous studies, therapeutic agents were developed to enhance the uric acid excretion. From the viewpoint of side effects induction by the chemical agents, we are motivated to explore an alternative method to control the formation of ureteral crystals stimulator by physical stimulations. Therefore in the present study, we focused on the behaviors of uric acid crystals under magnetic fields of several hundreds of mT (Tesla). The uric acid crystals were re-crystallized from a suspension of uric acid powder, and the micro-crystals were prepared to be floating in the solution. We generated horizontal magnetic fields of maximum 500 mT by an electromagnet which contained a CCD microscope. A permanent magnet with magnetic fields of 200∼400 mT was also utilized. During the magnetic fields were applied to the uric acid crystals, we observed that the uric acid crystals were oriented by the magnetic fields down to 200 mT at the room temperature. It was speculated that the dimagnetic anisotropy in the uric acid crystals exhibited the rotational responses. The results indicate the possible remote control of the uric acid crystals in living body by the magnetic fields of 200 mT to 500 mT. PMID:24110424

  8. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Elevated plasma uric acid concentration is a risk factor for gout, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in high levels in onions, tea and apples, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase in vitro, the final step in intracellular uric acid production, indicating that quercetin might be able to lower blood uric acid in humans. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of oral supplementation of quercetin on plasma uric acid, blood pressure and fasting glucose. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial recruited twenty-two healthy males (19-60 years) with baseline plasma uric acid concentration in the higher, but still considered healthy, range (339 (sd 51) µmol/l). The intervention included one tablet containing 500 mg quercetin daily for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. The primary outcome was change in concentrations of plasma uric acid after 2 and 4 weeks; secondary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, 24-h urinary excretion of uric acid and resting blood pressure. After quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95 % CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure. Daily supplementation of 500 mg quercetin, containing the bioavailable amount of quercetin as present in approximately 100 g red onions, for 4 weeks, significantly reduces elevated plasma uric acid concentrations in healthy males. PMID:26785820

  9. Serum uric acid and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Bardin, Thomas; Dawson, Jesse; Dominiczak, Anna; Kielstein, Jan T; Manolis, Athanasios J; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. This highlights the need for greater attention to serum uric acid levels when profiling patients, and suggests that the threshold above which uricemia is considered abnormal is 6  mg/dl, in light of the available evidence. Another important question is whether lowering serum uric acid can improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes, and what therapeutic mechanism of action could provide more clinical benefits to patients; the available literature shows a trend toward improvement associated with administration of urate-lowering drugs, in particular for the xanthine oxidase inhibitors. The demonstrated efficacy of urate-lowering therapy on outcomes other than gout flares leads to the consideration that treatment may be beneficial even in the absence of overt gout when hyperuricemia accompanies other clinical conditions, such as urate deposition, advanced CKD or cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26136207

  10. Development of a novel uric-acid-responsive regulatory system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaoning; Xiong, Dandan; Zhang, Yi; Mu, Shanshan; Tang, Shuang-Yan

    2015-03-01

    A novel uric-acid-responsive regulatory system was developed in Escherichia coli by adapting the HucR-related regulatory elements from Deinococcus radiodurans into E. coli. The induction performance of this system was compared to the performance of both the pBAD and pET systems. Our novel regulatory system was induced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of uric acid and exhibited low basal expression in its absence. The system was characterized by a wide dynamic range of induction, being compatible with various E. coli strains and not requiring genomic modifications of the bacterial host. E. coli DH5? and DH10B were the most suitable host strains for optimal performance of this system. In conclusion, we developed a regulatory system with potential for applications in both recombinant protein expression and metabolic optimization. PMID:25524699

  11. Detection of creatinine in exhaled breath of humans with chronic kidney disease by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qian; Li, Penghui; Cai, Yunfeng; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Haidong; Luo, Jiao; Ding, Jianhua; Chen, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath contains chemicals that have a diagnostic value in human pathologies. Here in vivo breath analysis of creatinine has been demonstrated by constructing a novel platform based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) without sample pretreatment. Under optimized experimental conditions, the limit of creatinine detection in breath was 30.57?ng L(-1), and the linear range of detection was from 0.3 ?g L(-1) to 100 ?g L(-1). The concentration range of creatinine in the exhaled breath of 50 volunteers with chronic kidney disease was from 42 pptv to 924 pptv, and the range of the relative standard deviations was from 9.3% to 19.2%. The method provides high sensitivity, high specificity and high speed for semi-quantitative analysis of creatinine in exhaled human breath. PMID:26857588

  12. Adenosine plasma level correlates with homocysteine and uric acid concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fromonot, J; Deharo, P; Bruzzese, L; Cuisset, T; Quilici, J; Bonatti, S; Fenouillet, E; Mottola, G; Ruf, J; Guieu, R

    2016-03-01

    The role of hyperhomocysteinemia in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients remains unclear. The present study evaluated the relationship between homocysteine (HCys), adenosine plasma concentration (APC), plasma uric acid, and CAD severity evaluated using the SYNTAX score. We also evaluated in vitro the influence of adenosine on HCys production by hepatoma cultured cells (HuH7). Seventy-eight patients (mean age SD: 66.3 11.3; mean SYNTAX score: 19.9 12.3) and 30 healthy subjects (mean age: 61 13) were included. We incubated HuH7 cells with increasing concentrations of adenosine and addressed the effect on HCys level in cell culture supernatant. Patients vs. controls had higher APC (0.82 0.5 ?mol/L vs 0.53 0.14 ?mol/L; p < 0.01), HCys (15 7.6 ?mol/L vs 6.8 3 ?mol/L, p < 0.0001), and uric acid (242.6 97 vs 202 59, p < 0.05) levels. APC was correlated with HCys and uric acid concentrations in patients (Pearson's R = 0.65 and 0.52; p < 0.0001, respectively). The SYNTAX score was correlated with HCys concentration. Adenosine induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in HCys in cell culture. Our data suggest that high APC is associated with HCys and uric acid concentrations in CAD patients. Whether the increased APC participates in atherosclerosis or, conversely, is part of a protective regulation process needs further investigations. PMID:26762617

  13. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid levels.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Moiss S S R; Saavedra, Francisco J F; Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Giovanni S; Souza, Antonio C R; Salerno, Vernica P; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2014-09-29

    Resistance training (RT) can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA) concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.79.0 years) that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34) that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34) that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001). Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001), leg extension (p<0.001), shoulder press (p<0.001), leg curl (p=0.001), seated row (p<0.001), leg press (p=0.001) and high pulley (p<0.001). The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024). We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:25713640

  14. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Serum Cystatin C versus Creatinine in a Uruguayan Population

    PubMed Central

    Lujambio, Ins; Sottolano, Mariana; Robaina, Sebastin; Carusso, Florencia; da Rosa, Alicia; Ros, Ana Carina; Olascoaga, Alicia; Gadola, Liliana; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A.; Boggia, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from biomarkers has evolved and multiple equations are available to estimate renal function at bedside. Methods. In a random sample of 119 Uruguayans (54.5% women; 56.2 years (mean)), we used Bland and Altman's method and Cohen's kappa statistic to assess concordance on a continuous or categorical (eGFR < 60 versus ?60?mL/min/1.73?m2) scale between eGFRcys (reference) and eGFR derived from serum creatinine according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFRmdrd) or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (eGFRepi) or from both serum cystatin C and creatinine (eGFRmix). Results. In all participants, eGFRmdrd, eGFRepi, and eGFRmix were, respectively, 9.7, 11.5, and 5.6?mL/min/1.73?m2 higher (P < 0.0001) than eGFRcys. The prevalence of eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73?m2 was the highest for eGFRcys (21.8%), intermediate for eGFRmix (11.8%), and the lowest for eGFRmdrd (5.9%) and eGFRepi (3.4%). Using eGFRcys as reference, we found only fair agreement with the equations based on creatinine (Cohen's kappa statistic 0.15 to 0.23). Conclusion. Using different equations we reached clinically significant differences in the estimation of renal function. eGFRcys provides lower estimates, resulting in higher prevalence of eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73?m2. PMID:25215234

  15. Establishment of a method to detect microalbuminuria by measuring the total urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyoko; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Izumo, Hiroko; Sanoyama, Kyo; Monden, Masami; Takeda, Kyoko; Nakahara, Fumiko; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) which are risk facters of cardiovascular disease, are increasing global public health problems. Microalbuminuria is an early sign of progressive cardiovascular and renal disease in individuals with or without diabetes. Screening for microalbuminuria and early treatment are recommended for patients with increased cardiovascular and renal risk factors. However, the procedure used to measure urinary albumin is expensive. Alternatively, the measurement of total urinary protein is simple and inexpensive. Thus, we aimed to establish a method that could predict the presence of microalbuminuria by measuring the total protein-to-creatinine ratio. Spot urine samples were obtained from 150 patients with diabetes mellitus, and the total protein-to-creatinine ratio and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. There was a significant positive correlation between the protein-to-creatinine ratio and the ACR (r = 0.95). The presence of albuminuria (both micro- and macroalbuminuria) could be predicted from the value of the protein-to-creatinine ratio in more than 90% of patients. A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the protein-to-creatinine ratio had a sensitivity and a specificity of 90.8% and 91.9%, respectively, for the detection of albuminuria and a cutoff value of 0.091 g/g creatinine. These results suggest that screening for microalbuminuria can be replaced by the detection of the protein-to-creatinine ratio, which may be cost-effective for patients with cardiovascular risks as well as for the general population. PMID:22008591

  16. Cystatin C and Creatinine-based eGFR equation performance depends on patient characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W.; Rule, Andrew D.; Voskoboev, Nikolay; Baumann, Nikola A.; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline recommends use of a cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to confirm creatinine-based eGFR between 4559 mL/min/1.73m2. Prior studies have demonstrated that comorbidities such as solid-organ transplant strongly influence the relationship between measured GFR, creatinine and cystatin C. Our objective was to evaluate the performance of cystatin C based eGFR equations compared to creatinine-based eGFR and measured GFR across different clinical presentations. Methods The performance of the CKD-EPI 2009 creatinine-based estimated GFR equation (eGFRCr) and the newer CKD-EPI 2012 cystatin C-based equations (eGFRCys and eGFRCr-Cys) were compared with measured GFR (iothalamate renal clearance) across defined patient populations. Patients (n = 1,652) were categorized as transplant recipients (n=568 kidney; n=319 other organ [non-kidney]), known chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (n=618), or potential kidney donors (n=147). Results eGFRCr-Cys showed the most consistent performance across different clinical populations. Among potential kidney donors without CKD (stage 2 or higher; eGFR >60mL/min/1.73m2), eGFRCys and eGFRCr-Cys demonstrated significantly less bias than eGFRCr, however, all three equations substantially underestimated GFR when eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Among transplant recipients with CKD stage 3B or lower (eGFR <45mL/min/1.73m2), eGFRCys was significantly more biased than eGFRCr. No clear differences among eGFR bias between equations were observed among known CKD patients regardless of eGFR range, or in any patient group with a GFR between 4559 mL/min/1.73m2. Conclusions The performance of eGFR equations depends on patient characteristics readily apparent upon presentation. Among the three CKD-EPI equations, eGFRCr-Cys performed most consistently across the studied patient populations. PMID:26240296

  17. Comparing methods for monitoring serum creatinine to predict late renal allograft failure.

    PubMed

    Kasiske, B L; Andany, M A; Hernández, D; Silkensen, J; Rabb, H; McClean, J; Roel, J P; Danielson, B

    2001-11-01

    Few studies have systematically investigated what changes in chronic renal allograft function best predict subsequent graft failure, when these changes occur, and whether they occur soon enough to allow possible intervention. We collected serum creatinine values (mean, 183 +/- 75 values/patient) measured over a maximum follow-up of 22 years in 101 consecutive renal transplant recipients (excluding creatinine levels from periods of acute rejection). We determined the dates of first decline in inverse creatinine (Delta1/Cr; < -20%, -30%, -40%, -50%, and -70%), declines in estimated creatinine clearance (CCr; <55, 45, 35, 25, and 15 mL/min), and declines in measured slope of 1/Cr over time. We used time-dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards analyses to determine the relative effect of each renal function parameter on outcomes while adjusting for other risk factors. The best predictor of subsequent graft failure was Delta1/Cr. Delta1/Cr less than -40% first occurred at a median of 1.28 years after transplantation in 73 patients, and 67 patients went on to have graft failure a median of 3.28 years after Delta1/Cr less than -40%. The independent relative risk for graft failure attributable to Delta1/Cr less than -40% was 5.91 (95% confidence interval, 3.25 to 10.8; P < 0.0001). A decline in CCr, eg, less than 45 mL/min, also was a strong predictor of subsequent graft failure. Conversely, declines in allograft function estimated from slopes of 1/Cr were poor predictors of graft failure. In analysis limited to patients followed up for 2.5 years or less, Delta1/Cr continued to predict graft failure, suggesting that Delta1/Cr will be a useful predictor in populations with shorter follow-up. If confirmed in other populations, eg, patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors, this simple marker of chronic allograft dysfunction may prove to be a practical tool for defining patients at high risk for late graft failure. PMID:11684561

  18. Ammonia and urea excretion in the tidepool sculpin (Oligocottus maculosus): sites of excretion, effects of reduced salinity and mechanisms of urea transport.

    PubMed

    Wright, P A; Part, P; Wood, C M

    1995-04-01

    Tidepool sculpins live in a variable environment where water temperature, salinity, gas tensions, and pH can change considerably with the daily tide cycle. Tidepool sculpins are primarily ammoniotelic, with 8-17% of nitrogen wastes excreted as urea. The majority of net ammonia (J(net) amm; 85%) and urea (J(net) urea; 74%) excretion occurred across the gill, with the remainder excreted across the skin, the kidney, and/or gut. Acute (2h) exposure to 50% seawater significantly increased J(net) urea (2.8-fold), but reduced J(net) amm (3.5-fold). In fish exposed to 50% seawater for 1 week, J(net) urea returned to control values, but J(net) amm remained slightly depressed. Unidirectional urea influx (J(in) urea) and efflux (J(out) urea) were measured using(14)C-urea to determine if urea was excreted across the gills by simple diffusion or by a carrier-mediated mechanism. J(in) urea increased in a linear manner with increasing urea water levels (0-11 mmol N l(-1)), while J(out) urea was independent of external urea concentrations. As well, J(net) urea and J(out inurea) were not significantly different from one another, indicating the absence of "back transport". Urea analogs and transport inhibitors added to the water did not have any consistent effect on unidirectional urea flux. These results demonstrate that ammonia and urea excretion rates and sites of excretion in tidepool sculpins are very similar to those found in other marine and freshwater teleosts. Urea and ammonia may play a role in osmoregulation as excretion rates and tissue levels were influenced by changes in water salinity. Finally, we found no evidence for a specific urea carrier; branchial urea excretion is likely dependent on simple diffusion. PMID:24197359

  19. Plasma uric acid response to rasburicase: early marker for acute kidney injury in tumor lysis syndrome?

    PubMed

    Canet, Emmanuel; Cheminant, Morgane; Zafrani, Lara; Thieblemont, Catherine; Galicier, Lionel; Lengline, Etienne; Schnell, David; Reuter, Danielle; Darmon, Michael; Schlemmer, Benoit; Azoulay, Elie

    2014-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). The goal of this study was to assess a practical approach involving a simple risk-prediction model for AKI in patients at high risk for clinical TLS treated according to standardized guidelines. We collected data on 62 patients at high risk for clinical TLS. We evaluated whether the magnitude of the plasma uric acid decrease in response to rasburicase predicted AKI. According to RIFLE criteria (Risk, Injury, Failure, sustained Loss, End-stage kidney disease), 41 (66.1%) patients had AKI. AKI was associated with higher hospital (26.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.01) and 6-month (41.4% vs. 9.5%, p = 0.04) mortality. The plasma uric acid decrease after rasburicase was significantly larger in patients who did not develop AKI than in those who did (95% vs. 84%; p < 0.01). By multivariate analysis, independent determinants of AKI were hypertension and a plasma uric acid decrease smaller than 92.9% 6 h after rasburicase. PMID:24325633

  20. Do Uric Acid Deposits in Zooxanthellae Function as Eye-Spots?

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The symbiosis between zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium) and corals is a fundamental basis of tropical marine ecosystems. However the physiological interactions of the hosts and symbionts are poorly understood. Recently, intracellular crystalline deposits in Symbiodinium were revealed to be uric acid functioning for nutrient storage. This is the first exploration of these enigmatic crystalline materials that had previously been misidentified as oxalic acid, providing new insights into the nutritional strategies of Symbiodinium in oligotrophic tropical waters. However, we believe these deposits also function as eye-spots on the basis of light and electron microscopic observations of motile cells of cultured Symbiodinium. The cells possessed crystalline deposit clusters in rows with each row 100150 nm thick corresponding to 1/4 the wavelength of light and making them suitable for maximum wave interference and reflection of light. Crystalline clusters in cells observed with a light microscope strongly refracted and polarized light, and reflected or absorbed short wavelength light. The facts that purines, including uric acid, have been identified as the main constituents of light reflectors in many organisms, and that the photoreceptor protein, opsin, was detected in our Symbiodinium strain, support the idea that uric acid deposits in Symbiodinium motile cells may function as a component of an eye-spot. PMID:19609449

  1. Prevention of comorbidity and acute attack of gout by uric acid lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kowoon; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Lim, Mie-Jin; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Joo, Hoyeon; Park, Won

    2014-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of uric acid lowering therapy in reducing the new development of comorbidities and the frequency of acute attacks in gout patients. We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed to have gout with at least 3 yr of follow up. They were divided into 2 groups; 53 patients with mean serum uric acid level (sUA)<6 mg/dL and 147 patients with mean sUA≥6 mg/dL. Comorbidities of gout such as hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and urolithiasis were compared in each group at baseline and at last follow-up visit. Frequency of acute gout attacks were also compared between the groups. During the mean follow up period of 7.6 yr, the yearly rate of acute attack and the new development of HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis was lower in the adequately treated group compared to the inadequately treated group. Tight control of uric acid decreases the incidence of acute gout attacks and comorbidities of gout such as HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis. PMID:24851021

  2. D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases blood uric acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Bibby, B M; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    D-Fructose has been found to increase uric acid production by accelerating the degradation of purine nucleotides, probably due to hepatocellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by an accumulation of ketohexose-1-phosphate. The hyperuricemic effect of D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, may be greater than that of D-fructose, as the subsequent degradation of D-tagatose-1-phosphate is slower than the degradation of D-fructose-1-phosphate. We tested the effect of 30 g oral D-tagatose versus D-fructose on plasma uric acid and other metabolic parameters in 8 male subjects by a double-blind crossover design. Both the peak concentration and 4-hour area under the curve (AUC) of serum uric acid were significantly higher after D-tagatose compared with either 30 g D-fructose or plain water. The decline in serum Pi concentration was greater at 50 minutes after D-tagatose versus D-fructose. The thermogenic and lactacidemic responses to D-tagatose were blunted compared with D-fructose. D-Tagatose attenuated the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a meal that was consumed 255 minutes after its administration. Moreover, both fructose and D-tagatose increased plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The metabolic effects of D-tagatose occurred despite its putative poor absorption. PMID:10954012

  3. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-12-01

    3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM-1 cm-2, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  4. Uric Acid Induces Trophoblast Il-1? Production Via The Inflammasome: Implications For The Pathogenesis Of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, Melissa J.; Myrtolli, Kledia; Potter, Julie; Boeras, Crina; Kavathas, Paula B.; Sfakianaki, Anna K.; Tadesse, Serkelem; Norwitz, Errol R.; Guller, Seth; Abrahams, Vikki M.

    2010-01-01

    Problem Preeclampsia is associated with hyperuricemia, which correlates with the disease severity. Levels of circulating uric acid increase before the clinical manifestations, suggesting they may be causally related. Uric acid, or monosodium urate (MSU), activates the Nod-like receptor, Nalp3, leading to inflammasome activation and IL-1? processing. Since preeclampsia is associated with placental immune/inflammatory dysregulation, we sought to determine in the trophoblast, the presence of the Nalp3 inflammasome, and the effect of MSU on its activation. Method of Study Isolated first and third trimester trophoblast were assessed for expression of the inflammasome components, Nalp1, Nalp3 and ASC. First trimester trophoblast cells were incubated with or without MSU, after which, IL-1? secretion and processing and caspase-1 activation was determined. Results Trophoblast cells expressed Nalp1, Nalp3 and ASC under basal conditions. Following incubation with MSU, first trimester trophoblast IL-1? secretion was upregulated. This correlated with increased expression levels of active IL-1? and active caspase-1. ASC knockdown reduced MSU-induced IL-1? secretion. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that uric acid activates the inflammasome in the trophoblast, leading to IL-1? production. This may provide a novel mechanism for the induction of inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface leading to placental dysfunction and adverse pregnancy outcome, including preeclampsia. PMID:21352397

  5. Developing Potent Human Uric Acid Transporter 1 (hURAT1) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wempe, Michael F.; Jutabha, Promsuk; Quade, Bettina; Iwen, Timothy J.; Frick, Morin M.; Ross, Ian R.; Rice, Peter J.; Anzai, Naohiko; Endou, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys are a vital organ in the human body. They serve several purposes including homeostatic functions such as regulating extracellular fluid volume, maintaining acid-base and electrolyte balance, and are essential regarding the excretion of metabolic waste. Furthermore, the kidneys play an important role in uric acid secretion/re-absorption. Abnormalities associated with kidney transporters have been associated with various diseases, such as gout. The current study utilized Xenopus oocytes expressing human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) as an in vitro method to investigate novel compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-uric acid uptake via hURAT1. We have prepared and tested a series of 2-ethyl-benzofuran compounds and probed the hURAT1 in vitro inhibitor structure-activity relationship (SAR). Compared to di-methoxy analogs, mono-phenols formed on the C-Ring showed the best in vitro inhibitory potential. Compounds with sub-micromolar (i.e. IC50 < 1000 nM) inhibitors were prepared by brominating the corresponding phenols to produce compounds with potent uricosuric activity. PMID:21449597

  6. A simple and rapid creatinine sensing via DLS selectivity, using calix[4]arene thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Pandya, Alok; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-01-15

    A new, simple, ultra-sensitive and selective approach has been reported for the "on spot" colorimetric detection of creatinine based on calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with excellent discrimination in the presence of other biomolecules. The lower detection limit of the method is 2.16nM. The gold nanoparticles and p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene were synthesized by microwave assisted method. Specifically, in our study, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) which is a powerful method for the determination of small changes in particle size, improved selectivity and sensitivity of the creatinine detection system over colorimetric method. The nanoassembly is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DLS, UV-vis and ESI-MS spectroscopy, which demonstrates the binding affinity due its ability of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between -NH group of creatinine and pSDSC4. It exhibits fast response time (<60s) to creatinine and has long shelf-life (>5 weeks). The developed pSDSC4-AuNPs based creatinine biosensor will be established as simple, reliable and accurate tool for the determination of creatinine in human urine samples. PMID:26592650

  7. The role of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kin Tekce, Buket; Tekce, Hikmet; Aktas, Gulali; Uyeturk, Ugur

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty of measurement is the numeric expression of the errors associated with all measurements taken in clinical laboratories. Serum creatinine concentration is the most common diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine according to the Nordtest Guide. Retrospectively, we identified 289 patients who were evaluated for acute kidney injury. Of the total patient pool, 233 were diagnosed with acute kidney injury using the AKIN classification scheme and then were compared using statistical analysis. We determined nine probabilities of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury when uncertainty of measurement was taken into consideration (first probability compared to the fifth p?=?0.023 and first probability compared to the ninth p?=?0.012). We found that the uncertainty of measurement for serum creatinine concentrations was an important factor for correctly diagnosing acute kidney injury. In addition, based on the AKIN classification scheme, minimizing the total allowable error levels for serum creatinine concentrations is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of acute kidney injury by clinicians. PMID:26628060

  8. Determination of the serum levels of troponin I and creatinine among Sudanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Karar, Tarig; Elfaki, Elyasa Mustafa; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a significant risk factor for developing cardiac diseases. Hence, we compare the serum levels of cardiac troponin I (CTnI) among type 2 diabetic and healthy patients. We additionally correlated CTnI and creatinine levels with duration of disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sudan University of Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan, from February 2008 to February 2011. 200 patients diagnosed with DM type 2 from Jabir Abulizz Diabetes Centre in Khartoum state, Sudan, and 100 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from both groups, and the serum levels of CTnI, creatinine, fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. Results: Significant increase in serum levels of CTnI, glucose, HbA1c, and creatinine was observed in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, the significant increase in CTnI and creatinine levels was observed among diabetic patients with ischemic heart disease or hypertension when compared with those without ischemic heart disease or hypertension. Further a strong positive correlation was observed between the duration of diabetes and the serum levels of CTnI and creatinine (r = 0.84, P > 0.01) and (r = 0.72, P > 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: The higher levels of CTnI and creatinine may be indicative of progressive cardiovascular disease and nephropathy among diabetic patients. PMID:26604626

  9. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

  10. Tri-enzyme functionalized ZnO-NPs/CHIT/c-MWCNT/PANI composite film for amperometric determination of creatinine.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sandeep; Devi, Rooma; Kumar, Ashok; Pundir, C S

    2011-10-15

    A new zinc oxide nanoparticles/chitosan/carboxylated multiwall carbonnanotube/polyaniline (ZnO-NPs/CHIT/c-MWCNT/PANI) composite film has been synthesized on platinum (Pt) electrode using electrochemical techniques. Three enzymes, creatinine amidohydrolase (CA), creatine amidinohydrolase (CI) and sarcosine oxidase (SO) were immobilized on ZnO-NPs/CHIT/c-MWCNT/PANI/Pt electrode to construct the creatinine biosensor. The enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The enzyme electrode detects creatinine level as low as 0.5 ?M at a signal to noise ratio of 3 within 10s at pH 7.5 and 30C. The fabricated creatinine biosensor showed linear working range of 10-650 ?M creatinine with a sensitivity of 0.030 ?A ?M(-1)cm(-2). The biosensor shows only 15% loss of its initial response over a period of 120 days when stored at 4C. The fabricated biosensor was successfully employed for determination of creatinine in human blood serum. PMID:21803561

  11. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862.1770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862.1770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and...

  13. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting. PMID:26130895

  14. Final report of the safety assessment of Urea.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Although Urea is officially described as a buffering agent, humectant, and skin-conditioning agent-humectant for use in cosmetic products, there is a report stating that Urea also is used in cosmetics for its desquamating and antimicrobial action. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that Urea was used in 239 formulations. Concentrations of use for Urea ranged from 0.01% to 10%. Urea is generally recognized as safe by FDA for the following uses: side-seam cements for food contact; an inhibitor or stabilizer in pesticide formulations and formulations applied to animals; internal sizing for paper and paperboard and surface sizing and coating of paper and paper board that contact water-in-oil dairy emulsions, low-moisture fats and oils, moist bakery products, dry solids with surface containing no free fats or oil, and dry solids with the surface of fat or oil; and to facilitate fermentation of wine. Urea is the end product of mammalian protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous compound of urine. Urea concentrations in muscle, liver, and fetuses of rats increased after a subcutaneous injection of Urea. Urea diffused readily through the placenta and into other maternal and fetal organs. The half-life of Urea injected into rabbits was on the order of several hours, and the reutilization rate was 32.2% to 88.8%. Urea given to rats by a bolus injection or continuous infusion resulted in distribution to the following brain regions: frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons and white matter (corpus callosum). The permeability constant after treatment with Urea of whole skin and the dermis of rabbits was 2.37 +/- 0.13 (x 10(6)) and 1.20 +/- 0.09 (x10(3)) cm/min, respectively. The absorption of Urea across normal and abraded human skin was 9.5% +/- 2.3% and 67.9% +/- 5.6%, respectively. Urea increased the skin penetration of other compounds, including hydrocortisone. No toxicity was observed for Urea at levels as high as 2000 mg/kg in acute oral studies using female rats or mice. No signs of toxicity were observed in male piglets dosed orally with up to 4 g/kg Urea for 5 days. Dogs dosed orally with 5 to 30 g/L Urea for 4 to 10 days had signs of toxicity, including weakness, anorexia, vomiting and retching, diarrhea and a decreased body temperature, which led to a deep torpor or coma. No significant microscopic changes were observed in the skin of male nude mice dermally exposed to 100% Urea for 24 h. No observable effect on fetal development was seen in rats and mice dosed orally with an aqueous solution of Urea (2000 mg/kg) on days 10 and 12 of gestation. The mean number of implants, live fetuses, percent fetal resorptions, mean fetal weight, and percent fetuses malformed were comparable to control group. A detergent containing 15% Urea was injected into pregnant ICR-JCl mice and dams and fetuses had no significant differences when compared to control animals. Urea given orally did not enhance the developmental toxicity of N-nitrosomethylurea. Female Sprague-Dawley rats injected in the uterine horn with 0.05 ml Urea on day 3 (preimplantation) or on day 7 (post implantation) exhibited no maternal mortality or morbidity; a dose-dependent reduction in embryo survival was seen with preimplantation treatment. Urea injected intra-amniotically induces mid-trimester abortions in humans. Urea was not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian assays; although in assays where Urea was used at a high concentration, genotoxicity was found, many in in vitro assays. Urea is commonly used in studies of DNA because it causes uncoiling of DNA molecules. Urea was not carcinogenic in Fisher 344 rats or C57B1/6 mice fed diets containing up to 4.5% Urea. Exposure of normal human skin to 60% Urea produced no significant irritation in one study, but 5% Urea was slightly irritating and 20% Urea was irritating in other reports. Burning sensations are the most frequently reported effect of Urea used alone or with other agents in treatment of diseased skin. Overall, there are few reports of sensiti

  15. Measuring urea persistence, distribution and transport on coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and mobility of urea, an organic form of nitrogen present in animal manures and commercial fertilizers, has rarely been studied and measured, because it is assumed to undergo rapid hydrolysis to ammonia. However, preliminary studies have shown urea to exist in leachate and runoff sev...

  16. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  17. Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, Hironori; Rsgen, Jrg; Bolen, D. Wayne; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins. PMID:17693466

  18. Urea enhances the photodynamic efficiency of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Nuez, Silvia C; Yoshimura, Tania M; Ribeiro, Martha S; Junqueira, Helena C; Maciel, Cleiton; Coutinho-Neto, Maurcio D; Baptista, Maurcio S

    2015-09-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is a well-known photosensitizer used mostly for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). MB tends to aggregate, interfering negatively with its singlet oxygen generation, because MB aggregates lean towards electron transfer reactions, instead of energy transfer with oxygen. In order to avoid MB aggregation we tested the effect of urea, which destabilizes solute-solute interactions. The antimicrobial efficiency of MB (30 ?M) either in water or in 2M aqueous urea solution was tested against a fungus (Candida albicans). Samples were kept in the dark and irradiation was performed with a light emitting diode (? = 645 nm). Without urea, 9 min of irradiation was needed to achieve complete microbial eradication. In urea solution, complete eradication was obtained with 6 min illumination (light energy of 14.4 J). The higher efficiency of MB/urea solution was correlated with a smaller concentration of dimers, even in the presence of the microorganisms. Monomer to dimer concentration ratios were extracted from the absorption spectra of MB solutions measured as a function of MB concentration at different temperatures and at different concentrations of sodium chloride and urea. Dimerization equilibrium decreased by 3 and 6 times in 1 and 2M urea, respectively, and increased by a factor of 6 in 1M sodium chloride. The destabilization of aggregates by urea seems to be applied to other photosensitizers, since urea also destabilized aggregation of Meso-tetra(4-n-methyl-pyridyl)porphyrin, which is a positively charged porphyrin. We showed that urea destabilizes MB aggregates mainly by causing a decrease in the enthalpic gain of dimerization, which was exactly the opposite of the effect of sodium chloride. In order to understand this phenomenon at the molecular level, we computed the free energy for the dimer association process (?G(dimer)) in aqueous solution as well as its enthalpic component in aqueous and in aqueous/urea solutions by molecular dynamics simulations. In 2M-urea solution the atomistic picture revealed a preferential solvation of MB by urea compared with MB dimers while changes in ?H(dimer) values demonstrated a clear shift favoring MB monomers. Therefore, MB monomers are more stable in urea solutions, which have significantly better photophysics and higher antimicrobial activity. This information can be of use for dental and medical professionals that are using MB based APDT protocols. PMID:25862463

  19. Structure and permeation mechanism of a mammalian urea transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Elena J.; Cao, Yu; Enkavi, Giray; Quick, Matthias; Pan, Yaping; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Zhou, Ming

    2012-09-17

    As an adaptation to infrequent access to water, terrestrial mammals produce urine that is hyperosmotic to plasma. To prevent osmotic diuresis by the large quantity of urea generated by protein catabolism, the kidney epithelia contain facilitative urea transporters (UTs) that allow rapid equilibration between the urinary space and the hyperosmotic interstitium. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of a mammalian UT, UT-B, at a resolution of 2.36 {angstrom}. UT-B is a homotrimer and each protomer contains a urea conduction pore with a narrow selectivity filter. Structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the selectivity filter has two urea binding sites separated by an approximately 5.0 kcal/mol energy barrier. Functional studies showed that the rate of urea conduction in UT-B is increased by hypoosmotic stress, and that the site of osmoregulation coincides with the location of the energy barrier.

  20. Structure and permeation mechanism of a mammalian urea transporter

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Elena J.; Cao, Yu; Enkavi, Giray; Quick, Matthias; Pan, Yaping; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Zhou, Ming

    2012-01-01

    As an adaptation to infrequent access to water, terrestrial mammals produce urine that is hyperosmotic to plasma. To prevent osmotic diuresis by the large quantity of urea generated by protein catabolism, the kidney epithelia contain facilitative urea transporters (UTs) that allow rapid equilibration between the urinary space and the hyperosmotic interstitium. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of a mammalian UT, UT-B, at a resolution of 2.36?. UT-B is a homotrimer and each protomer contains a urea conduction pore with a narrow selectivity filter. Structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the selectivity filter has two urea binding sites separated by an approximately 5.0kcal/mol energy barrier. Functional studies showed that the rate of urea conduction in UT-B is increased by hypoosmotic stress, and that the site of osmoregulation coincides with the location of the energy barrier. PMID:22733730

  1. Regeneration of hemofiltrate by anodic oxidation of urea.

    PubMed

    Kster, K; Wendt, H; Gallus, J; Krisam, G; Lehmann, H D

    1983-05-01

    Urea can be oxidized electrochemically in a chloride solution to carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen. The microkinetics of this hypochlorite-mediated urea oxidation are elucidated. Based on this kinetic information, the optimal conditions and construction principles for an electrochemical reactor are deduced. The construction of a cheap, disposable oxidation cell and necessary auxiliary equipment are described. In vitro data are reported for urea removal. A 36-L volume was used to simulate a 60-kg patient; 18 L was recirculated through a 0.12-m2 oxidation cell. Within 3 h, 35 g urea could be removed from the system. The technical and economic possibilities as well as safety requirements for hemofiltrate regeneration to a reinfusable substitution solution by anodic urea oxidation are discussed critically. Although the process does not appear to be economically practical for discontinuous hemofiltration, it might be desirable for continuous (24 h/day) treatment. PMID:6307234

  2. Functionalized multilayered graphene platform for urea sensor.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Saurabh; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Mahlotra, Bansi D; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Srivastava, Anchal

    2012-01-24

    Multilayered graphene (MLG) is an interesting material for electrochemical sensing and biosensing because of its very large 2D electrical conductivity and large surface area. We propose a less toxic, reproducible, and easy method for producing functionalized multilayer graphene from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in mass scale using only concentrated H(2)SO(4)/HNO(3). Electron microscopy results show the MLG formation, whereas FTIR and XPS data suggest its carboxylic and hydroxyl-functionalized nature. We utilize this functionalized MLG for the fabrication of a novel amperometric urea biosensor. This biosensor shows linearity of 10-100 mg dL(-1), sensitivity of 5.43 ?A mg(-1) dL cm(-2), lower detection limit of 3.9 mg dL(-1), and response time of 10 s. Our results suggest that MLG is a promising material for electrochemical biosensing applications. PMID:22117758

  3. Discovery of URAT1 SNPs and association between serum uric acid levels and URAT1

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Kweon; Kim, Soriul; Chung, Jae-Yong; Jee, Sun Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Human urate transporter 1 (URAT1) is a member of the organic anion transporter family (SLC22A12) that primarily regulates the renal tubular reabsorption of uric acid. This casecontrol study was designed to analyse whether hURAT1 might also be a candidate gene for hyperuricaemia or hypouricaemia. Setting We recruited 68 healthy volunteers and divided them into two groups: a normal uric acid group and a hyperuricaemia group. We analysed the sequence of the URAT1 gene and found five significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We then selected 900 male subjects from the 262?200 enrolled in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) cohort for further genetic analysis. Participants DNA samples from 36 individuals with normal uric acid (<4.5?mg/dL) and 32 individuals with hyperuricaemia (>8.5?mg/dL) were sequenced. Five significant SNPs (rs7929627, rs75786299, rs3825017, rs11602903 and rs121907892) were identified. We then chose 900 subjects from the KCPS-II cohort consisting of 450 subjects with normal uric acid (UA <4.1?mg/dL) and 450 subjects with hyperuricaemia (UA >8.7?mg/dL). The groups were matched by age, body mass index, metabolic syndrome and use of anti-hypertensive medication. Primary outcome measures We compared the OR of the incidence of hyperuricaemia by URAT1 genotype. Results The strongest association with hyperuricaemia was observed for rs75786299 (IVS3+11A/G) with an OR of 32.05. rs7929627 (IVS7-103A/G) and rs3825017 (N82N) showed an association with hyperuricaemia with ORs of 2.56 and 2.29, respectively. rs11602903 (788A/T) and rs121907892 (W258X) were negatively correlated with hyperuricaemia with ORs of 0.350 and 0.447, respectively. Individuals carrying the GATAG haplotype (n=32)a relatively common variant consisting of rs7929627, rs75786299 and rs3825017showed the highest risk for hyperuricaemia with an OR of 92.23 (p=9.5510?3). Conclusions These results indicate that five newly described SNPs in the hURAT1 gene are significantly associated with uric acid level (4-2008-0318 and 4-2011-0277). PMID:26603249

  4. Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Werner, J; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Gehman, A; Parys, C

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected (RP) Met and His supplementation of a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk randomized complete block-design trial. Cows were fed a covariate diet for 2 wk and then assigned to one of the following treatments for an 8-wk experimental period: (1) MP-adequate diet [AMP; 107% of MP requirements, based on the National Research Council (NRC, 2001)]; (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; 95% of MP requirements); (3) DMP supplemented with slow-release urea (DMPU); (4) DMPU supplemented with RPMet (DMPUM); and (5) DMPUM supplemented with RPHis (DMPUMH). Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein, and urinary N and urea-N excretions were decreased by DMP, compared with AMP. Addition of slow-release urea to the DMP diet increased urinary urea-N excretion. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (on average 44.00.9kg/d) were not affected by treatments, except DMPUMH increased DMI and numerically increased milk yield, compared with DMPUM. Milk true protein concentration and yield were increased and milk fat concentration tended to be decreased by DMPUMH, compared with DMPUM. Cows gained less body weight on the DMP diet, compared with AMP. Plasma concentrations of His and Lys were not affected by treatments, whereas supplementation of RPMet increased plasma Met concentration. Plasma concentration of 3-methylhistidine was or tended to be higher for DMP compared with AMP and DMPU, respectively. Addition of RPHis to the DMPUM diet tended to increase plasma glucose and creatinine. In conclusion, feeding a 5% MP-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) did not decrease DMI and yields of milk and milk components, despite a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Supplementation of RPHis increased DMI and milk protein concentration and yield. These results are in line with our previous data and suggest that His may have a positive effect on voluntary feed intake and milk production and composition in high-yielding dairy cows fed MP-deficient diets. PMID:25726096

  5. Adsorption performance of creatinine on dialdehyde nanofibrillated cellulose derived from potato residues.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongli; Liu, Zehua; Yang, Yaxing; Huang, Rijin; Cheng, Xiaojuan; Fatehi, Pedram; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Potato residue is vastly produced in the food industry but it is landfilled. This article describes the treatment of purified cellulose derived from potato residues by a high pressure homogenizer to produce nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), which was then oxidized by sodium periodate to prepare dialdehyde nano-fibrillated cellulose (DANFC). The produced NFC and DANFC were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The orthogonal experiment was induced to obtain the maximum degree of oxidation (DO) on DANFC. The results indicated that the optimal conditions were 40C and pH 3. Alternatively, the isotherm and kinetic studies for the adsorption of creatinine on DANFC with different DOs (70.5 and 88.8%) were investigated, and the experimental results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacities of DANFCs with the DO of 70.55 and 88.85% were 6.7 and 17.2 mg g(-1) , respectively, which were achieved under the conditions of 37C and initial creatinine concentration of 100 mg L(-1) . 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:208-214, 2016. PMID:26400046

  6. Nitrogen metabolism in soybean tissue culture: I. Assimilation of urea.

    PubMed

    Polacco, J C

    1976-09-01

    Cultured soybean (Glycine max, Kanrich variety) cells grow with 25 mm urea as the sole nitrogen source but at a slower rate than with the Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962) nitrogen source of 18.8 mm KNO(3) and 20.6 mm NH(4)NO(3). Growth with urea is restricted by 18.8 mm NO(3) (-), 50 mm methylammonia, 10 mm citrate or 100 mum hydroxyurea, substances which are much less restrictive or nonrestrictive in the presence of ammonia nitrogen source. The restrictive conditions of urea assimilation were examined as possible bases for selection schemes to recover urease-overproducing mutants. Since urease has higher methionine levels than the soybean seed proteins among which it is found, such selections may be a model for improving seed protein quality by plant cell culture techniques.Callus will not grow with 1 mm urea plus 18.8 mm KNO(3). Urease levels decrease 80% within two divisions after transfer from MS nitrogen source to 1 mm urea plus 18.8 mm KNO(3). Hydroxyurea is a potent inhibitor of soybean urease and this appears to be the basis for its inhibition of urea utilization by callus cells.Stationary phase suspension cultures grown with MS nitrogen source exhibit trace or zero urease levels. Soon after transfer to fresh medium (24 hours after escape from lag), urease levels increase in the presence of both MS or urea nitrogen source. However, the increase is 10 to 20 times greater in the presence of urea. NH(4)Cl (50 mm) lowers urease induction by 50% whereas 50 mm methylammonium chloride results in more drastic reductions in urea-stimulated urease levels. Citrate (10 mm) completely blocks urease synthesis in the presence of urea.Ammonia and methylammonia do not inhibit soybean urease nor do they appreciably inhibit urea uptake by suspension cultures. It appears likely that methylammonia inhibits urea utilization in cultured soybean cells primarily due to its "repressive" effect on urease synthesis.Citrate does not inhibit urease activity in vitro and exhibits only a partial inhibition (0-50% in several experiments) of urea uptake. It appears likely that the citrate elimination of urease production by cultured soybean cells is due to its chelation of trace Ni(2+) in the growth medium. Dixon et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97: 4131-4133, 1975) have reported that jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) urease contains nickel at the active site. PMID:16659677

  7. Uric acid induces endothelial dysfunction by vascular insulin resistance associated with the impairment of nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Hien, Tran Thi; Kang, Keon Wook; Kim, Kyong-Cheol; Lee, Jeewoo; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Lee, Seung Mi; Kang, Duk-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is defined as impairment of the balance between endothelium-dependent vasodilation and constriction. Despite evidence of uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction, a relationship with insulin resistance has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigated the role of vascular insulin resistance in uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction. Uric acid inhibited insulin-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and NO production more substantially than endothelin-1 expression in HUVECs, with IC50 of 51.0, 73.6, and 184.2, respectively. Suppression of eNOS phosphorylation and NO production by uric acid was PI3K/Akt-dependent, as verified by the transfection with p110. Treatment of rats with the uricase inhibitor allantoxanamide induced mild hyperuricemia and increased mean arterial pressure by 25%. While hyperuricemic rats did not show systemic insulin resistance, they showed impaired vasorelaxation induced by insulin by 56%. A compromised insulin response in terms of the Akt/eNOS pathway was observed in the aortic ring of hyperuricemic rats. Coadministration with allopurinol reduced serum uric acid levels and blood pressure and restored the effect of insulin on Akt-eNOS pathway and vasorelaxation. Taken together, uric acid induced endothelial dysfunction by contributing to vascular insulin resistance in terms of insulin-induced NO production, potentially leading to the development of hypertension.-Choi, Y.-J., Yoon, Y., Lee, K.-Y., Hien, T. T., Kang, K. W., Kim, K.-C., Lee, J., Lee, M.-Y., Lee, S. M., Kang, D.-H., Lee, B.-H. Uric acid induces endothelial dysfunction by vascular insulin resistance associated with the impairment of nitric oxide synthesis. PMID:24652948

  8. Peroxynitrite flux-mediated LDL oxidation is inhibited by manganese porphyrins in the presence of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Trostchansky, Andrs; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Batthyny, Carlos; Botti, Horacio; Batini?-Haberle, Ines; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero

    2003-11-15

    We have studied the role of three Mn(III)porphyrins differing in charge, alkyl substituent length and reactivity, on LDL exposed to low fluxes of peroxynitrite (PN) in the presence of uric acid. Mn(III)porphyrins (5 microM, MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnTnOct-2-PyP(5+), and MnTCPP(3-)) plus uric acid (300 microM) inhibited cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide formation, changes in REM as well as spared alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. MnTnOct-2-PyP(5+), the more lipophilic compound, was the most effective in protecting LDL lipids, while MnTCPP(3-) exerted the lesser protection. Mn(III)porphyrins react fast with PN ( approximately 10(5)-10(7) M(-1) s(-1)) to yield a O=Mn(IV) complex. The stoichiometry of uric acid consumption was approximately 1.7 moles per mol of PN, in agreement with reactions with both the O=Mn(IV) complex and nitrogen dioxide. A shift from an anti- to a pro-oxidant action of the Mn(III)porphyrin was observed after uric acid was significantly consumed, supporting competition reactions between LDL targets and uric acid for the O=Mn(IV) complex. Overall, the data is consistent with the catalytic reduction of PN in a cycle that involves a one electron oxidation of Mn(III) to Mn(IV) by PN followed by the reduction back to Mn(III) by uric acid. These antioxidant effects should predominate under in vivo conditions having plasma uric acid concentration range between 150 and 500 microM. PMID:14607528

  9. Determination of creatinine-related molecules in saliva by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the evaluation of hemodialysis in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayu; Furuhashi, Mitsuyoshi; Sesoko, Shogo; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Toshio; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-03-10

    The serum concentrations of creatinine (Cre) and urea are used for the determination of the renal function. However, the use of blood is not always suitable due to the invasive, hygienic and infection problems during its sample collection and handling. In contrast, saliva is relatively clean and the samples can be quickly and noninvasively collected and easily stored. Therefore, the simultaneous determination of Arginine (Arg), creatine (Cr) and Cre in the saliva of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was performed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS together with the saliva of healthy volunteers. The evaluation of hemodialysis of CKD patients was also carried out by the determinations before and after the dialysis. An HS-F5 column was used for the simultaneous determination of Arg, Cr and Cre in the saliva. These molecules were rapidly separated within 4min and sensitively determined by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the precursor ion [M+H](+)?product ions (m/z 175.1?70.1 for Arg; m/z 132.0?44.1 for Cr; m/z 114.0?44.1 for Cre). The concentration of Cre in the CKD patients was higher than that in the healthy persons. The concentrations of Cre in the saliva of the patients before hemodialysis were moderately correlated with the serum Cre concentrations (R(2)=0.661). Furthermore, the concentration in the saliva obviously decreased after hemodialysis (before 0.73mg/dL, after 0.25mg/dL; p<0.02). Thus, the proposed detection method using saliva by UPLC-MS/MS is useful for the evaluation of the renal function in CKD patients. The present method offers a new option for monitoring the hemodialysis of CKD patients. PMID:26893090

  10. Kinetic study on urea uptake with chitosan based sorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chen; Wilson, Lee D

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot kinetic uptake study of urea in aqueous solution with various chitosan sorbent materials such as pristine chitosan, cross-linked chitosan with glutaraldehyde from low (C-1) to higher (C-2) glutaraldehyde content, and a Cu(II) complex of a glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan material (C-3) is reported herein. The kinetic uptake profiles were analyzed by the pseudo-first order (PFO) and pseudo-second-order (PSO) models, respectively. The uptake rate constant of urea and the sorption capacity (qe) of high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan, C-1, C-2, and C-3 were best described by the PFO model. The uptake rate constant of urea with the various sorbents is listed in ascending order: HMW chitosanurea/g sorbent) for the sorbent/urea systems are listed in ascending order: HMW chitosan (48.1)?C-1 (44.7)urea uptake and greater adsorption capacity when compared with pristine chitosan. The observed trends are in agreement with the greater surface accessibility and pore structure properties of cross-linked chitosan based on scanning electron microscopy studies. These results further illustrate the rational design of chitosan-based materials for the controlled uptake of urea in aquatic environments. PMID:26453866

  11. Urea production and salvage during pregnancy in normal Jamaican women.

    PubMed

    Forrester, T; Badaloo, A V; Persaud, C; Jackson, A A

    1994-09-01

    The pattern of aggregate nitrogen demand during pregnancy and the fetal and maternal components are unclear. Excess demand enhances efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Urea salvage contributes to enhanced efficiency. Dietary protein intake, urea production, and salvage of urea nitrogen were measured in eight nonpregnant control subjects, and trimesterly in nine pregnant women. Production was measured after prime-intermittent intravenous doses of [15N 15N]-urea by dilution of label in urinary urea. Dietary protein intake was greater in trimester 1 than in nonpregnant women (167 +/- 36 vs 224 +/- 60 mg N.kg-1.d-1), and increased further in trimester 2 (266 +/- 59 mg N.kg-1.d-1). Urea production was not higher during pregnancy. Despite higher protein intake, urea salvage was higher in pregnancy (40 +/- 24 nonpregnant vs 77 +/- 23, 61 +/- 31, and 51 +/- 12 mg N.kg-1.d-1). Therefore, the demand-supply gap for nitrogen was greatest early in pregnancy when fetoplacental growth is slowest, and implies heightened maternal demand. PMID:8074063

  12. Urea encapsulation in modified starch matrix for nutrients retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariff, Mohd. Hazwan Bin Mohd.; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    It has been estimated that 20-70% of the used urea goes to the environment via leaching, nitrification and volatilization which not only harms the environment but also reduces the urea efficiency. By coating the urea granules, the farmers can achieve high urea performance through controlling the excess release of nitrogen. Up until now, different materials have been tested for nutrients retention. However, most of them are either expensive or unfriendly to the environment. Being cheap and biodegradable materials, the starches may also be used to coat the urea fertilizer for controlling the nutrients release. However, the pure starches do not meet the standards set by many industrial processes due to their slow tacking and too low viscosities and should be modified for getting smooth, compact and mechanically stronger coatings. In these studies, the tapioca starch was modified by reacting it with urea and different masses of borax. The prepared solutions were used to coat the urea granules of 3.45 mm average diameter. Different volumes (1, 1.5 and 2 mL) of each solution were used to coat 30 g of urea fluidized above the minimum level of fluidization. It was noticed that the coating thickness, percent coating, dissolution rate and percent release follow an increasing trend with an increase of solution volume; however, some random results were obtained while investigating the solution volume effects on the percent release. It was seen that the nutrients percent release over time increases with an increase in solution volume from 1 to 1.5 mL and thereafter reaches to a steady state. It confirms that the 1.5 mL of solution for 30 g urea samples will give the optimized coating results.

  13. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is called a "lights on" FRET response. The vitamin D aptamer beacon gives a "lights off" or inversely proportional fluorescence response to the amount of vitamin D present in diluted serum. These FRET-aptamer assays are rapid (<30 minutes), sensitive (low ng/mL detection limits), and quite easy to carry out (add sample, mix, and detect in the handheld reader). Benefits include the speed of the assays as well as the small amount of space taken up by the handheld reader and cuvette assays. The aptamer DNA sequences represent novel additional features of the existing (patent-pending) FRET-aptamer assay platform.

  14. Identification of allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate as biochemical indicators of filth in food packaging by LC.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

    2001-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate in mammalian urine contaminated packaging material including paper bagging, corrugated cardboard, grayboard, and burlap bagging. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of the 3 analytes by reversed-phase LC with ultraviolet detection at 225 nm for allantoin and 286 nm for uric acid and indoxyl sulfate. The composition of authentic mammalian urine such as mouse, rat, cat, dog, and human were also determined with regard to the 3 compounds of interest. A linear concentration range of 0.11-20.4, 0.02-10.0, and 0.04-30.0 microg/mL was obtained for allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 0.0104 and 0.0345 microg/mL for allantoin; 0.0018 and 0.0060 microg/mL for uric acid; and 0.0049 and 0.0165 microg/mL for indoxyl sulfate, respectively. Interday relative standard deviation values for a mixture of standard allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate (n = 5) were 0.97, 0.80, and 0.94%, respectively. Analyte composition for 5 types of authentic mammalian urine varied from 0.19-6.88 mg/mL allantoin; 0.08-0.57 mg/mL uric acid; and 0.03-0.78 mg/mL indoxyl sulfate. Analyte content for 8 samples including 2 samples each for paper, cardboard, grayboard, and burlap bagging each contaminated with mouse or rat urine ranged from uric acid; and 17.5 to 616 microg/gm indoxyl sulfate. Recoveries of allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate from 11 fortified samples (4 types) for both mouse and rat urine ranged from 28.2 to 114.1 % for allantoin; 32.6 to 123.4% for uric acid; and 52.6 to 118.2% for indoxyl sulfate. PMID:11417643

  15. Fast vaporization solid phase microextraction and ion mobility spectrometry: A new approach for determination of creatinine in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mostafa; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Banitaba, Mohamma Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work a rapid and simple method for creatinine determination in urine and plasma samples based on aqueous derivatization of creatinine and complete vaporization of sample (as low as 10L), followed by ion mobility spectrometry analysis has been proposed. The effect of four important parameters (extraction temperature, total volume of solution, desorption temperature and extraction time) on ion mobility signal has been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative response of ion mobility spectrometry for creatinine was linear in the range of 0-500mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6mgL(-1) in urine and 0-250mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 2.6mgL(-1) in plasma sample. The limit of quantitation of creatinine was 2.1mgL(-1) and 8.7mgL(-1) in urine and plasma samples, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be 13%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of creatinine in biological samples, showing recoveries from 92% to 104% in urine and 101-110% in plasma samples. PMID:26452850

  16. Evaluation of single-injection method of inulin and creatinine as a renal function test in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K

    1998-03-01

    A single injection method for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by measuring plasma inulin and creatinine clearances was evaluated in 10 healthy cats. GFRs were estimated from the plasma clearance (PC) by dividing the injected dose of an indicator by the area under the plasma disappearance curve (AUC). AUC was determined by 2 common pharmacokinetic analyses, the two-compartment model and the trapezoidal rule. AUCs determined by these two methods were significantly correlated both in inulin (r = 0.993) and creatinine (r = 0.959). To minimize errors, GFR was estimated by PC only if AUC/10 was greater than the area under the curve from the final sampling time to infinitive (A2). GFRs determined by PC of inulin at final sampling time of 180 and 240 min were 3.61 +/- 0.64 and 3.63 +/- 0.67 ml/min/kg of body weight (mean +/- SD), respectively. These values corresponded to the reference range reported for normal cats. In contrast, when creatinine was used as a maker, A2 was always greater than AUC/10 at any final sampling time and GFRs estimated using these AUCs of creatinine were significantly greater than those of inulin, suggesting creatinine may not be suitable indicator for the single injection method. PMID:9560781

  17. Use of protein: creatinine ratio in a random spot urine sample for predicting significant proteinuria in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, B K; Adhikari, S; Gyawali, P; Shrestha, R; Poudel, B; Khanal, M

    2010-06-01

    Present study was undertaken during a period of 6 months (September 2008-February 2009) to see an correlation of 24 hours urine protein estimation with random spot protein-creatinine (P:C) ratio among a diabetic patients. The study comprised of 144 patients aged 30-70 years, recruited from Kantipur hospital, Kathmandu. The 24-hr urine sample was collected, followed by spot random urine sample. Both samples were analyzed for protein and creatinine excretion. An informed consent was taken from all participants. Sixteen inadequately collected urine samples as defined by (predicted creatinine--measured creatinine)/predicted creatinine > 0.2 were excluded from analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation between the spot urine P:C ratio and 24-hr total protein were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Service. At the P:C ratio cutoff of 0.15 and reference method (24-hr urine protein) cutoff of 150 mg/day, the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.892 (p < 0.001). The area under ROC curve at different cutoffs was 0.88 at 95.0% CI. The sensitivity and specificity of the P:C ratio to detect significant proteinuria at the cutoff of 0.15 are 96.6% and 74.4%. So the P:C ratio can predict significant proteinuria in diabetic subjects, avoiding the inconvenient 24-hr urine collection but the cutoff should be carefully selected for different patients group under different laboratory procedures and settings. PMID:21222407

  18. Quantitative detection of uric acid by electrochemical-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a multilayered Au/Ag substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Blackburn, Jonathan; Brosseau, Christa L

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid is a potential important biomarker in urine and serum samples for early diagnosis of preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive disorder that occurs during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal death, especially in developing nation settings. Quantitative detection of uric acid for rapid and routine diagnosis of early preeclampsia using electrochemical-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (EC-SERS) is presented herein. A uniform EC-SERS active Au/Ag substrate was developed by depositing nearly monodisperse gold and silver nanoparticles on the carbon working electrode surface of screen printed electrodes. The multilayered Au/Ag substrates were characterized by electron microscopy and used for quantitative detection of uric acid in 0.1 M NaF and synthetic urine at clinically relevant concentrations. These results showed a linear relationship between the EC-SERS signal intensity and the uric acid concentration. Relative errors calculated for selected concentrations were all within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) criterion for uric acid analysis (±17%). It is believed that routine and early diagnosis of disease could be possible through such quantitative detection of biomarkers in patient samples using this EC-SERS method. PMID:25483146

  19. Renal clearance of uric acid is linked to insulin resistance and lower excretion of sodium in gout patients.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles; Herrero-Beites, Ana María; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Erauskin, Gorka Garcia; Merriman, Toni

    2015-09-01

    Inefficient renal excretion of uric acid is the main pathophysiological mechanism for hyperuricemia in gout patients. Polymorphisms of renal tubular transporters linked with sodium and monosaccharide transport have yet to be demonstrated. We intended to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance, evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), through a transversal study of non-diabetic patients with gout, with normal renal function, not treated with any medication but colchicine as prophylaxis. One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated. Clearance of uric acid was inversely correlated with insulin resistance and directly correlated with fractional excretion of sodium. In multivariate analysis, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, in addition to insulin resistance and fractional excretion of sodium, were associated with renal clearance of uric acid. HOMA cutoff for efficient versus inefficient renal handling of uric acid was 2.72, close to that observed in studies of reference population. The impact of insulin resistance and renal handling of sodium on renal clearance of uric acid may help to explain why hyperuricemia is more commonly associated with diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25763991

  20. Ab initio studies on the photophysics of uric acid and its monohydrates: role of the water molecule.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shohei; Urashima, Shu-hei; Saigusa, Hiroyuki; Taketsugu, Tetsuya

    2014-02-13

    The photophysical behavior of three lowest-energy tautomers of uric acid and seven most stable isomers of uric acid monohydrate is comprehensively studied by ab initio calculations. Ground-state energies are calculated with the CCSD(T) method, while excitation and ionization energies as well as excited-state potential energy profiles of photoinduced processes are calculated with the CC2 method. For the (1)??* state, it is found that the excitation energy of the monohydrate cluster is significantly lower than that of isolated uric acid when the water molecule is hydrogen-bonded at a specific carbonyl group. The calculated excited-state potential energy profiles suggest that some monohydrate isomers can undergo a migration of the water molecule from one site to another site in the (1)??* state with a small energy barrier. It is also found for both uric acid and its monohydrate that nonradiative decay via the NH bond dissociation in the (1)??* state is likely to occur at higher excitation energies. On the basis of the computational results, possible mechanisms for the absence of specific isomers of uric acid monohydrate from the resonant two-photon ionization spectrum are discussed. PMID:24446809

  1. Uric acid and IGF1 as possible determinants of FGF23 metabolism in children with normal renal function

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Cochat, Pierre; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone and a suppressor of renal 1? hydroxylase. Although circulating values of FGF23 are increased in early chronic kidney disease (CKD), the interplay between FGF23 levels, growth and nutritional biomarkers has not been evaluated in children with normal renal function. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of the cross-sectional observational INU23 study in 98 children (51 boys, mean age 10.5 3.9 years) with preserved renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 114 14 ml/min/1.73 m2). Results In bivariate analyses, C-terminal FGF23 levels were positively related to phosphorus and uric acid levels. Intact FGF23 levels were positively associated with uric acid and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels, with similar results for age, body mass index (BMI), and 25OH vitamin D (25(OH) D). By multivariable analyses, 25(OH)D, uric acid, and phosphorus were independent predictors of C-terminal FGF23, while 25(OH)D, uric acid, and IGF1 were independent predictors of intact FGF23. Conclusions In children with preserved kidney function, the association between FGF23, uric acid, and IGF1 suggests that FGF23 could be an early nutritional indicator of high protein and phosphate intake. The association between FGF23 and IGF1 also suggests a relationship between FGF23 and growth, and warrants further investigation. PMID:22311343

  2. Lessons from comparative physiology: could uric acid represent a physiologic alarm signal gone awry in western society?

    PubMed Central

    Sautin, Yuri Y.; Oliver, William J.; Roncal, Carlos; Mu, Wei; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Benner, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid has historically been viewed as a purine metabolic waste product excreted by the kidney and gut that is relatively unimportant other than its penchant to crystallize in joints to cause the disease gout. In recent years, however, there has been the realization that uric acid is not biologically inert but may have a wide range of actions, including being both a pro- and anti-oxidant, a neurostimulant, and an inducer of inflammation and activator of the innate immune response. In this paper, we present the hypothesis that uric acid has a key role in the foraging response associated with starvation and fasting. We further suggest that there is a complex interplay between fructose, uric acid and vitamin C, with fructose and uric acid stimulating the foraging response and vitamin C countering this response. Finally, we suggest that the mutations in ascorbate synthesis and uricase that characterized early primate evolution were likely in response to the need to stimulate the foraging “survival” response and might have inadvertently had a role in accelerating the development of bipedal locomotion and intellectual development. Unfortunately, due to marked changes in the diet, resulting in dramatic increases in fructose- and purine-rich foods, these identical genotypic changes may be largely responsible for the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in today’s society. PMID:18649082

  3. THE APPLICABILITY OF URINARY CREATININE AS A METHOD OF SPECIMEN NORMALIZATION IN THE CYSTIC FIBROSIS POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Brandie D.; Accurso, Frank J.; Laguna, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Urine specimens are commonly used in biomarker research. Urinary creatinine (UCr) is often used to adjust for urine analyte concentration. We aim to explore the applicability of UCr as a normalization method in a cystic fibrosis (CF) population during hospitalization. Methods Multiple spot urine samples were collected from CF patients hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation. Single spot specimens were obtained from asthmatics and healthy children for comparison. The assumptions and implications from the use of UCr as a normalization factor for urinary desmosine measurements were investigated. Results UCr differed significantly across disease groups and decreased significantly over time in the CF population. Differing results were obtained when contrasting normalization by UCr with specific gravity. Conclusions UCr levels are not completely attributable to simply variations in urine concentration. Analysis of urinary biomarker measurements should be initiated with an understanding of the relative effects of the normalization process on the results. PMID:20227353

  4. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergr, Aya Trel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Glerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA. PMID:25153214

  5. Comparing GFR Estimating Equations Using Cystatin C and Creatinine in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Levey, Andrew S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Andresdottir, Margret B; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur; Mitchell, Gary; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines recommend reporting eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations unless other equations are more accurate, and recommend the combination of creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) as more accurate than either eGFRcr or eGFRcys alone. However, preferred equations and filtration markers in elderly individuals are debated. In 805 adults enrolled in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we measured GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol, standardized creatinine and cystatin C, and eGFR using the CKD-EPI, Japanese, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS), and Caucasian and Asian pediatric and adult subjects (CAPA) equations. We evaluated equation performance using bias, precision, and two measures of accuracy. We first compared the Japanese, BIS, and CAPA equations with the CKD-EPI equations to determine the preferred equations, and then compared eGFRcr and eGFRcys with eGFRcr-cys using the preferred equations. Mean (SD) age was 80.3 (4.0) years. Median (25th, 75th) mGFR was 64 (52, 73) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of decreased GFR was 39% (95% confidence interval, 35.8 to 42.5). Among 24 comparisons with the other equations, CKD-EPI equations performed better in 9, similar in 13, and worse in 2. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr in four metrics, better than eGFRcys in two metrics, and similar to eGFRcys in two metrics. In conclusion, neither the Japanese, BIS, nor CAPA equations were superior to the CKD-EPI equations in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr or eGFRcys. PMID:25527647

  6. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2016-04-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) for analysis of red, green and blue colors (RGB values). Urinary creatinine is used as a model analyte to represent a sample in complicated biological matrices. Separation was carried out on a silica gel plate using a butanol-NH4OH-H2O (40 : 10 : 50, v/v) mobile phase with a 6-cm solvent front. It is important that the TLC plate be stained evenly and with sufficient staining time. Staining the TLC plate in a 23.4 × 18.8 × 6.8 cm chamber containing about 70 g iodine crystals yielded comparable results for the staining times of 30-60 min. The Green value offered the best results in the linear working range (0.0810-0.9260 mg/mL) and precision (2.03% RSD, n = 10). The detection limit was found to be 0.24 µg per 3 µL spot. Urinary creatinine concentrations determined by TLC-digital image analysis using the green value calibration graph agree well with results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:26657734

  7. Hydrolyzable polyureas bearing hindered urea bonds.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hanze; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-12-10

    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications. PMID:25406025

  8. Hydrolyzable Polyureas Bearing Hindered Urea Bonds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications. PMID:25406025

  9. Real-time in vivo uric acid biosensor system for biophysical monitoring of birds.

    PubMed

    Gumus, A; Lee, S; Karlsson, K; Gabrielson, R; Winkler, D W; Erickson, D

    2014-02-21

    Research on birds has long played an important role in ecological investigations, as birds are relatively easily observed, and their high metabolic rates and diurnal habits make them quite evidently responsive to changes in their environments. A mechanistic understanding of such avian responses requires a better understanding of how variation in physiological state conditions avian behavior and integrates the effects of recent environmental changes. There is a great need for sensor systems that will allow free-flying birds to interact with their environment and make unconstrained decisions about their spatial location at the same time that their physiological state is being monitored in real time. We have developed a miniature needle-based enzymatic sensor system suitable for continuous real-time amperometric monitoring of uric acid levels in unconstrained live birds. The sensor system was constructed with Pt/Ir wire and Ag/AgCl paste. Uricase enzyme was immobilized on a 0.7 mm sensing cavity of Nafion/cellulose inner membrane to minimize the influences of background interferents. The sensor response was linear from 0.05 to 0.6 mM uric acid, which spans the normal physiological range for most avian species. We developed a two-electrode potentiostat system that drives the biosensor, reads the output current, and wirelessly transmits the data. In addition to extensive characterization of the sensor and system, we also demonstrate autonomous operation of the system by collecting in vivo extracellular uric acid measurements on a domestic chicken. The results confirm our needle-type sensor system's potential for real-time monitoring of birds' physiological state. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new era of studying both the physiological preparation for migration and the consequences of sustained avian flight. PMID:24326318

  10. Quantification of tissue uric acid levels in a Harris's hawk with visceral gout.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Jack D; Coulson, Jennifer O; Coulson, Thomas D

    2011-09-01

    A young, captive-bred Harris's hawk, Parabuteo unicinctus, exhibited high fever and apparent paralysis of one leg shortly before death. Postmortem examination revealed milky white kidneys, white crystalline deposits in the pericardial sack, and white crystals in one intertarsal joint. Uric acid concentrations determined for the kidneys, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, and scrapings from the pericardial sack (20 mg) and intertarsal joint (2 mg) were, respectively, 12,200, 200, 110, 20,700, and 43,000 mg/100 g tissue. Compared with a healthy hawk, concentrations were elevated by a factor of 50 in the kidneys, 37 in skeletal muscle, and 18 in cardiac muscle. PMID:22017058

  11. A paper based microfluidic device for easy detection of uric acid using positively charged gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Hens, Abhiram; Arun, Ravi Kumar; Chatterjee, Monosree; Mahato, Kuldeep; Layek, Keya; Chanda, Nripen

    2015-03-21

    A paper based microfluidic device is fabricated that can rapidly detect very low concentrations of uric acid (UA) using 3,5,3',5'-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), H2O2 and positively charged gold nanoparticles ((+)AuNPs). In the presence of (+)AuNPs, H2O2 reacts with TMB to produce a bluish-green colour which becomes colourless on reaction with UA. This colorimetric method can detect as low as 8.1 ppm of UA within <20 minutes on white filter paper. This technique provides an alternative way for UA detection. PMID:25655365

  12. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF UREA (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Urea that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  13. Hydrogen production via urea electrolysis using a gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Rebecca L.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2011-03-01

    A technology was demonstrated for the production of hydrogen and other valuable products (nitrogen and clean water) through the electrochemical oxidation of urea in alkaline media. In addition, this process remediates toxic nitrates and prevents gaseous ammonia emissions. Improvements to urea electrolysis were made through replacement of aqueous KOH electrolyte with a poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte. A small volume of poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte was used to accomplish the electrochemical oxidation of urea improving on the previous requirement for large amounts of aqueous potassium hydroxide. The effect of gel composition was investigated by varying polymer content and KOH concentrations within the polymer matrix in order to determine which is the most advantageous for the electrochemical oxidation of urea and production of hydrogen.

  14. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  15. Ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention: how deep to incorporate urea?

    PubMed

    Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; MacDonald, J Douglas; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2013-11-01

    Incorporation of urea decreases ammonia (NH) volatilization, but field measurements are needed to better quantify the impact of placement depth. In this study, we measured the volatilization losses after banding of urea at depths of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 cm in a slightly acidic (pH 6) silt loam soil using wind tunnels. Mineral nitrogen (N) concentration and pH were measured in the top 2 cm of soil to determine the extent of urea N migration and the influence of placement depth on the availability of ammoniacal N for volatilization near the soil surface. Ammonia volatilization losses were 50% of applied N when urea was banded at the surface, and incorporation of the band decreased emissions by an average of 7% cm (14% cm when expressed as a percentage of losses after surface banding). Incorporating urea at depths >7.5 cm therefore resulted in negligible NH emissions and maximum N retention. Cumulative losses increased exponentially with increasing maximum NH-N and pH values measured in the surface soil during the experiment. However, temporal variations in these soil properties were poorly related to the temporal variations in NH emission rates, likely as a result of interactions with other factors (e.g., water content and NH-N adsorption) on, and fixation by, soil particles. Laboratory and field volatilization data from the literature were summarized and used to determine a relationship between NH losses and depth of urea incorporation. When emissions were expressed as a percentage of losses for a surface application, the mean reduction after urea incorporation was approximately 12.5% cm. Although we agree that the efficiency of urea incorporation to reduce NH losses varies depending on several soil properties, management practices, and climatic conditions, we propose that this value represents an estimate of the mean impact of incorporation depth that could be used when site-specific information is unavailable. PMID:25602404

  16. Urea channel inhibitors (UCIs): A new functional class of aquaretics

    PubMed Central

    Knepper, Mark A.; Miranda, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Using large-scale small molecule screening techniques, Li et al. have identified a compound that inhibits the UT-B urea channel. They propose that this or similar compounds could be used as aquaretic agents to increase water excretion without changes in electrolyte excretion. Such compounds would potentially be useful in treatment of hyponatremic disorders. Here we review the physiological basis for the action of urea channel inhibitors in the kidney and assess their clinical potential. PMID:23728001

  17. Early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the intestinal uric acid transporter SLC2A9.

    PubMed

    DeBosch, Brian J; Kluth, Oliver; Fujiwara, Hideji; Schrmann, Annette; Moley, Kelle

    2014-01-01

    Excess circulating uric acid, a product of hepatic glycolysis and purine metabolism, often accompanies metabolic syndrome. However, whether hyperuricaemia contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome or is merely a by-product of other processes that cause this disorder has not been resolved. In addition, how uric acid is cleared from the circulation is incompletely understood. Here we present a genetic model of spontaneous, early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the enterocyte urate transporter Glut9 (encoded by the SLC2A9 gene). Glut9-deficient mice develop impaired enterocyte uric acid transport kinetics, hyperuricaemia, hyperuricosuria, spontaneous hypertension, dyslipidaemia and elevated body fat. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, can reverse the hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. These data provide evidence that hyperuricaemia per se could have deleterious metabolic sequelae. Moreover, these findings suggest that enterocytes may regulate whole-body metabolism, and that enterocyte urate metabolism could potentially be targeted to modulate or prevent metabolic syndrome. PMID:25100214

  18. Urea Metabolism in Beef Steers Fed Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, or Gamagrass Hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess effects of endophyte treatments (Exp. 1), forage species, and supplementation (Exp. 2) on urea production, excretion, and recycling in beef steers. Infusion of 15,15N-urea and enrichment of urea in urine samples were used to calculate urea N entry and recyc...

  19. Comparison between the effects of indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide on creatinine clearance in patients with impaired renal function and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Madkour, H; Gadallah, M; Riveline, B; Plante, G E; Massry, S G

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of indapamide or hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure and renal function were examined in patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension. Both drugs controlled hypertension and blood pressure remained normal during the 2 years of the study. Despite this comparable control of hypertension, indapamide therapy was associated with a 28.5 +/- 4.4% increase in creatinine clearance while treatment with hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a 17.4 +/- 3.0% decrease in creatinine clearance. The results of the study indicate that indapamide is superior to hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension. PMID:7618651

  20. Active urea transport in lower vertebrates and mammals.

    PubMed

    Bankir, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Some unicellular organisms can take up urea from the surrounding fluids by an uphill pumping mechanism. Several active (energy-dependent) urea transporters (AUTs) have been cloned in these organisms. Functional studies show that active urea transport also occurs in elasmobranchs, amphibians, and mammals. In the two former groups, active urea transport may serve to conserve urea in body fluids in order to balance external high ambient osmolarity or prevent desiccation. In mammals, active urea transport may be associated with the need to either store and/or reuse nitrogen in the case of low nitrogen supply, or to excrete nitrogen efficiently in the case of excess nitrogen intake. There are probably two different families of AUTs, one with a high capacity able to establish only a relatively modest transepithelial concentration difference (renal tubule of some frogs, pars recta of the mammalian kidney, early inner medullary collecting duct in some mammals eating protein-poor diets) and others with a low capacity but able to maintain a high transepithelial concentration difference that has been created by another mechanism or in another organ (elasmobranch gills, ventral skin of some toads, and maybe mammalian urinary bladder). Functional characterization of these transporters shows that some are coupled to sodium (symports or antiports) while others are sodium-independent. In humans, only one genetic anomaly, with a mild phenotype (familial azotemia), is suspected to concern one of these transporters. In spite of abundant functional evidence for such transporters in higher organisms, none have been molecularly identified yet. PMID:25298347

  1. Analysis of the Sub-Millimeter Rotational Spectrum of Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jessica R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Urea, ((NH_{2})_{2}CO), has broad presence in biological species. As a byproduct of human metabolism, this molecule is commonly tested for in blood to diagnose different pathologies. Furthermore, urea is seen in interstellar medium and its detection could yield valuable insight into the mechanisms governing star formation. Despite the prevalence of urea, an absence exists in recorded frequencies of this molecule. The new generation of the sub-millimeter telescopes, such as ALMA, HERSCHEL, and SOFIA, allows detection of interstellar molecular spectra at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions. The knowledge of the precise frequencies of spectra transitions present in interstellar molecular clouds would alleviate the problem of spectral congestion and aid in molecular identification. This paper reports the most recent investigation of the submillimeter/terahertz gas phase spectrum of urea. Up until now, only the microwave laboratory spectrum of urea's vibrational ground state has been available. This paper reports the high-resolution spectra of urea in the sub-millimeter range, and extends the spectroscopic assignment of the rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state. Additionally, the assignment of the first vibrational state and tentative assignments of two additional vibrational states have been made.

  2. Urea-induced oxidative damage in Elodea densa leaves.

    PubMed

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Prasad, M N V

    2015-09-01

    Urea being a fertilizer is expected to be less toxic to plants. However, it was found that urea at 100mgL(-1) caused the oxidative stress in Elodea leaves due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation that are known to stimulate antioxidant pathway. Urea at a concentration of 500 and 1000mgL(-1) decreased low-molecular-weight antioxidants. In this case, the antioxidant status of plants was supported by the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the soluble proteins and -SH groups was observed with high concentrations of urea (30-60% of control). Thus, the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular-weight antioxidants, and induced soluble protein thiols are implicated in plant resistance to oxidative stress imposed by urea. We found that guaiacol peroxidase plays an important role in the removal of the peroxide in Elodea leaves exposed to 1000mgL(-1)of urea. PMID:25943514

  3. Molecular Complexation and Phase Diagrams of Urea/PEG Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guoepeng; Kyu, Thein

    2014-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and urea complexation has been known to form a stable crystal due to molecular complexation. The effect of molecular weight of PEG on the phase diagrams of its blends with urea has been explored. In the case of high molecular weight PEG8k/urea, the observed phase diagram is azeotrope, accompanied by eutectoid reactions in the submerged phases such as induced stable ``alpha'' phase crystals and metastable ``beta'' phase crystals. The metastable crystal can transform to stable crystal under a certain thermal annealing condition. However, the phase diagram of PEG1k/urea is of coexistence loop, whereas PEG400/urea exhibits eutectic character. Subsequently, the change of azeotrope to eutectic behavior with PEG molecular weight is analyzed in the context of the combined Flory-Huggins theory of liquid-liquid demixing and phase field theory of crystal solidification. Of particular interest is that only a very small urea amount (2 wt%) is needed to form a stable inclusion crystal via complexation with PEG. Potential application in lithium battery is discussed based on AC impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070.

  4. The Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome according to Menopausal Status in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Kil; Hong, Gil Pyo; Han, Si Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Seung Chul; Kim, Chang Woon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome according to menopausal status in Korean women. Methods A total of 2,241 women who visited to the health promotion center at Pusan National University Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were included in this cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaires and interviews with healthcare providers were used to assess disease history, medication history, menstrual history and body size measuring. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory results were compared as presence of metabolic syndrome and menopausal status by student-t test. Logistic regression analysis was performed between presence of metabolic syndrome and presumable predictive factors, such as age, menopause and serum uric acid. Results The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome were 7.45% (63/846) in pre-menopausal group and 23.87% (333/1395) in menopausal group. Serum uric acid level was higher in menopausal women than premenopausal women (4.6 1.1 vs. 4.3 0.9. P = 0.000). And, its concentration was also higher in metabolic syndrome than normal women regarding of menopausal statue (premenopause 4.7 1.1 vs. 4.2 0.8, P = 0.001, menopause 4.9 1.3 vs. 4.5 1.0, P = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed serum uric acid and age have relationship with metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.453, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.074-1.111, P = 0.000; OR: 1.092, 95% CI: 1.305-1.619, P = 0.000). Conclusion We could find out some potential of uric acid as predictive factor for metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and menopausal group. Further investigation is required to clarify the relationship between serum uric acid, menopause and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25580424

  5. Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid and Bone Mineral Density in the General Population and in Rats with Experimental Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dihua; Bobulescu, I. Alexandru; Maalouf, Naim M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Poindexter, John; Park, Sun; Wei, Fuxin; Chen, Christopher; Moe, Orson W.; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2015-01-01

    Higher serum uric acid concentrations have been associated with higher bone mineral density in observational studies of older men and peri- or postmenopausal women, prompting speculation of a potential protective effect of uric acid on bone. Whether this relationship is present in the general population has not been examined and there is no data to support causality. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a probability sample of the US population. Demographic data, dietary intake, lifestyle risk factors and physical activity assessment data, serum biochemistry including serum uric acid, and bone mineral density were obtained from 6,759 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2005-2010) participants over 30 years of age. In unadjusted analyses, higher serum uric acid levels were associated with higher bone mineral density at the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine in men, pre-menopausal women, and post-menopausal women not treated with estrogen. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, body mass index, black race, alcohol consumption, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein (CRP). This is in contradistinction to some prevailing conclusions in the literature. To further examine the causal effect of higher serum uric acid on skeletal health, including biomechanical properties that are not measurable in humans, we used an established rat model of inducible mild hyperuricemia. There were no differences in bone mineral density, volume density, and biomechanical properties between hyperuricemic rats and normouricemic control animals. Taken together, our data do not support the hypothesis that higher serum uric acid has protective effects on bone health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved PMID:25491196

  6. Recycling of polyurethane-urea RIM

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.X.; Kresta, J.E.; Suthar, B.; Li, X.H.

    1997-12-31

    Polyurethane-urea (PUU) RIM are crosslinked materials, which cannot be reprocessed or recycled by using the conventional process. The chemical decrosslinking reaction or transesterification of themosetting polyurethanes by using various inorganic and organic catalysts were investigated. The recycling of waste PUU RIM materials (unpainted, painted and filler reinforced) through decrosslinking (transesterification) using low molecular weight glycols in presence of catalyst was evaluated. It was established that the transestification of PUU RIM can be carried out at the low glycol (EG)/RIM ratio (15/84.5) and that the usual recovery step for the excess glycol (EG) can be avoided resulting in an economical process. The process was scaled up in a 50 gallon reactor at the LymTal International Inc. successfully. It was established that the products from the decrosslinking of PUU RIM are a mixture of the liquid oligomers (LOs) containing urethane, OH and NH{sub 2} groups. These functional groups in LOs exhibit many potential applications as raw materials in the preparation of RIM coatings, adhesives, foams, sealants and composites. PUU RIM made from LOs exhibited promising and interesting results. Both solvent-based and waterborne urethane coatings could be made from LOs. Urethane adhesives made from LOs showed improvement of properties with increasing amounts of LOs. Structural adhesives based on epoxy and LOs were prepared and the effects of equivalent ratios and curing conditions on the adhesive strength of the epoxy/LO adhesives were investigated. Solvent-free coating based on epoxy and LOs was prepared and their properties were determined. Both wood fiber and glass fabric reinforced composites were prepared by using epoxy and LOs and they exhibited interesting properties for different potential applications.

  7. [Influence of acute administration of ramipril on the excretion of uric acid].

    PubMed

    Labeeuw, M; Pozet, N; Zech, P Y; Hadj-Aissa, A; Finaz de Villaine, J; Laville, M

    1987-06-01

    The influence of a new ACEI, Ramipril (R) on renal handling of UA was investigated. 13 hypertensives with normal renal function received either R (10 mg p.o.) or placebo (P). Arterial pressure (AP), GFR (Inulin clearance), Renal Plasma Flow (RPF, PAH clearance), UA urinary excretion (UAV) and fractional clearance (FeAU: UA clearance/GFR) were studied for seven hours after drug administration. GFR remained stable in all cases. R had no effect on sodium excretion rate. Compared to P, R significantly increased UAV by 25 p. 100, FeAU by 32 p. 100, RPF by 26.5 p. 100 and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 10 p. 100. ACE activity was maximally suppressed at 2 hours. More than 80 p. 100 of the maximal changes in UAU and FeAU were observed within the first two hours, while a progressive increase in RPF up to the fifth hour, and a progressive fall in MAP up to the fourth hour was evident. Except for PAM, all these changes were still present at the end of the study (seventh hour). In conclusion, Ramipril increases the fractional excretion of uric acid. This effect is observed independently of any change in sodium balance and preceeds by two to three hours the changes in renal hemodynamics. The simultaneous changes in FeAU and in ACE activity indicate that the effect on uric acid excretion is presumably due to the fall in angiotensin concentration. PMID:2959232

  8. Association of Serum Uric Acid and Coronary Artery Disease in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-wei; He, Ling-jie; Cao, Shu-jun; Yang, Qing; Yang, Shi-wei; Zhou, Yu-jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To date, no study in the published literature has investigated the role of various serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations in the development of angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in premenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role SUA levels may play in the prevalence, severity, and prognosis of CAD in premenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included 607 premenopausal women who had undergone coronary angiography. The CAD diagnosis was based upon stenosis affecting ?50% of the luminal diameter. Association of the SUA levels with CAD prevalence, severity, and clinical outcomes were assessed by statistical analysis. Results In total, 369 (60.8%) of the patients were diagnosed with CAD. The CAD patients had significantly higher SUA levels than those without CAD (5.31.9 vs. 4.81.7 mg/dL, P?=?0.001). The SUA levels were found to be significantly associated with CAD prevalence (P?=?0.013). Patients with higher levels of SUA also showed increased rates of multivessel disease and composite end-points, such as major adverse cardiac events. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified abnormally high levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia) as an independent risk factor for CAD (OR 1.51 (1.112.53), P<0.05). Conclusions The SUA levels are significantly associated with the prevalence of CAD. The SUA levels may be a predictor for incidence of major cardiovascular events in premenopausal women. PMID:25184207

  9. Association of rheumatoid factor and uric acid with psoriatic arthritis: a review.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I

    2014-07-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation of the joints of psoriatic patients. Psoriatic arthritis also affects tissues surrounding the joints including tendon and ligaments. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), recognized for over 100 years, is the second most frequent diagnostic category after Rhematoid Arthritis (RA) and occurring up to 10% of patients with skin psoriasis. Although PsA is a sero-negative arthritis and the absence of rheumatoid factor is a characteristic laboratory finding, it may be present in 3% of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Hyperuricaemia has been generally accepted as a frequent accompaniment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. It has been postulated that the hyperuricaemia results from increased purine synthesis from the rapid epidermal cell turnover. With its uniquely diverse pathophysiologic and clinical features and the ability to progress into one of the most destructive arthritis known as, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), remains a challenging disease deserving of the attention in recent years. High level of serum uric acid is a risk factor for many diseases like gout, hypertension, coronary heart diseases etc. Patients with PsA remain vulnerable for many diseases like above mentioned one. So, hyperurecemia may play a vicious link with PsA and gout, hypertension and so many diseases. This article may help all dermatologists and researchers for further evaluation of serum uric acid and RA factor in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. PMID:25178623

  10. Uric acid as a danger signal in gout and its comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kenneth L; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Lai, Jiann-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Uric acid is a waste product of purine catabolism. This molecule comes to clinical attention when it nucleates to form crystals of monosodium urate (MSU) in joints or other tissues, and thereby causes the inflammatory disease of gout. Patients with gout frequently suffer from a number of comorbid conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Why MSU crystals trigger inflammation and are associated with comorbidities of gout has been unclear, but recent studies provide new insights into these issues. Rather than simply being a waste product, uric acid could serve a pathophysiological role as a local alarm signal that alerts the immune system to cell injury and helps to trigger both innate and adaptive immune responses. The inflammatory component of these immune responses is caused when urate crystals trigger both inflammasome-dependent and independent pathways to generate the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1. The resulting bioactive IL-1 stimulates the inflammation of gout and might contribute to the development of other comorbidities. Surprisingly, the same mechanisms underlie the inflammatory response to a number of irritant particles, many of which also cause disease. These new insights help to explain the pathogenesis of gout and point to potential new therapeutic targets for this and other sterile inflammatory diseases. PMID:22945591

  11. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  12. Hypothesis: Could Excessive Fructose Intake and Uric Acid Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Manitius, Jacek; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Feig, Daniel I.; Shafiu, Mohamed; Segal, Mark; Glassock, Richard J.; Shimada, Michiko; Roncal, Carlos; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2009-01-01

    We propose that excessive fructose intake (>50 g/d) may be one of the underlying etiologies of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The primary sources of fructose are sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup. First, fructose intake correlates closely with the rate of diabetes worldwide. Second, unlike other sugars, the ingestion of excessive fructose induces features of metabolic syndrome in both laboratory animals and humans. Third, fructose appears to mediate the metabolic syndrome in part by raising uric acid, and there are now extensive experimental and clinical data supporting uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Fourth, environmental and genetic considerations provide a potential explanation of why certain groups might be more susceptible to developing diabetes. Finally, we discuss the counterarguments associated with the hypothesis and a potential explanation for these findings. If diabetes might result from excessive intake of fructose, then simple public health measures could have a major impact on improving the overall health of our populace. PMID:19151107

  13. Creatinine, Arsenic Metabolism, and Renal Function in an Arsenic-Exposed Population in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brandilyn A.; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Neugut, Y. Dana; Pilsner, J. Richard; Levy, Diane; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney disease is emerging as an arsenic (As)-linked disease outcome, however further evidence of this association is warranted. Our first objective for this paper was to examine the potential renal toxicity of As exposure in Bangladesh. Our second objective relates to examining whether the previously reported positive association between urinary creatinine (uCrn) and As methylation may be explained by renal function. We had hypothesized that these associations relate to supply and demand for s-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor for both creatine synthesis and As methylation. Alternatively, renal function could influence both As and creatinine excretion, or the As metabolites may influence renal function, which in turn influences uCrn. We conducted a cross-sectional study (N?=?478) of adults, composed of a sample recruited in 2001 and a sample recruited in 2003. We assessed renal function using plasma cystatin C, and calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Consistent with renal toxicity of As, log-uAs had a marginal inverse association with eGFR in the 2003 sample (b?=??5.6, p?=?0.07), however this association was not significant in the 2001 sample (b?=??1.9, p?=?0.24). Adjustment for eGFR did not alter the associations between uCrn and the %uAs metabolites, indicating that GFR does not explain these associations. Increased eGFR was associated with increased odds of having %uInAs >12.2% (2001: OR?=?1.01, 95%CI (1.00,1.03); 2003: OR?=?1.04, 95%CI (1.01,1.07)). In the 2003 sample only, there was a negative association between eGFR and %uDMA (b?=??0.08, p?=?0.02). These results may indicate differential effects of renal function on excretion of InAs and DMA. Alternatively, a certain methylation pattern, involving decreased %InAs and increased %DMA, may reduce renal function. Given that these studies were cross-sectional, we cannot distinguish between these two possibilities. Discrepancies between the samples may be due to the higher As exposure, poorer nutrition, and lower As methylation capacity in the 2003 sample. PMID:25438247

  14. Comparison of Urinary Protein: Creatinine Index and Dipsticks for Detection of Microproteinuria in Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop; Kapoor, Sangeeta; Gupta, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Proteinuria has been recognized as one of the earliest signs of renal function deterioration in Diabetes mellitus. Proteinuria occurs due to alterations in the glomerular permeability and later, due to a failure in the reabsorption of filtered protein by the tubular cells. Normally, most of the healthy adults excrete 20-150 mg of protein in urine over 24 hours. Objectives: To find out the normal urinary Protein Creatinine Index (PCI) in healthy subjects, to compare the urinary PCI of diabetic patients with that of healthy subjects and to compare the urinary PCI with dipsticks for the detection of microproteinuria. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 28 type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients and 40 age and sex matched healthy controls. Freshly collected urine samples were tested qualitatively for the presence of proteinuria by Hellers test, the sulfosalicylic acid test, heat-coagulation tests and urine dipsticks. Later on, the results were compared by performing a quantitative analysis of the protein in the spot urine samples by the sulfosalicylic acid method. A quantitative analysis of creatinine was done by the modified Jaffes test. The PCI was calculated for each of the participant in the study. The Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) of the PCI was calculated and it was compared between the two groups. Results: The normal range of the PCI which was established in this study was 60 to 220. Significantly higher amount of proteins were found to be excreted in urine in diabetic patients (25.37 12.51 mg/dl) as compared to those in normal subjects (8.93 3.54 mg/dl). On comparison of the PCI between the controls and the diabetic subjects, it was found to be significantly elevated in the Diabetes mellitus patients (controls = 114.65 47.97 and in the diabetic patients =373.04 98.53) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The PCI of a random urine sample can provide a very useful, simple and convenient method for the quantitative assessment of proteinuria, to judge the extent of kidney damage and for avoiding the drawbacks of the 24 - hr urine collections. PMID:23730632

  15. A Risk Assessment of the Jaffe vs Enzymatic Method for Creatinine Measurement in an Outpatient Population

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Robert L.; Straseski, Joely A.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Adams, Austin H.; Lehman, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Jaffe and enzymatic methods are the two most common methods for measuring serum creatinine. The Jaffe method is less expensive than the enzymatic method but is also more susceptible to interferences. Interferences can lead to misdiagnosis but interferences may vary by patient population. The overall risk associated with the Jaffe method depends on the probability of misclassification and the consequences of misclassification. This study assessed the risk associated with the Jaffe method in an outpatient population. We analyzed the discordance rate in the estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine measurements obtained by the Jaffe and enzymatic method. Methods Method comparison and risk analysis. Five hundred twenty-nine eGFRs obtained by the Jaffe and enzymatic method were compared at four clinical decision limits. We determined the probability of discordance and the consequence of misclassification at each decision limit to evaluate the overall risk. Results We obtained 529 paired observations. Of these, 29 (5.5%) were discordant with respect to one of the decision limits (i.e. 15, 30, 45 or 60 ml/min/1.73m2). The magnitude of the differences (Jaffe result minus enzymatic result) were significant relative to analytical variation in 21 of the 29 (72%) of the discordant results. The magnitude of the differences were not significant relative to biological variation. The risk associated with misclassification was greatest at the 60 ml/min/1.73m2 decision limit because the probability of misclassification and the potential for adverse outcomes were greatest at that decision limit. Conclusion The Jaffe method is subject to bias due to interfering substances (loss of analytical specificity). The risk of misclassification is greatest at the 60 ml/min/1.73m2 decision limit; however, the risk of misclassification due to bias is much less than the risk of misclassification due to biological variation. The Jaffe method may pose low risk in selected populations if eGFR results near the 60 ml/min/1.73m2 decision limit are interpreted with caution. PMID:26599086

  16. A post hoc analysis of subgroup outcomes and creatinine in the phase III clinical trial (EMPOWER) of dexpramipexole in ALS.

    PubMed

    Bozik, Michael E; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Brooks, Benjamin R; Rudnicki, Stacy A; Moore, Dan H; Zhang, Bing; Ludolph, Albert; Cudkowicz, Merit E; van den Berg, Leonard H; Mather, James; Petzinger, Thomas; Archibald, Donald

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the phase II and phase III (EMPOWER) studies of dexpramipexole in ALS and evaluate potential EMPOWER responder subgroups and biomarkers based on significant inter-study population differences. In a post hoc analysis, we compared the baseline population characteristics of both dexpramipexole studies and analyzed EMPOWER efficacy outcomes and laboratory measures in subgroups defined by significant inter-study differences. Results showed that, compared with phase II, the proportion of El Escorial criteria (EEC) definite participants decreased (p = 0.005), riluzole use increased (p = 0.002), and mean symptom duration increased (p = 0.037) significantly in EMPOWER. Baseline creatinine (p < 0.001) and on-study creatinine change (p < 0.001) correlated significantly with ALSFRS-R in EMPOWER. In the EMPOWER subgroup defined by EEC-definite ALS, riluzole use, and < median symptom duration (15.3 months), dexpramipexole-treated participants had reduced ALSFRS-R slope decline (p = 0.015), decreased mortality (p = 0.011), and reduced creatinine loss (p = 0.003). In conclusion, significant differences existed between the phase II and EMPOWER study populations in ALS clinical trials of dexpramipexole. In a post hoc analysis of EMPOWER subgroups defined by these differences, potential clinical benefits of dexpramipexole were identified in the subgroup of riluzole-treated, short-symptom duration, EEC-definite ALS participants. Creatinine loss correlated with disease progression and was reduced in dexpramipexole-treated participants, suggesting it as a candidate biomarker. PMID:25125035

  17. Kinetic Studies with Ion Selective Electrodes: Determination of Creatinine in Urine with a Picrate Ion Selective Electrode: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamandis, E. P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic of the Jaffe reaction with picrate ion selective electrode (ISE) and a kinetic method for determining creatinine in urine is presented. The experiment could be used to familarize students with the application of ISE in kinetic studies and chemical analysis. (Author/JN)

  18. Taste modulating N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) ?-amino acids formed from creatinine and reducing carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Christof; Walker, Alesia; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-08-10

    Recent investigations led to the discovery of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)aminopropionic acid as a taste modulator enhancing the typical thick-sour mouthdryness and mouthfulness imparted by stewed beef juice. In the present study, systematic model reactions were targeted toward the generation of a series of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-?-amino acids by Maillard-type reactions between creatinine and ribose, glucose, methylglyoxal, or glyoxal, respectively. By application of a comparative taste dilution analysis on fractions isolated from thermally treated creatinine/carbohydrate mixtures by means of hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC), a total of nine N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-?-amino acids were identified by means of LC-MS, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Six of the nine creatinine glycation products were previously not reported in the literature. Whereas creatinine exhibited a bitter taste, none of the N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-?-amino acids imparted any intrinsic taste activity up to levels of 10 mmol/L (in water). Depending strongly on their chemical structure, these N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-?-amino acids induced a thick-sour, mouthdrying orosensation and mouthfulness enhancement when evaluated in model broth with recognition thresholds ranging from 31 to >1000 ?mol/L. PMID:21702476

  19. Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the diegestive tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to establish the relationships between transfer of blood urea-N to the digestive tract (GIT) and utilisation of recycled urea-N within the GIT, and to determine which of these two mechanisms of the urea recycling process places greater limits on N salvage by growing sheep. Four gro...

  20. Configuration control on the shape memory stiffness of molecularly imprinted polymer for specific uptake of creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Qian Yee; Zolkeflay, Muhammad Helmi; Low, Siew Chun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, sol-gel processing was proposed to prepare a creatinine (Cre)-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The intermolecular interaction constituted by the cross-linkers, i.e., 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and aluminium ion (Al3+), was studied and compared in order to form a confined matrix that promises the effectiveness of molecular imprinting. In view of the shape recognition, the hydrogen bonded Cre-AMPS did not demonstrate good recognition of Cre, with Cre binding found only at 5.70 ± 0.15 mg g-1 of MIP. Whilst, MIP cross-linked using Al3+ was able to attain an excellent Cre adsorption capacity of 19.48 ± 0.64 mg g-1 of MIP via the stronger ionic interaction of Cre-Al3+. Based on the Scatchard analysis, a higher Cre concentration in testing solution required greater driving force to resolve the binding resistance of Cre molecules, so as to have a precise Cre binding with shape factor. The molecular recognition ability of Cre-MIP in present work was shape-specific for Cre as compared to its structural analogue, 2-pyrrolidinone (2-pyr), by an ideal selectivity coefficient of 6.57 ± 0.10. In overall, this study has come up with a practical approach on the preparation of MIP for the detection of renal dysfunction by point-of-care Cre testing.

  1. Significance of normal range urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Xie, Ling-Ting; He, Yi-Fan; Lv, Yan-Yu; Jiang, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Yan

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate clinical features of Chinese metabolic syndrome (MS) subjects with normal urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) and to estimate independent correlation factor for UACR. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in participants having MS. The patients with different grade of albuminuria were divided into 4 groups according to the value of UACR (<10, 10-20, 21-30, >30 mg/g). All underwent biochemical tests. Bioelectrical impedance body fat content, islet β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to further determine association between UACR and clinical factors with adjustment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), TG, fat mass, fat content and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in the group with UACR at 10-20 mg/g than those in the group with UACA lower than 10 mg/g (P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed that TG, HbA1c, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and SBP were independently associated with UACR. The patients with normal UACR had abnormal levels of MS components. The factors independently associated with UACR were TG, HbA1c, WHR and SBP. PMID:26670437

  2. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio as potential biomarker for cerebral microvascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Amanda L.; Rossetti, Heidi C.; Peshock, Ronald M.; Weiner, Myron F.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; McColl, Roderick W.; Hulsey, Keith M.; Das, Sandeep R.; King, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume seen on brain MRI are measures of microvascular disease which may have shared susceptibility to metabolic and vascular insults. We hypothesized that elevated ACR may be useful as inexpensive biomarker to predict presence of cerebral microvascular disease. We assessed the association between ACR at study entry and subsequent WMH volume. We evaluated pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, hypertension duration, waist circumference, fasting glucose, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential mediators and diabetes as a moderator of the association between ACR and WMH. Data were collected at study entry and at follow-up approximately 7 years later in a multi-ethnic population sample of 1281 participants (mean age=51, SD=9.5) from Dallas County. Overall, ACR differences were only marginally (p= 0.05) associated with subsequent WMH. In mediator analysis, however, ACR differences related specifically to arterial pulsatility(β=0.010, bootstrap 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.002 to 0.021) and waist circumference (β= -0.004, bootstrap 95% CI: -0.011 to -0.001) were significantly associated with WMH. ACR differences related to serum glucose and CRP were not associated with WMH. ACR evaluated at the same time as WMH had a higher level of significance (p< 0.001) indicating greater utility in predicting current cerebrovascular insults. PMID:24875487

  3. The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  4. Interaction of Obesity and Central Obesity on Elevated Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiu; Tian, Honggang; Li, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria was much more common among obese individuals indicating a probable association with obesity. However, association of microalbuminuria with interaction between obesity and central obesity has not yet been studied. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a 2889 general population aged ?30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index ?28.0 kg/m2 and central obesity was defined as waist-to-hip ratio ?0.85 for females and ?0.90 for males. Both additive and multipliable interactions between obesity and central obesity on elevated urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were evaluated. Results After controlling for potential covariates, participants with both obesity and central obesity have significantly increased risk for elevated UACR (OR?=?1.82 P<0.001) compared to those with neither. Additive interaction analysis indicated that about 43.9% of the risk of elevated UACR in participants with both obesity and central obesity was attributed to the interaction between obesity and central obesity (the attributable proportion because of the interaction: 0.439; 95% CI: 0.1100.768). The multipliable interactive effect between obesity and central obesity on elevated UACR was not found significant (OR?=?1.82, P?=?0.078). Conclusions Microalbuminuria was significantly associated with the interaction between obesity and central obesity. Our results indicated that individuals with both obesity and central obesity should be intensively managed to prevent renal diseases. PMID:24892930

  5. Trends in serum creatinine testing in Oxfordshire, UK, 19932013: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Jason; Shine, Brian; McFadden, Emily; Lasserson, Daniel; Perera, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine how many kidney function tests are done, on whom, how frequently they are performed and how they have changed over time. Design Retrospective study of all serum creatinine, urine albumin and urine creatinine tests. Setting Primary and secondary care in Oxfordshire from 1993 to 2013. Participants Unselected population of 1?220?447 people. Main outcome measures The total number of creatinine and urinary protein tests ordered from primary and secondary care and the number of tests per year stratified by categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The frequency of testing in patients having their kidney function monitored. Results Creatinine requests from primary care increased steadily from 1997 and exceeded 220?000 requests in 2013. Tests corresponding to normal kidney function (eGFR >60/mL/min/1.73?m2) constituted 59% of all kidney function tests in 1993 and accounted for 83% of all tests in 2013. Test corresponding to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 35 declined after 2007. Reduced kidney function, albuminuria, male gender, diabetes and age were independently associated with more frequent monitoring. For a female patient between 61 and 80?years and with stage 3a CKD, the average number of serum creatinine tests (95% CI) was 3.23/year (3.19 to 3.26) and for a similar woman with diabetes, the average number of tests was 5.50 (5.44 to 5.56) tests per year. Conclusions There has been a large increase in the number of kidney function tests over the past two decades. However, we found little evidence that this increase is detecting more CKD. Tests are becoming more frequent in people with and without evidence of renal impairment. Future work using a richer data source could help unravel the underlying reasons for the increased testing and determine how much is necessary and useful. PMID:26674500

  6. Urinary cortisol:creatinine ratios in healthy horses and horses with hyperadrenocorticism and non-adrenal disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, K J; Dixon, R M

    2002-06-22

    Urinary cortisol and creatinine concentrations, and the cortisol:creatinine ratio were compared between 12 healthy horses (group 1), 13 horses with Cushing's disease (group 2), and eight horses with dysautonomia syndrome (equine grass sickness) (group 3). The mean (sd) urinary cortisol concentrations were 112 (55.7), 250 (357) and 864 (526) nmol/litre in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively; the mean (sd) urinary creatinine concentrations were 18.9 (7.3), 12.0 (6.7) and 45.2 (26.4) nmol/litre in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and the mean (sd) ratios were 6.1 (2.6), 19.8 (23.8) and 21.3 (14.5) (x 10(-6)) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The urinary cortisol and creatinine concentrations were significantly greater in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, but the ratios were not significantly different, although there was a trend (P=0.076) towards higher values in groups 2 and 3. A diagnostic cut-off in the cortisol:creatinine ratio for the confirmation of Cushing's disease of more than 6.9 x 10(-6) was associated with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3 and 75.0 per cent, respectively, when compared with healthy horses. However, when group 3 horses were included, a cut-off of more than 7.4 x 10(-6) was associated with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 84.6 and 54.5 per cent, respectively. PMID:12135071

  7. Urea-formaldehyde resins and free formaldehyde content.

    PubMed

    Vargha, V

    1998-01-01

    Specifications of wood adhesives must be in correlation with the requirements for the corresponding wood products, for which they will be used. Formaldehyde emission of wood products bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin based adhesives is strictly regulated by standards and there is a compromise is between formaldehyde emission and performance, such as strength, or water resistance. Since values of formaldehyde emission depend on the test method used, in Europe urea-formaldehyde resins for adhesives may generally be classified according to HCHO emission in the particleboard rating of Emission 0 to Emission I class (E-0 to E-1). According to DIN EN 120, particleboard quality E1 emits <6.5 mg/100 g dry article determined with the perforator method. Although a great number of factors effect the formaldehyde emission of the cured products, such as the hardener system, the type of wood etc., the emission of formaldehyde is in strict correlation with the free formaldehyde content of the resin before the curing process. E1 emission class can be achieved, if the free formaldehyde content of the resin is lower than 0.2% by mass. Urea-formaldehyde resins containing. higher than 0.5% free formaldehyde by mass exceed emission class E2, and are not accepted. Since the free formaldehyde content of the urea-formaldehyde resin effects the emission of formaldehyde in the cured product, low formaldehyde content must be ensured during resin synthesis. This can be achieved by properly selecting synthesis conditions as well as raw materials. The quality of raw materials is an essential and determining factor for the synthesis of urea formaldehyde resins. The principal changes which may take place in the formaldehyde solution on storage are the polymerization and precipitation of the polymer, Cannizzaro reaction, methylal formation, oxydation to formic acid, condensation to hydroxyaldehydes and sugars. Any of these reactions are detrimental to product quality. The state of formaldehyde is also an essential factor, since the reaction of poly(methylene glycol)s with urea leads to methylene ether linkages resulting in emission of formaldehyde during storage and later on during the process of curing. Hydrolysis, isomerisation and decomposition of urea may take place simultaneously during improper storage conditions, such as high humidity, high temperatures, industrial atmosphere. The side products formed affect the reaction with formaldehyde during the synthesis resulting in high free formaldehyde content of urea-formaldehyde resins. The relation between synthesis conditions, free formaldehyde content and performance of urea-formaldehyde resins are discussed in detail. PMID:10526993

  8. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  9. Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae.

    PubMed

    Mrsdorf, G; Kaltwasser, H

    1989-01-01

    No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae, however, no GS activity was detected, and GOGAT activity was only present in S. ureae. GDH enzymes were present in these two organisms, but showed only low affinity for ammonium, with apparent Km-values of 55.2 mM in B. pasteurii and 36.7 mM in S. ureae, respectively. These observations explain why P. vulgaris is able to grow at neutral pH and low ammonium concentration (2 mM), while B. pasteurii and S. ureae require high ammonium concentration (40 mM) and alkaline pH for growth. PMID:2570557

  10. Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Glibert, Patricia M; Azanza, Rhodora; Burford, Michele; Furuya, Ken; Abal, Eva; Al-Azri, Adnan; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Andersen, Per; Anderson, Donald M; Beardall, John; Berg, G Mine; Brand, Larry; Bronk, Deborah; Brookes, Justin; Burkholder, Joann M; Cembella, Allan; Cochlan, William P; Collier, Jackie L; Collos, Yves; Diaz, Robert; Doblin, Martina; Drennen, Thomas; Dyhrman, Sonya; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; Furnas, Miles; Galloway, James; Granli, Edna; Ha, Dao Viet; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Harrison, John; Harrison, Paul J; Heil, Cynthia A; Heimann, Kirsten; Howarth, Robert; Jauzein, Ccile; Kana, Austin A; Kana, Todd M; Kim, Hakgyoon; Kudela, Raphael; Legrand, Catherine; Mallin, Michael; Mulholland, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; O'Neil, Judith; Pitcher, Grant; Qi, Yuzao; Rabalais, Nancy; Raine, Robin; Seitzinger, Sybil; Salomon, Paulo S; Solomon, Caroline; Stoecker, Diane K; Usup, Gires; Wilson, Joanne; Yin, Kedong; Zhou, Mingjiang; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2008-06-01

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed. PMID:18439628

  11. Toxicology of urea formaldehyde and polyurethane foam insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.C.; Rumack, B.H.; Aldrich, F.D.

    1981-01-16

    Two types of foam insulation are in wide use. Urea formaldehyde foam is a relatively inexpensive, easily installed, and efficient insulation. Toxicity from this insulation is related to release of free formaldehyde into the home. Mild to incapacitating symptoms have been reported in occupants of urea formaldehyde-insulated homes. Airborne formaldehyde levels frequently have exceeded standards set for occupational exposure. The long-term consequences of such exposure are unknown. Because of publicity over the toxicity of urea formaldehyde foam, many physicians and patients have confused urea formaldehyde and polyurethane foam. Unlike urea formaldehyde, polyurethane foam is fully cured before construction. Toxicity occurs only during manufacture and curing. To date, there have been no reports to our knowledge of toxicity in occupants of polyurethane-insulated homes. However, toxicity caused by pyrolysis products may occur during combustion in homes insulated with either type of insulation. This report details 48 patients in whom complete medical data were obtained out of the first 100 patients contacting the Rocky Mountain Poison Center.

  12. Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

  13. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrocompounds on the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed la...

  14. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2010-03-19

    Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 {angstrom} structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate several dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed {alpha}-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity.

  15. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Kent, Jack W.; Debnath, Subrata; Cole, Shelley A.; Haack, Karin; Gring, Harald H. H.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Moses, Eric K.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257, and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p < 1.3 10?7). The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2, 36.2, and 38.2%, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 37 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight, and waist circumference (p < 1.4 10?3) and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status (TAS). The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p < 1.9 10?6) for joint linkage/association (JLA) was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6) on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors. PMID:24379826

  16. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, sa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Vlker, Uwe; Waeber, Grard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Vlzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p?=?5.210?201), ABCG2 (p?=?3.110?26), SLC17A1 (p?=?3.010?14), SLC22A11 (p?=?6.710?14), SLC22A12 (p?=?2.010?9), SLC16A9 (p?=?1.110?8), GCKR (p?=?1.410?9), LRRC16A (p?=?8.510?9), and near PDZK1 (p?=?2.710?9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p?=?4.010?26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p?=?5.010?8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p?=?1.410?57 and p?=?8.110?54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  17. Improving Ammonium and Nitrate Release from Urea Using Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Compost Produced from Agricultural Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Latifah; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3− leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4+ and NO3− release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4+ and NO3− losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4+ and NO3− release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3− leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4+ retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4+ and NO3− release from urea. PMID:25793220

  18. Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Omar, Latifah; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. PMID:25793220

  19. Uric acid promotes neuronal differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nailong; Xu, Lili; Lin, Peng; Cui, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Uric acid is an important, naturally occurring serum antioxidant. The present study investigates the use of uric acid for promoting proliferation and neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were pre-induced in the presence of either 0, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mM uric acid in combination with 1 mM ?-mercaptoethanol for 24 hours, followed by exposure to identical uric acid concentrations and 5 mM ?-mercaptoethanol for 6 and 10 hours. Cells developed a neuronal-like morphology, with formation of interconnected process extensions, typical of neural cells. Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed neuron specific enolase positive cells were present in each group except the control group. A greater number of neuron specific enolase positive cells were observed in 0.8 mM uric acid in combination with 5 mM ?-mercaptoethanol at 10 hours. After 24 hours of induction, Nissl bodies were detected in the cytoplasm of all differentiated cell groups except the control group and Nissl body numbers were greatest in human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in the presence of 0.8 mM uric acid and 5 mM ?-mercaptoethanol. These results suggest uric acid accelerates differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. PMID:25737698

  20. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. PMID:26774005

  1. Reactive oxygen species derived from xanthine oxidase interrupt dimerization of breast cancer resistance protein, resulting in suppression of uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Jiro; Kuwayama, Kaori; Sasaki, Shunichi; Kaneko, Chihiro; Koizumi, Takahiro; Yabe, Keisuke; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Takeno, Reiko; Takaya, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Iseki, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of hyperuricemia/gout increases with aging. However, the effect of aging on function for excretion of uric acid to out of the body has not been clarified. We found that ileal uric acid clearance in middle-aged rats (11-12 months) was decreased compared with that in young rats (2 months). In middle-aged rats, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the ileum was significantly higher than that in young rats. Inosine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are derived from XO, also decreased ileal uric acid clearance. ROS derived from XO decreased the active homodimer level of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which is a uric acid efflux transporter, in the ileum. Pre-administration of allopurinol recovered the BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the recovering ileal uric acid clearance. Moreover, we investigated the effects of ROS derived from XO on BCRP homodimer level directly in Caco-2 cells using hypoxanthine. Treatment with hypoxanthine decreased BCRP homodimer level. Treatment with hypoxanthine induced mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the decreasing BCRP homodimer level might be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, ROS derived from XO decrease BCRP homodimer level, resulting in suppression of function for uric acid excretion to the ileal lumen. ROS derived from XO may cause the suppression of function of the ileum for the excretion of uric acid with aging. The results of our study provide a new insight into the causes of increasing hyperuricemia/gout prevalence with aging. PMID:26119820

  2. [The clinical spectrum of urea cycle defects in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Mller-Marbach, Alex Michael; Keitel, V; Gbel, T; Jensen, B-E; Gbels, S; Baur, C; Schneitler, S; Schneitler, V; Behm, P; Becker, M; Brinkmeyer, C; Foede, M; Httig, F; Beyer, M; Breuer, M; Filke, S; Giesecke, C; Haars, U; Haes, J; Heinzel-Pleines, U; Kann, S; Kocheril, S J; Mallach, S; Sagert, C; Qvartskhava, N; Winzer, R; Donner, M G

    2011-07-01

    Urea cycle defects belong to the most common metabolic disorders with a cumulative incidence of 1:8000. A common trait of urea cycle defects is a disturbed detoxification of ammonia leading to hyperammonemia in the event of a high nitrogen load. Most patients develop symptoms in the neonatal period or in infancy, e. g. vomiting, seizures and disturbed consciousness. Depending on the affected enzyme and its residual activity, patients differ in the age at first presentation, the character and severity of symptoms and in the susceptibility to metabolic derangement. The presence of hyperammonemia and an altered plasma amino acid profile give the essential diagnostic clues. Since modern therapeutic measures have prolonged the life expectancy of these patients and provided the possibility of a first presentation in adulthood, patients with urea cycle defects have become an increasing challenge in internal medicine. The reported case series illustrates the heterogeneous clinical course of these disorders from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22139877

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

  4. Electrochemical Determination of Uric Acid at CdTe Quantum Dot Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Deng; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Guangteng; Zhang, Yannan; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Fenghai; Li, Miaojing; Chang, Dong; Pan, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of uric acid (UA) at a CdTe quantum dot (QD) modified the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). CdTe QDs, as new semiconductor nanocrystals, can greatly improve the peak current of UA. The anodic peak current of UA was linear with its concentration between 1.010(-6) and 4.010(-4) M in 0.1 M pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution. The LOD for UA at the CdTe electrode (1.010(-7) M) was superior to that of the GCE. In addition, we also determined the effects of scan rate, pH, and interferences of UA for the voltammetric behavior and detection. The results indicated that modified electrode possessed excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, a new and efficient electrochemical sensor for detecting UA was developed. PMID:26525244

  5. The Use of Serum Uric Acid Concentration as an Indicator of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Success

    PubMed Central

    Menenakos, Evangelos; Doulami, Georgia; Tzanetakou, Irene P.; Natoudi, Maria; Kokoroskos, Nikolaos; Almpanopoulos, Konstantinos; Leandros, Emmanouil; Zografos, George; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) effectively reduces weight by restricting gastric capacity and altering gut hormones levels. We designed a prospective study to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and weight loss. SUA and body mass index (BMI) were measured preoperatively and on first postoperative month and year in patients who underwent LSG in our department of bariatric surgery. Data on 55 patients were analyzed. Preoperative SUA concentration had a significant positive correlation with percentage of total weight loss (TWL) on first postoperative month (P = 0.001) and year (P = 0.002). SUA concentration on first postoperative month had a positive correlation with percentage of TWL on first postoperative year (P = 0.004). SUA concentration could be used as a predictor of LSG's success and could help in early detection of patients with rapid loss of weight, in order to prevent complications. PMID:25594659

  6. Fructose and Uric Acid: Is There a Role in Endothelial Function?

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Sowers, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Population level data support that consumption of fructose and fructose-based sweeteners has dramatically increased and suggest that high dietary intake of fructose is an important factor in the development of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The CRS is a constellation of cardiac, kidney and metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and evidence of early cardiac and kidney disease. The consequences of fructose metabolism may result in intracellular ATP depletion, increased uric acid production, oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased lipogenesis, which are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is an early manifestation of vascular disease and a driver for the development of CRS. A better understanding of fructose overconsumption in the development of CRS may provide new insights into pathogenesis and future therapeutic strategies. PMID:24760443

  7. Label-free and selective sensing of uric acid with gold nanoclusters as optical probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chang, Yong; Wu, Wen Bi; Zhang, Pu; Lie, Shao Qing; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-05-15

    Clinically, the amount of uric acid (UA) in biological fluids is closely related to some diseases such as hyperuricemia and gout, thus it is of great significance to sense UA in clinical samples. In this work, red gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with relatively high fluorescence quantum yield and strong fluorescence emission were facilely available using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as template. The fluorescence of BSA-protected AuNCs can be sensitively quenched by H2O2, which is further capable of sensing UA through the specific catalytic oxidation with uricase, since it generates stoichiometric quantity of H2O2 by-product. The proposed assay allows for the selective detection of UA in the range of 10-800μM with a detection limit of 6.6μM, which is applicable to sense UA in clinical samples with satisfactory results, suggesting its great potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26992526

  8. Effect of creatine, creatinine, and creatine ethyl ester on TLR expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Korey M.; McDonald, Thomas L.; Drescher, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the hosts well-being, in particular the hosts ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7. CR down-regulated TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7 mRNA levels in RAW cells. Similar results were observed following exposure of RAW cells to CRN. Conversely CEE appears to possess immunostimulatory properties and increases expression of TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7 in RAW cells. These data are supported by immunostaining using antibodies specific for the individual TLRs before and after exposure of RAW cells to CR, CRN, or CEE. To extend these findings, we isolated murine splenocytes and exposed the cells to CR, CEE, or CRN for 24 hours and performed immunofluorescent staining for TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7. The results obtained from this study with primary splenocytes were consistent with the studies using RAW cells. Together, these data suggest that creatine and creatine derivatives may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens. Of great interest, CRN - largely considered to be a waste product of the argenine biosynthesis pathway may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of CR. PMID:21575742

  9. Use of Postoperative Creatinine to Predict Sustained Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Mesothelioma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Aya; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Ireland, Peter; Panizales, Christia; Deluke, Gretchen; Sugarbaker, David J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Frendl, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives AKI leads to increased morbidity and mortality and progression to chronic kidney injury is a frequent consequence of AKI. Surgical treatment of mesothelioma is associated with increased risk for kidney injury. However, sustained kidney injury may limit therapeutic options for treating residual cancer. This study hypothesized that patients with significant serum creatinine (sCr) elevation within 48 hours of surgery would be at risk for sustained kidney injury. The goal was to determine the best acute sCr measure predictive of sustained kidney injury defined as a 50% increase in sCr from baseline measured 24 weeks after surgery. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a prospective, observational cohort of surgical patients with mesothelioma, receiver operator characteristic curves were generated for the 24- and 48-hour absolute difference and relative sCr change over baseline in the derivation cohort (n=279). The prediction was tested in a validation cohort (n=207). The ability of various other AKI definitions to predict sustained kidney injury was evaluated. Results Sustained kidney injury occurred in 9.8% of patients in the derivation cohort. A ?59% increase in sCr 48 hours after surgery was most predictive of sustained kidney injury (c statistic=0.78). Among other AKI definitions, a sCr increase of 0.3 mg/dl in 24 hours or 0.5 mg/dl increase in 48 hours (Waikar and Bonventre criteria) also reliably predicted sustained kidney injury. Conclusions Development of clinically significant sustained kidney injury can be predicted by acute postoperative sCr elevation in patients treated for mesothelioma. PMID:22537654

  10. LC-MS/MS Method for Serum Creatinine: Comparison with Enzymatic Method and Jaffe Method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuijun; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Zhang, Menqi; Zhang, Haichen; Yu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of creatinine (Cre) is important to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Differences among various methods of Cre quantification were previously noted. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for serum Cre and compare this method with clinical routine methods. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with an Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system. After adding isotope-labeled Cre-d3 as internal standard, serum samples were prepared via a one-step protein precipitation with methanol. The LC-MS/MS method was compared with frequently used enzymatic method and Jaffe method. This developed method, with a total run time of 3 min, had a lower limit of quantification of 4.4 ?mol/L, a total imprecision of 1.15%3.84%, and an average bias of 1.06%. No significant matrix effect, carryover, and interference were observed for the LC-MS/MS method. The reference intervals of serum Cre measured by LC-MS/MS assay were 4179 ?mol/L for adult women, and 46101 ?mol/L for adult men. Using LC-MS/MS as a reference, the enzymatic method showed an average bias of -2.1% and the Jaffe method showed a substantial average bias of 11.7%. Compared with the LC-MS/MS method, significant negative bias was observed for the enzymatic and Jaffe methods in hemolytic and lipimic samples. We developed a simple, specific, and accurate LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum Cre. Discordance existed among different methods. PMID:26207996

  11. Effect of creatine, creatinine, and creatine ethyl ester on TLR expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leland, Korey M; McDonald, Thomas L; Drescher, Kristen M

    2011-09-01

    Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host's well-being, in particular the host's ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements--creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7. CR down-regulated TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7 mRNA levels in RAW cells. Similar results were observed following exposure of RAW cells to CRN. Conversely CEE appears to possess immunostimulatory properties and increases expression of TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7 in RAW cells. These data are supported by immunostaining using antibodies specific for the individual TLRs before and after exposure of RAW cells to CR, CRN, or CEE. To extend these findings, we isolated murine splenocytes and exposed the cells to CR, CEE, or CRN for 24 hours and performed immunofluorescent staining for TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7. The results obtained from this study with primary splenocytes were consistent with the studies using RAW cells. Together, these data suggest that creatine and creatine derivatives may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens. Of great interest, CRN--largely considered to be a waste product of the argenine biosynthesis pathway may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of CR. PMID:21575742

  12. Endogenous and Uric Acid-Induced Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Matias, Mariana Leticia; Romo, Mariana; Weel, Ingrid Cristina; Ribeiro, Vanessa Rocha; Nunes, Priscila Rezeck; Borges, Vera Therezinha; Arajo, Joo Pessoa; Peraoli, Jos Carlos; de Oliveira, Leandro; Peraoli, Maria Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a specific syndrome of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. This pathology is associated with hyperuricemia and elevated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Uric acid crystals may activate an intracellular complex called inflammasome, which is important for processing and release of inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the state of monocyte activation, both endogenous and stimulated with monosodium urate (MSU), by gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors as well as their association with inflammatory cytokines expression. Monocytes were obtained from peripheral blood of 23 preeclamptic pregnant women, 23 normotensive pregnant women (NT) and 23 healthy non-pregnant women (NP). Inflammasome activation was evaluated by the gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1?, IL-18 and TNF-? by RT-qPCR in unstimulated monocytes (endogenous expression), or after cell stimulation with MSU (stimulated expression). The concentration of cytokines was assessed by ELISA. In preeclamptic pregnant women, gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1? and TNF-? by monocytes stimulated or not with MSU was significantly higher than in NT and NP groups. Stimulation of monocytes from preeclamptic and non-pregnant women with MSU induced increased gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and TNF-? in relation to the endogenous expression in these groups, while this was not observed in the NT group. The cytokine determination showed that monocytes from women with PE produced higher endogenous levels of IL-1?, IL-18 and TNF-? compared to the other groups, while the stimulus with MSU led to higher production of these cytokines in preeclamptic group than in the NT group. In conclusion, the results showed increased basal gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors in monocytes from PE group. These cells stimulation with MSU demonstrates that uric acid plays a role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting the participation of this inflammatory complex in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26053021

  13. Potent human uric acid transporter 1 inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Wempe, Michael F; Lightner, Janet W; Miller, Bettina; Iwen, Timothy J; Rice, Peter J; Wakui, Shin; Anzai, Naohiko; Jutabha, Promsuk; Endou, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human diseases. The current study investigates small molecular weight compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-urate uptake in oocytes expressing hURAT1. Using the most promising drug candidates generated from our structureactivity relationship findings, we subsequently conducted in vitro hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds were incubated with rat liver microsomes containing cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and uridine 5?-diphosphoglucuronic acid. In vitro metabolism and PK samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods. Independently, six different inhibitors were orally (capsule dosing) or intravenously (orbital sinus) administered to fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected and analyzed; these data were used to compare in vitro and in vivo metabolism and to compute noncompartmental model PK values. Mono-oxidation (Phase I) and glucuronidation (Phase II) pathways were observed in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro data were used to compute hepatic intrinsic clearance, and the in vivo data were used to compute peak blood concentration, time after administration to achieve peak blood concentration, area under the curve, and orally absorbed fraction. The experimental data provide additional insight into the hURAT1 inhibitor structureactivity relationship and in vitroin vivo correlation. Furthermore, the results illustrate that one may successfully prepare potent inhibitors that exhibit moderate to good oral bioavailability. PMID:23152669

  14. Serum uric acid and disorders of glucose metabolism: the role of glycosuria

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, J.A.M.; Kang, H.C.; Greffin, S.; Garcia Rosa, M.L.; Lugon, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between hyperuricemia and glycemic status in a nonrandomized sample of primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study of adults ?20 years old who were members of a community-based health care program. Hyperuricemia was defined as a value >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women. The sample comprised 720 participants including controls (n=257) and patients who were hypertensive and euglycemic (n=118), prediabetic (n=222), or diabetic (n=123). The mean age was 42.412.5 years, 45% were male, and 30% were white. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from controls (3.9%) to euglycemic hypertension (7.6%) and prediabetic state (14.0%), with values in prediabetic patients being statistically different from controls. Overall, diabetic patients had an 11.4% prevalence of hyperuricemia, which was also statistically different from controls. Of note, diabetic subjects with glycosuria, who represented 24% of the diabetic participants, had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia, and statistically higher values for fractional excretion of uric acid, Na excretion index, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those without glycosuria. Participants who were prediabetic or diabetic but without glycosuria had a similarly elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia. In contrast, diabetic patients with glycosuria had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia and excreted more uric acid and Na than diabetic subjects without glycosuria. The findings can be explained by enhanced proximal tubule reabsorption early in the course of dysglycemia that decreases with the ensuing glycosuria at the late stage of the disorder. PMID:25250631

  15. Urea cycle disorders: clinical presentation outside the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy; Kishnani, Priya S; Lee, Brendan; Singh, Rani H; Rhead, William J; Sniderman King, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Summar, Marshall

    2005-10-01

    Although most commonly associated with infancy, the majority of individuals with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) present outside the neonatal period, frequently in childhood. Signs and symptoms are often vague, but recurrent; fulminant presentations associated with acute illness are also common. A disorder of urea cycle metabolism should be considered in children who have recurrent symptoms, especially neurologic abnormalities associated with periods of decompensation. Routine laboratory tests, including measurement of plasma ammonia concentrations, can indicate a potential UCD; however, specific metabolic testing and ultimately enzymatic or molecular confirmation are necessary to establish a diagnosis. Treatment with dietary protein restriction and medications may be challenging in children. PMID:16227115

  16. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 2.02 + 0.069 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  17. Uric acid enhances PKC-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and mediates cellular ER stress: A mechanism for uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    LI, PENG; ZHANG, LINA; ZHANG, MEI; ZHOU, CHANGYONG; LIN, NAN

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which hyperuricemia induced-endothelial dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we used uric acid (UA) to trigger endothelial dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells, and investigated the effects of induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction, and the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with 6, 9 or 12 mg/dl UA, ROS scavenger polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), and PKC inhibitor polymyxin B for 6–48 h. Nitric oxide (NO) production, eNOS activity, intracellular ROS, ER stress levels, and the interaction between eNOS and calmodulin (CaM) and cytosolic calcium levels were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V staining. UA increased HUVEC apoptosis and reduced eNOS activity and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Intracellular ROS was elevated after 3 h, while ER stress level increased after 6 h. UA did not alter intracellular Ca2+, CaM, or eNOS concentration, or eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation. However, PKC-dependent eNOS phosphorylation at Thr495 was greatly enhanced, and consequently interaction between eNOS and CaM was reduced. Cellular ROS depletion, ER stress inhibition and PKC activity reduction inhibited the effect of UA on eNOS activity, NO release and apoptosis in HUVECs. Thus, we concluded that UA induced HUVEC apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction by triggering oxidative and ER stress through PKC/eNOS-mediated eNOS activity and NO production. PMID:26935704

  18. Estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or standardized cystatin C in Japanese patients with Graves? disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoshitake; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Seimiya, Masanori; Yoshida, Toshihiko; Sawabe, Yuji; Ogawa, Makoto; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine (eGFRCr) or standardized cystatin C (eGFRCysC) were estimated in Japanese patients with Graves? disease (GD) of different sex. Clinical samples were collected from patients with GD with normal renal function to accurately validate eGFRCr and eGFRCysC levels and evaluate how hyperthyroidism affects renal function. Levels of eGFRCr and eGFRCysC showed clinical usefulness in successfully treated euthyroid patients with GD regardless of sex. The article includes detailed experimental methods and data used in our analysis. The data relates to the Paradoxical effect of thyroid function on the estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or standardized cystatin C in Japanese Graves disease patients (Suzuki et al., 2015) [1] PMID:26793755

  19. Early Acute Kidney Injury based on Serum Creatinine or Cystatin C in Intensive Care Unit after Major Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Farid; Sabetian, Golnar; Abbasi, Ghasem; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Salehi, Alireza; Khosravi, Abbas; Geramizadeh, Bita; Taregh, Shuja Ulhaq; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem in critically ill patients and is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, serum cystatin C has been shown to be superior to creatinine in early detection of renal function impairment. We compared estimated GFR based on serum cystatin C with estimated GFR based on serum creatinine for early detection of renal dysfunction according to the RIFLE criteria. Methods: During 9 months, three hundred post trauma patients that were referred to the intensive care unit of a referral trauma hospital were recruited. Serum creatinine and serum cystatin C were measured and the estimated GFR within 24 hours of ICU admission was calculated. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI according to the RIFLE criteria within 2nd to 7th day of admission. Results: During the first week of ICU admission, 21% of patients experienced AKI. After adjusting for major confounders, only the patients with first day’s serum cystatin level higher than 0.78 mg/l were at higher risk of first week AKI (OR=6.14, 95% CI: 2.5-14.7, P<0.001). First day’s serum cystatin C and injury severity score were the major risk factors for ICU mortality (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 1.7-7.4, P=0.001) and (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 1.5-14, P=0.007), respectively. Conclusion: Within 24 hours after admission in ICU due to multiple trauma, high serum cystatin C level may have prognostic value in predicting early AKI and mortality during ICU admission. However, such correlation was not seen neither with creatinine nor cystatin C based GFR. PMID:26538776

  20. Adventures with Creatinine and eGFR - A National, International and Personal Story – AACB Roman Lecture 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham R.D.

    2015-01-01

    In Australia and New Zealand today there is a commonality in all laboratories in many areas of testing related to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). These include creatinine assay standardisation, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) reporting and the use of common units for serum creatinine and eGFR. This is supported by a single definition for diagnosis and staging of CKD, agreed indications for who and how to test together with detailed advice on test interpretation and patient management provided by our nephrology colleagues. These outcomes are the product of a decade of effort within Australia and New Zealand with collaboration between clinical disciplines and amongst laboratories. These local activities have been based on and supported by international actions in assay standardisation, eGFR formula development, understanding of clinical outcomes and guideline development. It is my belief that the local implementation of the current laboratory-based CKD testing processes is an outstanding example of good laboratory practice. This paper outlines the local and international activities and provides a view of my personal adventures with creatinine and eGFR. PMID:26224897

  1. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of urea is made to react with not more than 2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of urea is made to react with not more than 2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of urea is made to react with not more than 2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins may be mixed with refined wood pulp...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of urea is made to react with not more than 2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of urea is made to react with not more than 2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...

  6. 40 CFR 418.30 - Applicability; description of the urea subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory § 418.30... battery limits of the urea manufacturing operations, and cooling tower blowdown are excluded. (Sec....

  7. NEW QUATERNARY AMMONIUM ION REAGENTS FROM UREA FOR FABRIC TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we showed a one step conversion of urea to tertiary amines in water (J. Org. Chem., 2000, 65, 9234-9237). Of these, we used triallylamine to quaternize PEG, PPG, and aryl bromides (Figure 1). One and two-dimensional NMR and chemical ionization mass spectrometries were used to characteriz...

  8. New urea-absorbing polymers for artificial kidney machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Etherified polymer is made from modified cellulose derivative which is reacted with periodate. It will absorb 2 grams of urea per 100 grams of polymer. Indications are that polymers could be used to help remove uremic wastes in artificial kidneys, or they could be administered orally as therapy for uremia.

  9. Peptidyl-urea based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We prepared a series of amino acid derived cyclohexyl and adamantyl ureas and tested them as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase, and obtained very potent compounds (K(I)=15nM) that are >10-fold more soluble than previously described sEH inhibitors. While our lead compound 2 showed low...

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of urea in dermatologic formulations and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bojic, Jorgovanka; Radovanovic, Blaga; Dimitrijevic, Jasmina

    2008-06-01

    A rapid, relatively sensitive, and low-cost method for the determination of water-soluble urea content in dermatological therapy products and cosmetics is proposed using a new spectrophotometric assay with water as the only extraction solvent. Spectrophotometric methods involve addition of a known excess of bromate to urea in an acid medium, followed by the determination of residual bromine and chlorine reacting with methyl orange and measurement of absorbance at 505 nm. The absorbance increases linearly with urea concentration (r = 0.9998). The systems obey Beer's law for 6 - 90 microg ml(-1). The calculated apparent molar absorbance values are found to be 4.537 x 10(3) dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1) and the Sandell's sensitivity is 0.013 microg cm(-2). The variables affecting the rate of the reaction were investigated. The relative standard deviation for five-replication determination of 60 microg ml(-1) urea was 2.1% and the detection limit of the method is 0.34 ng ml(-1). PMID:18544867

  11. Tailoring of analytical performances of urea biosensors using nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouira, W.; Barhoumi, H.; Maaref, A.; Jaffrzic Renault, N.; Siadat, M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to the study of enzymatic sensors based on nanoparticles of iron oxide (FeNPs). Urease enzyme was immobilized on FeNPs using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method. FeNPs were first coated with polyelectrolytes (PE): Poly (allylamine hydrochloride), PAH and Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), PSS for enzyme immobilization and then with enzyme. It has been confirmed through zeta potential measurements of FeNPs that the enzyme is immobilized on the surface. We evaluated the sensitivity of biosensors for urea by potentiometric and capacitive measurements on silicon / silica / FeNP-LBL-urease structures. The recorded capacity-potential curves (C-V) show a significant shift of flat band potential towards negative potentials in the presence of urea, the observed values of sensitivity vary between 30 and 40 mV/p[urea]. It has been shown that the proposed method for the immobilization of urease can increase the dynamic range of urea detection (10-4M to 10-1M) compared to the immobilization of urease without FeNP (10-3.5 M to 10-2.5 M). When the number of PAH-PSS layers was increased the sensitivity of detection was modified. This effect is due to partial inhibition of the enzyme in presence of FeNPs, which was shown by measurements in homogeneous phase.

  12. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF N-CHLORAMINES AND DIAZOLIDINYL UREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times we...

  14. Gelation by supramolecular dimerization of mono(urea)s.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Abigail E; Kennedy, Stuart R; Jones, Christopher D; Steed, Jonathan W

    2015-12-15

    Mono-ureido salicylic acid derivatives form hydrogen bonded dimers that mimic the gelation behaviour of covalently linked bis(urea)s. The 5-ureido salicylic acid isomers are much more effective gelators because of the lowered conjugation and less planar geometry, resulting in stronger ureaurea ?-tape hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:26540132

  15. Urea Transporter Inhibitors: En Route to New Diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Jeff M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A selective urea transporter UT-A1 inhibitor would be a novel type of diuretic, likely with less undesirable side-effects than conventional diureticssince it acts on the last portion of the nephron. Esteva-Font et al. (2013) develop suchan inhibitor by using a clever high-throughput screening assay, and document its selectivity. . PMID:24210002

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 28, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Urea and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Of...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Urea,, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. C...

  18. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... solid urea from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (``USSR'') (52 FR 26367). On June 29, 1992... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request... state (57 FR 28828). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  19. Effects of litter quality (moisture, ammonia, uric acid) on development and severity of foot pad dermatitis in growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Youssef, I M I; Beineke, A; Rohn, K; Kamphues, J

    2011-03-01

    High dietary protein is thought to increase the incidence of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) as a result of increased uric acid and secondary ammonia production in the excreta or litter. This study was conducted on female turkeys over a period of 3 wk to test the effects of water alone, and also of these end products of protein metabolism, independent of the presence of excreta, on the development and severity of FPD. The animals were allocated into four groups, with 20 birds in each, and housed in floor pens on dry, clean wood shavings (changed daily) throughout the experiment. The control group was housed continuously in its pen, whereas the other groups were additionally exposed daily (for 8 hr) to experimentally treated wood shavings, in adjacent separate boxes, enriched with water alone or water with NH4Cl or uric acid. NH4Cl and uric acid were added via water to the litter to achieve the concentrations of ammonia and uric acid in the litter as found in the excreta of turkeys (about 0.50 g ammonia and 20 g uric acid/kg). The wet litter was kept clean by removing the excreta twice daily and by changing the litter twice a week. The foot pads of all birds were examined on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 and scored externally (macroscopically). Three birds were selected from each group on days 0, 7, and 14, while the remaining 11 birds/group were sacrificed on day 21 for histopathologic assessment of foot pads. The severity of FPD was found to be markedly higher (about 3 times) on wet than on dry litter. There were no negative effects of ammonia and uric acid on foot pad lesions. The results indicate that high litter moisture is the most likely factor causing FPD in turkeys. A focus on nitrogenous irritants in the litter was not substantiated. Exposure of birds to wet litter (in the absence of excreta) for only 8 hr/day was sufficient to develop foot pad lesions. The present results suggest that a focus on the protein content of the diet as a cause of FPD may be misplaced, but all dietary factors which increase excreta or litter moisture, or both, should be considered. The prevalence and severity of FPD can be reduced by maintaining dry litter. PMID:21500636

  20. Serum Uric Acid and Renal Transplantation Outcomes: At Least 3-Year Post-transplant Retrospective Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Baoshan; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Weigang; Zhu, Yaxiang; Yao, Liyu; Gu, Yiming; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Honglan; Fu, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Since the association of serum uric acid and kidney transplant graft outcome remains disputable, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of uric acid level for graft survival/function and the factors could affect uric acid as time varies. A consecutive cohort of five hundred and seventy three recipients transplanted during January 2008 to December 2011 were recruited. Data and laboratory values of our interest were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant for analysis. Cox proportional hazard model, and multiple regression equation were built to adjust for the possible confounding variables and meet our goals as appropriate. The current cohort study lasts for 41.86 15.49 months. Uric acid level is proven to be negatively associated with eGFR at different time point after adjustment for age, body mass index and male gender (standardized ? ranges from -0.15 to -0.30 with all P<0.001).Males with low eGFR but high level of TG were on CSA, diuretics and RAS inhibitors and experienced at least one episode of acute rejection and diabetic issue were associated with a higher mean uric acid level. Hyperuricemia was significantly an independent predictor of pure graft failure (hazard ratio=4.01, 95% CI: 1.25-12.91, P=0.02) after adjustment. But it was no longer an independent risk factor for graft loss after adjustment. Interestingly, higher triglyceride level can make incidence of graft loss (hazard ratio=1.442, for each unit increase millimoles per liter 95% CI: 1.008-2.061, P=0.045) and death (hazard ratio=1.717, 95% CI: 1.105-2.665, P=0.016) more likely. The results of our study suggest that post-transplant elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival and graft function. Together with the high TG level impact on poor outcomes, further investigations for therapeutic effect are needed. PMID:26208103

  1. Urinary Magnesium, Calcium, and Phosphorus to Creatinine Ratios of Healthy Elementary School Lebanese Children.

    PubMed

    El Mallah, Carla; Ghattas, Hala; Shatila, Dareen; Francis, Sirine; Merhi, Karina; Hlais, Sani; Toufeili, Imad; Obeid, Omar

    2016-04-01

    Urinary magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) excretions are known to vary greatly between populations due to dietary habits, physical activity, mineral content of water, climate, genetics, and race. Thus, it is essential to determine the normal values in each population in order to assess the status as well as to diagnose any possible abnormality of metabolisms especially hypercalciuria. A study was conducted to determine urinary Mg/creatinine (Cr), Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios of healthy Lebanese elementary schoolchildren. Using a multi-stage cluster sampling at district, school, and class levels, a sample of 1403 children (781 boys and 622 girls), from 26 different schools, was selected. Non-fasting morning urine samples and anthropometric data were collected and analyzed. The mean Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were 0.122 ± 0.075 mg/mg (0.568 ± 0.348 mM/mM), 0.084 ± 0.101 mg/mg (0.237 ± 0.286 mM/mM), and 0.692 ± 0.417 mg/mg (2.527 ± 1.524 mM/mM), respectively, with no significant difference between boys and girls (P = 0.706, 0.161, and 0.604; respectively). The 95th percentile of Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios fluctuated with age, showing a sharp decrease in Ca/Cr and P/Cr at the age of 10. The mean Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were comparable to those of similar age groups in other populations. The 95th percentiles of Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were 0.26 mg/mg (1.23 mM/mM), 0.27 mg/mg (0.76 mM/mM), and 1.48 mg/mg (5.40 mM/mM), respectively. These values can be used as cutoffs to detect abnormalities in these three minerals' metabolisms among healthy Lebanese children. PMID:26306589

  2. Rates and predictors of ACE inhibitor discontinuation subsequent to elevated serum creatinine: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Wong, Joyce; Aroustamian, Irina; Gee, Manyee; Mody, Freny Vaghaiwalla

    2014-01-01

    Objectives ACE inhibitors (ACEI) are underutilised despite cardiovascular benefits, in part due to concerns of known transient elevations in serum creatinine (SCr) after initiation. Our objectives were to evaluate rates and predictors of ACEI discontinuation after SCr elevation post-ACEI initiation since limited data are available that examine this issue. Setting Primary and tertiary Veterans healthcare system in Los Angeles, California, USA Participants 3039 outpatients initiating an ACEI with a SCr measured within 6 months prior to and approximately 3 months after initiating an ACEI. Patients were divided into three groups (SCr <1.5, 1.5–2 and >2). Primary and secondary outcome measures Rates and factors associated with ACEI discontinuation subsequent to SCr elevation after ACEI initiation and for patients with baseline SCr >2 mg/dL, the change in SCr associated with chronic use. Predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression modelling. Results At 3 months follow-up, for those with an increase in SCr, the mean increase post-ACEI initiation was 26%, ranging from −0.01 mg/dL to 0.42 mg/dL varying according to a level of baseline renal function. ACEI discontinuation was higher in patients with elevated baseline SCr (19/165, 11.5%) compared with those with SCr <1.5 (135/2497, 5.4%), and those with SCr 1.5–2.0 (28/377, 7.4%). Male patients, and those with heart failure were less likely to discontinue ACEI after an elevation of SCr post-ACEI initiation, while those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics and β-blockers were more likely to discontinue ACEI. Conclusions SCr increases <30% on average within 3 months of ACEI initiation, with subsequent discontinuation rates varying by baseline SCr. Elevation in SCr was not associated with ACEI discontinuation rates. In patients with SCr >2 mg/dL at baseline, despite an acute increase in SCr after ACEI initiation, chronic ACEI use was associated with a decrease in SCr in most patients. PMID:25232564

  3. Serum Creatinine Modifies Associations between Body Mass Index and Mortality and Morbidity in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Hideo; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to examine whether serum creatinine (Cr), a marker of muscle mass, could modify the association between BMI, and mortality and morbidity in prevalent HD patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database from the registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. A total of 119,099 patients were selected (age: 65±12 years; median time on HD: 5.6 years; male: 62%), and we examined the association of basal BMI with mortality and morbidity after a 1-year period. Patients were stratified either by BMI into 4 groups or by serum Cr levels into 3 tertiles. Odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] was calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Higher BMI did not predict a higher 1-year total mortality. However, when we stratified the patients by serum Cr levels, the risk of cardiac death became significantly higher in obese patients with the lowest Cr levels, in both males (OR 2.82 [1.51–5.27], p<0.01) and females (OR 2.00 [1.03–3.90], p<0.05). The risk of new cerebral infarction was also higher in obese male patients within the lowest Cr tertile. In contrast, there was a significantly lower risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and infection-related death in non-obese patients with higher levels of Cr. Higher serum Cr was also related to a lower risk of cardiovascular events and hip fracture in non-obese HD patients. Conclusions The obesity paradox was found to be present in HD patients only when obesity was defined by BMI. Decreased serum Cr levels were found to be positively associated with clinical poor outcomes in all BMI groups. Thus, irrespective of BMI, the evaluation of serum Cr levels is important to predict mortality and morbidity in patients receiving regular HD. PMID:26930325

  4. Validation of high-throughput methods for measuring blood urea nitrogen and urinary albumin concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Grindle, Susan; Garganta, Cheryl; Sheehan, Susan; Gile, Joe; Lapierre, Andree; Whitmore, Harry; Paigen, Beverly; DiPetrillo, Keith

    2006-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a substantial medical and economic burden. Animal models, including mice, are a crucial component of kidney disease research; however, recent studies disprove the ability of autoanalyzer methods to accurately quantify plasma creatinine levels, an established marker of kidney disease, in mice. Therefore, we validated autoanalyzer methods for measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urinary albumin concentrations, 2 common markers of kidney disease, in samples from mice. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to validate BUN concentrations measured using an autoanalyzer, and we utilized mouse albumin standards to determine the accuracy of the autoanalyzer over a wide range of albumin concentrations. We observed a significant, linear correlation between BUN concentrations measured by autoanalyzer and high-performance liquid chromatography. We also found a linear relationship between known and measured albumin concentrations, although the autoanalyzer method underestimated the known amount of albumin by 3.5- to 4-fold. We confirmed that plasma and urine constituents do not interfere with the autoanalyzer methods for measuring BUN and urinary albumin concentrations. In addition, we verified BUN and albuminuria as useful markers to detect kidney disease in aged mice and mice with 5/6-nephrectomy. We conclude that autoanalyzer methods are suitable for high-throughput analysis of BUN and albumin concentrations in mice. The autoanalyzer accurately quantifies BUN concentrations in mouse plasma samples and is useful for measuring urinary albumin concentrations when used with mouse albumin standards. PMID:17219778

  5. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  6. Urea in dry-rolled corn diets: finishing steer performance, nutrient digestion, and microbial protein production.

    PubMed

    Milton, C T; Brandt, R T; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-05-01

    In Exp. 1, 88 yearling steers (332 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn finishing diets to evaluate effects of dietary urea level on performance and carcass characteristics. Diets contained 0, .5, 1.0, or 1.5% urea (DM basis), which supplied all supplemental N, and 10% chopped prairie hay. Gains (P = .10) and gain efficiency (G/F; P < .05) were increased by .5% urea, with little improvement by additional urea. Regression analysis estimated optimal dietary urea at .9% of DM for ADG and G/F. Fat thickness (P < .05) and yield grade (P < .10) increased linearly with dietary urea level. In Exp. 2, four ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (557 kg) were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 to evaluate effects of dietary urea on site and extent of digestion. True ruminal OM and starch digestion were increased 25 and 37%, respectively, by .5% urea, but higher urea levels did not differ from .5%. Flows of total N and microbial N to the duodenum were not affected by urea level. In Exp. 3, 100 yearling steers (347 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn finishing diets that contained 10% alfalfa hay as the dietary roughage to evaluate effects of dietary urea level on performance and carcass characteristics. Urea levels were 0, .35, .70, 1.05, or 1.40% urea (DM basis), with no other supplemental N provided. Dry matter intake (P = .10), ADG (P < .05), and G/F (P < .05) increased with intermediate concentrations of urea but decreased with the highest concentration. Regression analysis indicated that the optimal dietary urea level was .5% of DM for ADG and G/F. Urea increased dietary energy utilization but not metabolizable protein supply. PMID:9159292

  7. Erythrocyte permeability to urea and water: comparative study in rodents, ruminants, carnivores, humans, and birds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Lei, Tianluo; Bankir, Lise; Zhao, Dan; Gai, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xuejian; Yang, Baoxue

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian erythrocytes exhibit high urea permeability (P (urea)) due to UT-B expression in their cytoplasmic membrane. This high P (urea) allows fast equilibration of urea in erythrocytes during their transit in the hyperosmotic renal medulla. It also allows more urea (in addition to that in plasma) to participate in counter-current exchange between ascending and descending vasa recta, thus improving the trapping of urea in the medulla and improving urine concentrating ability. To determine if P (urea) in erythrocytes is related to diet and urine concentrating ability, we measured P (urea) in erythrocytes from 11 different mammals and 5 birds using stopped-flow light scattering. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibited high P (urea) (in x10(-5) cm/s, 5.3 0.6, 3.8 0.5 and 2.8 0.7, respectively). In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) showed much lower P (urea) (0.8 0.2, 0.7 0.2, 1.0 0.1, respectively). Erythrocyte P (urea) in human (1.1 0.2), and pig (1.5 0.1), the two omnivores, was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) had P (urea) intermediate between carnivores and omnivores (3.3 0.4, 2.5 0.3 and 2.4 0.3, respectively). Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes had very low values (<0.1 10(-5) cm/s). In contrast to P (urea), water permeability, measured simultaneously, was relatively similar in all mammals. The species differences in erythrocytes P (urea) most probably reflect adaptation to the different types of diet and resulting different needs for concentrating urea in the urine. PMID:20878327

  8. A simple and sensitive fluorescence based biosensor for the determination of uric acid using H2O2-sensitive quantum dots/dual enzymes.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Ellina; Ramli, Noor Izaanin; Abdullah, Jaafar; Abdul Hamid, Mohammad Azmi; Sidek, Hamidah; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Ariffin, Nurhayati; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2015-05-15

    A novel optical detection system consisting of combination of uricase/HRP-CdS quantum dots (QDs) for the determination of uric acid in urine sample is described. The QDs was used as an indicator to reveal fluorescence property of the system resulting from enzymatic reaction of uricase and HRP (horseradish peroxidase), which is involved in oxidizing uric acid to allaintoin and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide produced was able to quench the QDs fluorescence, which was proportional to uric acid concentration. The system demonstrated sufficient activity of uricase and HRP at a ratio of 5U:5U and pH 7.0. The linearity of the system toward uric acid was in the concentration range of 125-1000 M with detection limit of 125 M. PMID:25113659

  9. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF UREA WITH NBPT ON THE PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urea is the most recommended foliar N source, due to its relatively low toxicity, quick absorption, and low cost. However, reports of yield improvements with foliar urea application are not consistent. The objectives of this research were to study foliar urea assimilation in cotton and to test the ...

  10. Use of natural and biobased materials for controlled-release of urea in water: Environmental applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urea pearls were encapsulated in cloisite-based matrices using different natural materials (lignin, beeswax and latex) to control the release of urea over time. It was found that all cloisite-based fertilizer tablets showed better release profiles than neat urea tablets. The best release profile was...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9920 - Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidinyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9920 Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidinyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance urea,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9920 - Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidinyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9920 Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidinyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance urea,...

  13. PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD RESPONSES OF COTTON TO FOLIAR UREA WITH NBPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urea is the most recommended foliar N source, due to its relatively low toxicity, quick absorption, and low cost. However, in the literature reports of yield increments with foliar urea application are not consistent. The objectives of this research were to study foliar urea assimilation in cotton...

  14. Fate and surface transport of urea in a coastal plain soil: a rainfall simulation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface transport of urea has rarely been studied since it is assumed to undergo rapid hydrolysis to ammonia. However, studies have shown urea to exist in estuarine and coastal waters. Urea in small amounts can trigger the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. to produce the toxin domoic acid, which is o...

  15. 76 FR 35405 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... solid urea from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union). See Antidumping Duty Order; Urea From the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 52 FR 26367 (July 14, 1987). Following the break-up of the Soviet Union, the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Soviet Union was transferred...

  16. Uric acid and transforming growth factor in fructose-induced production of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Madlala, Hlengiwe P; Maarman, Gerald J; Ojuka, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fructose, a major constituent of the modern diet, has raised increasing concern about the effects of fructose on health. Research suggests that excessive intake of fructose (>50 g/d) causes hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, de novo lipogenesis by the liver, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle. In a number of tissues, uric acid has been shown to stimulate the production of ROS via activation of transforming growth factor β1 and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4. The role of uric acid in fructose-induced production of ROS in skeletal muscle, however, has not been investigated. This review examines the evidence for fructose-induced production of ROS in skeletal muscle, highlights proposed mechanisms, and identifies gaps in current knowledge. PMID:26946251

  17. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuai; Chen, Ying; Hou, Xu; Xu, Donghua; Che, Kui; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggested a possible association between serum uric acid levels and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, but no definite evidence was available. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies were performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were searched for eligible studies. Study-specific data were combined using random-effect or fixed-effect models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twelve studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 1388 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4746 patients without peripheral neuropathy. Meta-analysis showed that there were obvious increased serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (weighted mean difference [WMD]?=?50.03?mol/L, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 22.14-77.93, P?=?0.0004). Hyperuricemia was also significantly associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (risk ratio [RR]?=?2.83, 95%CI 2.13-3.76, P?uric acid levels, and hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate the impact of serum uric acid levels on peripheral neuropathy risk. PMID:25579387

  18. The facile surface chemical modification of a single glass nanopore and its use in the nonenzymatic detection of uric acid.

    PubMed

    He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lizhen; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-02-01

    A conical glass nanopore was first modified with ultrathin gold nanofilm via a simple and innovative chemical reduction of HAuCl4 on a surface-attached poly(L-histidine) monolayer in the presence of a mild reductant, NH2OHHCl, followed by surface functionalization with 2-thiouracil, and exploited for the selective nonenzymatic detection of uric acid and especially for serum sample detection. PMID:25531580

  19. Evaluation of the Determination of Free Urea in Water-Soluble Liquid Fertilizers Containing Urea and Ureaforms by Urease and HPLC Methods.

    PubMed

    Hojjatie, Michael M; Abrams, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Currently there are three AOAC Official Methods for the determination of urea in fertilizers. AOAC Official Method 959.03, Urea in Fertilizers, Urease Method, First Action 1959, Final Action 1960, is based on the use of fresh commercial 1% urease solution, or preparation of such solution from urease powder in water, or from jack bean meal in water. AOAC Official Method 983.01, Urea and Methyleneureas (Water-Soluble) in Fertilizers, First Action 1983, Final Action 1984, is based on LC with a refractive index detector using water as the mobile phase and a C18 column. AOAC Official Method 2003.14, Determination of Urea in Water- Soluble Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizer Products and in Aqueous Urea Solutions, First Action 2003, Final Action 2008, is based on LC with a UV detector using acetonitrile-water (85+15, v/v) mobile phase and a propylamine column. The urea method, AOAC Official Method 959.03, is very much dependent on the nature of the urease enzyme. The method was developed in 1960 and used for simple urea fertilizer solutions. With the advent of complex fertilizer compositions, especially with the class of liquid triazone fertilizers and water-soluble urea forms, the analyses of free urea in these fertilizers by the urease method is often inaccurate and inconsistent. AOAC Official Method 983.01 is not always reliable due to the interference of some of the components of these fertilizers, and due to the fact that the use of water as the mobile phase does not always separate the free urea from other components. AOAC Official Method 2003.14 was subjected to ring test studies that showed it could be used for the determination of "free urea" in these classes of fertilizers with good accuracy and precision. PMID:26651558

  20. Endogenous and Uric Acid-Induced Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Mariana Leticia; Romão, Mariana; Weel, Ingrid Cristina; Ribeiro, Vanessa Rocha; Nunes, Priscila Rezeck; Borges, Vera Therezinha; Araújo, João Pessoa; Peraçoli, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Leandro; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a specific syndrome of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. This pathology is associated with hyperuricemia and elevated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Uric acid crystals may activate an intracellular complex called inflammasome, which is important for processing and release of inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the state of monocyte activation, both endogenous and stimulated with monosodium urate (MSU), by gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors as well as their association with inflammatory cytokines expression. Monocytes were obtained from peripheral blood of 23 preeclamptic pregnant women, 23 normotensive pregnant women (NT) and 23 healthy non-pregnant women (NP). Inflammasome activation was evaluated by the gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α by RT-qPCR in unstimulated monocytes (endogenous expression), or after cell stimulation with MSU (stimulated expression). The concentration of cytokines was assessed by ELISA. In preeclamptic pregnant women, gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and TNF-α by monocytes stimulated or not with MSU was significantly higher than in NT and NP groups. Stimulation of monocytes from preeclamptic and non-pregnant women with MSU induced increased gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and TNF-α in relation to the endogenous expression in these groups, while this was not observed in the NT group. The cytokine determination showed that monocytes from women with PE produced higher endogenous levels of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α compared to the other groups, while the stimulus with MSU led to higher production of these cytokines in preeclamptic group than in the NT group. In conclusion, the results showed increased basal gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors in monocytes from PE group. These cells stimulation with MSU demonstrates that uric acid plays a role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting the participation of this inflammatory complex in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26053021