Sample records for urea creatinine uric

  1. Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are relatively stable in postmortem serum and may, therefore, be used for diagnostic purposes when chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure are investigated as causes of death. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain in defining the best alternative to postmortem serum for the identification and assessment of significantly decreased kidney function. In this study, we investigated urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humor in a series of medico-legal cases (500 autopsies) with various causes of death. No postmortem interval-related differences were observed in any of the investigated fluids for any analyzed parameter, confirming the biochemical stability of all compounds after death. Data analysis failed to reveal statistically significant differences between postmortem serum and pericardial fluid urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. Conversely, statistically significant differences were observed in all analyzed biomarkers between postmortem serum and vitreous humor levels, with lower concentrations of all markers measured in vitreous. The results of this study suggest that, in order to estimate as accurately as possible blood analyte concentrations at the time of death, pericardial fluid should be preferred to vitreous humor. PMID:25194712

  2. Plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations in relation to feeding in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Lumeij; J. D. Remple

    1991-01-01

    Significant post?prandial increases in plasma uric acid and plasma urea concentrations were observed in peregrine falcons. Post?prandial uric acid concentrations were similar to those in birds suffering from hyperuricaemia and gout and were well above the theoretical limit of solubility of sodium urate in plasma. It is not clear why under normal circumstances no urate deposits occur in peregrine falcons

  3. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  4. Plasma Levels of Uric Acid, Urea and Creatinine in Diabetics Who Visit the Clinical Analysis Laboratory (CAn-Lab) at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amartey, N.A.A.; Mensah, F.O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases worldwide. This metabolic disorder contributes greatly to the significant proportion of the burden of renal damage and dysfunction. The aim of the study was to investigate the renal function of the diabetic patients who visit the Clinical Analysis Laboratory (CAn-Lab) at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Demographic data as well as medical history were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire. Anthro-pometric measurements were taken and blood samples were analysed for glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 34 diabetic patients, aged from 40-77 y were recruited, 22 (64.7%) of them were males with mean age of 57.40 ± 11.8 y (±SD), while 12 (35.3%) were females with mean age of 58.17 ± 7.47 y. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean duration of the disease, as the females had longer duration, 12.50 ± 6.95 y, as compared to 7.32 ± 4.48 y in males (p=0.033). The mean plasma creatinine level in the females was 84.17 ± 54.73 ?mol/l. In the diabetic population, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma creatinine level, (r=0.375, p=0.029). In the female diabetics, there was a positive correlation between fasting blood sugar (FBS) and the measured metabolic end products (r>0.5, p<0.05), a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (r=0.576, p=0.005) and a positive correlation between BMI and FBS (r= 0.625, p= 0.030). Conclusion: Our results on the parameters measured; show that the diabetic population was experiencing mild kidney dysfunction, compared to non-diabetic controls.

  5. Are urea and creatinine values reliable indicators of azotaemia in canine babesiosis?

    PubMed

    de Scally, M P; Lobetti, R G; Reyers, F; Humphris, D

    2004-09-01

    Serum urea and creatinine are extensively used as parameters to screen for azotaemia. Their reciprocal plots roughly correlate with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). They are, however, subject to influence by non-renal factors and to increase their specificity they are often tested concurrently. In renal disease they are expected to behave similarly, with both parameters increasing as GFR decreases. Haemolysis, as it occurs in canine babesiosis, may cause non-renal elevations in serum urea, possibly due to ammonia loading. Furthermore, haemolysis with its related elevations in serum bilirubin and serum haemoglobin, may negatively bias the measurement of serum creatinine due to interference of these substances with the chemical analysis of serum creatinine. This negative bias occurs when the alkaline picrate method, or when direct enzymatic methods based on the measurement of hydrogen peroxide, are used. In order to investigate the significance of these perturbations in canine babesiosis, paired values of serum urea and serum creatinine from Babesia canis-negative, non-haemolysis dogs (Group 1), were used to establish a relationship between urea and creatinine over a range of azotaemia by linear regression analysis. This relationship was then used to predict serum creatinine values from actual serum urea values in B. canis-positive dogs (Group 2). The mean of the predicted serum creatinine values for Group 2 (237.03 micromol/l) was then compared with the mean of the actual serum creatinine values for Group 2 (131.31 micromol/l). For Group 2, the mean actual serum creatinine demonstrated a significant negative bias relative to the mean predicted creatinine value. There was also a higher correlation between serum urea and serum creatinine in Group 1 than in Group 2. These findings may have been caused by either nonrenal elevations of serum urea values or by interference with the measurement of serum creatinine. Therefore, although it is possible that some Group 2 dogs with B. canis with high serum urea and normal, low, or zero values for serum creatinine were not azotaemic, it is also possible that other Group 2 dogs with these biochemical findings did in fact have azotaemia. This study concluded that urea and creatinine do not behave in a similar and predictable manner over a range of azotaemia in canine babesiosis and are therefore not ideally suited for the detection of renal disease in this clinical setting. PMID:15628803

  6. The effects of a probiotic on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in large felids.

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie; Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward

    2011-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a common finding in older captive exotic felids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic to reduce blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in large felids. Fifteen adult, large felids (6 tigers [Panthera tigris], 5 lions [Panthera leo], 3 cougars [Puma concolor], and 1 leopard [Panthera pardus]) were administered a probiotic twice daily after a baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry panel was obtained. Plasma chemistry values were rechecked at 2 mo (n = 14) and 6 mo (n = 9). There was no significant change in blood urea nitrogen over time; however, there was a significant change in creatinine over time (P = 0.04). Creatinine concentration decreased significantly between 2 and 6 mo (P = 0.02), and a decrease was seen between 0 and 6 mo, but this change was not significant (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference noted for creatinine concentration between 0 and 2 mo (P = 0.35). This probiotic may be helpful in large felids with elevated creatinine concentrations because of chronic kidney disease; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:22950314

  7. Seasonal serum urea-creatinine ratios in wild and captive American badgers, Taxidea taxus.

    PubMed

    Harlow, H J; Nelson, R A

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood samples were taken from 22 American badgers in the field during different seasons and analysed for urea and creatinine. 2. The urea-creatinine ratio (U/C) of these animals did not decrease during the winter as previously reported for black bears. This suggests that the badger, unlike the bear, does not demonstrate a winter physiological state of protein conservation. 3. This may be the consequence of intermittent ingestion of protein by the badger during the winter, or due to biochemical mechanisms unique to the bear which allows for protein turnover and resynthesis. 4. Captive badgers fasted in the laboratory during the winter also did not exhibit lower U/C ratios and protein catabolism, compared to a summer fast, thereby supporting the latter hypothesis that badgers do not have an adjustment in protein catabolism during the winter season. PMID:1968814

  8. Determination of creatinine, uric and ascorbic acid in bovine milk and orange juice by hydrophilic interaction HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ruiting; Zhou, Si; Zuo, Yuegang; Deng, Yiwei

    2015-09-01

    Creatinine (Cr), uric (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are common constituents in human fluids. Their abnormal concentrations in human fluids are associated with various diseases. Thus, apart from the endogenous formation in human body, it is also important to examine their sources from food products. In this study, a rapid and accurate HILIC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Cr, UA and AA in bovine milk and orange juice. Milk samples were pretreated by protein precipitation, centrifugation and filtration, followed by HPLC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 column. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of UA, AA and Cr in milk and fruit juice samples. The milk samples tested were found to contain UA and creatinine in the concentration range of 24.1-86.0 and 5.07-11.2?gmL(-1), respectively. The orange juices contain AA over 212?gmL(-1). PMID:25842333

  9. Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, L. R.; Goodman, William; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2001-01-01

    We have spectroscopically determined breath ammonia levels in seven patients with end-stage renal disease while they were undergoing hemodialysis at the University of California, Los Angeles, dialysis center. We correlated these measurements against simultaneously taken blood samples that were analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine, which are the accepted standards indicating the level of nitrogenous waste loading in a patient's bloodstream. Initial levels of breath ammonia, i.e., at the beginning of dialysis, are between 1,500 ppb and 2,000 ppb (parts per billion). These levels drop very sharply in the first 15–30 min as the dialysis proceeds. We found the reduction in breath ammonia concentration to be relatively slow from this point on to the end of dialysis treatment, at which point the levels tapered off at 150 to 200 ppb. For each breath ammonia measurement, taken at 15–30 min intervals during the dialysis, we also sampled the patient's blood for BUN and creatinine. The breath ammonia data were available in real time, whereas the BUN and creatinine data were available generally 24 h later from the laboratory. We found a good correlation between breath ammonia concentration and BUN and creatinine. For one of the patients, the correlation gave an R2 of 0.95 for breath ammonia and BUN correlation and an R2 of 0.83 for breath ammonia and creatinine correlation. These preliminary data indicate the possibility of using the real-time breath ammonia measurements for determining efficacy and endpoint of hemodialysis. PMID:11296293

  10. Effects of Bed-Rest on Urea and Creatinine: Correlation with Changes in Fat-Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    Bilancio, Giancarlo; Lombardi, Cinzia; Pisot, Rado; De Santo, Natale G.; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Cirillo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Bed-rest experiments are designed for investigation on catabolic effects of hypokinetic conditions and/or for microgravity simulation in on-ground aerospace research. Bed-rest effects include a reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass. Urea and creatinine are catabolites of endogenous protein and of muscular energetic metabolism which are excreted mainly by the kidney. The study investigated on urea, creatinine, and kidney function during bed-rest. Methods Twenty healthy young men underwent a 7-day adaptation period (day-6 to day-0) and a 35-day bed-rest experiment (day1 to day35) during normocaloric diet. Urine were collected from day-3 to day0 (baseline) and from day1 to day35. Blood samples and anthropometrical data were collected at day0 (baseline) and bed-rest days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results Bed-rest reduced plasma volume, weight, fat-free mass, and muscle mass (P<0.001). During bed-rest there was a transient increase in plasma and urinary urea, a decrease in plasma creatinine, and no change in urinary creatinine. The overall integral of changes from day0 to day35 was on average +101.7 mg/dL for plasma urea (95%CI?=?+43.4/+159.9), +82.2 g/24 h for urinary urea (95%CI?=?+55.8/+108.7), ?2.5 mg/dL for plasma creatinine (95%CI?=??3.1/?1.9). Bed-rest reduced plasma cistatyn C also, which was used as mass-independent marker of glomerular filtration rate (?13.1%, P<0.05). Correlations with final reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass were significant for the overall integral of changes in urinary urea from day0 to day35 (R?=?0.706, P<0.001) and for early changes in urinary urea and plasma urea from day0 to day7 (R?=?0.566, P?=?0.009 and R?=?0.715, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Study results shows that urea is a marker of catabolic conditions secondary to hypokinetic conditions. PMID:25265226

  11. Availability of Blood Urea Nitrogen/Creatinine Ratio in Gastrointestinal Bleeding with Melena in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Kang, Chan Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of our study were to evaluate the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr ratio) for distinguishing between an upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and differentiating between the two most common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) presenting with melena in children. Methods Retrospective data of patients with GIB presenting with melena were analyzed. The data from 60 cases were reviewed including demographics, laboratory findings, diagnostic modalities and results, treatments, and transfusions. Results Among the 60 cases, UGIB and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) were found in 35 cases (58.3%) and 14 cases (23.3%), respectively. The two common causes of UGIB were varices (37.1%), and peptic ulcer diseases (PUD) (31.4%). The BUN/Cr ratio of 30 or greater was higher in UGIB than LGIB (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-37.2). In UGIB, the BUN/Cr ratio of the varices group was higher than that of the PUD group (p=0.015). The OR for the BUN/Cr ratio appeared as 1.2 per unit increase in the varices group than the PUD group (95% CI, 1.03-1.3). There was no difference between the PUD group and Meckel's diverticulum group. Conclusion The BUN/Cr ratio was not uneven in differentiating UGIB from LGIB of children with melena in our study. This suggests that BUN/Cr ratio should be interpreted carefully. PMID:25866731

  12. Increased serum urea to creatinine ratio and its negative correlation with arterial pressure in canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga

    2014-09-01

    The increase of the serum urea to creatinine ratio (UCR) was observed in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Previous studies have suggested that decrease of blood pressure can be one of the reasons for this phenomenon. In this work statistically significant increase of the UCR was observed in dogs with babesiosis. Comparison of the UCR between 23 azotaemic dogs and 25 non-azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis showed statistically significantly higher mean of the UCR in azotaemic dogs. Correlations between UCR and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) in 48 dogs infected with B. canis were negative (UCR and SAP: r = -0.3909; UCR and DAP: r = -0.3182; UCR and MAP: r = -0.3682) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). This result may indicate contribution of hypotension in the increase of the UCR in canine babesiosis. However, the correlations were not high, and there was no statistically significant correlation between UCR and arterial pressures in azotaemic dogs. Thus, it seems that decrease of blood pressure in dogs with babesiosis explains only partially the cause of increased UCR in infected dogs. The other authors suggested hyperureagenesis and myocardial injury as a potential reason for the increased UCR in canine babesiosis. Thus, further studies are needed to determine causes of increased UCR in dogs with babesiosis, especially on the connection between UCR changes and the concentrations of plasma cardiac troponins and ammonia, and the occurrence of occult blood on fecal examination. PMID:25119372

  13. Establishing Standards for Studying Renal Function in Mice through Measurements of Body Size-Adjusted Creatinine and Urea Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Strategies for obtaining reliable results are increasingly implemented in order to reduce errors in the analysis of human and veterinary samples; however, further data are required for murine samples. Here, we determined an average factor from the murine body surface area for the calculation of biochemical renal parameters, assessed the effects of storage and freeze-thawing of C57BL/6 mouse samples on plasmatic and urinary urea, and evaluated the effects of using two different urea-measurement techniques. After obtaining 24?h urine samples, blood was collected, and body weight and length were established. The samples were evaluated after collection or stored at ?20°C and ?70°C. At different time points (0, 4, and 90 days), these samples were thawed, the creatinine and/or urea concentrations were analyzed, and samples were restored at these temperatures for further measurements. We show that creatinine clearance measurements should be adjusted according to the body surface area, which was calculated based on the weight and length of the animal. Repeated freeze-thawing cycles negatively affected the urea concentration; the urea concentration was more reproducible when using the modified Berthelot reaction rather than the ultraviolet method. Our findings will facilitate standardization and optimization of methodology as well as understanding of renal and other biochemical data obtained from mice. PMID:25243193

  14. Interrelationship of ?eta-2 microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Shahram; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Allahverdizadeh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are used as indicators of glomerular filtration rate. The increased levels of these biomarkers are usually detectable at advanced stages of kidney complications. The aim of this study was to find the interrelationship of beta-2 microglobulin (?2M), BUN and Cr in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 65 mg kg-1 of STZ in rabbits. The levels of serum insulin, glucose and three above mentioned biomarkers were measured one day before (day -1) and on days 1-3 after injection of STZ and continued weekly to the end of the experiment (12 weeks). A statistically significant increase of serum ?2M, BUN, Cr and glucose levels, and a significant decrease of insulin levels were observed in diabetic animals. However, ?2M levels increased as early as one day after STZ injection compared to Cr and BUN that elevated at day two, suggesting a probable diagnostic advantage of ?2M over currently used biomarkers in diabetic related kidney complications. PMID:25568686

  15. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  16. Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; de Sousa Vieira, Elzo Everton; Silveira, Landulfo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2013-08-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HT) diseases are predisposed to kidney diseases. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers in the urine of diabetic and hypertensive patients through Raman spectroscopy in order to predict the evolution to complications and kidney failure. Urine samples were collected from control subjects (CTR) and patients with diabetes and HT with no complications (lower risk, LR), high degree of complications (higher risk, HR), and doing blood dialysis (DI). Urine samples were stored frozen (-20°C) before spectral analysis. Raman spectra were obtained using a dispersive spectrometer (830-nm, 300-mW power, and 20-s accumulation). Spectra were then submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) followed by discriminant analysis. The first PCA loading vectors revealed spectral features of urea, creatinine, and glucose. It has been found that the amounts of urea and creatinine decreased as disease evoluted from CTR to LR/HR and DI (PC1, p<0.05), and the amount of glucose increased in the urine of LR/HR compared to CTR (PC3, p<0.05). The discriminating model showed better overall classification rate of 70%. These results could lead to diagnostic information of possible complications and a better disease prognosis.

  17. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

  18. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ? 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ? 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ? 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ? 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and ruminal concentration of ammonia-N and total VFA were greater (P ? 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the CON diet. The PDC index was similar (P = 0.81) between treatments at 2 h before feed delivery: 4% lower and 14% greater for the HU diet compared with the CON diet at 4 and 10 h after feed delivery, respectively (P < 0.01). These results suggest that, due to limited DIP supplied by a DRC- and HMC-based feedlot diet containing 20% DDGS, urea supplementation resulted in improved ruminal fermentation and feed digestibility, which may explain the concurrently improved cattle performance. PMID:25412747

  19. Uric acid utilization by Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, J O; George, K L; Parker, B C; Gruft, H

    1983-01-01

    Forty-nine human and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum were tested for their ability to grow on uric acid and a number of its degradation products. Nearly all (88 to 90%) strains used uric acid or allantoin as a sole nitrogen source; fewer (47 to 69%) used allantoate, urea, or possibly ureidoglycollate. Enzymatic activities of one representative isolate demonstrated the existence of a uric acid degradation pathway resembling that in other aerobic microorganisms. PMID:6863220

  20. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  1. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  2. Low Protein Diet Inhibits Uric Acid Synthesis and Attenuates Renal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Liu, Yan; Tan, Rongshao; Liu, Houqiang; Lao, Gancheng

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD) retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5%) and normal protein diet (18%), respectively, for 12 weeks. Vital signs, blood and urinary samples for UA metabolism were taken and analyzed every 3 weeks. Kidneys were removed at the end of the experiment. Results. Diabetic rats developed into constantly high levels of serum UA (SUA), creatinine (SCr) and 24?h amounts of urinary albumin excretion (UAE), creatintine (UCr), urea nitrogen (UUN), and uric acid (UUA). LPD significantly decreased SUA, UAE, and blood glucose, yet left SCr, UCr, and UUN unchanged. A stepwise regression showed that high UUA is an independent risk factor for DN. LPD remarkably ameliorated degrees of enlarged glomeruli, proliferated mesangial cells, and hyaline-degenerated tubular epithelial cells in diabetic rats. Expression of TNF-? in tubulointerstitium significantly decreased in LPD-fed diabetic rats. Conclusion. LPD inhibits endogenous uric acid synthesis and might accordingly attenuate renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24772444

  3. Creatinine blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical made by the body and is used to supply energy mainly to muscles. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed from the body ...

  4. Effects of cilnidipine on serum uric acid level and urinary nitrogen monoxide excretion in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Kensaku; Mizuta, Einosuke; Watanabe, Arisa; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Katsunori; Hasegawa, Akira; Sakata, Shinji; Mishima, Mutsuo; Ogino, Kazuhide; Nosaka, Yoshihito; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Ohtahara, Akira; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Kato, Masahiko; Yoshida, Akio; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The effects of cilnidipine on the serum uric acid level and urinary NO excretion in hypertensive patients were investigated. Blood and urine samples of 16 hypertensive outpatients were collected before and 2 months after cilnidipine therapy (10 mg). The serum uric acid level decreased significantly after cilnidipine treatment, while the uric acid-creatinine clearance ratio was unaffected. The cilnidipine medication produced a significant increase in urinary NO excretion, although amlodipine did not change it significantly. Therefore, cilnidipine has a profound antihypertensive effect and may reduce the serum uric acid level and increase NO production in the kidney. PMID:22681507

  5. Association of serum uric acid with proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Behradmanesh, Saeed; Horestani, Mohammad Karami; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various findings suggest that uric acid is an inflammatory factor and may have a role in endothelial dysfunction and act as a mediator of diabetic nephropathy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum uric acid level and level of proteinuria in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 60 patients with T2D without a history of gout. None was treated with allopurinol. Venous blood samples were obtained in fasting state for determinations of serum creatinine, uric acid, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (reference range 3.8-5.5%); 24-h urine proteinuria was also measured. Results: Mean age of the patients was 57 ± 8.3 years. Mean ± standard error (SE) of serum creatinine was 0.98 ± 0.028 mg/dL, mean ± SE of serum uric acid was 4.5 ± 0.15 mg/dL, and mean ± SE of proteinuria was 388 ± 28.7 mg/day (median = 303.5 mg/day). There was no significant difference in serum uric acid, HbA1c, and creatinine level between males and females (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive association between body mass index (BMI) and serum uric acid levels (r = 0.428, P = 0.001). After adjustment for weight, a significant positive association of serum uric acid with level of proteinuria was seen (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Serum uric acid had a significant positive association with diabetic nephropathy. It might be hypothesized that serum uric acid plays a role in diabetic nephropathy in T2D. PMID:23900353

  6. Relationship between red cell distribution width and serum uric acid in patients with untreated essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Li, Zhan-Zhan; Li, Yan-Yan; Chen, Li-Zhang; Yan, Shi-Peng; Chen, Peng; Hu, Ying-Yun

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with serum uric acid (UA) level in a group of 512 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension, recruited in Beijing. Patients were divided into high uric acid group and low uric acid group according to the median (334.9??mol/L) of serum uric acid. Compared with the low uric acid group, the patients with high uric acid had higher red blood cell count (P < 0.001) and RDW (P = 0.032). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that RDW (P = 0.001) was positively correlated with uric acid level after the adjustment of related factors. Stepwise multiple logistic regression model confirmed that RDW (odds ratio: OR = 1.75) was independent determinants of high serum uric acid as well as sex (OR = 6.03), triglycerides (OR = 1.84), and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, OR = 1.30). RDW may be independently associated with serum UA level in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. To firmly establish the causal role of RDW in the incidence of high uric acid level among hypertensive patients, large cohort studies are needed. PMID:25464864

  7. Four-Week Effects of Allopurinol and Febuxostat Treatments on Blood Pressure and Serum Creatinine Level in Gouty Men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men. PMID:25120316

  8. Effects of the N/L-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine on nephropathy and uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (J-CIRCLE study).

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shunya; Takahashi, Masato; Sugawara, Masahiro; Saito, Tomoaki; Nakai, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Masami; Mochizuki, Koichi; Shin, Isu; Morita, Takashi; Hikita, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Hironao; Takahashi, Yuko; Mizuno, Shigeki; Ohno, Yasumi; Ito, Kageki; Ito, Takafumi; Soma, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and uric acid metabolism in 70 hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease in whom urinary ACR had remained ?30 mg/g under the treatment of the L-type calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Three months after switching to the N/L-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine, blood pressure (BP) did not change; however, urinary ACR significantly decreased with cilnidipine. Serum uric acid levels showed no significant change. In cases where uric acid production had been high (urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio ?0.5), the urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio decreased significantly after cilnidipine treatment, suggesting that cilnidipine can suppress excessive uric acid formation. These results suggest that switching from amlodipine to cilnidipine results in a significant reduction in urinary ACR as well as significant reduction in uric acid production. Thus, cilnidipine is more useful than amlodipine in improving albuminuria and uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:25264215

  9. Urea movement across erythrocyte membrane during artificial kidney treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred K Cheung; Michael F Alford; Marcella M Wilson; John K Leypoldt; Lee W Henderson

    1983-01-01

    Urea movement across erythrocyte membrane during artificial kidney treatment. Previous work by other investigators indicates that erythrocyte urea and creatinine in uremic whole blood leaving the hemodialyzer do not move down the concentration gradients established by loss of these solutes across the dialyzer membrane. This puzzling disequilibrium is at odds with work indicating ready movement of both solutes across the

  10. Effect of Losartan Versus Candesartan on Uric Acid, Renal Function, and Fibrinogen in Patients With Hypertension and Hyperuricemia Associated With Diuretics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Rayner; Yvonne A. Trinder; Donette Baines; Sedick Isaacs; Lionel H. Opie

    2006-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia may counter benefits of blood pressure (BP) reduction, although this is controversial.Methods: We examined the effects of candesartan and losartan on uric acid, creatinine, and fibrinogen. Patients with hypertension and serum uric acid ?0.42 mmol\\/L (7 mg\\/dL) associated with diuretics were randomized to receive losartan 50 to 100 mg or candesartan 8 to 16 mg for 24 weeks.

  11. Creatinine

    MedlinePLUS

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  12. Renal hypouricemia in school-aged children: screening of serum uric acid level before physical training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Nakamura; Ryo Niimi; Yukishige Yanagawa

    2006-01-01

    We present two cases of a 12-year-old Japanese boy and a 14-year-old Japanese girl who had exercise-induced acute renal failure (ARF). They experienced general fatigue, nausea\\/vomiting, and vague discomfort in the abdomen after physical exercise at school. In case of the boy, abdominal pain subsided, but renal dysfunction lasted 17 days, with peak levels of creatinine 9.4 mg\\/dl and uric acid

  13. Genes, diet and uric acid nephrolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gianfrancesco; T. Esposito; J. Simpore; S. Musumeci

    2004-01-01

    Uric acid represent the final product of purine metabolism: one-third of daily uric acid production is excreted by the gastrointestinal\\u000a tract and two-thirds by the kidney. A high uric acid excretion with urine, a low urine volume due to dehydration and an acidic\\u000a urinary pH value have been suggested to be the most important risk factor for uric acid nephrolithiasis

  14. Serum uric acid level in primary hypertension among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Dong, B; Wu, H; Chen, T; Zhang, Y; Wu, J; Xiao, H

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an independent positive association of elevated serum uric acid with essential hypertension. However, to date, limited information is available in the old population. In the present study, we included 832 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians (269 men and 563 women; ranged in age from 90 to 108 years (mean, 94.6+/-4.0)). The mean serum uric acid level was 320 micromol l(-1) (standard deviation 87 micromol l(-1)). After adjustment for age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking habits, tea habits, alcohol consumption, fasting plasma glucose, plasma lipids and serum creatinine, the odds ratio comparing the highest with lowest quartile of serum uric acid were 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-1.21) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.88-2.22) in men and women, respectively. When compared with normotensive subjects, we did not observe statistical higher serum uric acid levels in subjects with hypertension. In summary, we found that serum uric acid level is not directly correlated with hypertension among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians. PMID:18719615

  15. Serum uric acid, kidney volume and progression in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Helal, Imed; McFann, Kim; Reed, Berenice; Yan, Xiang-Dong; Schrier, Robert W.; Fick-Brosnahan, Godela M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperuricemia has been implicated in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease, both in animal experiments and in clinical studies. As a potentially modifiable risk factor, we examined whether serum uric acid levels correlate with early hypertension, kidney volume and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods Retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of the natural history of ADPKD, conducted at the University of Colorado between 1985 and 2005. Included are 680 ADPKD adults who provided data on blood pressure, renal volume, renal function, uric acid, age at the onset of ESRD or last known age without ESRD. Serum uric acid levels were examined as a continuous variable and as gender-specific quartiles. The main outcome of interest was age at the onset of ESRD; secondary outcomes were hypertension onset before age 30 years and total kidney volume (TKV) at the study visit. Results Subjects with early-onset hypertension had higher age-adjusted serum uric acid levels than those with no or late-onset hypertension despite similar creatinine clearance. After adjusting for age, gender and creatinine clearance, there was a 5.8% increase in TKV and 4.1% increase in TKV/body surface area for every 1 mg/dL increase in uric acid (P = 0.007). The multivariate-adjusted Cox regression demonstrated a greater hazard ratio for ESRD for subjects in the 4th and 3rd quartiles of uric acid compared with the 1st [4.8 (2.6–8.9; P < 0.001) and 2.9 (1.6–5.3; P < 0.001)]. Conclusions Higher serum uric acid levels are associated with earlier onset of hypertension, larger kidney volume and increased hazard for ESRD in ADPKD independent of gender, body mass index and renal function at the study visit. Randomized interventional studies will be necessary to examine whether treating hyperuricemia has a protective role in ADPKD. PMID:23222419

  16. Quantification of urinary uric acid in the presence of thymol and thimerosal by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Whitson, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed as an alternative to automated enzymatic analysis of uric acid in human urine preserved with thymol and/or thimerosal. Uric acid (tR = 10 min) and creatinine (tR = 5 min) were separated and quantified during isocratic elution (0.025 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5) from a mu Bondapak C18 column. The uric-acid peak was identified chemically by incubating urine samples with uricase. The thymol/thimerosal peak appeared at 31 min during the washing step and did not interfere with the analysis. We validated the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for linearity, precision and accuracy, and the results were found to be excellent.

  17. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ?60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  18. Type 2 Diabetes and Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Naim M.

    2008-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased propensity for uric acid nephrolithiasis. In individuals with diabetes, this increased risk is due to a lower urine pH that results from obesity, dietary factors, and impaired renal ammoniagenesis. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of uric acid stone disease in patients with diabetes are hereby reviewed, and potential molecular mechanisms are proposed.

  19. Action of biologically-relevant oxidizing species upon uric acid. Identification of uric acid oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Kaur, H; Halliwell, B

    1990-01-01

    Uric acid is an end-product of purine metabolism in Man, and has been suggested to act as an antioxidant in vivo. Products of attack upon uric acid by various oxidants were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Hypochlorous acid rapidly oxidized uric acid, forming allantoin, oxonic/oxaluric and parabanic acids, as well as several unidentified products. HOCl could oxidize all these products further. Hydrogen peroxide did not oxidize uric acid at detectable rates, although it rapidly oxidized oxonic acid and slowly oxidized allantoin and parabanic acids. Hydroxyl radicals generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or Fe2(+)-EDTA/H2O2 systems also oxidized uric acid to allantoin, oxonic/oxaluric acid and traces of parabanic acid. Addition of ascorbic acid to the Fe2(+)-EDTA/H2O2 system did not increase formation of oxidation products from uric acid, possibly because ascorbic acid can 'repair' the radicals resulting from initial attack of hydroxyl radicals upon uric acid. Mixtures of methaemoglobin or metmyoglobin and H2O2 also oxidized uric acid: allantoin was the major product, but some parabanic and oxonic/oxaluric acids were also produced. Caeruloplasmin did not oxidize uric acid under physiological conditions, although simple copper (Cu2+) ions could, but this was prevented by albumin or histidine. The possibility of using oxidation products of uric acid, such as allantoin, as an index of oxidant generation in vivo in humans is discussed. PMID:2155712

  20. On-line mass spectrometric investigation of the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Volk, K J; Yost, R A; Brajter-Toth, A

    1990-01-01

    The enzymatic and electrochemical oxidation pathways of uric acid were determined on-line with thermospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Products and intermediates formed as a result of electrooxidation were monitored as the electrode potential was varied. Electrochemical results served as a model for the enzymatic studies. In fact, electrochemical studies were essential for elucidating the structures of intermediates because of the high conversion efficiencies in electrooxidation. Products and intermediates formed as a result of enzymatic oxidation of uric acid were monitored as the reaction time was varied. When the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid with peroxidase and H2O2 was studied, the same intermediates and products were observed as in the electrochemical oxidation. The tandem mass spectrometric results provide convincing evidence that the primary intermediate produced during both the enzymatic and electrochemical oxidation of uric acid has a quinonoid diimine structure. The primary intermediate can follow three distinct reaction pathways to produce the identified final products. The final enzymatic and electrochemical oxidation products observed in these studies were urea, CO2, alloxan, alloxan monohydrate, allantoin, 5-hydroxyhydantoin-5-carboxamide and parabanic acid. PMID:2094419

  1. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2014-07-22

    Abstract It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50?mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5?mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus?+?0.10?mg/dl; p?=?0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control. PMID:25051056

  2. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Patińo-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria. PMID:25079497

  3. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  4. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  5. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function.

  6. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Wiederkehr; Orson W. Moe

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about\\u000a 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form\\u000a primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority\\u000a of

  7. Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia and Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ming; Yang, Fan; Yang, Irene; Yin, Ying; Luo, Jin Jun; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism. It is known that hyperuricemia, defined as high levels of blood uric acid, is the major etiological factor of gout. A number of epidemiological reports have increasingly linked hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Studies highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of uric acid point to an inflammatory response as the primary mechanism for inducing gout and possibly contributing to uric acid's vascular effects. Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce an inflammatory reaction, which are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These TLRs then activate NALP3 inflammasome. MSU also triggers neutrophil activation and further produces immune mediators, which lead to a proinflammatory response. In addition, soluble uric acid can also mediate the generation of free radicals and function as a pro-oxidant. This review summarizes the epidemiological studies of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease, takes a brief look at hyperuricemia and its role in neurological diseases, and highlights the studies of the advanced pathological mechanisms of uric acid and inflammation. PMID:22201767

  8. Association of uric acid, atherogenic index of plasma and albuminuria in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Akbas, Emin Murat; Timuroglu, Aysu; Ozcicek, Adalet; Ozcicek, Fatih; Demirtas, Levent; Gungor, Adem; Akbas, Nergis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The associations of serum uric acid (UA), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and albuminuria with cardiovascular disease have been shown. Several studies focused on association of serum UA and dyslipidemia, serum UA and renal impairment, dyslipidemia and renal impairment. However, to date, in literature, there have been no studies demonstrating the relationship between these parameters in diabetic patients together. Aims: We aimed to investigate the association between serum UA, albuminuria and AIP in diabetic patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving data of 645 diabetic patients. The patients were separated into groups according to their serum uric acid and AIP levels. The quantitative urine albumin/creatinine ratio in morning spot urine samples were used for standard albuminuria determination. Serum uric acid levels under 6 mg/dL were considered as normal. AIP was calculated as the logarithmically transformed ratio of triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: AIP and albuminuria levels were high in high serum UA group compared to normal UA group. Uric acid and albuminuria tended to increase with increasing AIP. Correlation analysis showed that albuminuria, AIP and UA were significantly correlated with each other. Additionally, in binary logistic regression analysis, AIP was found to be independently associated with high UA levels. Conclusions: Present study reveals that serum UA, AIP and albuminuria are closely related. Physicians should be aware that patients with concomitant hyperuricemia, albuminuria and high AIP are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Our study confirms that there is a need for larger prospective studies to determine the mechanisms underlying the association of serum UA, AIP and albuminuria. PMID:25664100

  9. Preliminary investigations on a new disposable potentiometric biosensor for uric acid.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng Wei; Chou, Jung Chuan; Sun, Tai Ping; Hsiung, Shen Kan; Hsieh, Jui Hsiang

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, uricase, catalase, and electron mediator were coimmobilized on the surface of the tin oxide (SnO2)/indium tin oxide (ITO) glass, to develop a disposable potentiometric uric acid biosensor. The SnO2/ITO glass was employed as a pH sensor, fabricated by sputtering SnO2 thin films on the ITO glass. 3-Glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS) was utilized to immobilize uricase, catalase and the electron mediator (ferrocenecarboxylic acid, FcA) on the sensing window. The experimental results reveal that the optimal weight ratio of uricase, FcA to catalase (CAT) is 4:1:2. The sensor responds linearly between 2 mg/dl and 7 mg/dl at pH 7.5, in 20 mM of test solution, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99213. Accordingly, no significant interference was observed when interfering substances, glucose, urea and ascorbic acid, were added to the uric acid solution. Moreover, the recorded voltage was relatively constant during the first 28 days of measurement. Consequently, a potentiometric uric acid biosensor was realized with the advantages of low cost and simple fabrication. PMID:16830944

  10. Residual kidney function and plasma urea concentration in patients with chronic renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Erben; H. Nádvorníková; V. Teplan; O. Mare?ková; I. Skála; V. Reitschlägerová

    1990-01-01

    The relationships between the plasma levels of urea (Purea), renal clearance of urea (Curea) and creatinine (Ccr) at an intake of 0.5 g protein\\/kg body weight\\/day were followed in 10 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) under balance\\u000a conditions. Under these conditions, Purea attained a value of 30 mmol\\/l when Curea had decreased below 3.8 ml\\/min. By contrast, no correlation

  11. Quantification of creatinine in biological samples based on the pseudoenzyme activity of copper-creatinine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Krishna, Honnur

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the marker of chronic kidney disease can be analyzed by the concentration of cystatin C or creatinine and its clearance in human urine and serum samples. The determination of cystatin C alone as an indicator of GFR does not provide high accuracy, and is more expensive, thus measurement of creatinine has an important role in estimating GFR. We have made an attempt to quantify creatinine based on its pseudoenzyme activity of creatinine in the presence of copper. Creatinine in the presence of copper oxidizes paraphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPDD) which couples with dimethylamino benzoicacid (DMAB) giving green colored chromogenic product with maximum absorbance at 710 nm. Kinetic parameters relating this reaction were evaluated. Analytical curves of creatinine by fixed time and rate methods were linear at 8.8-530 ?mol L-1 and 0.221-2.65 mmol L-1, respectively. Recovery of creatinine varied from 97.8 to 107.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.55 and 8.52 ?mol L-1 respectively whereas Sandell's sensitivity and molar absorption coefficient values were 0.0407 ?g cm-2 and 0.1427 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 respectively. Precision studies showed that within day imprecision was 0.745-1.26% and day-to-day imprecision was 1.55-3.65%. The proposed method was applied to human urine and serum samples and results were validated in accordance with modified Jaffe's procedure. Wide linearity ranges with good recovery, less tolerance from excipients and application of the method to serum and urine samples are the claims which ascertain much advantage to this method.

  12. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 hours and then daily in 484 patients. AKI was defined either as > 50% increase in plasma creatinine from baseline, or > 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance. The diagnostic and predictive performance of the two AKI definitions were compared. Results Creatinine clearance decrease diagnosed AKI in 24% of those not diagnosed by plasma creatinine increase on entry. These patients entered the ICU sooner after insult than those diagnosed with AKI by plasma creatinine elevation (P = 0.0041). Mortality and dialysis requirement increased with the change in creatinine clearance-acute kidney injury severity class (P = 0.0021). Amongst patients with plasma creatinine < 1.24 mg/dl on entry, creatinine clearance improved the prediction of AKI considerably (Net Reclassification Improvement 83%, Integrated Discrimination Improvement 0.29). On-entry, creatinine clearance associated with AKI severity and duration (P < 0.0001) predicted dialysis need (area under the curve: 0.75) and death (0.61). A > 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance over the first 12 hours was associated with a 2.0-fold increased relative risk of dialysis or death. Conclusions Repeated 4-hour creatinine clearance measurements in critically ill patients allow earlier detection of AKI, as well as progression and recovery compared to plasma creatinine. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000032550. PMID:22713519

  13. Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ovadia Shemesh; Helen Golbetz; Joseph P Kriss; Bryan D Myers

    1985-01-01

    Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients. To determine the reliability of creatinine as a measure of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we compared the simultaneous clearance of creatinine to that of three true filtration markers of graded size in 171 patients with various glomerular diseases. Using inulin (radius [rs] = 15 Ĺ) as a reference marker,

  14. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-07-01

    Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced ?-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-?B was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic ?-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic ?-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes. PMID:25050113

  15. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced ?-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-?B was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic ?-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic ?-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes. PMID:25050113

  16. The urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the ?-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. PMID:25192511

  17. Urea Cycle Disease Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as ammonia. Ammonia is a product of protein digestion and the urea cycle is required for the body to excrete ammonia. In patients with partial enzyme deficiencies, the first recognized clinical episode may be ...

  18. Mechanisms Underlying Early Rapid Increases in Creatinine in Paraquat Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Fahim; Endre, Zoltan; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Pianta, Timothy; Peake, Philip; Palangasinghe, Chathura; Chathuranga, Umesh; Jayasekera, Kithsiri; Wunnapuk, Klintean; Shihana, Fathima; Shahmy, Seyed; Buckley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after severe paraquat poisoning and usually heralds a fatal outcome. The rapid large increases in serum creatinine (Cr) exceed that which can be explained by creatinine kinetics based on loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods and Findings This prospective multi-centre study compared the kinetics of two surrogate markers of GFR, serum creatinine and serum cystatin C (CysC), following paraquat poisoning to understand and assess renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning. Sixty-six acute paraquat poisoning patients admitted to medical units of five hospitals were included. Relative changes in creatinine and CysC were monitored in serial blood and urine samples, and influences of non-renal factors were also studied. Results Forty-eight of 66 patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria), with 37 (56%) developing moderate to severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or 3). The 37 patients showed rapid increases in creatinine of >100% within 24 hours, >200% within 48 hours and >300% by 72 hours and 17 of the 37 died. CysC concentration increased by 50% at 24 hours in the same 37 patients and then remained constant. The creatinine/CysC ratio increased 8 fold over 72 hours. There was a modest fall in urinary creatinine and serum/urine creatinine ratios and a moderate increase in urinary paraquat during first three days. Conclusion Loss of renal function contributes modestly to the large increases in creatinine following paraquat poisoning. The rapid rise in serum creatinine most probably represents increased production of creatine and creatinine to meet the energy demand following severe oxidative stress. Minor contributions include increased cyclisation of creatine to creatinine because of acidosis and competitive or non-competitive inhibition of creatinine secretion. Creatinine is not a good marker of renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning and renal injury should be evaluated using more specific biomarkers of renal injury. PMID:25815837

  19. Uric acid and chronic kidney disease: A time to act?

    PubMed Central

    Bellomo, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A role for uric acid in the pathogenesis and progression of renal disease had been proposed almost a century ago, but, too hastily dismissed in the early eighties. A body of evidence, mostly accumulated during the last decade, has led to a reappraisal of the influence of uric acid on hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease. The focus of this review will be solely on the relationship between serum uric acid and renal function and disease. We will review experimental evidence derived from animal and human studies, evidence gathered from a number of epidemiological studies, and from the few (up to now) studies of uric-acid-lowering therapy. Some space will be also devoted to the effects of uric acid in special populations, such as diabetics and recipients of kidney allografts. Finally we will briefly discuss the challenges of a trial of uric-acid-lowering treatment, and the recent suggestions on how to conduct such a trial. PMID:24175261

  20. Detection of Interstellar Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Lovas, Francis J.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

    2010-11-01

    Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH2)2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules (e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid). We have conducted an extensive search for urea toward the high mass hot molecular core Sgr B2(N-LMH) using BIMA, CARMA and the IRAM 30 m. Because the spectral lines of heavy molecules like urea tend to be weak and hot cores display lines from a wide range of molecules, it is necessary to detect a number of urea lines and apply sophisticated statistical tests before having confidence in an identification. The 1 mm resolution of CARMA enables favorable coupling of the source size and synthesized beam size, which was found to be essential for the detection of weak signals. We have detected a total of 65 spectral lines (32 molecular transitions and 33 unidentified transitions), most of which are narrower than the SEST survey (Nummelin et al. 1998) due to the small synthesized beam (2.5" x 2") of CARMA. It significantly resolves out the contamination by extended emission and reveals the eight weak urea lines that were previously blended with nearby transitions. Our analysis indicates that these lines are likely to be urea since the resulting observed line frequencies are coincident with a set of overlapping connecting urea lines, and the observed line intensities are consistent with the expected line strengths of urea. In addition, we have developed a new statistical approach to examine the spatial correlation between the observed lines by applying the Student's t test to the high resolution channel maps obtained from CARMA. The t test shows consistent spatial distributions from all eight candidate lines, suggesting a common molecular origin, urea. Our t test method could have a broad impact on the next generation of arrays, such as ALMA, because the new arrays will require a method to systematically determine the credibility of detections of weaker signals from new and larger interstellar molecules.

  1. Allopurinol, uric acid, and oxidative stress in cardiorenal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Riegersperger; Adrian Covic; David Goldsmith

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the hepatic end product of purine metabolism is uric acid. Serum uric acid levels physiologically and gradually\\u000a rise during human lifetime. Hyperuricemia also arises from excess dietary purine or ethanol intake, decreased renal excretion\\u000a of uric acid, tumor lysis in lymphoma, leukemia or solid tumors, and sometimes pharmacotherapy. The definition of hyperuricemia\\u000a is currently arbitrary. Hyperuricemia is associated

  2. Relationship Between Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine or Dialysis Adequacy in Patients on Chronic Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Khorgami, Zhinoos; Abdollahi, Alireza; Soleimani, Samaneh; Ahamadi, Farrokhlagha; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely estimated by serum creatinine based equations such as Cockcroft-Gault (CG) standardized for body surface, and an abbreviated formula derived from MDRD (modification of diet in renal disease) study. However, some studies suggested that creatinine based estimation of GFR formula can be replaced by cystatin C based formula. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether cystatin C based equation could be used as an indicator for renal function in hemodialysis patients compared to MDRD equation; and whether cystatin C, a dialyzable molecule, was related to Kt/V, the marker for dialysis adequacy. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 98 patients on chronic hemodialysis were included. Plasma levels of urea and creatinine were measured before and after dialysis, and cystatin C was measured before dialysis. GFR was calculated and compared. Results The mean age of patients was 55.50 ± 16.10 (24-86) years and 66 cases were male (67.3%). The GFR was estimated at 6.05 ± 2.36 and 5.83 ± 2.19 cc/min by MDRD and cystatin C based formulas, respectively, with a significant correlation (r = 0.51; P < 0.001). Serum cystatin C level was 9.74 ± 2.47 mg/L which showed significant reverse correlation with both MDRD (r = -0.46; P < 0.001) and cystatin C based formulas (r = -0.87; P < 0.001). Neither creatinine nor serum cystatin C showed correlation with Kt/V, as the marker of dialysis adequacy. Conclusions Serum cystatin C may be considered as an indicator of renal function in patients under maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:23841035

  3. Role of insulin resistance in uric acid nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanhan; Klett, Dane E; Littleton, Raymond; Elder, Jack S; Sammon, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of uric acid stones. Although not completely understood, its role is supported by many studies demonstrating increased prevalence of uric acid stones in patients with metabolic syndrome and in particular insulin resistance, a major component of metabolic syndrome. This review presents epidemiologic studies demonstrating the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis in general as well as the relationship between insulin resistance and uric acid stone formation, in particular. We also review studies that explore the pathophysiologic relationship between insulin resistance and uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25374817

  4. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure. PMID:21411845

  5. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1225 Creatinine test system. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1225 Creatinine test system. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1225 Creatinine test system. (a) Identification....

  8. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  9. Immobilization of uricase enzyme on self-assembled gold nanoparticles for application in uric acid biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, T; Tanwar, V K; Mishra, S K; Kumar, D; Biradar, A M; Rajesh

    2011-06-01

    An enzyme immobilization matrix is described by preparing a self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) over a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The surface of the GNPs was modified with a mixed (1:9) SAM of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 3-mercapto-propionic acid (MPA). The enzyme, uricase was covalently immobilized to the carboxyl groups of the mixed SAM of MUA/MPA through carbodiimide coupling reaction. The whole assembly was constructed on 1 cm2 area of ITO-glass plate and was tested as an amperometric biosensor for the detection of uric acid in aqueous solution. The biosensor assembly was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. The AFM of the enzyme biosensor assembly reveals an asymmetrical sharp regular island-like structure with an average roughness parameter value of 2.81 nm. Chronoamperometric response was measured as a function of uric acid concentration in aqueous solution (pH 7.4), which exhibits a linear response over a concentration range of 0.07 to 0.63 mM with a sensitivity of 19.27 microAmM(-1) and a response of 25 s with excellent reproducibility. These results are not influenced by the presence of interfering reagents such as ascorbic acid, urea and glucose. GNPs-biomolecule assemblies constructed using this method may facilitate development of new hybrid biosensing materials. PMID:21770094

  10. Ancient insights into uric acid metabolism in primates

    E-print Network

    Chang, Belinda

    such as gout and hypertension have plagued us for centu- ries. The prevalence of gout in the United States has, a key enzyme that metabolizes uric acid, leaving us vulnerable to diseases such as gout rise to the well-known joint pain associated with gout. Elevated uric acid levels have also been

  11. Linking uric acid metabolism to diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Kushiyama, Akifumi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeko; Kawazu, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia have been thought to be caused by the ingestion of large amounts of purines, and prevention or treatment of hyperuricemia has intended to prevent gout. Xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) is rate-limiting enzyme of uric acid generation, and allopurinol was developed as a uric acid (UA) generation inhibitor in the 1950s and has been routinely used for gout prevention since then. Serum UA levels are an important risk factor of disease progression for various diseases, including those related to lifestyle. Recently, other UA generation inhibitors such as febuxostat and topiroxostat were launched. The emergence of these novel medications has promoted new research in the field. Lifestyle-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus, often have a common pathological foundation. As such, hyperuricemia is often present among these patients. Many in vitro and animal studies have implicated inflammation and oxidative stress in UA metabolism and vascular injury because XDH/XO act as one of the major source of reactive oxygen species Many studies on UA levels and associated diseases implicate involvement of UA generation in disease onset and/or progression. Interventional studies for UA generation, not UA excretion revealed XDH/XO can be the therapeutic target for vascular injury and renal dysfunction. In this review, the relationship between UA metabolism and diabetic complications is highlighted. PMID:25512781

  12. Urea recycling in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus): a potential nitrogen-conserving tactic?

    PubMed

    Campbell, K L; MacArthur, R A

    1997-01-01

    The rate of 14C-urea hydrolysis was determined in 32 field-acclimatized muskrats maintained on natural diets during spring, summer, fall, and winter. We hypothesized that urea recycling occurs in muskrats during all seasons and that the conservation of tissue nitrogen via this mechanism is most prevalent in fall and winter, when forage protein levels are lowest. Muskrats exhibited higher rates of urea hydrolysis and a lower serum urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio in fall and winter than in spring and summer. Even after correcting for seasonal differences in blood urea pool size, the adjusted rate of urea hydrolysis was 67% higher in fall and winter than in spring and summer. There was no evidence that the maintenance nitrogen requirements of muskrats fed natural vegetation were affected by seasonal changes in the amino acid composition of the diet. We suggest that increased levels of urea recycling, coupled with adaptive mechanisms for reducing nitrogen excretion and possibly conserving carbon skeletons of essential amino acids, may allow muskrats to reduce their nitrogen requirements on fall and winter diets. Our finding that 14C-urea hydrolysis occurred during all four sampling periods suggests that nitrogen derived from this source may also be critical to supporting large hindgut microbe populations that enable this rodent to exploit the appreciable fiber content of its aquatic plant diet throughout the year. PMID:9231395

  13. Increasing the sensitivity of the Jaffe reaction for creatinine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Study of analytical procedure has revealed that linearity of creatinine calibration curve can be extended by using 0.03 molar picric acid solution made up in 70 percent ethanol instead of water. Three to five times more creatinine concentration can be encompassed within linear portion of calibration curve.

  14. A General Photonic Crystal Sensing Motif: Creatinine in Bodily Fluids

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    , PennsylVania 15260, and Materials Science DiVision, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam for the detection and quantification of creatinine, which is an important small molecule marker of renal dysfunction important metabolites as indicators of health status.1 For example, creatinine is an important diagnostic

  15. RESPONSE TO COMMENTARIES On Arsenic, Diabetes, Creatinine, and Multiple Regression

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    remain close to 1.0 when these variables are entered. However, when urinary creatinine is added demonstrating that such adjustment can cause problems.4 Many factors other than urinary dilution can affect urinary creatinine concentrations (eg, diabetes, muscle mass, genetics, diet).5 In NHANES 2003

  16. Towards optoelectronic urea biosensors.

    PubMed

    Pokrzywnicka, Marta; Koncki, Robert; Tymecki, ?ukasz

    2015-03-01

    Integration of immobilized enzymes with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) leads to the development of optoelectronic enzyme-based biosensors. In this work, urease, used as a model enzyme, immobilized in the form of an open-tubular microbioreactor or biosensing membrane that has been integrated with two red LEDs. It forms complete, fiberless, miniaturized, and extremely economic biooptoelectronic devices useful for nonstationary measurements under flow analysis conditions. Both enzyme-based biodevices, operating according to the paired emitter detector diode (PEDD) principle, allow relatively fast, highly sensitive, and well-reproducible urea detection in the millimolar range of concentrations. Potential analytical applications of the developed urea bioPEDDs have been announced. Both presented constructions will be easily adapted for the development of other optoelectronic biosensors exploring various enzyme-based schemes of biodetection. PMID:25619983

  17. Quinine and Urea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WebWare molecules of the month are discussed in two laboratory articles in this issue. Quinine is studied in the article "A Fluorimetric Approach to Studying the Effects of Ionic Strength on Reaction Rates: An Undergraduate Steady-State Fluorescence Laboratory Experiment" by Stephen W. Bigger, Peter J. Watkins, and Bruce Verity. Urea, a typical protein denaturant, is used as a cosolvent in the article "Transfer Free Energy and the Hydrophobic Effect" by Joseph M. Serafin.

  18. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1997-12-16

    A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

  19. Liquid-chromatographic determination of cimetidine, its known metabolites, and creatinine in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Ziemniak, J A; Chiarmonte, D A; Schentag, J J

    1981-02-01

    We describe a liquid-chromatographic procedure for determination of cimetidine, its hydroxymethyl-, sulfoxide-, and guanyl urea metabolites, and creatinine in patients serum and urine. SKF 92374 is used as the internal standard. Protein in 0.5 mL of serum or diluted urine is precipitated with 2 mL of acetonitrile, the organic and aqueous phases are separated by adding 0.3-0.5 g of anhydrous K2HPO4. The organic phase is evaporated, and 0.5 mL of 50 mmol/L HCl is added. This solution is washed with 3 mL of water-saturated isoamyl alcohol, the aqueous phase is extracted with 3 mL of methylene chloride and enough K2HPO4 to saturate the solution. The methylene chloride is evaporated, the residue reconstituted with 100 microL of mobile phase, and a 25-microL aliquot injected onto the chromatographic column (Dupont Sil). The mobile phase is acetonitrile/methanol/water/ammonium hydroxide (1000/50/50/2, by vol). The column effluent is monitored at 228 nm. Lower limits of detection ranged from 0.05 mg/L for cimetidine to 0.2 mg/L for guanyl urea. We determined cimetidine and its principal metabolites in the serum of a patient receiving cimetidine for the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and have assessed use of the assay in a clinical setting. PMID:7460278

  20. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1225 Creatinine test system. (a) Identification. A...

  1. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.

    2010-03-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

  2. Spot Urine Osmolality\\/Creatinine Ratio in Healthy Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srini Godevithanage; Piyumi P. Kanankearachchi; Mahanama P. Dissanayake; Thilak A. Jayalath; Nimal Chandrasiri; Rangani P. Jinasena; Ranjith P. V. Kumarasiri; Chulananda D. A. Goonasekera

    2010-01-01

    Background: Spot urine albumin\\/creatinine ratio is a reliable estimate of 24-hour urine albumin excretion. In a pilot study, we observed that the spot urine osmolality\\/creatinine ratio (Uosm\\/Ucr) in healthy adults is reproducible. Therefore, we postulated that Uosm\\/Ucr of a spot urine sample may give an overall estimate of urinary excretion of solutes, renal concentrating ability and body hydration status. Method:

  3. Creatinine clearance, pulse wave velocity, carotid compliance and essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Jacques Mourad; Bruno Pannier; Jacques Blacher; Annie Rudnichi; Athanase Benetos; Gerard M. London; Michel E. Safar

    2001-01-01

    Creatinine clearance, pulse wave velocity, carotid compliance and essential hypertension.BackgroundThe vascular hallmark of subjects with end-stage renal disease is increased arterial stiffness independent of blood pressure, wall stress, and cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, plasma glucose and cholesterol, obesity, and tobacco consumption. Whether arterial stiffness and kidney function are statistically associated in subjects with plasma creatinine ?130 ?mol\\/L has

  4. Improved GFR estimation by combined creatinine and cystatin C measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y-C Ma; L Zuo; J-H Chen; Q Luo; X-Q Yu; Y Li; J-S Xu; S-M Huang; L-N Wang; W Huang; M Wang; G-B Xu; H-Y Wang

    2007-01-01

    Plasma creatinine may not reflect glomerular filtration rate (GFR) especially in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma cystatin C (cysC), however, has the potential to more accurately determine early GFR reduction. We sought to improve the creatinine-based GFR estimation by including cysC measurements. We derived a reference GFR from standard dual plasma sampling 99mTc-DTPA clearance in a

  5. Automated measurement of urinary creatinine by multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-01-15

    Urinary creatinine analysis is required for clinical diagnosis, especially for evaluation of renal function. Creatinine adjustment is also widely used to estimate 24-h excretion from spot samples. Few convenient validated approaches are available for in-house creatinine measurement for small- to medium-scale studies. Here we apply the Jáffe reaction to creatinine determination with zone fluidic multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry. Diluted urine sample and reagent, alkaline picric acid, were mixed by a computer-programmed dispenser and rapidly delivered to a four-channel detection cell. The absorbance change was monitored by a flow-through light-emitting diode-photodiode-based detector. Validation results against high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV)/mass spectrometry (MS) are presented. Responses for 10-fold diluted samples were linear within clinically relevant ranges (0-250 mg/L after dilution). The system can analyze 70 samples per hour with a limit of detection of 0.76 mg/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.29% at 100 mg/L creatinine (n=225). Correlation with the HPLC (UV quantitation/MS confirmation) system was excellent (linear, r2=0.9906). The developed system allows rapid, simple, cost-effective, and robust creatinine analysis and is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of urine samples. PMID:18977332

  6. Uptake of urea C and urea N by the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEIL M. PRICE; Paul J.-Harrison

    1988-01-01

    Urea uptake rates of Thalassiusiru pseudonana (clone 3H) were determined using (14C)urea, (15N)urea, and by measuring disappearance of dissolved urea from the medium after adding 10 lg-atoms urea-N liter-'. In nitrate-sufficient cultures, the average (14C)urea uptake rate was 60% of the urea disappearance rate. Nitrate uptake continued in the presence of urea at a reduced rate, and only 15% of

  7. Urea and urea nitrate decomposition pathways: a quantum chemistry study.

    PubMed

    Tokmakov, Igor V; Alavi, Saman; Thompson, Donald L

    2006-03-01

    Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate the initial steps in the gas-phase decomposition of urea and urea nitrate. The most favorable decomposition pathway for an isolated urea molecule leads to HNCO and NH3. Gaseous urea nitrate formed by the association of urea and HNO3 has two isomeric forms, both of which are acid-base complexes stabilized by the hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the acidic proton of HNO3 and either the O or N atoms of urea, with binding energies (D0(o), calculated at the G2M level with BSSE correction) of 13.7 and 8.3 kcal/mol, respectively, and with estimated standard enthalpies of formation (delta(f)H298(o) of -102.3 and -97.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Both isomers can undergo relatively facile double proton transfer within cyclic hydrogen-bonded structures. In both cases, HNO3 plays a catalytic role for the (1,3) H-shifts in urea by acting as a donor of the first and an acceptor of the second protons transferred in a relay fashion. The double proton transfer in the carbonyl/hydrogen bond complex mediates the keto-enol tautomerization of urea, and in the other complex the result is the breakdown of the urea part to the HNCO and NH3 fragments. The enolic form of urea is not expected to accumulate in significant quantities due to its very fast conversion back to H2NC(O)NH2 which is barrierless in the presence of HNO3. The HNO3-catalyzed breakdown of urea to HNCO and NH3 is predicted to be the most favorable decomposition pathway for gaseous urea nitrate. Thus, HNCO + NH3 + HNO3 and their association products (e.g., ammonium nitrate and isocyanate) are expected to be the major initial products of the urea nitrate decomposition. This prediction is consistent with the experimental T-jump/FTIR data [Hiyoshi et al. 12th Int. Detonation Symp., Aug 11-16, San Diego, CA, 2002]. PMID:16494387

  8. Immobilized enzyme electrode for creatinine determination in serum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V K; Wolff, C M; Seris, J L; Schwing, J P

    1991-03-15

    An immobilized enzyme electrode for continuous creatinine determination in blood serum is described. The enzymes creatinine amidohydrolase, creatine amidinohydrolase, and sarcosine oxidase are coimmobilized to the surface of the polypropylene membrane of a Clark-type electrode responsive to oxygen. The immobilized enzymes catalyze the decomposition of creatinine with the consumption of oxygen and thus permit the creatinine measurement. The whole assay takes less than 1 min. Effects of pH and temperature on electrode response are also described. The proposed technique offers a rapid, simple, and inexpensive means to determine creatinine in blood serum within the normal and abnormal ranges. The repeatability of the creatine determination in serum is 2.5% (relative standard deviation), and the detection limit is 3 x 10(-6) mol L-1. The results obtained by this method were compared to those obtained with the Technicon AutoAnalyzer SMAC system based on the Jaffé reaction; the correlation factor between the two methods was found to be r = 0.9997. PMID:2031562

  9. SERS quantitative urine creatinine measurement of human subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tsuei Lian; Chiang, Hui-hua K.; Lu, Hui-hsin; Hung, Yung-da

    2005-03-01

    SERS method for biomolecular analysis has several potentials and advantages over traditional biochemical approaches, including less specimen contact, non-destructive to specimen, and multiple components analysis. Urine is an easily available body fluid for monitoring the metabolites and renal function of human body. We developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique using 50nm size gold colloidal particles for quantitative human urine creatinine measurements. This paper shows that SERS shifts of creatinine (104mg/dl) in artificial urine is from 1400cm-1 to 1500cm-1 which was analyzed for quantitative creatinine measurement. Ten human urine samples were obtained from ten healthy persons and analyzed by the SERS technique. Partial least square cross-validation (PLSCV) method was utilized to obtain the estimated creatinine concentration in clinically relevant (55.9mg/dl to 208mg/dl) concentration range. The root-mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) is 26.1mg/dl. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using SERS for human subject urine creatinine detection, and establishes the SERS platform technique for bodily fluids measurement.

  10. Urea nitrogen for potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Tyler; O. A. Lorenz; F. H. Takatori; J. C. Bishop

    1962-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The source of nitrogen influenced the total yield of potato tubers, the nutrient concentrations in the potato petiole and\\u000a the appearance of growing plants, especially in fields of low available phosphorus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Urea resulted in higher nitrate-nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in the plant petiole, but in lower phosphate-phosphorus\\u000a concentrations as compared with ammonium sulfate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. 

  11. Uric acid and chronic kidney disease: which is chasing which?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Jalal, Diana; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Kang, Duk-Hee; Ritz, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    Serum uric acid is commonly elevated in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but was historically viewed as an issue of limited interest. Recently, uric acid has been resurrected as a potential contributory risk factor in the development and progression of CKD. Most studies documented that an elevated serum uric acid level independently predicts the development of CKD. Raising the uric acid level in rats can induce glomerular hypertension and renal disease as noted by the development of arteriolosclerosis, glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Pilot studies suggest that lowering plasma uric acid concentrations may slow the progression of renal disease in subjects with CKD. While further clinical trials are necessary, uric acid is emerging as a potentially modifiable risk factor for CKD. Gout was considered a cause of CKD in the mid-nineteenth century [1], and, prior to the availability of therapies to lower the uric acid level, the development of end-stage renal disease was common in gouty patients. In their large series of gouty subjects Talbott and Terplan found that nearly 100% had variable degrees of CKD at autopsy (arteriolosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis) [2]. Additional studies showed that during life impaired renal function occurred in half of these subjects [3]. As many of these subjects had urate crystals in their tubules and interstitium, especially in the outer renal medulla, the disease became known as gouty nephropathy. The identity of this condition fell in question as the presence of these crystals may occur in subjects without renal disease; furthermore, the focal location of the crystals could not explain the diffuse renal scarring present. In addition, many subjects with gout also had coexistent conditions such as hypertension and vascular disease, leading some experts to suggest that the renal injury in gout was secondary to these latter conditions rather than to uric acid per se [4]. Indeed, gout was removed from the textbooks as a cause of CKD, and the common association of hyperuricemia with CKD was solely attributed to the retention of serum uric acid that is known to occur as the glomerular filtration rate falls. Renewed interest in uric acid as a cause of CKD occurred when it was realized that invalid assumptions had been made in the arguments to dismiss uric acid as a risk factor for CKD [5]. The greatest assumption was that the mechanism by which uric acid would cause kidney disease would be via the precipitation as crystals in the kidney, similar to the way it causes gout. However, when laboratory animals with CKD were made hyperuricemic, the renal disease progressed rapidly despite an absence of crystals in the kidney [6]. Since this seminal study, there has been a renewed interest in the potential role uric acid may have in both acute and CKD. We briefly review some of the major advances that have occurred in this field in the last 15 years. PMID:23543594

  12. Uric Acid as a CNS Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Gene L.; Shannon, Jackilen; Frei, Balz; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage is a consistent finding in a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Uric acid (UA) is a potent hydrophilic antioxidant that is modified by diet and drug. Several lines of evidence suggest that plasma UA may modulate outcomes in neurologic disease, but little attention has been paid to CNS levels of UA. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) UA is determined by plasma UA, modified by blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and associated with rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Also, since UA and ascorbic acid may act as antioxidants for one another, we also explored a potential interaction between them in the brain. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD (Mini-Mental Status Exam 19 ± 5) participated in a longitudinal biomarker study for one year involving standardized clinical assessments. CSF and blood were collected at baseline for UA, ascorbic acid, and albumin. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and again one year later. CSF UA was independent of age, gender, and AD severity. CSF and plasma UA were positively correlated (r = 0.669, p = 0.001) and BBB impairment was associated with higher CSF levels of UA (p = 0.028). Neither plasma nor CSF UA reached significant association with rates of cognitive decline over 1 year. CSF UA and CSF ascorbic acid were positively correlated (r = 0.388, p = 0.001). The hypothesis that CSF UA is determined by plasma UA and BBB integrity is supported, as is the hypothesis that UA and ascorbic acid are associated in CSF but not plasma. Adequately powered prospective studies would help assess any role for UA in primary and secondary prevention of AD. PMID:20061611

  13. Epidemiology and clinical pathophysiology of uric acid kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2014-06-01

    There is global diversity in the prevalence of uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis. UA nephrolithiasis comprises 8-10 % of all kidney stones in the United States. However, its prevalence is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those with obesity. Three significant urinary abnormalities have been described as the main etiologic factors for the development of UA nephrolithiasis; low urinary pH, hyperuricosuria and low urinary volume. However, an unduly acidic urine below the ionization constant of uric acid (pKa < 5.5) increases the urinary content of undissociated uric acid and thereby uric acid precipitation. Previous studies have shown the two major pathogenic mechanisms for unduly urinary pH are increased net acid excretion (NAE) and reduced renal ammonium (NH4 (+)), with a combination resulting in overly acidic urine. The impaired ammonium excretion has been demonstrated in a steady state in 24-hour urine and also following an oral ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) challenge to amplify ammoniogenic defects in this population. Similar abnormalities have been disclosed in normal populations and also in T2DM populations without kidney stones. To date, the underlying mechanism of increased acid production, source and nature of putative organic acid anions have not been fully elucidated. One plausible mechanism is the production of organic acid by intestinal and aerobic metabolism. This may occur in obese, diabetic and uric acid stone formers due to the differences in gut microflora. PMID:24497296

  14. Controlling serum uric acid using febuxostat in cancer patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takai, Mihoko; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Fujita, Kei; Lee, Shin; Ookura, Miyuki; Kishi, Shinji; Urasaki, Yoshimasa; Yoshida, Akira; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Ueda, Takanori

    2014-10-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency, in which control of serum uric acid (S-UA) levels is important. S-UA-lowering efficacy of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat, was retrospectively evaluated in seven patients with hematological malignancies who were at an intermediate risk of developing TLS. A 10-mg dose of febuxostat was initiated and chemotherapy was started within 24 h of administering the first dose of febuxostat. Febuxostat was continued until at least day 7 of chemotherapy treatment. The UA-lowering treatment was considered effective if febuxostat reduced S-UA levels to ?7.5 mg/dl by day 5. The mean S-UA level at base line was 6.4±2.6 mg/dl and, on day 5, the mean S-UA level was 4.7±1.8 mg/dl. All the patients achieved S-UA levels ?7.5 mg/dl. Serum creatinine levels decreased from 0.93±0.25 to 0.85±0.25 mg/dl. The estimated glomerular filtration rate values increased from 69.7±24.5 to 76.9±26.2 ml/min. No adverse reactions were noted during the study period and no patients experienced progressive TLS. Successful control of S-UA and improved renal function were obtained in response to febuxostat treatment in cancer patients at a risk of TLS. PMID:25202361

  15. Controlling serum uric acid using febuxostat in cancer patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    TAKAI, MIHOKO; YAMAUCHI, TAKAHIRO; FUJITA, KEI; LEE, SHIN; OOKURA, MIYUKI; KISHI, SHINJI; URASAKI, YOSHIMASA; YOSHIDA, AKIRA; IWASAKI, HIROMICHI; UEDA, TAKANORI

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency, in which control of serum uric acid (S-UA) levels is important. S-UA-lowering efficacy of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat, was retrospectively evaluated in seven patients with hematological malignancies who were at an intermediate risk of developing TLS. A 10-mg dose of febuxostat was initiated and chemotherapy was started within 24 h of administering the first dose of febuxostat. Febuxostat was continued until at least day 7 of chemotherapy treatment. The UA-lowering treatment was considered effective if febuxostat reduced S-UA levels to ?7.5 mg/dl by day 5. The mean S-UA level at base line was 6.4±2.6 mg/dl and, on day 5, the mean S-UA level was 4.7±1.8 mg/dl. All the patients achieved S-UA levels ?7.5 mg/dl. Serum creatinine levels decreased from 0.93±0.25 to 0.85±0.25 mg/dl. The estimated glomerular filtration rate values increased from 69.7±24.5 to 76.9±26.2 ml/min. No adverse reactions were noted during the study period and no patients experienced progressive TLS. Successful control of S-UA and improved renal function were obtained in response to febuxostat treatment in cancer patients at a risk of TLS. PMID:25202361

  16. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate from Serum Creatinine and Cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Inker, Lesley A.; Schmid, Christopher H.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Eckfeldt, John H.; Feldman, Harold I.; Greene, Tom; Kusek, John W.; Manzi, Jane; Van Lente, Frederick; Zhang, Yaping Lucy; Coresh, Josef; Levey, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that are based on serum creatinine are routinely used; however, they are imprecise, potentially leading to the overdiagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C is an alternative filtration marker for estimating GFR. METHODS Using cross-sectional analyses, we developed estimating equations based on cystatin C alone and in combination with creatinine in diverse populations totaling 5352 participants from 13 studies. These equations were then validated in 1119 participants from 5 different studies in which GFR had been measured. Cystatin and creatinine assays were traceable to primary reference materials. RESULTS Mean measured GFRs were 68 and 70 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area in the development and validation data sets, respectively. In the validation data set, the creatinine–cystatin C equation performed better than equations that used creatinine or cystatin C alone. Bias was similar among the three equations, with a median difference between measured and estimated GFR of 3.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 with the combined equation, as compared with 3.7 and 3.4 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 with the creatinine equation and the cystatin C equation (P = 0.07 and P = 0.05), respectively. Precision was improved with the combined equation (inter-quartile range of the difference, 13.4 vs. 15.4 and 16.4 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, respectively [P = 0.001 and P<0.001]), and the results were more accurate (percentage of estimates that were >30% of measured GFR, 8.5 vs. 12.8 and 14.1, respectively [P<0.001 for both comparisons]). In participants whose estimated GFR based on creatinine was 45 to 74 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, the combined equation improved the classification of measured GFR as either less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 or greater than or equal to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (net reclassification index, 19.4% [P<0.001]) and correctly reclassified 16.9% of those with an estimated GFR of 45 to 59 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 as having a GFR of 60 ml or higher per minute per 1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS The combined creatinine–cystatin C equation performed better than equations based on either of these markers alone and may be useful as a confirmatory test for chronic kidney disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.) PMID:22762315

  17. Comparison of Carbonate and Uricase-Carbonate Methods for the Determination of Uric Acid in Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendell T. Caraway; Herman Marable

    1965-01-01

    A colorimetric carbonate procedure for the determination of uric acid has been modi- fied to include incubation of serum with uricase to destroy uric acid. Residual non- urate chromogens are subtracted from total chromogens to obtain the concentration of \\

  18. Serum uric acid and target organ damage in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Sandra N; Odia, Osaretin J

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, as it acts through its effects on target organs, such as the heart and kidneys. Hyperuricemia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. Objective To assess the relationship between serum uric acid and target organ damage (left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria) in untreated patients with essential hypertension. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 130 (85 females, 45 males) newly diagnosed, untreated patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-five healthy age- and sex-matched non-hypertensive individuals served as controls for comparison. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by cardiac ultrasound scan, and microalbuminuria was assessed in an early morning midstream urine sample by immunoturbidimetry. Blood samples were collected for assessing uric acid levels. Results Mean serum uric acid was significantly higher among the patients with hypertension (379.7±109.2 ?mol/L) than in the controls (296.9±89.8 ?mol/L; P<0.001), and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 46.9% among the hypertensive patients and 16.9% among the controls (P<0.001). Among the hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was present in 54.1% of those with hyperuricemia and in 24.6% of those with normal uric acid levels (P=0.001). Similarly, left ventricular hypertrophy was more common in the hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia (70.5% versus 42.0%, respectively; P=0.001). There was a significant linear relationship between mean uric acid levels and the number of target organ damage (none versus one versus two: P=0.012). Conclusion These results indicate that serum uric acid is associated with target organ damage in patients with hypertension, even at the time of diagnosis; thus, it is a reliable marker of cardiovascular damage in our patient population. PMID:24833906

  19. RESEARCH Open Access Increased creatinine clearance in polytrauma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    information is available at the end of the article Minville et al. Critical Care 2011, 15:R49 http, performed in an intensive care unit (ICU) population with a normal serum creatinine, was to estimate urinary with a population of non trauma patients (NPT). Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study in a medical

  20. Blood pressure and serum creatinine in obese female.

    PubMed

    Asrin, M; Nessa, A; Hasan, M I; Das, R K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in developed as well as in developing countries. This analytical cross sectional study was carried out to document the relation between blood pressure, serum creatinine and body mass index in female and to assess potential health differences among obese female and normal weight female. This study was done in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013. Seventy female persons volunteered as subjects. Among them 35 were within normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m˛) and 35 were obese (BMI?30kg/m˛). Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Measurement of body mass index and blood pressure were done as per procedure. Serum creatinine level was estimated by enzymatic colorimetric method. The results were calculated and analyzed by using SPSS (statistical package for social science, version 17.0), scientific electronic calculator and simultaneously with a computer assisted program like Microsoft excel. Unpaired 't' test was applied to find the significance of difference regarding serum creatinine and blood pressure levels in obese female. The value of p was 1% to indicate highly significant and 5% to indicate simply significant or statistically significant. The mean±SE of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were 135.71±1.58mmHg, 88.74±0.95mmHg and 1.03±0.01mg/dl respectively; significant at 1% level for obese group of BMI (p<0.0001). The examinations and biochemical investigations revealed that high BMI is significantly related to increased levels of serum creatinine & blood pressure in obese female which indicate the obese subjects are prone to cardiovascular & metabolic risk. PMID:25725665

  1. Serum uric acid level, blood pressure, and vascular angiotensin II responsiveness in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Arian; Ramesh, Sharanya; Turin, Tanvir C.; MacRae, Jennifer M.; Sarna, Magdalena A.; Reimer, Raylene A.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Ahmed, Sofia B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Uric acid is associated with hypertension and increased renin–angiotensin system activity, although this relationship diminishes after chronic exposure to high levels. Uric acid is more strongly associated with poor outcomes in women compared to men, although whether this is due to a sex?specific uric acid?mediated pathophysiology or reflects sex differences in baseline uric acid levels remains unknown. We examined the association between uric acid and vascular measures at baseline and in response to angiotensin?II challenge in young healthy humans. Fifty?two subjects (17 men, 35 premenopausal women) were studied in high?salt balance. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in men compared to women (328 ± 14 ?mol/L vs. 248 ± 10 ?mol/L, P < 0.001), although all values were within normal sex?specific range. Men demonstrated no association between uric acid and blood pressure, either at baseline or in response to angiotensin?II. In stark contrast, a significant association was observed between uric acid and blood pressure at baseline (systolic blood pressure, P = 0.005; diastolic blood pressure, P = 0.02) and in response to angiotensin?II (systolic blood pressure, P = 0.035; diastolic blood pressure, P = 0.056) in women. However, this sex difference lost significance after adjustment for baseline uric acid. When all subjects were stratified according to high (>300 ?mol/L) or low (?300 ?mol/L) uric acid levels, only the low uric acid group showed a positive association between uric acid and measures of vascular tone at baseline and in response to angiotensin?II. Differences in uric acid?mediated outcomes between men and women likely reflect differences in exposure to increased uric acid levels, rather than a sex?specific uric acid?mediated pathophysiology. PMID:25501427

  2. Serum uric acid level, blood pressure, and vascular angiotensin II responsiveness in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Arian; Ramesh, Sharanya; Turin, Tanvir C; MacRae, Jennifer M; Sarna, Magdalena A; Reimer, Raylene A; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sola, Darlene Y; Ahmed, Sofia B

    2014-12-01

    Uric acid is associated with hypertension and increased renin-angiotensin system activity, although this relationship diminishes after chronic exposure to high levels. Uric acid is more strongly associated with poor outcomes in women compared to men, although whether this is due to a sex-specific uric acid-mediated pathophysiology or reflects sex differences in baseline uric acid levels remains unknown. We examined the association between uric acid and vascular measures at baseline and in response to angiotensin-II challenge in young healthy humans. Fifty-two subjects (17 men, 35 premenopausal women) were studied in high-salt balance. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in men compared to women (328 ± 14 ?mol/L vs. 248 ± 10 ?mol/L, P < 0.001), although all values were within normal sex-specific range. Men demonstrated no association between uric acid and blood pressure, either at baseline or in response to angiotensin-II. In stark contrast, a significant association was observed between uric acid and blood pressure at baseline (systolic blood pressure, P = 0.005; diastolic blood pressure, P = 0.02) and in response to angiotensin-II (systolic blood pressure, P = 0.035; diastolic blood pressure, P = 0.056) in women. However, this sex difference lost significance after adjustment for baseline uric acid. When all subjects were stratified according to high (>300 ?mol/L) or low (?300 ?mol/L) uric acid levels, only the low uric acid group showed a positive association between uric acid and measures of vascular tone at baseline and in response to angiotensin-II. Differences in uric acid-mediated outcomes between men and women likely reflect differences in exposure to increased uric acid levels, rather than a sex-specific uric acid-mediated pathophysiology. PMID:25501427

  3. Utility of serum creatinine/cystatin C ratio in diagnosis of postrenal acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    ?nal, Salih; Altunta?, Atila; Kidir, Veysel; Özorak, Alper; ?lgin, Yusuf; Sezer, Mehmet Tugrul

    2014-01-01

    Background: In obstructive uropathy, despite a severe increase in the serum creatinine (Cr) levels, only a mild cystatin C (CysC) increase was previously reported. Therefore, we aimed to determine the availability of serum Cr/CysC ratio in predicting postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 61-adult patients with heterogeneous AKI cases. Patients with bilateral pelvicalyceal dilatation in renal sonography were considered as postrenal AKI group (n = 15) and others were intrinsic AKI group (n = 46). Venous blood sampling for blood urea nitrogen, Cr and CysC measurements were performed on admission. Results: The mean age of study population was 66.3 ± 15.5 years; 38 (62%) of which were male. Two groups were similar regarding age, gender, and comorbidities. Cr/CysC ratio was significantly higher in postrenal AKI group (6.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.4 ± 2.1, P = 0.007). Conclusion: We suggest that serum Cr/CysC ratio seems to be a useful diagnostic tool for detection of postrenal AKI cases, especially for the cases without definite hydronephrosis. PMID:25657756

  4. Micromethod for the determination of uric acid in biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Martinek, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    A micro procedure for estimating uric acid in body fluids, based on the carbonate method, is described. Interferences are elucidated. The stoichiometry of the reaction is carefully worked out. Reliability of the method is established by comparison with two other methods, by recovery experiments, and by replicate analyses. PMID:5844207

  5. Uric acid and xanthine oxidoreductase in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Melissa L; Upton, Zee; Shooter, Gary K

    2014-02-01

    Chronic wounds are an important health problem because they are difficult to heal and treatment is often complicated, lengthy and expensive. For a majority of sufferers the most common outcomes are long-term immobility, infection and prolonged hospitalisation. There is therefore an urgent need for effective therapeutics that will enhance ulcer healing and patient quality of life, and will reduce healthcare costs. Studies in our laboratory have revealed elevated levels of purine catabolites in wound fluid from patients with venous leg ulcers. In particular, we have discovered that uric acid is elevated in wound fluid, with higher concentrations correlating with increased wound severity. We have also revealed a corresponding depletion in uric acid precursors, including adenosine. Further, we have revealed that xanthine oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyses the production of uric acid, is present at elevated levels in wound fluid. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase may have a function in the formation or persistence of chronic wounds. Here we describe the potential function of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid accumulation in the wound site, and the effect of xanthine oxidoreductase in potentiating the inflammatory response. PMID:24357442

  6. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  7. Serum creatinine levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CA Jones; GM McQuillan; JW Kusek; Eberhardt; WH Herman; J Coresh; M Salive; LY Agodoa

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the distribution of serum creatinine levels by sex, age, and ethnic group in a representative sample of the US population. Serum creatinine level was evaluated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 18,723 participants aged 12 years and older who were examined between 1988 and 1994. Differences in mean serum creatinine levels

  8. How to estimate GFR-serum creatinine, serum cystatin C or equations?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Herget-Rosenthal; Arend Bökenkamp; Walter Hofmann

    2007-01-01

    Plasma or serum creatinine is the most commonly used diagnostic marker for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinical routine. Due to substantial pre-analytical and analytical interferences and limitations, creatinine cannot be considered accurate. Besides, the diagnostic sensitivity to detect moderate GFR reduction is insufficient. Equations to estimate GFR based on serum creatinine have been introduced, which included

  9. Cystatin C is not a better estimator of GFR than plasma creatinine in the general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjřrn O Eriksen; Ulla D Mathisen; Toralf Melsom; Ole C Ingebretsen; Trond G Jenssen; Inger Njřlstad; Marit D Solbu; Ingrid Toft

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is complicated and costly; therefore, GFR is commonly estimated by assessing creatinine or cystatin C concentrations. Because estimates based on cystatin C predict cardiovascular disease better than creatinine, these estimates have been hypothesized to be superior to those based on creatinine, when the GFR is near the normal range. To test this, we

  10. The ratio of urinary cystatin C to urinary creatinine for detecting decreased GFR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Hellerstein; Max Berenbom; Pat Erwin; Nancy Wilson; Sylvia DiMaggio

    2004-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine and serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine were measured in 40 boys and 42 girls. The fractional excretion of cystatin C (FE Cyst C) increased in proportion to the decrease in GFR. Since serum creatinine concentration (S-Creatinine) in the numerator of the fractional excretion equation and serum cystatin C concentration (S-Cystatin C) in

  11. Association of serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kivity, Shaye; Kopel, Eran; Maor, Elad; Abu-Bachar, Fadi; Segev, Shlomo; Sidi, Yechezkel; Olchovsky, David

    2013-04-15

    Studies in different populations with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have shown an association between serum uric acid (SUA) and CVD. However, only a few studies have demonstrated such an association in healthy populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and CVD in a cohort of men and women without diabetes or CVD. A retrospective study was conducted, with a mean 4.8-year follow-up. The outcome was the occurrence of a cardiovascular event, defined as the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Mean SUA levels were 6.2 ± 1.1 mg/dl for men (n = 6,580) and 4.4 ± 1.1 mg/dl for women (n = 2,559). For women, the rate of CVD occurrence was 11.6% for the highest quartile of SUA level, compared with 5.0% to 6.5% for the lower 3 quartiles. For men, the rate of CVD occurrence was 14.0% for the highest quartile of SUA level, compared with 10.8% for the lowest quartile. The hazard ratio for CVD, adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, plasma fasting glucose, physical activity, cardiovascular family history, use of diuretics, and current smoking, was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.41) for women and 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.13) for men (p for interaction = 0.04). In conclusion, the strong association of SUA levels with CVD in women, compared with the much lesser degree in men, highlights the necessity of stratifying by gender in investigations of cardiovascular risk factors and supports exploration of SUA as a marker of CVD risk in healthy populations. PMID:23352265

  12. Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

  13. Amperometric uric acid sensors based on polyelectrolyte multilayer films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonori Hoshi; Hidekazu Saiki; Jun-ichi Anzai

    2003-01-01

    Uricase (UOx) and polyelectrolyte were used for preparation of a permselective multilayer film and enzyme multilayer films on a platinum (Pt) electrode, allowing the detection of uric acid amperometrically. The polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film composed of poly(allylamine) (PAA) and poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVS) were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H2O2-selective film. After deposition of the permselective film

  14. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea

    E-print Network

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30

    was injected into the gases as a urea-water solution. The decomposition processes of the urea-water solutions and urea powder were examined. For both the nitric oxide removal and the urea decomposition experiments, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR...

  15. [Role of uric acid in preeclampsia-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Juan Gustavo; Rico-Trejo, Elda Inés

    2011-05-01

    Uric acid is a terminal metabolite of the degradation of nucleotides, which increases their blood levels in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, increasing its synthesis by damage and death of trophoblastic cells in proliferation and decreased urinary excretion due a lower glomerular filtration rate and increased absorption in the proximal tubule. Hyperuricemia (> 4.5 mg/dL) is the first biomarker of the clinical chemistry considered as an early evidence of disease (< or = 20 weeks gestation). Uric acid concentrations are not only a criterion for establishing the correct diagnosis and the differential with other hypertensive states, but an indication of termination of pregnancy, often by cesarean section. Hyperuricemia has also demonstrated its usefulness as a predictor of maternal and fetal complications and maternal sequelae of late postpartum. Several studies have demonstrated its influence on the genesis of preeclampsia-eclampsia, either alone or jointly with other known processes (metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, inflammation cascade, angiogenesis) that have a proven role in perpetuating the endothelial damage and maternal vascular smooth muscle cells. Further research is needed in large-scale clinical and experimental studies that expand our knowledge about the usefulness of uric acid as a biomarker of preeclampsia-eclampsia to allow early prevention and reducing the prevalence. PMID:21966818

  16. The effect of uric acid on outdoor copper and bronze.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, E; Bowden, D J; Brimblecombe, P; Kenneally, H; Morselli, L

    2009-03-15

    Bird droppings are often quoted as a decay agent for outdoor goods, in particular buildings and statues. Undoubtedly, they represent one of the major causes of aesthetic damage on outdoor materials, but the real chemical damage they are able to induce, in particular on metals, is not so well studied. This work focused on the short term role of uric acid, the main constituent of bird urine, with respect to copper, which make such an important contribution to architectural elements of buildings and outdoor sculpture. Preliminary results of laboratory tests and analyses on real exposed samples showed that uric acid chemically affects copper and bronzes: the surface of the metal is modified and copper urates formed. Also natural patina, formed on statues and roof, react with uric acid, even if it seems to afford some protection toward bird droppings. In general, experimental results confirm that the potential chemical damage by bird droppings is significant when considering external cultural heritage such as statues, metal monuments and buildings with historic copper roofs. PMID:19157513

  17. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  18. Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2013-10-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that "a calorie is just a calorie" and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  19. Chronic Hyperuricemia, Uric Acid Deposit and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista; Giosia, Paolo Di; Cheli, Paola; Pinto, Rita Del; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure reduction, increment in flow-mediated dilation, and improved cardiovascular prognosis in various patient settings. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted with either allopurinol or its active metabolite oxypurinol, i.e. two purine-like non-selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. More recently, the role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the possible protective role exerted by reduction of hyperuricemia to normal level have been evaluated by the use of febuxostat, a selective, non purine-like xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In this review, we will report current evidence on hyperuricemia in cardiovascular disease. The value of uric acid as a biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for tailored old and novel “cardiometabolic” treatments will be also discussed. PMID:23173592

  20. OSMOREGULATION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTERSELECTED FOR UREA TOLERANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VALERIE A. PIERCE; LAURENCE D. MUELLER; ALLEN G. GIBBS

    Animals may adapt to hyperosmolar environments by either osmoregulating or osmoconforming. Osmoconforming animals generally accumulate organic osmolytes including sugars, amino acids or, in a few cases, urea. In the latter case, they also accumulate 'urea- counteracting' solutes to mitigate the toxic effects of urea. We examined the osmoregulatory adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae selected to live in 300 mmol l

  1. Detection of urinary creatinine using gold nanoparticles after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Unob, Fuangfa

    2015-03-01

    Label-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in the detection of creatinine in human urine after a sample preparation by extraction of creatinine on sulfonic acid functionalized silica gel. With the proposed sample preparation method, the interfering effects of the urine matrix on creatinine detection by AuNPs were eliminated. Parameters affecting creatinine extraction were investigated. The aggregation of AuNPs induced by creatinine resulted in a change in the surface plasmon resonance signal with a concomitant color change that could be observed by the naked eye and quantified spectrometrically. The effect of AuNP concentration and reaction time on AuNP aggregation was investigated. The method described herein provides a determination of creatinine in a range of 15-40mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 13.7mgL(-1) and it was successfully used in the detection of creatinine in human urine samples. PMID:25546357

  2. Petroleum Pollution Bioremediation Using Water-Insoluble Uric Acid as the Nitrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Omry; Knezevic, Vishnia; Ron, Eliora Z.; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in open systems is limited by the availability of a utilizable nitrogen source. This limitation can be overcome by using uric acid. Enrichment cultures grown on crude oil-uric acid media yielded mixed and pure cultures that degraded petroleum. In a simulated open system, uric acid bound to crude oil and was available for bacterial growth and petroleum biodegradation. PMID:14532103

  3. Petroleum pollution bioremediation using water-insoluble uric acid as the nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Koren, Omry; Knezevic, Vishnia; Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2003-10-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in open systems is limited by the availability of a utilizable nitrogen source. This limitation can be overcome by using uric acid. Enrichment cultures grown on crude oil-uric acid media yielded mixed and pure cultures that degraded petroleum. In a simulated open system, uric acid bound to crude oil and was available for bacterial growth and petroleum biodegradation. PMID:14532103

  4. Value of Myocardial Hypoxia Markers (Creatinine Kinase and Its MB-Fraction, Troponin-T, QT-Intervals) and Serum Creatinine for the Retrospective Diagnosis of Perinatal Asphyxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Möller; B. Thielsen; T. F. Schaible; I. Reiss; M. Kohl; T. Welp; L. Gortner

    1998-01-01

    Neonatal asphyxia is a major topic of neonatal research. However, no clear-cut physiologic parameters exist which enable an early identification of neonatal infants who are either at risk to develop brain damage or posthypoxic heart failure. Parameters indicating dysfunction of the heart and kidneys as creatinine and creatinine kinase have been evaluated. In our study, 47 asphyxiated infants (umbilical artery

  5. Two-stage magnetic orientation of uric acid crystals as gout initiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Miyashita, Y.; Mizukawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the magnetic behavior of uric acid crystals, which are responsible for gout. Under a sub-Tesla (T)-level magnetic field, rotational motion of the crystals, which were caused by diamagnetic torque, was observed. We used horizontal magnetic fields with a maximum magnitude of 500 mT generated by an electromagnet to observe the magnetic orientation of the uric acid microcrystals by a microscope. The uric acid crystals showed a perpendicular magnetic field orientation with a minimum threshold of 130 mT. We speculate that the distinct diamagnetic anisotropy in the uric acid crystals resulted in their rotational responses.

  6. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-10-01

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose-response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. PMID:25281834

  7. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

  8. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  9. Characterization of the Complete Uric Acid Degradation Pathway in the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:23667704

  10. Genome-wide linkage analysis for uric acid in families enriched for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Hunt, Steven C.; Asmann, Yan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Pankow, James S.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Turner, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Uric acid is heritable and associated with hypertension and insulin resistance. We sought to identify genomic regions influencing serum uric acid in families in which two or more siblings had hypertension. Methods. Uric acid levels and microsatellite markers were assayed in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) cohort (1075 whites and 1333 blacks) and the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) cohort (1542 whites and 1627 blacks). Genome-wide linkage analyses of uric acid and bivariate linkage analyses of uric acid with an additional surrogate of insulin resistance were completed. Pathway analysis explored gene sets enriched at loci influencing uric acid. Results. In the GENOA white cohort, loci influencing uric acid were identified on chromosome 8 at 135 cM [multipoint logarithm of odds score (MLS) = 2.4], on chromosome 9 at 113 cM (MLS = 3.7) and on chromosome 16 at 93 cM (MLS = 2.3), but did not replicate in HyperGEN. At these loci, there was evidence of pleiotropy with other surrogates of insulin resistance and genes in the fructose and mannose metabolism pathway were enriched. In the HyperGEN-black cohort, there was some evidence of a locus for uric acid on chromosome 4 at 135 cM (MLS = 2.4) that had modest replication in GENOA (MLS = 1.2). Conclusions. Several novel loci linked to uric acid were identified but none showed clear replication. Widespread diuretic use, a medication that raises uric acid levels, was an important study limitation. Bivariate linkage analyses and pathway analysis were consistent with genes regulating insulin resistance and fructose metabolism contributing to the heritability of uric acid. PMID:19258383

  11. Urea transformation of wetland microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Thorén, Ann-Karin

    2007-02-01

    Transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. Although microbial nitrogen transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. In this study, urea transformation of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was quantified and urea transformation of epiphytic biofilms associated with three different common wetland macrophyte species is compared. The microbial communities were collected from a constructed wetland in October 2002 and urea transformation was quantified in the laboratory at in situ temperature (12 degrees C) with the use of the 14C-urea tracer method, which measures the release of 14CO2 as a direct result of urease activity. It was found that the urea transformation was 100 times higher in sediment (12-22 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)) compared with the epiphytic activity on the surfaces of the submerged plant Elodea canadensis (0.1-0.2 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)). The epiphytic activity of leaves of Typha latifolia was lower (0.001-0.03 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)), while urea transformation was negligible in the water column and on the submerged leaves of the emergent plant Phragmites australis. However, because this wetland was dominated by dense beds of the submerged macrophyte E. canadensis, this plant provided a large surface area for epiphytic microbial activity-in the range of 23-33 m2 of plant surfaces per square meter of wetland. Thus, in the wetland system scale at the existing plant distribution and density, the submerged plant community had the potential to transform 2-7 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1) and was in the same magnitude as the urea transformation in the sediment. PMID:17268879

  12. Contribution of uric acid to cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two risk factors for the development and progression of cancers that are amenable to life style modification are chronic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. This review proposes two new targets that may mechanistically integrate inflammation and metabolic syndrome, have been largely ignored, and are known to be druggable. Recent evidence has demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is associated with excess cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality. Although uric acid (UA) can function as a systemic antioxidant, its pro-inflammatory properties have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Furthermore, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also associated with excess cancer, chronic inflammation, and with hyperuricemia, suggesting that UA may represent an important link between these disorders and the development of cancer. While pharmacological modulation of hyperuricemia could in principal augment anti-cancer therapeutic strategies, some cancer cells express low intracellular levels of the enzyme Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) that are associated with increased cancer aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome. Thus, systemic pharmacological inhibition of XOR may worsen clinical outcome, and specific strategies that target serum uric acid (SUA) without inhibiting tumor cell XOR may create new therapeutic opportunities for cancer associated with hyperuricemia. This review will summarize the evidence that elevated SUA may be a true risk factor for cancer incidence and mortality, and mechanisms by which UA may contribute to cancer pathogenesis will be discussed in the hope that these will identify new opportunities for cancer management. PMID:23369448

  13. On-line electrochemistry/thermospray/tandem mass spectrometry as a new approach to the study of redox reactions: the oxidation of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Volk, K J; Yost, R A; Brajter-Toth, A

    1989-08-01

    The electrochemical oxidation pathway of uric acid was determined by on-line electrochemistry/thermospray/tandem mass spectrometry. Intermediates and products formed as a result of electrooxidation were monitored as the electrode potential was varied. Several reaction intermediates have been identified and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The tandem mass spectrometric results provide convincing evidence that the primary intermediate produced during the electrooxidation of uric acid has a quinonoid diimine structure. The results indicate that once formed via electrooxidation, the primary intermediate can follow three distinct reaction pathways to produce the identified final products. The final electrochemical oxidation products observed in these studies were urea, CO2, alloxan, alloxan monohydrate, allantoin, 5-hydroxyhydantoin-5-carboxamide, and parabanic acid. The solution reactions that follow the initial electron transfer at the electrode are affected by the vaporizer tip temperature of the thermospray probe. In particular, it was found that at different tip temperatures either hydrolysis or ammonolysis reactions of the initial electrochemical oxidation products can occur. Most importantly, the results show that the on-line combination of electrochemistry with thermospray/tandem mass spectrometry provides otherwise difficult to obtain information about redox and associated chemical reactions of biological molecules such as the structure of reaction intermediates and products, as well as providing insight into reaction pathways. PMID:2774199

  14. Serum uric acid as an index of impaired oxidative metabolism in chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Leyva; S. Anker; J. W. Swan; T.-P. Chua; J. C. Stevensonf; A. J. S. Coats

    Background Elevated serum uric acid concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions associated with hypoxia. Since chronic heart failure is a state of impaired oxidative metabolism, we sought to determine whether serum uric acid concentrations correlate with measures of functional capacity and disease severity. Methods Fifty nine patients with a diagnosis of chronic heart failure due to coronary heart disease

  15. Uric Acid, a Natural Scavenger of Peroxynitrite, in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Hooper; S. Spitsin; R. B. Kean; J. M. Champion; G. M. Dickson; I. Chaudhry; H. Koprowski

    1998-01-01

    Uric acid, the naturally occurring product of purine metabolism, is a strong peroxynitrite scavenger, as demonstrated by the capacity to bind peroxynitrite but not nitric oxide (NO) produced by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells of a mouse monocyte line. In this study, we used uric acid to treat experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the PLSJL strain of mice, which develop a chronic form

  16. Uric Acid Puzzle: Dual Role as Anti-oxidantand Pro-oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Duk-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is known to be associated with the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome and with the development of incipient kidney disease and an accelerated renal progression. However, an elevated uric acid level was not generally regarded as a true etiology or mediator, but an indicator of these diseases. Uric acid has recently regained the clinical interest and popularity based on emerging data suggesting the causative role of hyperuricemia in cardiovascular and renal disease. Experimental data demonstrates oxidative stress is one of the earliest phenomena observed in vascular, renal, liver cells and adipocytes exposed to uric acid. Since uric acid is one of the major antioxidants of plasma acting as a free radical scavenger and a chelator of transitional metal ion, uric acid-induced oxidative stress seems paradoxical. Data regarding the clinical implication of hyperuricemia is even more confusing, which defines hyperuricemia as a useless parameter to be eliminated from routine follow-up or a major risk factor to be therapeutic target. With a review of experimental and epidemiologic data, the presence of molecular switch to regulate the role of uric acid as anti- or pro-oxidant in different compartment of our body is suggested, which may shed light on understanding the paradoxical role of uric acid and solving the "uric acid debate". PMID:25061467

  17. Serum Uric Acid and Plasma Norepinephrine Concentrations Predict Subsequent Weight Gain and Blood Pressure Elevation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuko Masuo; Hideki Kawaguchi; Hiroshi Mikami; Toshio Ogihara; Michael L. Tuck

    It has been reported that hypertension and obesity often coexist with hyperuricemia. To clarify the relations between serum uric acid, plasma norepinephrine, and insulin or leptin levels in subjects with weight gain-induced blood pressure elevation, we conducted the present longitudinal study. In 433 young, nonobese, normotensive men, body mass index, blood pressure, and levels of serum uric acid, fasting plasma

  18. Noninvasive Differentiation of Uric Acid versus Non-Uric Acid Kidney Stones Using Dual-Energy CT

    PubMed Central

    Primak, Andrew N.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Dzyubak, Oleksandr P.; Lieske, John C.; Jackson, Molly E.; Williams, James C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To determine the accuracy and sensitivity for dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) discrimination of uric acid (UA) stones from other (non-UA) renal stones in a commercially implemented product. Materials and Methods Forty human renal stones comprising uric acid (n = 16), hydroxyapatite (n = 8), calcium ox-alate (n = 8), and cystine (n = 8) were inserted in four porcine kidneys (10 each) and placed inside a 32-cm water tank anterior to a cadaver spine. Spiral dual-energy scans were obtained on a dual-source, 64-slice computed tomography (CT) system using a clinical protocol and automatic exposure control. Scanning was performed at two different collimations (0.6 mm and 1.2 mm) and within three phantom sizes (medium, large, and extra large) resulting in a total of six image datasets. These datasets were analyzed using the dual-energy software tool available on the CT system for both accuracy (number of stones correctly classified as either UA or non-UA) and sensitivity (for UA stones). Stone characterization was correlated with micro-CT. Results For the medium and large phantom sizes, the DECT technique demonstrated 100% accuracy (40/40), regardless of collimation. For the extra large phantom size and the 0.6-mm collimation (resulting in the noisiest dataset), three (two cystine and one small UA) stones could not be classified (93% accuracy and 94% sensitivity). For the extra large phantom size and the 1.2-mm collimation, the dual-energy tool failed to identify two small UA stones (95% accuracy and 88% sensitivity). Conclusions In an anthropomorphic phantom model, dual-energy CT can accurately discriminate uric acid stones from other stone types. PMID:18035274

  19. Differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodine using dual-energy CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wang; M. Qu; S. Leng; C. H. McCollough

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of differentiating uric acid from non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodinated contrast material was evaluated using dual-energy CT (DECT). Iodine subtraction was accomplished with a commercial three material decomposition algorithm to create a virtual non-contrast (VNC) image set. VNC images were then used to segment stone regions from tissue background. The DE

  20. Low Temperature Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Scott Sluder; John M. E. Storey; Samuel A. Lewis; Linda A. Lewis

    Urea-SCR systems are potentially a highly-effective means of NOX reduction for light-duty diesel vehicles. However, use of urea-SCR technologies at low temperatures presents unique technical challenges. This study was undertaken to provide more knowledge about low temperature urea decomposition and the resulting effects on SCR performance. Data are presented for experiments using two SCR catalysts of differing size with a

  1. Could uric acid be a modifiable risk factor in subjects with pulmonary hypertension?

    PubMed

    Zharikov, Sergey I; Swenson, Erik R; Lanaspa, Miguel; Block, Edward R; Patel, Jawaharlal M; Johnson, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    A high serum uric acid is common in subjects with pulmonary hypertension. The increase in serum uric acid may be a consequence of the local tissue ischemia and/or hypoxia, and it may also result from other factors independent of ischemia or hypoxia that occur in various forms of pulmonary hypertension. While classically viewed as a secondary phenomenon, recent studies suggest that hyperuricemia may also have a role in mediating the local vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling in the pulmonary vasculature. If uric acid does have a contributory role in pulmonary hypertension, we may see an increasing prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as hyperuricemia is common in subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome. We propose studies to investigate the role of uric acid in pulmonary hypertension and to determine if lowering serum uric acid may have clinical benefit in this condition. PMID:20064695

  2. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    West, Caroline E.; Rhodes, Blaine N.

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50?µL of urine was mixed with a 1?:?1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000?mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77?mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91?mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R2 = 0.9797, ? ? 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  3. The effect of a vegetarian and different omnivorous diets on urinary risk factors for uric acid stone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roswitha Siener; Albrecht Hesse

    2003-01-01

    Summary. Background: About 10–15% of all urinary stones are composed of uric acid. A high urinary uric acid excretion, a low urine volume and an acidic urinary pH value are suggested to be the most important risk factors for uric acid stone formation. Aim of the study: The effect of a vegetarian diet and different omnivorous diets on the risk

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of urea aqueous solutions: experimental phase diagram of the urea-water binary system.

    PubMed

    Durickovic, Ivana; Thiébaud, Laura; Bourson, Patrice; Kauffmann, Thomas; Marchetti, Mario

    2013-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze mixtures of urea and water in order to identify the influence of the urea concentration on the solution's freezing point. Our approach consisted in the analysis of urea aqueous solutions and the determination of their phase transitions at low temperatures. Hence, Raman spectra of these solutions were acquired in a -30 to 10 °C temperature range. This enabled us to build the experimental phase diagram of the urea-water binary system. PMID:24067578

  5. A technique for predicting urea release from coated urea in wetland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Savant; J. R. Clemmons; A. F. James

    1982-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring urea release from different coated urea fertilizer materials in simulated wetland soil has been developed and tested. The laboratory soil system used simulates physical, chemical, and microbiological environments of wetland soils under field conditions. Laboratory and field values for urea release are in good agreement.

  6. Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Ball, Louise M; Zhou, Haibo; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-03-01

    Urine amine levels used as biomarkers of diisocyanate exposure have usually been normalized with creatinine concentration. The suitability of using creatinine concentration or specific gravity for these biomarkers in exposure assessment has not been established. We investigated the effect of creatinine concentration and specific gravity on urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in multiple mixed linear regression models using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters occupationally exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI exposure were monitored for an entire workday for up to three workdays spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Both creatinine concentration and specific gravity were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of urine HDA levels. When these two were used together in the same model, creatinine remained highly significant (p < 0.0001), but specific gravity decreased in significance (p-values 0.10-0.17). We used different individual factors to determine which affected creatinine and specific gravity. Urine collection time was a highly significant predictor of specific gravity (p = 0.003) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.001). Smoker status was significant (p = 0.026) in the creatinine model. The findings indicate that creatinine concentration is more appropriate to account for urine water content than specific gravity and that creatinine is best used as an independent variable in HDI exposure assessment models instead of traditional urine normalization with creatinine concentration. PMID:20445846

  7. Serum uric acid: a forgotten prognostic marker in acute coronary syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Lousinha, Ana; Labandeiro, Jorge; Miranda, Fernando; Papoila, Ana L; Oliveira, José A; Ferreira, Maria L; Ferreira, Rui C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Serum uric acid (UA) has been shown to be an independent predictor of outcome in the general population and in patients with heart failure. There are, however, limited data regarding the prognostic value of UA in the context of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) particularly in medium-term follow up and the available results are contradictory. Materials and methods: Study of consecutive patients admitted with an ACS (with and without ST-segment elevation) at a single-centre coronary care unit. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 1-year follow up. We evaluated if serum UA is an independent predictor of outcome and if it has any added value on top of GRACE risk score for risk prediction. Results: We included 683 patients, mean age 64±13 years, 69% males. In-hospital and 1-year mortality were 4.5 and 7.6% respectively. The best cut-off of UA to predict 1-year mortality was 6.25 mg/dl (sensitivity 59%, specificity 72%) and 30.2% of the patients had an increased UA according to this cut off. Independent predictors of UA were male gender (?= 0.078), body mass index (?=0.163), diuretics before admission (?=0.142), and admission serum creatinine (?=0.403). One-year mortality was significantly higher in patients with increased UA (15.5 vs. 4.2%, p<0.001; log rank, p<0.001). After adjustment, both increased UA as a categorical variable (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23–4.13, p=0.008) and as a continuous variable (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.41, p<0.001) are independent predictors of mortality. The AUC increases only slightly after inclusion of UA in the model with GRACE risk score (from 0.78 to 0.79, p=0.350). Both models had a good fit; however, model fit worsened after inclusion of UA. Overall, the inclusion of UA in the original was associated with an improvement in both the net reclassification improvement (continuous NRI=44%), and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.052) suggesting effective reclassification. Conclusions: Serum UA is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in medium-term after the whole spectrum of ACS and has an added value for risk stratification. PMID:24062933

  8. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to...

  13. Serum Creatinine Detection by a Conducting Polymer Based Electrochemical Sensor to Identify Allograft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Cheng, Scott; Korin, Yael; Reed, Elaine F.; Gjertson, David; Ho, Chih-ming; Gritsch, H. Albin; Veale, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients who have abnormally high creatinine levels in their blood often have allograft dysfunction secondary to rejection. Creatinine has become the preferred marker for renal dysfunction and is readily available in hospital clinical settings. We developed a rapid and accurate polymer-based electrochemical point-of-care (POC) assay for creatinine detection from whole blood to identify allograft dysfunction. The creatinine concentrations of 19 blood samples from transplant recipients were measured directly from clinical serum samples by the conducting polymer based electrochemical (EC) sensor arrays. These measurements were compared to the traditional clinical laboratory assay. The time required for detection was less than 5 minutes from sample loading. Sensitivity of the detection was found to be 0.46 mg/dL of creatinine with only 40 ?L sample in the creatinine concentration range of 0 mg/dL to 11.33 mg/dL. Signal levels that were detected electrochemically correlated closely with the creatinine blood concentration detected by the UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center traditional clinical laboratory assay (correlation coefficient 0.94). This work is encouraging for the development of a rapid and accurate POCT device for measuring creatinine levels in whole blood. PMID:22881369

  14. Computer prediction of the need for dialysis and transplantation using calculated creatinine clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Ballardie, F W; Gartside, S; Mallick, N P

    1983-01-01

    A computerised system capable of prospective assessment of the course of chronic renal failure has been devised. Rapid analysis is possible of the progress of a large cohort of patients and therefore of the prospective load on renal unit facilities. Calculated creatinine clearance values provide a more accurate and earlier prediction of end stage failure than the reciprocals of serum creatinine values. PMID:6404450

  15. Reference ranges for plasma cystatin C and creatinine measurements in premature infants, neonates, and older children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Finney; D J Newman; H Thakkar; J M E Fell; C P Price

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo establish a reference range in the paediatric population for the new glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker, cystatin C, and to compare it with that of creatinine.METHODSCystatin C and creatinine were measured by particle enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA) and fixed interval Jaffé methods, respectively, in 291 children aged 1 day to 17 years, including 30 premature infants with gestational ages

  16. Relationship between serum cystatin C and creatinine in kidney and liver transplant patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Hermida; Rafael Romero; J. Carlos Tutor

    2002-01-01

    Background: The results obtained for serum cystatin C, which has been proposed as a novel marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), in kidney and liver transplant are still very limited. In our study, the relationship between serum cystatin C and creatinine in kidney and liver transplant patients was investigated. Methods: Serum cystatin C and creatinine concentrations were determined in 182

  17. Urinary sodium and blood pressure in vegetarians1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Armstrong; D. Phil; Helen Clarke; Craig Martin; William Ward; Neroli Norman; John Masarei

    Urinary sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, uric acid, plasma urea, creatinine, cholesterol, blood pressures, height, weight, and skinfold thickness were measured in some or all of 106 matched pairs of vegetarians (mainly Seventh-Day Adventists) and nonvegetarians. Mean blood pressures were lower in vegetarians (141.9\\/88.9 mm) than nonvegetarians (148.0\\/90.9 mm) but the urinary excretion ofsodium was higher, although not significantly, in the

  18. Uric Acid and the risk of graft failure in kidney transplant recipients: a re-assessment.

    PubMed

    Kim, E D; Famure, O; Li, Y; Kim, S J

    2015-02-01

    The association of hyperuricemia with kidney allograft outcomes remains controversial. We studied this problem in 1170 kidney transplants from January 2000 to December 2010. The primary endpoint was total graft failure (i.e. graft loss or death). Conventional, time-dependent and marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models were fitted, the latter accounting for kidney function as a time-varying confounder affected by prior uric acid levels. Uric acid level was associated with an increased risk of total graft failure in time-fixed and time-varying models (HR 1.02 [95% CI: 1.003-1.04] and HR 1.02 [95% CI: 1.01-1.03], respectively, for every 10?µmol/L increase in uric acid). In contrast, the marginal structural model showed a modestly protective effect (HR 0.90 [95% CI: 0.85-0.94] for every 10?µmol/L increase in uric acid). Similar results were observed for death-censored graft failure and death with graft function. In summary, the absence of a deleterious association between elevated uric acid and graft outcome after accounting for graft function as a time-varying confounder suggests that uric acid is not an independent risk factor for graft failure. The modestly protective effect of uric acid may be an indicator of nutritional status but further study is warranted. PMID:25612498

  19. Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

  20. Serum creatinine role in predicting outcome after cardiac surgery beyond acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is still the most important determinant in the assessment of perioperative renal function and in the prediction of adverse outcome in cardiac surgery. Many biomarkers have been studied to date; still, there is no surrogate for serum creatinine measurement in clinical practice because it is feasible and inexpensive. High levels of serum creatinine and its equivalents have been the most important preoperative risk factor for postoperative renal injury. Moreover, creatinine is the mainstay in predicting risk models and risk factor reduction has enhanced its importance in outcome prediction. The future perspective is the development of new definitions and novel tools for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury largely based on serum creatinine and a panel of novel biomarkers. PMID:25276301

  1. Serum creatinine role in predicting outcome after cardiac surgery beyond acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahdi

    2014-09-26

    Serum creatinine is still the most important determinant in the assessment of perioperative renal function and in the prediction of adverse outcome in cardiac surgery. Many biomarkers have been studied to date; still, there is no surrogate for serum creatinine measurement in clinical practice because it is feasible and inexpensive. High levels of serum creatinine and its equivalents have been the most important preoperative risk factor for postoperative renal injury. Moreover, creatinine is the mainstay in predicting risk models and risk factor reduction has enhanced its importance in outcome prediction. The future perspective is the development of new definitions and novel tools for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury largely based on serum creatinine and a panel of novel biomarkers. PMID:25276301

  2. Is it time to revise the normal range of serum uric acid levels?

    PubMed

    Desideri, G; Castaldo, G; Lombardi, A; Mussap, M; Testa, A; Pontremoli, R; Punzi, L; Borghi, C

    2014-01-01

    The actual reference range of serum uric acid has been assessed according to its variations among healthy individuals. i.e. those without clinical evidence of gout. By this approach, serum uric acid values between 3.5 and 7.2 mg/dL in adult males and postmenopausal women and between 2.6 and 6.0 mg/dL in premenopausal women have been identified as normal in many countries. However, this definition of normal range of serum uric acid in the general population is inevitably influenced by what we consider as "normal", since the absence of gout flares does not necessarily imply the absence of uric acid-related damage. Indeed, a growing body of evidence indicates that silent deposition of monosodium urate crystals as a result of hyperuricaemia may occur and lead to early destructive skeletal changes. In addition, a growing body of evidences demonstrates that uric acid might play a pathophysiological role in many "cardio-nephro-metabolic" disorders, which seems to be independent of the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, since it is evident also for serum uric acid concentrations below the saturation point for monosodium urate. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest to carefully reconsider the concept of "asymptomaticity" for chronic hyperuricemia and to consequently revise the normal range of serum uric acid levels also considering the progressive worldwide increase of circulating levels of uric acid, which could lead to a "shift to right" (i.e. toward higher values) of normal range. In the light of the new scientific knowledge on the pathophysiological role of uric acid in human disease, a threshold value < 6.0 mg/dL (< 360 µmol/L) seems to better identify true "healthy subjects" and should reasonably be considered for all subjects. PMID:24867507

  3. Transport characteristics of urea transporter-B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    UT-B represents the major urea transporter in erythrocytes, in addition to being expressed in kidney descending vasa recta, brain, spleen, ureter, bladder, and testis. Expression of urea transporter UT-B confers high urea permeability to mammalian erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membranes are also permeable to various urea analogues, suggesting common transport pathways for urea and structurally similar solutes. UT-B is highly permeable to urea and the chemical analogues formamide, acetamide, methylurea, methylformamide, ammonium carbamate, and acrylamide, each with a Ps > 5.0 × 10(-6) cm/s at 10 °C. The amides formamide, acetamide, acrylamide, and butyramide efficiently diffuse across lipid bilayers. The urea analogues dimethylurea, acryalmide, methylurea, thiourea, and methylformamide inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport by >60 % by a pore-blocking mechanism. UT-B is also a water channel in erythrocytes and has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to aquaporin-1. Whether UT-B is an NH3 channel still needs further study. Urea permeability (Purea) in erythrocytes differs between different mammals. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibit high Purea. In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) show much lower Purea. Erythrocyte Purea in human and pig (omnivores) was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) have Purea intermediate between carnivores and omnivores. Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes have very low values. In contrast to Purea, water permeability is relatively similar in all mammals studied. This chapter will provide information about the transporter characteristics of UT-B. PMID:25298342

  4. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  5. Adjusting for Urinary Creatinine Overestimates Arsenic Concentrations in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Hussein; Kimzey, Michael J.; Galligan, Michael A.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Stump, Craig S.; Lau, Serrine S.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Arsenic (As) is linked to insulin resistance in animal studies, but the effect of low-level As exposure on the prevalence of diabetes in humans is uncertain. An optimal method to report inorganic As in humans has not been established. Measurements of As in spot urine are usually adjusted to creatinine (Cr). However, urinary Cr is an independent variable in diabetes. Our aims are to optimize reporting of urinary As in the setting of diabetes and insulin resistance. Methods Urinary inorganic As was measured in 24-hour or first-void spot urine from diabetic (n = 31) and non-diabetic (n = 12) subjects and normalized to Cr or specific gravity (SG). The relation of normalized urinary inorganic As to glycemia and surrogate measures of insulin resistance was investigated. Blood pressure, waist circumference, and glycated hemoglobin were also assessed. Homeostasis model assessment was used to determine insulin resistance. Results A strong correlation was found between spot urinary As adjusted to Cr (R2 = 0.82) or SG (R2 = 0.61) to 24-hour urinary As (p < 0.001), while non-adjusted urinary As did not correlate well (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.46). Adjusting for Cr revealed significant differences in total 24-hour urinary As when comparing diabetic to normal subjects. In contrast, no differences were found when As was adjusted to SG using either 24-hour or spot urine. Moreover, adjusted urinary spot or 24-hour As measures did not correlate with measures of glycemia or insulin resistance. Conclusions: Urinary Cr is an independent variable in diabetes, therefore adjusting spot As for SG is preferred. PMID:22493600

  6. Urea Output by L3 Teladorsagia circumcincta and some Properties of Two Urea Producing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, N; Walker, LR; Simcock, DC; Pedley, KC; Simpson, HV; Brown, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Like several other parasites, Teladorsagia circumcincta secretes or excretes urea, but neither the rate of efflux nor the possible metabolic sources of the urea has been considered. Methods Parasites were maintained by passage through sheep. Urea efflux was measured using phenol/hypochlorite after treatment with urea aminohydrolase. The kinetics of creatine amidinohydrolase and arginine amidinohydrolase were characterised by coupling the reactions with urea aminohydrolase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Results Infective L3 T. circumcincta secreted or excreted urea at 25% of the rate of NH3/NH4 +. The rate of urea efflux was about 84 pmol h?1 (103 larvae)?1 over 4 hours, corresponding to about 11 nmol h?1 mg?1 protein. We could not detect urea aminohydrolase activity, but urea production by both creatine amidinohydrolase and arginine amidinohydrolase could be detected. The apparent K m and V max of creatine amidinohydrolase were 1.1 mM and 48 nmol h?1 mg?1 protein, respectively, and the activity was greatest at pH 8. The apparent K m and V max of arginine amidinohydrolase were 0.7 mM and 62 nmol h?1 mg?1 protein, respectively, and the activity was greatest at pH 7.9. Conclusion The activity of creatine amidinohydrolase and arginine amidinohydrolase was sufficient to account for the rate of urea secretion or excretion. PMID:23682271

  7. The GLUT9 Gene Is Associated with Serum Uric Acid Levels

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    of America High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatory­state gout crystal arthropathy and place in individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease [2,3]. High UA levels are causal in gout crystal arthropathy

  8. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States) [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States) [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States) [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States) [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  9. Calcium Supplementation Increases Blood Creatinine Concentration in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Elizabeth L.; Mott, Leila A.; Melamed, Michal L.; Rees, Judith R.; Ivanova, Anastasia; Sandler, Robert S.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Summers, Robert W.; Bostick, Roberd M.; Baron, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium supplements are widely used among older adults for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, their effect on creatinine levels and kidney function has not been well studied. Methods We investigated the effect of calcium supplementation on blood creatinine concentration in a randomized controlled trial of colorectal adenoma chemoprevention conducted between 2004–2013 at 11 clinical centers in the United States. Healthy participants (N?=?1,675) aged 45–75 with a history of colorectal adenoma were assigned to daily supplementation with calcium (1200 mg, as carbonate), vitamin D3 (1000 IU), both, or placebo for three or five years. Changes in blood creatinine and total calcium concentration were measured after one year of treatment and multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects on creatinine concentrations. Results After one year of treatment, blood creatinine was 0.013±0.006 mg/dL higher on average among participants randomized to calcium compared to placebo after adjustment for other determinants of creatinine (P?=?0.03). However, the effect of calcium treatment appeared to be larger among participants who consumed the most alcohol (2–6 drinks/day) or whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at baseline. The effect of calcium treatment on creatinine was only partially mediated by a concomitant increase in blood total calcium concentration and was independent of randomized vitamin D treatment. There did not appear to be further increases in creatinine after the first year of calcium treatment. Conclusions Among healthy adults participating in a randomized clinical trial, daily supplementation with 1200 mg of elemental calcium caused a small increase in blood creatinine. If confirmed, this finding may have implications for clinical and public health recommendations for calcium supplementation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00153816 PMID:25329821

  10. Uric Acid promotes left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in mice fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Bostick, Brian P; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Aroor, Annayya R; Hayden, Melvin R; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R

    2015-03-01

    The rising obesity rates parallel increased consumption of a Western diet, high in fat and fructose, which is associated with increased uric acid. Population-based data support that elevated serum uric acids are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which excess uric acid promotes these maladaptive cardiac effects has not been explored. In assessing the role of Western diet-induced increases in uric acid, we hypothesized that reductions in uric acid would prevent Western diet-induced development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac stiffness, and impaired diastolic relaxation by reducing growth and profibrotic signaling pathways. Four-weeks-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125 mg/L), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, for 16 weeks. The Western diet-induced increases in serum uric acid along with increases in cardiac tissue xanthine oxidase activity temporally related to increases in body weight, fat mass, and insulin resistance without changes in blood pressure. The Western diet induced cardiomyocte hypertrophy, myocardial oxidative stress, interstitial fibrosis, and impaired diastolic relaxation. Further, the Western diet enhanced activation of the S6 kinase-1 growth pathway and the profibrotic transforming growth factor-?1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway and macrophage proinflammatory polarization. All results improved with allopurinol treatment, which lowered cardiac xanthine oxidase as well as serum uric acid levels. These findings support the notion that increased production of uric acid with intake of a Western diet promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and oxidative stress that lead to myocardial fibrosis and associated impaired diastolic relaxation. PMID:25489061

  11. Cuticle Reflectivity and Optical Activity in Scarab Beetles: The Role of Uric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Caveney

    1971-01-01

    The iridescent cuticle of certain Ruteline scarab beetles, which is a form optically active and selectively reflects circularly polarized light, incorporates an NH4OH-extractable component The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of this component, together with its chromatographic and refractive properties, identify it as uric acid (2,6,8-trihydroxypurine). All species of Plusiotis examined have uric acid in their reflecting layers, as do several species

  12. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yong, Kok-Khun; Yao, Yan-Dong; Shen, Huan-Ting; Hsieh, Shiu-Man; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm2), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO2) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 ?A/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2–0.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-1×3-ZnO2. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established. PMID:25061289

  13. Inverse association between coffee drinking and serum uric acid concentrations in middle-aged Japanese males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kiyohara; S. Kono; S. Honjo; I. Todoroki; Y. Sakurai; M. Nishiwaki; H. Hamad; H. Nishikawa; H. Koga; S. Ogawa; K. Nakagawa

    Consumption of caffeine-rich beverages, which have diuretic properties, may decrease serum uric acid concentrations. We examined cross-sectionally the relationship of coffee and green tea consumption to serum uric acid concentrations in 2240 male self-defence officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at four hospitals of the Self-Defence Forces between 1993 and 1994. The mean levels of coffee and green tea

  14. Bilateral Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis and Ureteral Hypertrophy in a Free-ranging River Otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Grove; Rob Bildfell; Charles J. Henny; Donald R. Buhler

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis ). A7y r oldmale river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 ex- amined (0.33%)). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined

  15. Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J.; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease. Aim To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. Main Outcome Measures The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ?21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test. Results 149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR. Conclusion Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. PMID:24433559

  16. Uric Acid - key ingredient in the recipe for cardiorenal metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Kunal; Malhotra, Kunal; Sowers, James; Aroor, Annayya

    2013-10-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels are a frequent finding in persons with obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular and kidney disease as well as in those with the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The increased consumption of a fructose-rich Western diet has contributed to the increasing incidence of the CRS, obesity and diabetes especially in industrialized populations. There is also increasing evidence that supports a causal role of high dietary fructose driving elevations in uric acid in association with the CRS. Animal and epidemiological studies support the notion that elevated serum uric acid levels play an important role in promoting insulin resistance and hypertension and suggest potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of the CRS and associated cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. To this point, elevated serum levels of uric acid appear to contribute to impaired nitric oxide production/endothelial dysfunction, increased vascular stiffness, inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, enhanced oxidative stress, and maladaptive immune and inflammatory responses. These abnormalities, in turn, promote vascular, cardiac and renal fibrosis as well as associated functional abnormalities. Small clinical trials have suggested that uric acid-lowering therapies may be beneficial in such patients; however, a consensus on the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia is lacking. Larger randomized controlled trials need to be performed in order to critically evaluate the beneficial effect of lowering serum uric acid in patients with the CRS and those with diabetes and/or hypertension. PMID:24454316

  17. Identification of products from oxidation of uric acid induced by hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Hicks, M; Wong, L S; Day, R O

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to separate and characterise products formed by oxidation of uric acid by hydroxyl radicals with a view to probing for these products in vivo in clinical contexts. Aerated solutions of 200 microM uric acid, or its oxidation products, allantoin or parabanic acid, were exposed to gamma radiolysis, (52.0 Gy/min), as a source of HO. radicals, at pH 3.4 and 7.4. Aliquots were taken every 5 minutes for 20 minutes and oxidation products were separated by HPLC and analysed with a diode array detector. Identities of oxidation products were confirmed on the basis of similarity of retention times and absorbance spectra and peak purity parameters of known standards. Hydroperoxides were measured by tri-iodide formation in the 20 minute sample. Exposure of uric acid to such HO.fluxes produced a net loss of the parent compound with formation of a complex mixture of products with allantoin and parabanic acid being the predominant products at pH 3.4. The rate of uric acid degradation at physiological pH was slower and the distribution of oxidation products was different. A small but significant amount of uric acid hydroperoxide was detected at both pHs. A mechanism for uric acid oxidation under these conditions is presented. PMID:8397146

  18. Effect of canagliflozin on serum uric acid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Davies, M J; Trujillo, A; Vijapurkar, U; Damaraju, C V; Meininger, G

    2015-04-01

    Hyperuricaemia is associated with an increased risk of gout, kidney stones and cardiovascular disease. The present post hoc analysis of pooled data from four placebo-controlled phase III studies assessed the effect of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on serum uric acid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in a subset of patients with hyperuricaemia [defined as baseline serum uric acid ?475?µmol/l (?8?mg/dl)]. At week?26, canagliflozin 100 and 300?mg were associated with a ?13% reduction in serum uric acid compared with placebo. In the subset of patients with hyperuricaemia, placebo-subtracted percent reductions in serum uric acid were similar to those in the overall cohort. More patients in the hyperuricaemic group achieved a serum uric acid level of <360?µmol/l (?6?mg/dl) with both canagliflozin 100?mg (23.5%) and 300?mg (32.4%) compared with placebo (3.1%). Incidences of gout and kidney stones were low and similar across groups. In conclusion, canagliflozin treatment decreased serum uric acid in patients with T2DM, including those with baseline hyperuricaemia. PMID:25600248

  19. The role of uric acid in kidney fibrosis: experimental evidences for the causal relationship.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is a common finding in chronic kidney disease due to decreased uric acid clearance. The role of uric acid as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease has been largely debated, and recent studies suggested a role of uric acid in the causation and progression of kidney fibrosis, a final common pathway in chronic kidney disease. Uric acid and xanthine oxidase may contribute to kidney fibrosis mainly by inducing inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Besides, hyperuricemia induces alterations in renal hemodynamics via afferent arteriolopathy and contributes to the onset and progression of kidney fibrosis. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors may prevent kidney damage via lowering uric acid and/or inhibiting xanthine oxidase. However, there is still no sufficient evidence from interventional clinical researches supporting the causal relationship between uric acid and kidney fibrosis. The effect and role of xanthine oxidase inhibitors in preventing kidney fibrosis and chronic kidney disease progression must be further explored by performing future large scale clinical trials. PMID:24877124

  20. Association between serum uric acid level and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (A case control study)

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Javad; Habibi, Zahra; Tajziehchi, Ali; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Dehghan, Arash; Azizkhani, Homeyra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of uric acid is well known for the development of nephropathy and retinopathy in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum uric acid levels in patients with or without diabetic neuropathy (DPN). Methods: Forty-two patients with DPN (case group) and 42 patients without DPN (control group) matched with regard to age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and duration of their disease were entered into the study. The diagnosis of DPN was based on the nerve conduction studies on sural, peroneal and tibial nerves in lower limbs. Serum uric acid was measured in these two groups. Results: The mean age of the patients in the case group was 54.6±6.9 and in the control group was 55.8±5.8 years (p=0.389). The demographic characteristics of the patients in these two groups were equal, but only the history of diabetic foot ulcer was higher in patients with DPN (p<0.05). The mean serum uric acid was 4.70±0.96 in diabetic patients with DPN and 4.36±0.89 mg/dl in patients without DPN (p=0.019). Conclusion: The results show the higher level of serum uric acid level in diabetic patients with diabetic neuropathy. Further studies are required to determine the role of uric acid in the development and progression of DPN. PMID:24490008

  1. Uric acid attenuates trophoblast invasion and integration into endothelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Roberts, James M.; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke; Koch, Jessa; Edmunds, Lia; Hubel, Carl A.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperuricemia develops as early as 10 wk of gestation in women who later develop preeclampsia. At this time the invasive trophoblast cells are actively remodeling the uterine spiral arterioles, integrating into and finally replacing the vascular endothelial lining. In the nonpregnant population uric acid has several pathogenic effects on vascular endothelium. We therefore sought to examine the effects of uric acid (0–7 mg/dl) on trophoblast cell invasion through an extracellular matrix using an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. We also assessed trophoblast integration into a uterine microvascular endothelial cell monolayer in a trophoblast-endothelial cell coculture model. Additionally, we addressed the importance of redox signaling and trophoblast-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Uric acid elicited a concentration-dependent attenuation of trophoblast invasion and integration into a uterine microvascular endothelial cell monolayer. The attenuated trophoblast integration appeared to be the result of reduced trophoblast-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, likely through the intracellular antioxidant actions of uric acid. In a test of relevance, pooled serum (5% vol/vol) from preeclamptic women attenuated the ability of trophoblast cells to integrate into the endothelial cell monolayers compared with pooled serum from healthy pregnant controls, and this response was partially rescued when endogenous uric acid was previously removed with uricase. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that elevations in circulating uric acid in preeclamptic women contribute to the pathogenesis of the disorder, in part, through attenuation of normal trophoblast invasion and spiral artery vascular remodeling. PMID:19535510

  2. Urea reduction ratio that considers effects of ultrafiltration and intradialytic urea generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuk Lun Cheng; Koon Shing Choi; Ka Foon Chau; Chun Sang Li; Cheen Unn Yung; Alex W Yu; Kwan Keung Wong

    2001-01-01

    We modified the urea reduction ratio (URR) equation to correct the effects of ultrafiltration and intradialytic urea generation on the delivered dose of hemodialysis: muRR = 1?R1+2?UFBW+0.01?t×100% where mURR is modified URR, R is postdialysis plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) to predialysis PUN ratio, UF is ultrafiltrate volume in liters, BW is postdialysis body weight in kilograms, and t is dialysis

  3. Urea release from silicate- and polymer-coated urea in water and a simulated wetland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NK Savant; AF James; GH McClellan

    1983-01-01

    Urea release rates in water (38°C) and in a simulated wetland soil system under greenhouse conditions from silicate- and polymer-coated urea (SPCU) materials have been studied. The SPCU materials were prepared by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Seoul, Korea, in cooperation with the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC). Average urea release (\\u000a$$\\\\overline {UR} $$\\u000a)

  4. ESTIMATION OF BOVINE CARCASS COMPOSITION BY THE UREA DILUTION TECHNIQUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Kock; R. L. Preston

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred and thirteen beef type steers of varying live weight and degrees of fatness were used to study the reliability and usefulness of urea space measured at varying times after urea infusion for estimating body composition in the live animal. Urea space measured 12 min following urea infusion proved to be the best time as judged from correlation

  5. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M; Bull, C L; Husband, R J; Frantzana, A D; Klotz, S; Loveday, J S

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D2 mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa. PMID:25833592

  6. What Is a Urea Cycle Disorder?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... involves a series of biochemical steps in which nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, is removed ... from the body. In urea cycle disorders, the nitrogen accumulates in the form of ammonia, a highly ...

  7. High nonlinear optical anisotropy of urea nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, D.; de Matos Gomes, E.; Belsley, M.; Almeida, B.; Martins, A.; Neves, N.; Reis, R.

    2010-07-01

    Nanofibers consisting of the optically nonlinear organic molecule urea embedded in both poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymers were produced by the electrospinning technique. The second-harmonic generation produced by aligned fiber mats of these materials displays a strong dependence on the polarization of the incident light. In PVA-urea nanofibers the effectiveness in generating of the second-harmonic light is as high as that of a pure urea powder with an average grain size of 110 ?m. The results suggest that single crystalline urea nanofibers were achieved with a long-range crystalline order extending into the range of 2-4 ?m with PVA as the host polymer.

  8. Detection of Interstellar Urea with Carma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-L. Kuo; L. E. Snyder; D. N. Friedel; L. W. Looney; B. J. McCall; A. J. Remijan; F. J. Lovas; J. M. Hollis

    2010-01-01

    Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M. Rouelle in 1773, has a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH_2)_2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as other large molecules, e.g. methyl formate and acetic acid (2009, 64th OSU Symposium On Molecular Spectroscopy, WI05). We have conducted an extensive search

  9. a Search for Interstellar Urea with Carma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-L. Kuo; L. E. Snyder; D. N. Friedel; L. W. Looney; B. J. McCall; A. J. Remijan; F. J. Lovas; J. M. Hollis

    2009-01-01

    Urea, a molecule discovered in human urine by H. M Rouelle in 1773, also plays a significant role in prebiotic chemistry. Previous BIMA observations have suggested that interstellar urea [(NH_2)_2CO] is a compact hot core molecule such as the other large molecules methyl formate and acetic acid (2008, 63rd OSU Symposium On Molecular Spectroscopy, RF11). We have conducted an extensive

  10. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  11. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Vyssoulis; E. A. Karpanou; J. K. Rizos; A. E. Giannakopoulou; M. A. Toutouza; D. A. Belegrinos; P. K. Toutouzas

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported recently that spot albumin-creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in young hypertensive African-American men. To test this, we studied 2300 untreated, non diabetic Caucasian patients with essential hypertension, 1271 men and 1029 women, 51.4±12.4 years old. Urinary albumin and creatinine were measured over 24 hours and their ratio (ACR) was calculated, while left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)

  12. Adjustment to concentration-dilution of spot urine samples: correlation between specific gravity and creatinine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariella Carrieri; Andrea Trevisan; Giovanni Battista Bartolucci

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Spot urine samples were investigated to determine correlations between urinary creatinine and specific gravity, and intra-\\u000a and inter-day variations other than gender- and age-dependence of urinary concentrations. Methods: Urinary creatinine concentrations and specific gravity were determined in 534 spot samples (385 from men and 149 from women).\\u000a Subjects' ages ranged between 18 and 68?years. Spot urine samples were also

  13. The relationship of cystatin C, creatinine, estimated GFR, and cardiovascular events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luo Zhang; Li Ni; Jiagao Lv

    2010-01-01

    Summary  This study examined the predictive value of plasma cystatin C, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)\\u000a as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Chinese. Plasma cystatin C and creatinine were measured in 466 coronary heart\\u000a disease (CHD) patients recruited from 4 hospitals and 349 healthy controls from local communities in Wuhan, China. Cockroft-Gault\\u000a formula was used to estimate the

  14. The antisickling role of uric acid in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ekeke, G I; Nduka, N

    1987-04-01

    Based on the antisickling properties of structurally similar compounds, uric acid (urate) was investigated and found to possess antisickling activity on sickle cell erythrocytes, in particular at higher urate concentrations. Serum urate levels were subsequently determined for 60 sickle cell patients of both sexes within the age limit of 1-27 years. The mean serum urate values were computed at discrete age groups, and the values obtained were compared with the mean serum urate concentration for 15 normal subjects of both sexes and similar age range. Although a definite age-dependent trend did exist in the mean serum urate concentration in sickle cell disease (SCD), this elevation could not be truly referred to as "hyperuricaemia'. Hence, any possible contribution by elevated serum urate to a gouty trait and SCD bone crisis remains unclear. However, these observed serum urate values corresponded well with those concentrations which inhibited the sickling of sickle cell erythrocytes in vitro, permitting the speculation that the elevated serum urate might well be beneficial to sickle cell patients in a compensatory way. PMID:3629708

  15. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment. PMID:22837540

  16. Random Urinary Calcium/Creatinine Ratio for Screening Hypercalciuria in Children with Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Su; Jung, Eui Seok; Choi, Young Earl; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Chan Jong

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria is one of the most common causes of unexplained isolated hematuria. The diagnostic methods for hypercalciuria have not yet been standardized. The aim of this study was to assess whether random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio could be used as a screening tool for hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. Methods This prospective study included 264 children with primary hematuria for whom both random and 24 hr urinary evaluations were performed. Pearson correlation and ROC curve were used to assess the correlations. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze effects of age, weight, height, body mass index, and body surface area on random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. Results There was a moderately strong correlation between random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and 24 hr urinary calcium excretion (r=0.584, P<0.001). The most appropriate cutoff value of random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio for the estimation of hypercalciuria was 0.075 mg/mg (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 64.3%; area under the curve, 0.778). Body mass index and 24 hr urinary calcium excretion significantly affected random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio with a low coefficient of determination (r2=0.380, P<0.001). Conclusions Random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio is not suitable for screening hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. Twenty-four hour urinary analysis should be performed to diagnose hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. PMID:24205487

  17. Successive determination of urinary bilirubin and creatinine employing simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Teshima, Norio; Grudpan, Kate; Vichapong, Jitlada; Motomizu, Shoji; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-02-01

    A novel four-channel simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis (SIEMA) system has been assembled for successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urinary samples. The chemical variables and physical parameters in the flow system were optimized for the enhancement of successive analytical performances. The interferences from urine matrices on the determination of bilirubin and creatinine were eliminated to dilute urine samples. The calibration graphs with the optimum conditions were achieved to be in 0.024-5.0 mg L(-1) for bilirubin and 2-100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 3 mg L(-1) of bilirubin and at 50 mg L(-1) of creatinine for 11 runs were 1.5 and 1.0%, respectively. The limits of detections (3? of blank) for bilirubin and creatinine were 7 µg L(-1) and 0.6 mg L(-1), respectively. The sample throughput for stepwise detection was 22 h(-1). The proposed method was applied to the successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urine samples. PMID:25435229

  18. Differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodine using dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Qu, M.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C. H.

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the feasibility of differentiating uric acid from non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodinated contrast material was evaluated using dual-energy CT (DECT). Iodine subtraction was accomplished with a commercial three material decomposition algorithm to create a virtual non-contrast (VNC) image set. VNC images were then used to segment stone regions from tissue background. The DE ratio of each stone was calculated using the CT images acquired at two different energies with DECT using the stone map generated from the VNC images. The performance of DE ratio-based stone differentiation was evaluated at five different iodine concentrations (21, 42, 63, 84 and 105 mg/ml). The DE ratio of stones in iodine solution was found larger than those obtained in non-iodine cases. This is mainly caused by the partial volume effect around the boundary between the stone and iodine solution. The overestimation of the DE ratio leads to substantial overlap between different stone types. To address the partial volume effect, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach was implemented to estimate the contribution of iodine and stone within each image pixel in their mixture area. The DE ratio of each stone was corrected to maximally remove the influence of iodine solutions. The separation of uric-acid and non-uric-acid stone was improved in the presence of iodine solution.

  19. Uric acid inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in vitro is dependent on the intracellular formation of triuret.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Rajesh; Sautina, Laura; Beem, Elaine; Schuler, Anna; Chan, Wai-Yan; Domsic, John; McKenna, Robert; Johnson, Richard J; Segal, Mark S

    2014-08-01

    Uric acid affects endothelial and adipose cell function and has been linked to diseases such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Interestingly uric acid has been shown to increase endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization, a potential mechanism to repair endothelial injury. Since EPC mobilization is dependent on activity of the enzyme CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)IV, we examined the effect uric acid will have on CD26/DPPIV activity. Uric acid inhibited the CD26/DPPIV associated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells but not human recombinant (hr) CD26/DPPIV. However, triuret, a product of uric acid and peroxynitrite, could inhibit cell associated and hrCD26/DPPIV. Increasing or decreasing intracellular peroxynitrite levels enhanced or decreased the ability of uric acid to inhibit cell associated CD26/DPPIV, respectively. Finally, protein modeling demonstrates how triuret can act as a small molecule inhibitor of CD26/DPPIV activity. This is the first time that uric acid or a uric acid reaction product has been shown to affect enzymatic activity and suggests a novel avenue of research in the role of uric acid in the development of clinically important diseases. PMID:24925478

  20. Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in experimental uric acid nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y. G.; Huang, X. R.; Suga, S.; Mazzali, M.; Tang, D.; Metz, C.; Bucala, R.; Kivlighn, S.; Johnson, R. J.; Lan, H. Y.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deposition of uric acid in the kidney can lead to progressive tubulointerstitial injury with granuloma formation. We hypothesized that uric acid crystal deposition may induce granuloma formation by stimulating local expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is a known mediator of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A model of acute uric acid nephropathy was induced in rats by the administration of oxonic acid (an inhibitor of uricase), together with uric acid supplements. MIF expression and local cellular response were examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Kidney tissue examined at 35 days posttreatment showed widespread tubulointerstitial damage with intratubular uric acid crystal deposition and granuloma formation. Tubules within the areas of granuloma showed a six-fold increase in MIF mRNA, compared with uninvolved areas by in situ hybridization. Moreover, the areas of increased MIF mRNA expression correlated with sites of dense accumulation of macrophages and T cells, and these cells were activated when assessed by the expression of interleukin-2R (IL-2R) and (MHC) class II. Interestingly, cytoplasmic staining for MIF protein in the uric acid (UA) crystal-associated granulomatous lesions was reduced, indicating a rapid MIF secretion by damaged tubules and macrophages secondary to uric acid crystal stimulation. This was confirmed by the demonstration of a marked increase in urinary MIF protein by Western blot analysis. Control rats fed either a normal diet or only oxonic acid had no discernible evidence of renal disease by routine light microscopy and minimal tubular expression of MIF mRNA and protein. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that intrarenal granulomas in urate nephropathy may be the consequence of a crystal induced DTH reaction mediated by MIF. PMID:11126199

  1. Nitrous Oxide Gas Fluxes in a Potato Field Following Application of Urea and Coated Urea Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of urea and other forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer can generate atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a potent greenhouse gas. Field experiments were conducted on a loamy sand soil in Becker, Minnesota to evaluate the effects of soluble and coated forms of urea on N2O fl...

  2. Winter Wheat and Maize Response to Urea Ammonium Nitrate and a New Urea Formaldehyde Polymer Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slow release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have potential to improve yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). A slow release urea formaldehyde polymer (UFP) was compared with conventional aqueous urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) [(NH2)2CO, NH4NO3]...

  3. Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-?B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-?, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-?, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-?B signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-?B inhibitor. Activation of NF-?B signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-?B signaling. PMID:22761883

  4. EFFECT OF URIC ACID ON RIBOFLAVINE PRODUCTION BY INTESTINAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, H. S.; Wiseman, R. F.

    1964-01-01

    Lau, H. S. (University of Kentucky, Lexington), and R. F. Wiseman. Effect of uric acid on riboflavine production by intestinal coliform bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 87:337–340. 1964.—Cultures of Escherichia coli, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Paracolobactrum species, isolated from human feces and from intestinal contents of rats, were tested for riboflavine synthesis in a chemically defined medium. Riboflavine was assayed by a fluorometric method and by microbiological assay. When uric acid was added to the synthetic medium at levels ranging from 10 to 750 ?g/ml, it inhibited the production of riboflavine, but did not affect the growth of the bacteria. As the amount of uric acid in the medium was increased from 10 to 750 ?g, there was a corresponding decrease in the amount of riboflavine produced. Some disappearance of uric acid was observed in the cultures. These results suggest that uric acid, or its degradation products, may have acted as an antimetabolite or an enzyme inactivator in the biosynthesis of riboflavine. PMID:14151054

  5. The GLUT9 Gene Is Associated with Serum Uric Acid Levels in Sardinia and Chianti Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Andrea; Busonero, Fabio; Usala, Gianluca; Mulas, Antonella; Lai, Sandra; Dei, Mariano; Orrů, Marco; Albai, Giuseppe; Bandinelli, Stefania; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Guralnik, Jack; Naitza, Silvia; Crisponi, Laura; Cao, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Chen, Wei-Min; Nagaraja, Ramaiah

    2007-01-01

    High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatory–state gout crystal arthropathy and place individuals at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide scans in the genetically isolated Sardinian population identified variants associated with serum uric acid levels as a quantitative trait. They mapped within GLUT9, a Chromosome 4 glucose transporter gene predominantly expressed in liver and kidney. SNP rs6855911 showed the strongest association (p = 1.84 × 10?16), along with eight others (p = 7.75 × 10?16 to 6.05 × 10?11). Individuals homozygous for the rare allele of rs6855911 (minor allele frequency = 0.26) had 0.6 mg/dl less uric acid than those homozygous for the common allele; the results were replicated in an unrelated cohort from Tuscany. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in GLUT9 could affect glucose metabolism and uric acid synthesis and/or renal reabsorption, influencing serum uric acid levels over a wide range of values. PMID:17997608

  6. Low-temperature heat capacity of urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, O.; Matsuo, T.; Suga, H.; Ferloni, P.

    1993-01-01

    The heat capacity of urea was measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 15 310 K. The data were extrapolated to 0 K by a model function to derive some standard thermodynamic functions including the enthalpy increments ? {0/T}H, the entropy increments ? {0/T}S, and the Giauque function (= ? {0/TS}- ? {0/T} H/T). A simple model for the reproduction of the experimental heat capacities of urea, based on the Debye and Einstein functions, is described. The Debye characteristic temperature determined in this way was compared with those calculated from properties other than the heat capacity. Any positive evidence of a suggested phase transition in urea around 190 K was not observed in the present heat capacity measurements. Possible existence of a phase with a Gibbs energy lower than that realized in the present investigation is discussed briefly.

  7. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6 million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. PMID:23972786

  8. Wood plastic composite at different urea concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, M. M.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss; Hasan, A. J. M. Moynul

    1995-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with a low grade wood simul ( Salmalia malabarica) of Bangladesh under Co-60 gamma irradiation using MMA as the bulk monomer combined with methanol as the swelling solvent at different urea concentrations. Effect of a second solute such as NVP, TPGDA and TMPTA in the impregnating solution is evaluated. NVP appears to be the best co-additive/second solute among all the additives used to yield the composite with the highest polymer loading (PL) and tensile strength (TS) at 0.5% urea concentration.

  9. Social class gradients and serum uric acid in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Roy M.

    1969-01-01

    The relation between serum uric acid and social class is examined by sex among 910 persons in Wensleydale, Yorkshire, 321 persons in Watford, Hertfordshire, and 1,213 persons in New Haven, Connecticut, all of whom were drawn from the general population. Among the men of Wensleydale there is a tendency of marginal significance at the 5% level for serum uric acid to increase with decreasing social class; in the New Haven women this same trend is significant at the 2·5% level; no trend was found among any of the other four sex-specific groups. Age did not account for the patterns observed. The difference between these findings and those of several studies from the United States is consistent with the view that both serum uric acid levels and gout are under multifactorial control. PMID:5823049

  10. On-line near-infrared spectrometer to monitor urea removal in real time during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, David S; Olesberg, Jonathon T; Flanigan, Michael J; Arnold, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    The ex vivo removal of urea during hemodialysis treatments is monitored in real time with a noninvasive near-infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a temperature-controlled acousto optical tunable filter (AOFT) in conjunction with a thermoelectrically cooled extended wavelength InGaAs detector to provide spectra with a 20 cm(-1) resolution over the combination region (4000-5000 cm(-1)) of the near-infrared spectrum. Spectra are signal averaged over 15 seconds to provide root mean square noise levels of 24 micro-absorbance units for 100% lines generated over the 4600-4500 cm(-1) spectral range. Combination spectra of the spent dialysate stream are collected in real-time as a portion of this stream passes through a sample holder constructed from a 1.1 mm inner diameter tube of Teflon. Real-time spectra are collected during 17 individual dialysis sessions over a period of 10 days. Reference samples were extracted periodically during each session to generate 87 unique samples with corresponding reference concentrations for urea, glucose, lactate, and creatinine. A series of calibration models are generated for urea by using the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and each model is optimized in terms of number of factors and spectral range. The best calibration model gives a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.30 mM based on a random splitting of spectra generated from all 87 reference samples collected across the 17 dialysis sessions. PLS models were also developed by using spectra collected in early sessions to predict urea concentrations from spectra collected in subsequent sessions. SEP values for these prospective models range from 0.37 mM to 0.52 mM. Although higher than when spectra are pooled from all 17 sessions, these prospective SEP values are acceptable for monitoring the hemodialysis process. Selectivity for urea is demonstrated and the selectivity properties of the PLS calibration models are characterized with a pure component selectivity analysis. PMID:18702859

  11. Uric Acid: A Danger Signal From the RNA World That May Have a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity, Metabolic

    E-print Network

    Gaucher, Eric

    stones, but there is also increasing evidence that uric acid increases our risk for hypertension, kidney levels are at increased risk for de- veloping gout and uric acid kidney stones. More impor- tantly that are less regulatable and can be readily influenced by diet. This increases our risk for gout and kidney

  12. Association of three genetic loci with uric acid concentration and risk of gout: a genome-wide association study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas Dehghan; Anna Köttgen; Qiong Yang; Shih-Jen Hwang; WH Linda Kao; Fernando Rivadeneira; Eric Boerwinkle; Daniel Levy; Albert Hofman; Brad C Astor; Emelia J Benjamin; Cornelia M van Duijn; Jacqueline C Witteman; Josef Coresh; Caroline S Fox

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricaemia, a highly heritable trait, is a key risk factor for gout. We aimed to identify novel genes associated with serum uric acid concentration and gout. Methods: Genome-wide association studies were done for serum uric acid in 7699 participants in the Framingham cohort and in 4148 participants in the Rotterdam cohort. Genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated

  13. Re-examination of effect of paracetamol on serum uric acid measured by phosphotungstic acid reduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Payne, R B

    1979-03-01

    The drug paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; acetaminophen) caused a spurious increase in serum uric acid measured by phosphotungstic acid reduction methods. However, the increase was less than 0.12 mmol/1 at plasma levels of paracetamol found in overdosage (40 mg/100 ml) and was small at therapeutic concentrations (less than 4 mg/100 ml). It is concluded that few patients with joint pain who have taken paracetamol paracetamol as an analgesic will have clinically misleading values for serum uric acid. PMID:464539

  14. Relation between serum uric acid and carotid intima-media thickness in healthy postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Montalcini; G. Gorgone; C. Gazzaruso; G. Sesti; F. Perticone; A. Pujia

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective:\\u000a   Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However it is still disputed whether the relationship\\u000a is mediated by other risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and insulin resistance. We explored the association\\u000a of the uric acid level with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a well known marker of CVD, in postmenopausal healthy women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:\\u000a   We

  15. Urea: a comprehensive review of the clinical literature

    E-print Network

    Pan, Michael; Heinecke, Gillian; Bernardo, Sebastian; Tsui, Cindy; Levitt, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    effect of salicylic acid and urea in human skin. Skinsalicylic acid alone CT Single 4-hour application on back skinsalicylic acid ointment, and paraffin-based moisturizers [17]. The beneficial effects of urea on ichthyotic skin

  16. An improved electrochemical creatinine detection method via a Jaffe-based procedure.

    PubMed

    Randviir, Edward P; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2013-11-01

    The detection of creatinine via an enzymeless electrochemical method is reported through an indirect electrochemical system in which the picrate anion consumed upon the reaction with creatinine is electrochemically measured. After careful optimisation it is found that in pH 13 two linear analytical ranges are possible utilising an Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG) electrode: 0-6 mM and 7.5-11.5 mM, with a limit of detection (3?) corresponding to 0.27 mM; all measurements were taken after a five minute reaction time. Furthermore, screen printed carbon electrodes were applied to the same system and yielded remarkably similar linear ranges to the case of the EPPG electrode: 0-6 mM and 6-11 mM, with a limit of detection (3?) of 0.72 mM. These results are critically analysed and contrasted with the previous literature. This electrochemical protocol is applied to the detection of urinary creatinine where we find creatinine content of three samples falling well within our reported linear ranges and more importantly indicating correct kidney function. Additionally our electrochemical results are 'benchmarked' against UV/Vis spectrometry. The devised electroanalytical protocols have the potential to serve as a more solid foundation for electrochemical creatinine testing and have potential to be applied as a point-of-care diagnostics system through the use of screen printing technology, especially considering urinary creatinine concentrations fall within our reported linear ranges for both healthy adults and adults with deficient glomerular filtration. PMID:24051600

  17. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  18. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-02-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  19. Comparison of serum creatinine and serum cystatin C as biomarkers to detect sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and to predict mortality in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Souza, Ana Carolina P; Street, Jonathan M; Hsu, Victor; Tsuji, Takayuki; Doi, Kent; Li, Lingli; Hu, Xuzhen; Zhou, Hua; Kumar, Parag; Schnermann, Jürgen; Star, Robert A; Yuen, Peter S T

    2014-10-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) dramatically increases sepsis mortality, but AKI diagnosis is delayed when based on serum creatinine (SCr) changes, due in part, to decreased creatinine production. During experimental sepsis, we compared serum cystatin C (sCysC), SCr, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to inulin glomerular filtration rate (iGFR) before or 3-18 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in CD-1 mice. sCysC had a faster increase and reached peak levels more rapidly than SCr in both sepsis and bilateral nephrectomy (BiNx) models. sCysC was a better surrogate of iGFR than SCr during sepsis. Combining sCysC with SCr values into a composite biomarker improved correlation with iGFR better than any biomarker alone or any other combination. We determined the renal contribution to sCysC handling with BiNx. sCysC and SCr were lower post-BiNx/CLP than post-BiNx alone, despite increased inflammatory and nonrenal organ damage biomarkers. Sepsis decreased CysC production in nephrectomized mice without changing body weight or CysC space. Sepsis decreased sCysC production and increased nonrenal clearance, similar to effects of sepsis on SCr. sCysC, SCr, and BUN were measured 6 h postsepsis to link AKI with mortality. Mice with above-median sCysC, BUN, or SCr values 6 h postsepsis died earlier than mice with below-median values, corresponding to a substantial AKI association with sepsis mortality in this model. sCysC performs similarly to SCr in classifying mice at risk for early mortality. We conclude that sCysC detects AKI early and better reflects iGFR in CLP-induced sepsis. This study shows that renal biomarkers need to be evaluated in specific contexts. PMID:25143457

  20. Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-05-15

    Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. PMID:24631876

  1. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine ? creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine ? creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ?240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  2. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  3. Foliar urea fertilization of cereals: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gooding; W. P. Davies

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that there are several potential benefits of providing nitrogen to cereals via the foliage as urea solution. These include: reduced nitrogen losses through denitrification and leaching compared with nitrogen fertilizer applications to the soil; the ability to provide nitrogen when root activity is impaired e.g., in saline or dry conditions, and uptake late in the season

  4. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely...Publication 4279 (December 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine:...

  5. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  6. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  7. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF CYCLIC UREAS FROM DIAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rajender S. Varma* and Yong-Jin Kim Cyclic ureas are useful intermediates for a variety of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. One of the attractive approaches for the synthesis of cyclic ureas uses condensation of diamines with urea as a carbonyl source under dynamic evacuation. ...

  8. Can the difference in serum concentration of urea and cystatin C be used in diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure?

    PubMed

    Matana, Ante; Zaninovi? Jurjevi?, Teodora; Matana Kaštelan, Zrinka

    2014-09-01

    Changes in renal function are an important diagnostic and prognostic indicator in patients with heart failure (HF). They are caused by decreased renal perfusion and consequently decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or by the effect of increased neurohormonal activity (sympathetic nervous system [SNS], rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system [RAAS] and arginine vasopressin [AVP]). However, the increase of serum concentration of urea, creatinine and other metabolites is not specific for HF. Therefore, it is not possible to distinguish HF from renal diseases solely based on the increase of their concentration, since the increase of their concentration caused by the decrease of GFR cannot be differentiated from the increase due to neurohormonal activity. Urea and cystatin C (Cys C) have different mechanisms of renal elimination, so it can be assumed that in HF their concentrations will not be increased proportionally, what can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. After glomerular filtration Cy C undergoes proximal tubular reabsorption and breakdown, without returning to the blood flow. Since it is not secreted, its serum concentration depends only on GFR. In contrast to Cys C, urea is filtered in glomerulus and subsequently reabsorbed in proximal tubules and collecting duct. Reabsorption of urea is modified by effects of SNS, RAAS and AVP. Therefore its serum concentration depends upon GFR and neurohormonal effect on the tubular function. Since the increase of serum concentration of Cys C is caused only by the effect of the decreased renal perfusion on GFR, while the increase of urea is a result from both decreased GFR and tubular effects of increased neurohormonal activity, the paper hypothesis is that in HF the increase of urea will be significantly higher than the increase of serum Cys C, while in the patients with renal diseases their increase would be mostly proportional. It can be assumed that the disproportion between the increase of Cys C and urea would indicate an increased neurohormonal activity in patients with HF and correlate with its activity. If this hypothesis is proved correct, this parameter could be used in HF diagnosis and risk stratification of such patients. PMID:25064377

  9. Serum uric acid in relation to endogenous reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle: findings from the BioCycle study

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Dasharathy, Sonya S.; Pollack, Anna Z.; Perkins, Neil J.; Mattison, Donald R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do uric acid levels across the menstrual cycle show associations with endogenous estradiol (E2) and reproductive hormone concentrations in regularly menstruating women? SUMMARY ANSWER Mean uric acid concentrations were highest during the follicular phase, and were inversely associated with E2 and progesterone, and positively associated with FSH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY E2 may decrease serum levels of uric acid in post-menopausal women; however, the interplay between endogenous reproductive hormones and uric acid levels among regularly menstruating women has not been elucidated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle study was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University at Buffalo research centre from 2005 to 2007, which followed healthy women for one (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) menstrual cycle(s). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Participants were healthy women aged 18–44 years. Hormones and uric acid were measured in serum eight times each cycle for up to two cycles. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights were used to evaluate the associations between endogenous hormones and uric acid concentrations. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Uric acid levels were observed to vary across the menstrual cycle, with the lowest levels observed during the luteal phase. Every log-unit increase in E2 was associated with a decrease in uric acid of 1.1% (? = ?0.011; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.019, ?0.004; persistent-effects model), and for every log-unit increase in progesterone, uric acid decreased by ?0.8% (? = ?0.008; 95% CI: ?0.012, ?0.004; persistent-effects model). FSH was positively associated with uric acid concentrations, such that each log-unit increase was associated with a 1.6% increase in uric acid (? = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.026; persistent-effects model). Progesterone and FSH were also associated with uric acid levels in acute-effects models. Of 509 cycles, 42 were anovulatory (8.3%). Higher uric acid levels were associated with increased odds of anovulation (odds ratio 2.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.56). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The change in uric acid levels among this cohort of healthy women was modest, and analysis was limited to two menstrual cycles. The women in this study were healthy and regularly menstruating, and as such there were few women with high uric acid levels and anovulatory cycles. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings demonstrate the importance of taking menstrual cycle phase into account when measuring uric acid in premenopausal women, and confirm the hypothesized beneficial lowering effects of endogenous E2 on uric acid levels. These findings suggest that there could be an underlying association affecting both sporadic anovulation and high uric acid levels among young, regularly menstruating women. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate the connection between uric acid and reproductive and later cardiovascular health. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (contract # HHSN275200403394C). No competing interests declared. PMID:23562957

  10. Protecting group free synthesis of urea-linked glycoconjugates: efficient synthesis of ?-urea glycosides in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yoshiyasu; Minami, Takahiro; Kusaba, Shohei; Saeki, Nobuyoshi; Tonegawa, Yuta; Tomita, Yumiko; Nakano, Keiji; Kotsuki, Hiyoshizo; Masuda, Toshiya

    2014-06-21

    A method for the protecting group free synthesis of ?-urea-linked glycoconjugates has been developed. The one step process, involving reactions between urea and D-glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-xylose in acidic aqueous solution, furnishes the corresponding ?-urea glycosides in modest yields. This simple and efficient procedure is applicable to the synthesis of ?-urea tethered amino acid-carbohydrate conjugates. PMID:24796538

  11. Minimal Changes of Serum Creatinine Predict Prognosis in Patients after Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREA LASSNIGG; DANIEL SCHMIDLIN; MOHAMED MOUHIEDDINE; LUCAS M. BACHMANN; WILFRED DRUML; PETER BAUER; MICHAEL HIESMAYR

    2004-01-01

    Acute renal failure increases risk of death after car- diac surgery. However, it is not known whether more subtle changes in renal function might have an impact on outcome. Thus, the association between small serum creatinine changes after surgery and mortality, independent of other established perioperative risk indicators, was analyzed. In a prospective cohort study in 4118 patients who underwent

  12. Creatinine Measurements in 24 h Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Creatinine Measurements in 24 h Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry EUN, Davis, California 95616 A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry chromatography (HPLC) (17­19), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (20, 21) method. LC

  13. Measurement of bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine in serum and plasma, by solid-phase reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J F; Tsang, W; Newall, R G

    1983-01-01

    The Seralyzer chemistries for total bilirubin, cholesterol, and creatinine have been examined in the routine hospital laboratory, and have demonstrated good correlation and precision when compared to established routine methodologies. The system has proved to be reliable and easy to use. PMID:6841652

  14. Can Cystatin C Replace Creatinine to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate? A Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Zahran; Amr El-Husseini; Ahmed Shoker

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the increasing knowledge that estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine (Scr) has limited value, researchers have developed new equations based on serum cystatin C (Cys C). Aim: To compare the performance of serum Cys C and Cys C-based GFR equations to Scr and Scr-based GFR equations. Methods: A Medline literature search for studies in English.

  15. Normalization of urinary biomarkers to creatinine during changes in glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Waikar, Sushrut S.; Sabbisetti, Venkata S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers, such as albumin and other markers of kidney injury, are frequently reported as a normalized ratio to urinary creatinine (UCr) concentration [UCr] to control for variations in urine flow rate. The implicit assumption is that UCr excretion is constant across and within individuals, such that changes in the ratio will reflect changes in biomarker excretion. Using computer simulations of creatinine kinetics, we found that normalized levels of a biomarker reflecting tubular injury can be influenced by dynamic changes in the UCr excretion rate when the glomerular filtration rate changes. Actual timed urine collections from hospitalized patients with changing glomerular filtration rates and/or critical illness exhibited variability in UCr excretion rates across and within individuals. Normalization by [UCr] may, therefore, result in an underestimation or overestimation of the biomarker excretion rate depending on the clinical context. Lower creatinine excretion in the setting of acute kidney injury or poor renal allograft function may amplify a tubular injury biomarker signal, thereby increasing its clinical utility. The variability of creatinine excretion, however, will complicate the determination of a threshold value for normalized biomarkers of acute or chronic kidney disease, including albumin. Thus, we suggest that the most accurate method to quantify biomarkers requires the collection of timed urine specimens to estimate the actual excretion rate, provided that the biomarker is stable over the period of collection. This ideal must be balanced, however, against practical considerations. PMID:20555318

  16. GFR estimates using cystatin C are superior to serum creatinine in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Beringer; Levita Hidayat; Anna Heed; Ling Zheng; Heather Owens; Debbie Benitez; Adupa P. Rao

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAccurate assessment of renal function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is vital for determining the appropriate dose of medications and for early detection of renal disease. Cystatin C (CysC) is a new marker of GFR with reportedly improved accuracy and precision compared to methods incorporating serum creatinine. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of

  17. Comparison between creatinine and cystatin C-based GFR equations in renal transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Zahran; Mabood Qureshi; Ahmed Shoker

    2007-01-01

    Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine (Scr) or cystatin C (Cys C) exhibit variable performances. Methods. We compared the performances of 14 Scr and 9 Cys C estimated GFR equations using inulin clearance (Clin) as the reference test in 103 stable renal transplant populations. Bias, precision, receiving operation characteristics (ROC), accuracy within 30% ranges from the

  18. Difficulties in diagnosing acute kidney injury post liver transplantation using serum creatinine based diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Banwari; Davenport, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Renal function in patients with advanced cirrhosis is an important prognostic factor for survival both prior to and following liver transplantation. The importance of renal function is reflected by the introduction of the model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score, which includes serum creatinine. The MELD score has been shown to predict the short term risk of death for transplant wait listed patients and is currently used by many countries to allocate liver transplants on the basis of severity of underlying illness. Changes in serum creatinine are also used to stage acute kidney injury. However prior to liver transplantation the serum creatinine typically over estimates underlying renal function, particularly when a colorimetric Jaffe based assay is used, and paradoxically then under estimates renal function post liver transplantation, particularly when immunophyllins are started early as part of transplant immunosuppression. As acute kidney injury is defined by changes in serum creatinine, this potentially leads to over estimation of the incidence and severity of acute kidney injury in the immediate post-operative period. PMID:25349641

  19. Cystatin C or Creatinine for Detection of Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease in Anorexia Nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Delanaye; Etienne Cavalier; Régis P. Radermecker; Nicolas Paquot; Gisčle Depas; Jean-Paul Chapelle; André J. Scheen; Jean-Marie Krzesinski

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at a high risk of renal failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often missed in these patients because the serum creatinine is a poor marker of kidney function. We studied the utility of cystatin C to detect renal failure in this population. Method: Twenty-seven AN patients were studied. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were

  20. HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

  1. Serum Uric Acid and Endothelial Dysfunction in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziyong Tang; Li-Tao Cheng; Hong-Yan Li; Tao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Background: Endothelial dysfunction is an early predictor of cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. It remains unclear if serum uric acid (UA) is associated with endothelial dysfunction in peritoneal dialysis patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the relationship of UA and endothelial dysfunction was investigated in 189 stable peritoneal dialysis patients. The clinical

  2. Further characterization of photothermal breakdown products of uric acid stones following holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Kumar, Neeru; Corbin, Nicole S.; Lesani, Omid; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2000-06-01

    Previously we found that Ho:YAG laser (2120 nm) lithotripsy of uric acid stones produced cyanide, a known thermal breakdown product of uric acid. We now report that alloxan, another thermal breakdown product, is also likely produced. Uric acid stones (approximately 98% pure) of human origin were placed in distilled water and subjected to one of the following experimental treatments: unexposed control, exposed to Ho:YAG laser, Nd:YAG laser, or mechanically crushed. Samples were then processed for HPLC analysis with UV detection. Peaks were identified by comparison to authentic standards. All samples contained uric acid, with retention time (RT) about 6 min. All of the laser-exposed samples contained a peak that eluted at 2.5 min, identical to the RT of authentic alloxan. Ho:YAG laser irradiation, however, produced a larger presumed alloxan peak than did the Nd:YAG laser. The peak at 2.5 min, as well as unidentified later-eluting peaks, were present in the laser-exposed, but not the unexposed or mechanically crushed, samples. These results confirm the thermal nature of lithotripsy performed with long-pulse IR lasers.

  3. Serum Uric Acid Levels Correlate with the Severity and the Mortality of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NORITOSHI NAGAYA; MASAAKI UEMATSU; TORU SATOH; SHINGO KYOTANI; FUMIO SAKAMAKI; NORIFUMI NAKANISHI; MASAKAZU YAMAGISHI; TAKEYOSHI KUNIEDA; KUNIO MIYATAKE

    1999-01-01

    Serum uric acid (UA), the final product of purine degradation, has been proposed to be a marker for impaired oxidative metabolism and a possible predictor of mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. To elucidate whether serum UA correlates with the severity and the mortality of primary pul- monary hypertension (PPH), serum UA was assessed in 90 patients with PPH

  4. A Synthetic Uric Acid Analog Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasulu Chigurupati; Mohamed R. Mughal; Sic L. Chan; Thiruma V. Arumugam; Akanksha Baharani; Sung-Chun Tang; Qian-Sheng Yu; Harold W. Holloway; Ross Wheeler; Suresh Poosala; Nigel H. Greig; Mark P. Mattson; Joanna Mary Bridger

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process involving intrinsic dermal and epidermal cells, and infiltrating macrophages and leukocytes. Excessive oxidative stress and associated inflammatory processes can impair wound healing, and antioxidants have been reported to improve wound healing in animal models and human subjects. Uric acid (UA) is an efficient free radical scavenger, but has a very low solubility and poor

  5. Uric Acid in the Tapetum Lucidum of Mooneyes Hiodon (Hiodontidae Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Zyznar; F. B. Cross; J. A. C. Nicol

    1978-01-01

    Tapeta lucida (ocular reflectors) of mooneyes, Hiodon tergisus and H. alosoides, lie in the pigment epithelium, the processes of which are packed with reflecting particles and also contain melanin granules. The reflecting particles are tiny birefringent crystals. On the basis of chromatography, u.v. spectroscopy and enzymic degradation (with uricase), it is concluded that the reflecting material contains uric acid. Mooneye

  6. Effect of Human Placenta Extract on Potassium Oxonate-Induced Elevation of Blood Uric Acid Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Watanabe; Yumi Kimura; Kaoru Shindo; Tetsuya Fukui

    2006-01-01

    Although anti-inflammatory effect of human placenta extract (HPE) was observed in rheumatoid arthritis and carrageenin-induced edema, effect of HPE on the arthritis of hyperuricemia and gout patients had never been exam- ined. Excess uric acid is regarded to be a major risk factor in gout, renal diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. In our experiment, in order to investigate the

  7. Intellectual Level Measured by Army Classification Battery and Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dewitt Stetten Jr.; John Z. Hearon

    1959-01-01

    In a group of 817 individuals inducted into the U.S. Army, serum uric acid concentration was measured. The values were compared with scores secured on intelligence tests used at the Army reception center. A significant but low level of positive correlation between the two sets of values was found.

  8. Uric acid accumulation in an Arabidopsis urate oxidase mutant impairs seedling establishment by blocking peroxisome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Oliver K; Scharnberg, Jana; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Wanner, Gerhard; Giavalisco, Patrick; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2014-07-01

    Purine nucleotides can be fully catabolized by plants to recycle nutrients. We have isolated a urate oxidase (uox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that accumulates uric acid in all tissues, especially in the developing embryo. The mutant displays a reduced germination rate and is unable to establish autotrophic growth due to severe inhibition of cotyledon development and nutrient mobilization from the lipid reserves in the cotyledons. The uox mutant phenotype is suppressed in a xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh) uox double mutant, demonstrating that the underlying cause is not the defective purine base catabolism, or the lack of UOX per se, but the elevated uric acid concentration in the embryo. Remarkably, xanthine accumulates to similar levels in the xdh mutant without toxicity. This is paralleled in humans, where hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases whereas xanthinuria is asymptomatic. Searching for the molecular cause of uric acid toxicity, we discovered a local defect of peroxisomes (glyoxysomes) mostly confined to the cotyledons of the mature embryos, which resulted in the accumulation of free fatty acids in dry seeds. The peroxisomal defect explains the developmental phenotypes of the uox mutant, drawing a novel link between uric acid and peroxisome function, which may be relevant beyond plants. PMID:25052714

  9. [Calcium antagonists: current and future applications based on new evidence. The mechanisms on lowering serum uric acid level by calcium channel blockers].

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Einosuke; Hamada, Toshihiro; Igawa, Osamu; Shigemasa, Chiaki; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    In hypertensive subjects, their serum uric acid levels tend to be higher because of decreasing urinary secretion or overproduction of uric acid. Among calcium channel blockers (CCBs) , long acting nifedipine and cilnidipine reveal serum uric acid lowering action. They decrease the production of uric acid precursor in skeletal muscles under anaerobic condition induced by hypertension or insulin resistance. Hyperuricemia is considered to be a risk factor of not only gout but also renal and cardiovascular diseases, thus, it is important to use CCBs without adverse effect on uric acid metabolisms. PMID:20048433

  10. Evaluation of the Nova StatSensor® XpressTM Creatinine Point-Of-Care Handheld Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Kosack, Cara Simone; de Kieviet, Wim; Bayrak, Kubra; Milovic, Anastacija; Page, Anne Laure

    2015-01-01

    Creatinine is a parameter that is required to monitor renal function and is important to follow in patients under treatment with potentially toxic renal drugs, such as the anti-HIV drug Tenofovir. A point of care instrument to measure creatinine would be useful for patients monitoring in resource-limited settings, where more instruments that are sophisticated are not available. The StatSensor Xpress Creatinine (Nova Biomedical Cooperation, Waltham, MA, USA) point of care analyzer was evaluated for its diagnostic performance in indicating drug therapy change. Creatinine was measured in parallel using the Nova StatSensor Xpress Creatinine analyzer and the Vitros 5,1FS (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Inc, Rochester, USA), which served as reference standard. The precision (i.e., repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy of the StatSensor Xpress Creatinine analyzer were calculated using a panel of specimens with normal, low pathological and high pathological values. Two different Nova StatSensor Xpress Creatinine analyzers were used for the assessment of accuracy using repeated measurements. The coefficient of variation of the StatSensor Xpress Creatinine analyzers ranged from 2.3 to 5.9% for repeatability and from 4.2 to 9.0% for between-run reproducibility. The concordance correlation agreement was good except for high values (>600 µmol/L). The Bland-Altman analysis in high pathological specimens suggests that the Nova StatSensor Xpress Creatinine test tends to underestimate high creatinine values (i.e., >600 µmol/L). The Nova StatSensor Xpress Creatinine analyzers showed acceptable to good results in terms of repeatability, inter-device reproducibility and between-run reproducibility over time using quality control reagents. The analyzer was found sufficiently accurate for detecting pathological values in patients (age >10 year) and can be used with a moderate risk of misclassification. PMID:25886375

  11. Blood biochemical factors in humans resistant and susceptible to formation of venous gas emboli during decompression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Jauchem; James M. Waligora; Johnny Conkin; David J. Horrigan; Philip C. Johnson

    1986-01-01

    Summary  Blood biochemical parameters were measured in 12 male human subjects before and after exposure to a staged decompression protocol, with simulated extravehicular activity, during 3 days. Following the exposure, significant changes occurred in several parameters, including increases in blood urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphate, potassium, and osmolality, and decreases in uric acid and creatinine. Pre-exposure blood samples from subjects who were

  12. HEMATOLOGY AND SERUM CHEMISTRY OF COTTONTAIL RABBITS OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwayne A. W. Lepitzki; Alan Woolf

    In 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern Illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. Packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, g!ucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phos- phatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin\\/globulin ratio,

  13. Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Peinado; F. J. Polo; G. Viscor; J. Palomeque

    1992-01-01

    Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline

  14. Arxula adeninivorans recombinant urate oxidase and its application in the production of food with low uric acid content.

    PubMed

    Trautwein-Schult, Anke; Jankowska, Dagmara; Cordes, Arno; Hoferichter, Petra; Klein, Christina; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Baronian, Keith; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and its symptoms are becoming increasingly common worldwide. Elevated serum uric acid levels are caused by increased uric acid synthesis from food constituents and reduced renal excretion. Treatment in most cases involves reducing alcohol intake and consumption of meat and fish or treatment with pharmaceuticals. Another approach could be to reduce uric acid level in food, either during production or consumption. This work reports the production of recombinant urate oxidase by Arxula adeninivorans and its application to reduce uric acid in a food product. The A. adeninivorans urate oxidase amino acid sequence was found to be similar to urate oxidases from other fungi (61-65% identity). In media supplemented with adenine, hypoxanthine or uric acid, induction of the urate oxidase (AUOX) gene and intracellular accumulation of urate oxidase (Auoxp) was observed. The enzyme characteristics were analyzed from isolates of the wild-type strain A. adeninivorans LS3, as well as from those of transgenic strains expressing the AUOX gene under control of the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter or the inducible AYNI1 promoter. The enzyme showed high substrate specificity for uric acid, a broad temperature and pH range, high thermostability and the ability to reduce uric acid content in food. PMID:24022585

  15. Uric Acid Promotes Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubule Cells by Oxidative Stress and the Activation of NADPH Oxidase NOX 4

    PubMed Central

    Verzola, Daniela; Ratto, Elena; Villaggio, Barbara; Parodi, Emanuele Luigi; Pontremoli, Roberto; Garibotto, Giacomo; Viazzi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Mild hyperuricemia has been linked to the development and progression of tubulointerstitial renal damage. However the mechanisms by which uric acid may cause these effects are poorly explored. We investigated the effect of uric acid on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2). Increased uric acid concentration decreased tubule cell viability and increased apoptotic cells in a dose dependent manner (up to a 7-fold increase, p<0.0001). Uric acid up-regulated Bax (+60% with respect to Ctrl; p<0.05) and down regulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Apoptosis was blunted by Caspase-9 but not Caspase-8 inhibition. Uric acid induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane, elevations in reactive oxygen species and a pronounced up-regulation of NOX 4 mRNA and protein (p<0.05). In addition, both reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI as well as by Nox 4 knockdown. URAT 1 transport inhibition by probenecid and losartan and its knock down by specific siRNA, blunted apoptosis, suggesting a URAT 1 dependent cell death. In summary, our data show that uric acid increases the permissiveness of proximal tubule kidney cells to apoptosis by triggering a pathway involving NADPH oxidase signalling and URAT 1 transport. These results might explain the chronic tubulointerstitial damage observed in hyperuricaemic states and suggest that uric acid transport in tubular cells is necessary for urate-induced effects. PMID:25514209

  16. Reproductive Factors and Serum Uric Acid Levels in Females from the General Population: The KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara; Heier, Margit; Belcredi, Petra; Meisinger, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and uric acid levels in a female population-based sample. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis, data of 1530 women aged 32 to 81 years participating in the KORA F4 study, conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany were used. Reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews. Uric acid levels were tested by the uricase method. The whole study sample and stratified in pre- and postmenopausal women was analyzed. Results Menopausal status and earlier age at menarche were associated with higher serum uric acid levels (age-adjusted: p-values 0.003, <0.001 respectively; after multivariable adjustment, including BMI: p-values 0.002, 0.036). A history of oral contraceptive use showed an association with uric acid levels only after multivariable adjustment (p-value 0.009). Hot flushes showed an association with uric acid levels only after age-adjustment (p-value 0.038), but lost significance after adding other confounders. Other reproductive factors, including parity, current or ever use of hormone replacement therapy, current use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or depressive mood related to menopausal transition were not associated with uric acid levels. Conclusions Postmenopausal status, earlier age at menarche and a history of oral contraceptive use were independently associated with higher serum uric acid concentrations in women from the general population. Further studies, especially longitudinal population-based studies investigating the relationship of female reproductive parameters with uric acid levels are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:22427861

  17. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

  18. Thermolysis of Urea Complexes of Uranyl Nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Kostyuk

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative parameters of thermolysis of uranyl nitrate urea complexes, [UO2(NO3)2{(NH2)2CO}2], [UO2(H2O){(NH2)2CO}4](NO3)2, and [UO2(H2O){(NH2)2CO}5](NO3)2 at 175, 200, and 225C were measured. Thermolysis of [UO2(NO3)2{(NH2)2CO}2] at 200C affords the biuret complex of uranyl nitrate in a 90% yield. The urea ligands in the hydrated complexes completely\\u000a transform into biuret at 175C. Thermolysis of [UO2(H2O){(NH2)2CO}5](NO3)2 yields the biuret-cyanurate complexes of uranyl nitrate. The

  19. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  20. Improved Prediction of Decreased Creatinine Clearance by Serum Cystatin C: Use in Cancer Patients before and during Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borut Stabuc; Levin Vrhovec; Mirna Stabuc-Silih; TomazEdvard Cizej

    Background: Serum cystatin C, a cysteine protease in- hibitor, has been suggested as a new marker of glomer- ular filtration rate (GFR). This study explored the pos- sibility of replacing the creatinine clearance (CrCl) estimation of GFR with cystatin C in early detection of renal impairment in cancer patients on chemotherapy. Methods: Serum creatinine and cystatin C concentra- tions as

  1. A comparison between cystatin c, plasma creatinine and the cockcroft and gault formula for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans J. Hoek; Frits A. W. Kemperman; Raymond T. Krediet

    2003-01-01

    Background. In clinical practice, the glomerular filtra- tion rate (GFR) is often estimated from plasma creatinine. Several studies have shown cystatin C (cys C) to be a better parameter for the diagnosis of impaired renal function. No data are available, however, on the performance of cys C in follow-up of patients, compared with creatinine. Also, comparisons of cys C with

  2. Cystatin C is not more sensitive than creatinine for detecting early renal impairment in patients with diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Oddoze; Sophie Morange; Henri Portugal; Yvon Berland; Bertrand Dussol

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated serum cystatin C as a potential new marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 49 patients who had steady-state diabetes with early renal impairment. We determined the correlation between GFR measured by chromium 51-labeled EDTA and levels of serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, serum [beta ]2-microglobulin, endogenous creatinine clearance, and Cockcroft formula. Sensitivity and specificity for the

  3. Computation and simulation of the structural characteristics of the kidney urea transporter and behaviors of urea transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Yu, Tao; Sang, Jian-Ping; Zou, Xian-Wu; Yan, Chengfei; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2015-04-23

    Urea transporters are a family of membrane proteins that transport urea molecules across cell membranes and play important roles in a variety of physiological processes. Although the crystal structure of bacterial urea channel dvUT has been solved, there lacks an understanding of the dynamics of urea transport in dvUT. In this study, by using molecular dynamics simulations, Monte Carlo methods, and the adaptive biasing force approach, we built the equilibrium structure of dvUT, calculated the variation in the free energy of urea, determined the urea-binding sites of dvUT, gained insight into the microscopic process of urea transport, and studied the water permeability in dvUT including the analysis of a water chain in the pore. The strategy used in this work can be applied to studying transport behaviors of other membrane proteins. PMID:25781365

  4. Creatinine - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... Laboratory assessment of kidney disease: glomerular filtration rate, urinalysis, and proteinuria. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden ...

  5. Impact on Creatinine Renal Clearance by the Interplay of Multiple Renal Transporters: A Case Study with INCB039110.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Warren, Mark S; Zhang, Xuexiang; Diamond, Sharon; Williams, Bill; Punwani, Naresh; Huang, Jane; Huang, Yong; Yeleswaram, Swamy

    2015-04-01

    Serum creatinine is commonly used as a marker of renal function, but increases in serum creatinine might not represent changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). INCB039110 (2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-day]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile) is an inhibitor of the Janus kinases (JAKs) with selectivity for JAK1. In a phase 1 study, a modest and reversible increase in serum creatinine was observed after treatment with INCB039110. However, a dedicated renal function study with INCB039110, assessed by iohexol plasma clearance, conducted in healthy volunteers indicated no change in GFR. In vitro studies were therefore conducted to investigate the interaction of INCB039110 with five transporters that are likely involved in the renal clearance of creatinine. Cell systems expressing individual or multiple transporters were used, including a novel quintuple-transporter model OAT2/OCT2/OCT3/MATE1/MATE2-K. INCB039110 potently inhibited OCT2-mediated uptake of creatinine as well as MATE1-/MATE2-K-mediated efflux of creatinine. Given the interactions of INCB039110 with multiple transporters affecting creatinine uptake and efflux, an integrated system expressing all five transporters was sought; in that system, INCB039110 caused a dose-dependent decrease in transcellular transport of creatinine with weaker net inhibition compared with the effects on individual transporters. In summary, a molecular mechanism for the increase in serum creatinine by INCB039110 has been established. These studies also underline the limitations of using serum creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:25605813

  6. Isolation of a novel uric-acid-degrading microbe Comamonas sp. BT UA and rapid biosensing of uric acid from extracted uricase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tanushree; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2014-12-01

    Uric-acid-utilizing soil bacteria were isolated, and 16s rRNA sequence was studied for strain identification. The most prominent uricase-producing bacterium was identified as Comamonas sp BT UA. Crude enzyme was extracted, freeze-dried and its Km and Vmax were determined as 40 meu M and 0.047 meu M min-1ml-1 using Line-weaver Burke plot. An activity of 80 U/mg of total protein was observed when cultured at 37 degree C for 84 h at pH 7. The purified enzyme was used to measure uric acid by spectrophotometric method and electrochemical biosensor. In the biosensing system the enzyme was immobilized on the platinum electrode with a biodegradable glutaraldehyde-crosslinked gelatin film having a swelling percentage of 109+/- 3.08, and response was observed by amperometry applying fixed potential. The electrochemical process as obtained by the anodic peak current and scan rate relationship was further configured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The polymer matrix on the working electrode gave capacitive response for the electrode-electrolyte interaction. The sensitivity of the biosensor was measured as 6.93 meu A meu M -1 with a sensor affinity [Km(app)] of 50 mu M and 95 percent reproducibility after 50 measurements. The spectrophotometric method could be used in the range of 6-1000 mu M, whereas the biosensor generated linear response in the 1.5- 1000 mu M range with a response time of 24 s and limit of detection of 0.56 meu M. Uric acid was estimated in human blood samples by the biosensor and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:25431410

  7. Use of azure-D2 for the measurement of uric acid in serum.

    PubMed

    Lamb, E J; Price, C P

    1995-09-01

    It has been suggested that achieving a chromogenic endpoint with an absorbance read at 600 nm or greater will reduce the degree of spectral interference in many colorimetric methods. We have examined a uricase/peroxidase-based system utilising a novel oxygen acceptor (azure-D2) as chromogen which produces a chromophor with an absorbance which can be measured at 600 nm (Synermed). Results (median, range, mumol/l) obtained on patient sera (n = 113) using the Synermed method (297; 38-847) were lower than those obtained using a 293 nm uricase method (Du Pont Ltd., 312; 62-874) (p < 0.001, Synermed = -16.709 + 1.0065 Du Pont). Within- and between-batch CV's were < 3% in all cases. Results obtained in one external quality assessment scheme (WEQAS) were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the method group mean (Synermed = -17.298 + 1.0056 WEQAS) but in a second scheme (NEQAS) results did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from the method group mean (Synermed = -29.315 + 1.0570 NEQAS). Bilirubin had a negative effect (p < 0.0001; 300 mumol/l producing a 23 mumol/l reduction in uric acid) and haemoglobin had a small positive effect (p < 0.05; 5 g/l increasing uric acid by 8 mumol/l) on the assay. Lipaemia did not interfere (p > 0.05) but both ascorbic acid (100 mumol/l reducing uric acid by 68 mumol/l) and N-acetylcysteine (3 mmol/l reducing uric acid by 95 mumol/l) had significant negative effects (p < 0.0001 in both cases). Uraemic serum had no effect on the assay (p > 0.05) but serum storage for 72 hours at room temperature resulted in a significant (p < 0.0005) increase in measured uric acid. The Synermed method is a precise and accurate assay for serum uric acid. However, although generally showing low levels of spectral interference, chemical interferences in the assay from antioxidant components of serum may be problematic. This paper shows that the use of longer wavelengths of detection can reduce the significance of common spectral interferences. PMID:8611669

  8. The Association of Antihypertensive Medication With Serum Creatinine Changes in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L Smith; Bruce M Psaty; Susan R Heckbert; Rozenn N Lemaitre; David M Kates; Gale H Rutan; Anthony Bleyer

    1997-01-01

    Many of the potential effects of antihypertensive therapy, including renal function, have been inadequately investigated in clinical trials in older adults.In an observational study, we examined the association between treatment with various classes of antihypertensive agents and 3-year changes in serum creatinine in 1296 older adults with treated hypertension and without prior renal disease (mean age 72.2 years; 60% female;

  9. ?2?Microglobulin, Cystatin C, and Creatinine and Risk of Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Michel M.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Cooke, John P.; Rimm, Eric B.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background ?2?Microglobulin and cystatin C may have advantages over creatinine in assessing risk associated with kidney function. We therefore investigated whether emerging filtration markers, ?2?microglobulin and cystatin C, are prospectively associated with risk of the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Methods and Results We conducted nested case?control studies among women within the Nurses’ Health Study (1990–2010) and among men within the Health Professionals Follow?up Study (1994–2008) with the use of archived blood samples collected before PAD diagnosis. During follow?up, symptomatic PAD was confirmed in 144 women and 143 men. Controls were matched 3:1 based on age, race, smoking status, fasting status, and date of blood sampling. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and were adjusted for plasma creatinine and cardiovascular risk factors. In women, the RRs (95% CI) per 1?SD) increment were 1.16 (0.85 to 1.58) for ?2?microglobulin and 0.94 (0.69 to 1.28) for cystatin C. Corresponding RRs in men were 1.50 (1.08 to 2.09) for ?2?microglobulin and 1.54 (1.07 to 2.22) for cystatin C. There was no association between creatinine and PAD risk in women, whereas the association in men (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.81) disappeared after adjustment for either ?2?microglobulin or cystatin C. In pooled analyses of men and women, only ?2?microglobulin was associated with PAD risk (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.64). Conclusions In pooled analyses, ?2?microglobulin was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic PAD; a similar association with cystatin C was observed only in men. The findings suggest that ?2?microglobulin may capture the atherosclerosis?promoting or atherosclerosis?related elements of kidney dysfunction better than creatinine. PMID:24980133

  10. Validation of creatinine assays utilizing HPLC and IDMS traceable standards in sera of children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Schwartz; Tai Kwong; Brian Erway; Bradley Warady; Lori Sokoll; Stanley Hellerstein; Vikas Dharnidharka; Susan Furth; Alvaro Muńoz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations assayed in the Central Biochemistry Laboratory\\u000a of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study utilizing an enzymatic assay\\u000a (Siemens Advia 2400) against a method traceable to reference isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) developed by the National\\u000a Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  11. Biomarkers and creatinine in AKI: the trough of disillusionment or the slope of enlightenment?

    PubMed

    Endre, Zoltán H; Pickering, John W

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of acute kidney biomarkers against changes in plasma creatinine is beset by issues of heterogeneity of study cohorts and timing of sampling. Siew and colleagues attempt to minimize these issues in a case-control study of three biomarkers in the intensive care unit. The results highlight the inherent methodological difficulties and the need to reference structural injury biomarkers against more meaningful outcomes. PMID:24080874

  12. Urinary protein and albumin excretion corrected by creatinine and specific gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Newman; Michael J. Pugia; John A. Lott; Jane F. Wallace; Andrew M. Hiar

    2000-01-01

    Timed urine collections are difficult to use in clinical practice owing to inaccurate collections making calculations of the 24-h albumin or protein excretion questionable. One of our goals was to assess the ‘correction’ of urinary albumin and (or) protein excretion by dividing these by either the creatinine concentration or the term, (specific gravity?1)×10011Note that the term, (SG-1)×100 increases with the

  13. GFR is better estimated by considering both serum cystatin C and creatinine levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yann Bouvet; François Bouissou; Yvon Coulais; Sophie Séronie-Vivien; Mathieu Tafani; Stéphane Decramer; Etienne Chatelut

    2006-01-01

    Serum cystatin C (cysC) is a potential marker of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that has generated conflicting reports in children. A prospective study was conducted to assess the benefit of considering cysC together with serum creatinine (SCr) and demographic and morphologic characteristics to better estimate the 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) clearance (CL), i.e., the GFR. Plasma 51Cr-EDTA data from 100 children

  14. A New Equation for Estimating Renal Function Using Age, Body Weight and Serum Creatinine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovambattista Virga; Flavio Gaspari; Karl Thomaseth; Marilena Cara; Stefania Mastrosimone; Vittorio Rossi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many formulas have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The aim of our study was to propose a new, more reliable equation. Methods: The study considered 530 subjects (training sample) with M\\/F 280\\/250, age 57.1 ± 17.4, creatinine clearance (CrCl) 55.2 ± 38.2 (range 2.1–144.0) for the development the new equation. A linear model was used to

  15. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Kolz; Toby Johnson; Serena Sanna; Alexander Teumer; Veronique Vitart; Markus Perola; Massimo Mangino; Eva Albrecht; Chris Wallace; Martin Farrall; Ĺsa Johansson; Dale R. Nyholt; Yurii Aulchenko; Jacques S. Beckmann; Sven Bergmann; Murielle Bochud; Morris Brown; Harry Campbell; John Connell; Anna Dominiczak; Georg Homuth; Claudia Lamina; Mark I. McCarthy; Thomas Meitinger; Vincent Mooser; Patricia Munroe; Matthias Nauck; John Peden; Holger Prokisch; Perttu Salo; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J. Samani; David Schlessinger; Manuela Uda; Uwe Völker; Gérard Waeber; Dawn Waterworth; Rui Wang-Sattler; Alan F. Wright; Jerzy Adamski; John B. Whitfield; Ulf Gyllensten; James F. Wilson; Igor Rudan; Peter Pramstaller; Hugh Watkins; Angela Doering; H.-Erich Wichmann; Tim D. Spector; Leena Peltonen; Henry Völzke; Ramaiah Nagaraja; Peter Vollenweider; Mark Caulfield; Thomas Illig; Christian Gieger

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide

  16. Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Gao; Lu Qi; Ning Qiao; Hyon K. Choi; Gary C. Curhan; Katherine L. Tucker; Alberto Ascherio

    2007-01-01

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration in free-living populations. We examined the relationship between the intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages and serum uric

  17. Urea perturbation and the reversibility of nucleohistone conformation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catherine; Li, Hsueh Jei

    1974-01-01

    Urea effect on conformation and thermal stabilities in nucleohistone and NaCl-treated partially dehistonized nucleohistones has been studied by circular dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation. Urea imposes a CD change at 278mm of DNA base pairs in native and NaCl-treated nucleohistones which can be decomposed into two parts: a decrease in ??278 for histone-free base pairs and an increase for histone-bound base pairs. The reduction by urea of ??220 of bound histones is approximately proportional to the increase of ??278 of histone-bound base pairs. Urea also lowers the melting temperatures of base pairs both free and bound by histones. The presence of urea indeed destroys the secondary structure of bound histones, causing changes in the conformation and thermal stabilities of histone-bound base pairs in nucleohistone. Such a urea perturbation on nucleohistone conformation is reversible. PMID:10793727

  18. Exposure assessment approach through mycotoxin/creatinine ratio evaluation in urine by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Mańes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda

    2014-10-01

    In this pilot survey human urine samples were analyzed for presence of 15 mycotoxins and some of their metabolites using a novel urinary multi-mycotoxin GC-MS/MS method following salting-out liquid-liquid extraction. Fifty-four urine samples from children and adults residents in Valencia were analyzed for presence of urinary mycotoxin and expressed in gram of creatinine. Three out of 15 mycotoxins were detected namely, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON). 37 samples showed quantifiable values of mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of these contaminants was also observed in 20.4% of assayed samples. DON was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (68.5%) with mean levels of 23.3 ?g/g creatinine (range: 2.8-69.1 ?g/g creatinine). The levels of urinary DON were used to carry out an exposure assessment approach. 8.1% of total subjects were estimated to exceed the DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) (1 ?g/kg b.w.). Two out of 9 exposed children exceeded the DON PMTDI thus, making them the most exposed based on the urinary results. PMID:25042512

  19. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A. (Univ. of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City); Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  20. 1H and 13C NMR spectra and solution structures of novel derivatives of 5-substituted creatinines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Hanna; Pietras, Agnieszka; Kraska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Five creatinine derivatives were prepared by the treatment of creatinine with activated carbon and appropriate alcohol ( 1-4), or ammonia solution ( 5). Product structures were determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in solution, including 2D HSQC and HMBC experiments. Then, the proton and carbon chemical shifts for these compounds were calculated using GIAO-DFT [B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p)] method and the Gaussian 03W program and furthermore for 1 and 5 using polarizable continuum model (PCM). The conclusions coming from the comparison of the experimental and theoretical spectra supported the adopted signal assignments and solved the structural problems due to the potential annular tautomerism of the investigated compounds. One can predict that 5-substituted creatinines, just like creatinine, appear in solution in the form of 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4-imidazolone. Correlations between experimental and calculated substituent-induced chemical shifts for two tautomeric forms of 5-substituted creatinines indicate that the mechanism of the substituent influence in both tautomers for the investigated compounds appears to be analogous. We can predict that in solution this accepting inductive effect of substituent groups does not significantly influence the structure of creatinine molecule in solution. The analysis of coupling constants for 5-substituted creatinines gives information about conformation of the investigated molecules in solution.

  1. 14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Rauws; E A Royen; W Langenberg; J V Woensel; A A Vrij; G N Tytgat

    1989-01-01

    14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled

  2. The Action of Certain Acid Reagents on the Substituted Ureas

    E-print Network

    Brewster, Ray Q.

    1915-01-01

    3 ureas similar compounds are obtained only under jcery favor- able conditions. These products have been obtained, however, by McCrefcth (Ber. 8, 1181) by the addition od anilides to isocyanates. For instance, the acyl derivative of diphenyl urea... is produced by the action of phenyl isocyanate and acetanilide. The acyl ureas and the acyl derivatives of the isourea ethers are not extremely stable and, when heated above their melting points, decompose into anilides and cyanates or anilides...

  3. Development of a novel uric-acid-responsive regulatory system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaoning; Xiong, Dandan; Zhang, Yi; Mu, Shanshan; Tang, Shuang-Yan

    2015-03-01

    A novel uric-acid-responsive regulatory system was developed in Escherichia coli by adapting the HucR-related regulatory elements from Deinococcus radiodurans into E. coli. The induction performance of this system was compared to the performance of both the pBAD and pET systems. Our novel regulatory system was induced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of uric acid and exhibited low basal expression in its absence. The system was characterized by a wide dynamic range of induction, being compatible with various E. coli strains and not requiring genomic modifications of the bacterial host. E. coli DH5? and DH10B were the most suitable host strains for optimal performance of this system. In conclusion, we developed a regulatory system with potential for applications in both recombinant protein expression and metabolic optimization. PMID:25524699

  4. Mid-gestational serum uric acid concentration effect on neonate birth weight and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Razavi, Maryamsadat; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Esmat; Chehrei, Ali; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mid-gestational serum uric acid and birth weight in diabetic pregnant women with or without insulin resistance. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, fasting uric acid, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured in 247 pregnant women between 20-22 weeks of gestational period. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Stratification analysis and independent t-test was used to assess the association between uric acid and birth weights regarding to insulin resistance. Results: The means of the mid-gestational serum uric acid concentrations were not significantly different in women with and without insulin resistance. But stratification analysis showed that there was a significant difference between uric acid concentration and macrosomic birth in diabetic women without insulin resistance. Conclusions: Higher mid – gestation serum uric acid concentration, even if it does not exceed the normal range, is accompanied by lower birth weight only in non-insulin resistance women. Insulin resistance could have a negative confounding effect on hyperuriemia and birth weight.

  5. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Relationship with Serum Uric Acid Level in Uyghur Population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen; Song, Jiang-mei; Zhang, Bei; Sun, Yu-ping; Yao, Hua; Zhang, Yue-xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the association of serum uric acid level with NAFLD in Uygur people, Xinjiang. Methods. A total of 2241 Uyghur persons (1214 males and 1027 females) were interviewed for physical checkups from 2011 to 2012. The clinical data of questionnaire survey, body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipid, and serum uric acid level were collected for analysis. Results. The prevalence rates of NAFLD determined by abdominal ultrasound examination and hyperuricemia were 43.9% and 8.4%, respectively. The persons with NAFLD had significantly higher serum uric acid levels than those without NAFLD (320 ± 88 versus 254 ± 80??mol/L; P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of NAFLD was significantly higher in subjects with hyperuricemia than that in those without hyperuricemia (78.19% versus 40.83%; P < 0.001), and the prevalence rate increased with progressively higher serum uric acid levels (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (odds ratio (OR): 2.628, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.608–4.294, and P < 0.001). Conclusion. Serum uric acid level was significantly associated with NAFLD, and the prevalence rate of NAFLD increased with progressively higher serum uric acid levels. PMID:24516367

  6. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  7. Fasting Urinary Calcium-to-Creatinine and Oxalate-to-Creatinine Ratios in Dogs with Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Breed-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Furrow, E.; Patterson, E.E.; Armstrong, P.J.; Osborne, C.A.; Lulich, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. Objective To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Animals Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Methods Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. Results UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. PMID:25581880

  8. Identification of uric acid as the redox molecule secreted by the yeast Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan; Trautwein-Schult, Anke; Jankowska, Dagmara; Kunze, Gotthard; Squire, Marie A; Baronian, Keith

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Arxula adeninivorans has been previously shown to secrete a large amount of an electro-active molecule. The molecule was produced by cells that had been cultivated in a rich medium, harvested, washed and then suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The molecule was easily detectable after 60 min of incubation in PBS, and the cells continued to produce the molecule in these conditions for up to 3 days. The peak anodic potential of the oxidation peak was 0.42 V, and it was shown to be a solution species rather than a cell-attached species. We have optimised the production of the molecule, identified it by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation and high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis and determined the pathway involved in its synthesis. It has a mass/charge ratio that corresponds to uric acid, and this identification was supported by comparing UV spectra and cyclic voltammograms of the samples to those of uric acid. An A. adeninivorans xanthine oxidase gene disruption mutant failed to produce uric acid, which added further validity to this identification. It also demonstrated that the purine catabolism pathway is involved in its production. A transgenic A. adeninivorans strain with a switchable urate oxidase gene (AUOX) accumulated uric acid when the gene was switched off but did not when the gene was switched on. Cultivation of cells on amino acid and purine-free minimal media with an inorganic nitrogen source suggests that the cells synthesise purines from inorganic nitrogen and proceed to degrade them via the normal purine degradation pathway. PMID:24407453

  9. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid levels.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Moisés S S R; Saavedra, Francisco J F; Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Giovanni S; Souza, Antonio C R; Salerno, Verônica P; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2014-09-29

    Resistance training (RT) can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA) concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years) that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34) that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34) that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001). Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001), leg extension (p<0.001), shoulder press (p<0.001), leg curl (p=0.001), seated row (p<0.001), leg press (p=0.001) and high pulley (p<0.001). The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024). We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:25713640

  10. Characterisation of Genome-Wide Association Epistasis Signals for Serum Uric Acid in Human Population Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhua Wei; Gibran Hemani; Andrew A. Hicks; Veronique Vitart; Claudia Cabrera-Cardenas; Pau Navarro; Jennifer Huffman; Caroline Hayward; Sara A. Knott; Igor Rudan; Peter P. Pramstaller; Sarah H. Wild; James F. Wilson; Harry Campbell; Malcolm G. Dunlop; Nicholas Hastie; Alan F. Wright; Chris S. Haley

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a number of loci underlying variation in human serum uric acid (SUA) levels with the SLC2A9 gene having the largest effect identified so far. Gene-gene interactions (epistasis) are largely unexplored in these GWA studies. We performed a full pair-wise genome scan in the Italian MICROS population (n = 1201) to characterise epistasis signals in

  11. Electrochemical determination of 8-oxoguanine in the presence of uric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Rebelo; José António P. Piedade; Ana Maria Oliveira Brett

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the presence of uric acid (UA) was studied by differential pulse voltammetry over a wide pH range (1–12). The results showed that both compounds follow a pH-dependent oxidation mechanism that involves two electrons and two protons corresponding to reversible charge transfer reactions. The difference between the peak potential for the oxidation of each

  12. Relevance of uric Acid in progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Causevic, Adlija; Semiz, Sabina; Macic Dzankovic, Amra; Cico, Bakira; Dujic, Tanja; Malenica, Maja; Bego, Tamer

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have introduced serum uric acid (UA) as a potential risk factor for developing diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. The value of elevated levels of UA in serum as a risk factor for diabetes development is still under scrutiny. Recent data suggest that clearance of UA is being reduced with increase in insulin resistance and UA as a marker of prediabetes period. However, conflicting data related to UA in serum of patients with Type 2 diabetes prompted us to study the urine/serum ratio of UA levels (USRUA) in these patients and healthy controls. All subjects included in the study were free of evidence of hepatitis B or C viral infection or active liver and kidney damage. Patients receiving drugs known to influence UA levels were also excluded from this study. Analysis of glucose and uric acid were performed on Dade Behring analyzer using standard IFCC protocols. Interestingly, our data demonstrated about 2.5 fold higher USRUA values in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Furthermore, there was a trend of correlation of USRUA value with the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, which was more prominent in diabetic men than in women. With aging, levels of uric acid increased in serum of diabetic patients, and this effect was also more profound in male than in female diabetics. In conclusion, this study showed significantly elevated USRUA levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes, a negative USRUA correlation with the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, and an effect of sex and age on the uric acid levels. Since literature data suggest a strong genetic effect on UA levels, it would be pertinent to perform further, possibly genetic studies, in order to clarify gender and ethnic differences in UA concentrations. PMID:20192932

  13. Water and urea transport in renal microvillus membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Dix, J.A.; Seifter, J.L.

    1985-05-01

    Light scattering was used to measure the water and urea permeability of brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from rabbit renal cortex. In stop-flow experiments, exposure of BBMV to a 200 mM inwardly directed mannitol gradient gave a monophasic time course of decreasing BBMV volume corresponding to an osmotic water permeability (Pf) of 1.1 X 10(-2) cm/s at 37 degrees C. The temperature dependence of Pf was biphasic with delta H = 2 kcal/mol for T less than 33 degrees C and delta H = 14 kcal/mol for T greater than 33 degrees C. A 200 mM inwardly directed urea gradient gave a biphasic time course of BBMV volume due to rapid water efflux followed by slower urea influx with urea permeability (Purea) of 2.4 X 10(-6) cm/s. Preincubation of BBMV with increasing (urea) reversibly inhibited both urea flux and thiourea flux according to a single-site inhibition model, suggesting a saturable urea carrier. Comparison of BBMV Pf and Purea with proximal tubule transepithelial water and urea transport rates suggests that the permeability of the tubular apical membrane (BBMV) is high enough to support a transcellular route for both osmotic water and urea transport.

  14. 1-Methyl-3-phenyl­thio­urea

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hou-xiang

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C8H10N2S, was prepared by reaction of methyl­amine solution, KOH and phenyl-iso­thio­cyanate in ethanol. It adopts a syn-Me and anti-Ph conformation relative to the C=S double bond. The dihedral angle between the N—C(=S)—N thio­urea and phenyl planes is 67.83?(6)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules centrosymmetrical dimers by pairs of N(Ph)—H?S hydrogen bonds. The dimers are linked by N(Me)—H?S hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to (100). PMID:24860341

  15. Urea formaldehyde foam: a dangerous insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, C.

    1980-12-01

    Insulating a home with urea formaldehyde foam can lead to severe health problems due to poisoning from formaldehyde gas. Respiratory problems, allergies, memory loss, and mental problems can result from exposure to foam insulation fumes. Research is now under way at the Chemical Industry Inst., Univ. of Washington, and other institutions to learn more about the health effects of formaldehyde foam and to develop possible remedies to these problems. Several states are either banning or controlling the use of this type of home insulation.

  16. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea From the...

  17. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea From the...

  18. Serum uric acid levels and different phases of illness in bipolar I patients treated with lithium.

    PubMed

    Muti, Matteo; Del Grande, Claudia; Musetti, Laura; Marazziti, Donatella; Turri, Milo; Cirronis, Marco; Pergentini, Irene; Corsi, Martina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2015-02-28

    Recent findings support the role of purinergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). The present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of serum uric acid levels in a sample of 98 BD I patients followed-up prospectively in a naturalistic study and treated with lithium monotherapy or in association with other mood stabilizers (valproate or carbamazepine), in relation to different phases of illness and to pharmacological treatment. The results showed that uric acid levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from a manic/mixed episode, than in those euthymic or during a depressive phase. Further, these levels were related to the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) scale score for the severity of manic symptoms. A positive correlation was found also with male sex and with serum lithium levels. These findings suggest that a dysregulation of the purinergic system may occur during manic/mixed episodes, and they support a possible role of serum uric acid levels as a state-dependent marker of BD manic phases. PMID:25547850

  19. Do Uric Acid Deposits in Zooxanthellae Function as Eye-Spots?

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The symbiosis between zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium) and corals is a fundamental basis of tropical marine ecosystems. However the physiological interactions of the hosts and symbionts are poorly understood. Recently, intracellular crystalline deposits in Symbiodinium were revealed to be uric acid functioning for nutrient storage. This is the first exploration of these enigmatic crystalline materials that had previously been misidentified as oxalic acid, providing new insights into the nutritional strategies of Symbiodinium in oligotrophic tropical waters. However, we believe these deposits also function as eye-spots on the basis of light and electron microscopic observations of motile cells of cultured Symbiodinium. The cells possessed crystalline deposit clusters in rows with each row 100–150 nm thick corresponding to 1/4 the wavelength of light and making them suitable for maximum wave interference and reflection of light. Crystalline clusters in cells observed with a light microscope strongly refracted and polarized light, and reflected or absorbed short wavelength light. The facts that purines, including uric acid, have been identified as the main constituents of light reflectors in many organisms, and that the photoreceptor protein, opsin, was detected in our Symbiodinium strain, support the idea that uric acid deposits in Symbiodinium motile cells may function as a component of an eye-spot. PMID:19609449

  20. Developing Potent Human Uric Acid Transporter 1 (hURAT1) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wempe, Michael F.; Jutabha, Promsuk; Quade, Bettina; Iwen, Timothy J.; Frick, Morin M.; Ross, Ian R.; Rice, Peter J.; Anzai, Naohiko; Endou, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys are a vital organ in the human body. They serve several purposes including homeostatic functions such as regulating extracellular fluid volume, maintaining acid-base and electrolyte balance, and are essential regarding the excretion of metabolic waste. Furthermore, the kidneys play an important role in uric acid secretion/re-absorption. Abnormalities associated with kidney transporters have been associated with various diseases, such as gout. The current study utilized Xenopus oocytes expressing human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) as an in vitro method to investigate novel compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-uric acid uptake via hURAT1. We have prepared and tested a series of 2-ethyl-benzofuran compounds and probed the hURAT1 in vitro inhibitor structure-activity relationship (SAR). Compared to di-methoxy analogs, mono-phenols formed on the C-Ring showed the best in vitro inhibitory potential. Compounds with sub-micromolar (i.e. IC50 < 1000 nM) inhibitors were prepared by brominating the corresponding phenols to produce compounds with potent uricosuric activity. PMID:21449597

  1. Developing potent human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wempe, Michael F; Jutabha, Promsuk; Quade, Bettina; Iwen, Timothy J; Frick, Morin M; Ross, Ian R; Rice, Peter J; Anzai, Naohiko; Endou, Hitoshi

    2011-04-28

    The kidneys are a vital organ in the human body. They serve several purposes including homeostatic functions such as regulating extracellular fluid volume and maintaining acid-base and electrolyte balance and are essential regarding the excretion of metabolic waste. Furthermore, the kidneys play an important role in uric acid secretion/reabsorption. Abnormalities associated with kidney transporters have been associated with various diseases, such as gout. The current study utilized Xenopus oocytes expressing human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) as an in vitro method to investigate novel compounds and their ability to inhibit (14)C-uric acid uptake via hURAT1. We have prepared and tested a series of 2-ethyl-benzofuran compounds and probed the hURAT1 in vitro inhibitor structure-activity relationship. As compared to dimethoxy analogues, monophenols formed on the C ring showed the best in vitro inhibitory potential. Compounds with submicromolar (i.e., IC(50) < 1000 nM) inhibitors were prepared by brominating the corresponding phenols to produce compounds with potent uricosuric activity. PMID:21449597

  2. Predicted reciprocal serum creatinine at age 10 years as a measure of renal function in children with nephropathic cystinosis treated with oral cysteamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Gahl; Jerry A. Schneider; Joseph D. Schulman; Jess G. Thoene; George F. Reed

    1990-01-01

    The predicted reciprocal creatinine at age 10 years (PRC10), a parameter of renal function based upon the linear relationship between reciprocal serum creatinine and age, incorporates age, serum creatinine, and rate of renal deterioration into a single term. PRC10 measurements were employed to assess renal function in children with nephropathic cystinosis treated with oral cysteamine, a cystine-depleting agent. In 71

  3. Racial\\/ethnic and sex differences in the relationship between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. DeBoer; Lili Dong; Matthew J. Gurka

    Among adolescents, uric acid is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS); and in adults, high uric acid levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The objective was to determine whether the relationship of uric acid with MetS varies in adolescents by race\\/ethnicity and sex. We used linear regression to evaluate associations between

  4. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25239988

  5. 1H and 13C NMR spectra and solution structures of novel derivatives of 5-substituted creatinines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Krawczyk; Agnieszka Pietras; Anna Kraska

    2007-01-01

    Five creatinine derivatives were prepared by the treatment of creatinine with activated carbon and appropriate alcohol (1–4), or ammonia solution (5). Product structures were determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in solution, including 2D HSQC and HMBC experiments. Then, the proton and carbon chemical shifts for these compounds were calculated using GIAO–DFT [B3LYP\\/6-311G(2d,p)] method and the Gaussian 03W program

  6. Serum Creatinine as Marker of Kidney Function in South Asians: A Study of Reduced GFR in Adults in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tazeen H. Jafar; Christopher H. Schmid; Andrew S. Levey

    2005-01-01

    Reduced GFR was defined as creatinine clearance (Ccr) measured in 24-h urine collection of <60 ml\\/min per 1.73 m 2 . Creatinine excretion was compared with age- and gender-matched white individuals by comparison of observed versus expected results on the basis of a formula using t test. The agreement among Cockcroft Gault (CG) Ccr and Modification of Diet in Renal

  7. Preliminary findings of serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adolescents with intellectual disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ding Lin; Lan-Ping Lin; Molly Hsieh; Pei-Ying Lin

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile – serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15–18 years adolescents with ID who participated in annual health examinations as they

  8. Cystatin C, ?2-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein as indicators of glomerular filtration rate: comparison with plasma creatinine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Donadio; Annalisa Lucchesi; Michela Ardini; Roberto Giordani

    2001-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma levels of three low-molecular weight proteins cystatin C, ?2-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein, as indicators of impairment of glomerular filtration rate in comparison with plasma creatinine. Methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in 110 patients (51 M and 59 F, aged 18–79 years); creatinine (Creat), cystatin

  9. Chronic kidney disease stage in renal transplantation—classification using cystatin C and creatinine-based equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine White; Ayub Akbari; Naser Hussain; Laurent Dinh; Guido Filler; Nathalie Lepage; Greg A. Knoll

    2007-01-01

    Background. Current clinical guidelines recommend that renal transplant recipients (RTRs) be classified into chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage using a creatinine-based estimate of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, creatinine-based equations are inac- curate in RTRs leading to frequent CKD stage misclassification. It is not known whether the classifi- cation of CKD stage would be improved using a cystatin C-based estimate

  10. 78 FR 46571 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). The period of...Administrative Review: Solid Urea from the Russian Federation'' dated concurrently...

  11. 78 FR 67335 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). For the final...1\\ See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of...

  12. The rate of production of uric acid by hepatocytes is a sensitive index of compromised cell ATP homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Petrie, John L; Patman, Gillian L; Sinha, Ishita; Alexander, Thomas D; Reeves, Helen L; Agius, Loranne

    2013-11-15

    Plasma levels of uric acid, the final product of purine degradation in humans, are elevated in metabolic syndrome and are strongly associated with insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hepatic and blood levels of purine metabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) are also altered in pathophysiological states. We optimized a rat hepatocyte model to test the hypothesis that the production of uric acid by hepatocytes is a potential marker of compromised homeostasis of hepatocellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) and/or ATP. The basal rate of uric acid production from endogenous substrates in rat hepatocytes was comparable to that in human liver and was <10% of the maximum rate with saturating concentrations of purine substrates. It was marginally (~20%) decreased by insulin and increased by glucagon but was stimulated more than twofold by substrates (fructose and glycerol) that lower both cell ATP and Pi, and by inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration (complexes I, III, and V) that lower ATP but raise cell Pi. Clearance of inosine and its degradation to uric acid were also inhibited by cell Pi depletion. Analysis of gene expression in NAFLD biopsies showed an association between mRNA expression of GCKR, the glucokinase regulatory protein that is functionally linked to uric acid production, and mRNA expression of the phosphate transporters encoded by SLC17A1/3. Uric acid production by hepatocytes is a very sensitive index of ATP depletion irrespective of whether cell Pi is lowered or raised. This suggests that raised plasma uric acid may be a marker of compromised hepatic ATP homeostasis. PMID:24045866

  13. Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Glibert; Rhodora Azanza; Michele Burford; Ken Furuya; Eva Abal; Adnan Al-Azri; Faiza Al-Yamani; Per Andersen; Donald M. Anderson; John Beardall; G. Mine Berg; Larry Brand; Deborah Bronk; Justin Brookes; JoAnn M. Burkholder; Allan Cembella; William P. Cochlan; Jackie L. Collier; Yves Collos; Robert Diaz; Martina Doblin; Thomas Drennen; Sonya Dyhrman; Yasuwo Fukuyo; Miles Furnas; James Galloway; Edna Granéli; Dao Viet Ha; Gustaaf Hallegraeff; John Harrison; Paul J. Harrison; Cynthia A. Heil; Kirsten Heimann; Robert Howarth; Cécile Jauzein; Austin A. Kana; Todd M. Kana; Hakgyoon Kim; Raphael Kudela; Catherine Legrand; Michael Mallin; Margaret Mulholland; Shauna Murray; Judith O’Neil; Grant Pitcher; Yuzao Qi; Nancy Rabalais; Robin Raine; Sybil Seitzinger; Paulo S. Salomon; Caroline Solomon; Diane K. Stoecker; Gires Usup; Joanne Wilson; Kedong Yin; Mingjiang Zhou; Mingyuan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to

  14. Polyelectrolyte-coated alginate microspheres for optical urea sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Swati; R. Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    An optical biosensor based on urease immobilized alginate microspheres and its application for determination of urea levels in the dialysate is described. Ammonium ions liberated in urease catalyzed hydrolysis of urea lead to an increase in the pH of the medium, thereby causing the color of a pH sensitive dye to change. In this work, cresol red, immobilized in polyelectrolyte

  15. Foliar applied urea improves freezing protection to avocado and peach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zilkah; Z. Wiesmann; I. Klein; I. David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of foliar applied urea on freeze hardiness was evaluated under orchard and laboratory conditions. Freezing injury and senescence of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. ‘Hass’ leaves in the orchard was inversely correlated to N content. Three foliar applications of 2% low-biuret urea caused a 26% nitrogen enrichment of leaves. Consequently, leaf freezing hardiness was increased and senescence retarded.

  16. Final report of the safety assessment of Urea.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Although Urea is officially described as a buffering agent, humectant, and skin-conditioning agent-humectant for use in cosmetic products, there is a report stating that Urea also is used in cosmetics for its desquamating and antimicrobial action. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that Urea was used in 239 formulations. Concentrations of use for Urea ranged from 0.01% to 10%. Urea is generally recognized as safe by FDA for the following uses: side-seam cements for food contact; an inhibitor or stabilizer in pesticide formulations and formulations applied to animals; internal sizing for paper and paperboard and surface sizing and coating of paper and paper board that contact water-in-oil dairy emulsions, low-moisture fats and oils, moist bakery products, dry solids with surface containing no free fats or oil, and dry solids with the surface of fat or oil; and to facilitate fermentation of wine. Urea is the end product of mammalian protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous compound of urine. Urea concentrations in muscle, liver, and fetuses of rats increased after a subcutaneous injection of Urea. Urea diffused readily through the placenta and into other maternal and fetal organs. The half-life of Urea injected into rabbits was on the order of several hours, and the reutilization rate was 32.2% to 88.8%. Urea given to rats by a bolus injection or continuous infusion resulted in distribution to the following brain regions: frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons and white matter (corpus callosum). The permeability constant after treatment with Urea of whole skin and the dermis of rabbits was 2.37 +/- 0.13 (x 10(6)) and 1.20 +/- 0.09 (x10(3)) cm/min, respectively. The absorption of Urea across normal and abraded human skin was 9.5% +/- 2.3% and 67.9% +/- 5.6%, respectively. Urea increased the skin penetration of other compounds, including hydrocortisone. No toxicity was observed for Urea at levels as high as 2000 mg/kg in acute oral studies using female rats or mice. No signs of toxicity were observed in male piglets dosed orally with up to 4 g/kg Urea for 5 days. Dogs dosed orally with 5 to 30 g/L Urea for 4 to 10 days had signs of toxicity, including weakness, anorexia, vomiting and retching, diarrhea and a decreased body temperature, which led to a deep torpor or coma. No significant microscopic changes were observed in the skin of male nude mice dermally exposed to 100% Urea for 24 h. No observable effect on fetal development was seen in rats and mice dosed orally with an aqueous solution of Urea (2000 mg/kg) on days 10 and 12 of gestation. The mean number of implants, live fetuses, percent fetal resorptions, mean fetal weight, and percent fetuses malformed were comparable to control group. A detergent containing 15% Urea was injected into pregnant ICR-JCl mice and dams and fetuses had no significant differences when compared to control animals. Urea given orally did not enhance the developmental toxicity of N-nitrosomethylurea. Female Sprague-Dawley rats injected in the uterine horn with 0.05 ml Urea on day 3 (preimplantation) or on day 7 (post implantation) exhibited no maternal mortality or morbidity; a dose-dependent reduction in embryo survival was seen with preimplantation treatment. Urea injected intra-amniotically induces mid-trimester abortions in humans. Urea was not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian assays; although in assays where Urea was used at a high concentration, genotoxicity was found, many in in vitro assays. Urea is commonly used in studies of DNA because it causes uncoiling of DNA molecules. Urea was not carcinogenic in Fisher 344 rats or C57B1/6 mice fed diets containing up to 4.5% Urea. Exposure of normal human skin to 60% Urea produced no significant irritation in one study, but 5% Urea was slightly irritating and 20% Urea was irritating in other reports. Burning sensations are the most frequently reported effect of Urea used alone or with other agents in treatment of diseased skin. Overall, there are few reports of sensiti

  17. Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan Bernard FAYE 1*, Gaukhar-protein nitrogen in milk. The variability of its concentration was never reported in camel milk. The present communication aimed to give some reference values on urea content in camel milk and to explore some

  18. The value of the urinary protein:creatinine ratio for the detection of significant proteinuria in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Amar; Rana, Ritu; Dhavilkar, Mrugaya; Amodio-Hernandez, Montserrat; Deshpande, Deepika; Caric, Vedrana

    2015-05-01

    To explore the correlation between urinary protein:creatinine ratio and 24-h excretion of protein, we studied 149 women referred to a day assessment unit for investigations for suspected preeclampsia. Paired samples were obtained for measurement of urinary protein:creatinine ratio and 24-h protein excretion. Collection of a 24-h urine sample was validated by the daily creatinine excretion. The outcome measure was proteinuria of 300 mg/day or more. Inaccurate 24-h collection was observed in 17% of women. All women (n = 56) with a protein:creatinine ratio >60 mg/mM had significant proteinuria. No woman with protein:creatinine ratio <18 mg/mM (n = 20) had significant proteinuria. We recommend that a dual cut-off should be used for excluding and "ruling in" the diagnosis of significant proteinuria. A 24-h urine collection should be used only for urinary protein:creatinine ratio values between 18 and 60 mg/mM in the detection of significant proteinuria. PMID:25737188

  19. Development of an isotope dilution GC-MS procedure for the routine determination of creatinine in complex serum samples.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; González-Antuńa, Ana; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Ańón Álvarez, M Elena; Álvarez, Francisco V; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2014-04-20

    The accurate determination of creatinine in serum is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. The determination of serum creatinine in clinical laboratories is routinely carried out by the Jaffe method or by enzymatic methods that may suffer from interferences. So, the development of reliable, fast and interference-free routine methods for complex serum samples is required. A fast method using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed using minimally (13)C labeled creatinine analogs, multiple linear regression and rapid derivatization of creatinine with acetylacetone in 2 min by using focused microwave technology. The proposed method was validated with the analyses of two Certified Reference Materials (ERM-DA252a and ERM-DA253a) and compared with the Jaffe and enzymatic methods when analyzing real serum samples containing variable levels of bilirubin The proposed method is capable of providing accurate serum creatinine concentrations in less than 45 min from sample arrival to full data treatment and can be an alternative routine procedure for creatinine determinations in complex serum samples. PMID:24508629

  20. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

  1. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Serum Cystatin C versus Creatinine in a Uruguayan Population

    PubMed Central

    Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; Robaina, Sebastián; Carusso, Florencia; da Rosa, Alicia; Ríos, Ana Carina; Olascoaga, Alicia; Gadola, Liliana; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A.; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from biomarkers has evolved and multiple equations are available to estimate renal function at bedside. Methods. In a random sample of 119 Uruguayans (54.5% women; 56.2 years (mean)), we used Bland and Altman's method and Cohen's kappa statistic to assess concordance on a continuous or categorical (eGFR < 60 versus ?60?mL/min/1.73?m2) scale between eGFRcys (reference) and eGFR derived from serum creatinine according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFRmdrd) or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (eGFRepi) or from both serum cystatin C and creatinine (eGFRmix). Results. In all participants, eGFRmdrd, eGFRepi, and eGFRmix were, respectively, 9.7, 11.5, and 5.6?mL/min/1.73?m2 higher (P < 0.0001) than eGFRcys. The prevalence of eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73?m2 was the highest for eGFRcys (21.8%), intermediate for eGFRmix (11.8%), and the lowest for eGFRmdrd (5.9%) and eGFRepi (3.4%). Using eGFRcys as reference, we found only fair agreement with the equations based on creatinine (Cohen's kappa statistic 0.15 to 0.23). Conclusion. Using different equations we reached clinically significant differences in the estimation of renal function. eGFRcys provides lower estimates, resulting in higher prevalence of eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73?m2. PMID:25215234

  2. Structure and permeation mechanism of a mammalian urea transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Elena J.; Cao, Yu; Enkavi, Giray; Quick, Matthias; Pan, Yaping; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Zhou, Ming (UIUC); (Columbia)

    2012-09-17

    As an adaptation to infrequent access to water, terrestrial mammals produce urine that is hyperosmotic to plasma. To prevent osmotic diuresis by the large quantity of urea generated by protein catabolism, the kidney epithelia contain facilitative urea transporters (UTs) that allow rapid equilibration between the urinary space and the hyperosmotic interstitium. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of a mammalian UT, UT-B, at a resolution of 2.36 {angstrom}. UT-B is a homotrimer and each protomer contains a urea conduction pore with a narrow selectivity filter. Structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the selectivity filter has two urea binding sites separated by an approximately 5.0 kcal/mol energy barrier. Functional studies showed that the rate of urea conduction in UT-B is increased by hypoosmotic stress, and that the site of osmoregulation coincides with the location of the energy barrier.

  3. Urea-prostaglandin versus hypertonic saline for instillation abortion.

    PubMed

    Binkin, N J; Schulz, K F; Grimes, D A; Cates, W

    1983-08-15

    Authorities have suggested use of a combination of hyperosmolar urea and low-dose prostaglandin F2 alpha as a second-trimester intra-amniotic abortifacient to avoid the disadvantages of hypertonic saline solution. To examine the safety and efficacy of urea-prostaglandin compared with the instillation of saline solution, we analyzed data from a prospective multicenter study conducted in the United States between 1975 and 1978. Both agents were highly effective in producing an abortion. However, urea-prostaglandin had a significantly lower rate of serious complications when compared with saline solution (1.03 versus 2.18 per 100 abortions; p less than 0.001). Urea-prostaglandin also had a significantly shorter induction-to-abortion time (14.2 versus 25.6 hours; p less than 0.001). Urea-prostaglandin, therefore, appears to be superior to hypertonic saline solution as an abortifacient. PMID:6576633

  4. Dispersion Interactions between Urea and Nucleobases Contribute to the Destabilization of RNA by Urea in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Kasavajhala, Koushik; Bikkina, Swetha; Patil, Indrajit; MacKerell, Alexander D; Priyakumar, U Deva

    2015-03-01

    Urea has long been used to investigate protein folding and, more recently, RNA folding. Studies have proposed that urea denatures RNA by participating in stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases. In this study, the ability of urea to form unconventional stacking interactions with RNA bases is investigated using ab initio calculations (RI-MP2 and CCSD(T) methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set). A total of 29 stable nucleobase-urea stacked complexes are identified in which the intermolecular interaction energies (up to -14 kcal/mol) are dominated by dispersion effects. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations further confirm strong interactions between urea and nucleobases. Calculations on model systems with multiple urea and water molecules interacting with a guanine base lead to a hypothesis that urea molecules along with water are able to form cage-like structures capable of trapping nucleic acid bases in extrahelical states by forming both hydrogen-bonded and dispersion interactions, thereby contributing to the unfolding of RNA in the presence of urea in aqueous solution. PMID:25668757

  5. UF foam insulation faces restrictions. [Urea formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, M.

    1980-04-28

    Health concerns may tighten the regulations on urea formaldehyde (UF) foam insulation after a National Academy of Sciences report recommended the lowest practical level of use inside buildings. A two-year cancer study indicates that UF poses high risks in addition to causing eye, skin, and nasal irritations. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is preparing a notice to warn building owners of the risks and has set a high priority for regulating formaldehyde use. A state ban in Massachusetts has prompted builders to use other materials, while manufacturers of the insulation have sued to have the ban lifted. Commercial and public buildings without good ventilating systems report occupant discomfort associated with the foam insulation. Industry standards for installation and application have been improved. (DCK)

  6. Effects of a fermented barley extract on subjects with slightly high serum uric acid or mild hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Hokazono, Hideki; Omori, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Akaoka, Ieo; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    The uric acid-lowering effect and safety of a fermented barley extract P (FBEP) prepared from barley-shochu distillery by-products were investigated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blinded study. A total of 111 subjects with serum uric acid levels of 6.0-7.9 mg/dl were provided with either a drink containing 2 g/d of FBEP (test group) or a placebo drink. After 12 weeks, the serum uric acid levels changed by -0.21+/-0.56 mg/dl in the test group, showing a significant decrease in comparison to those of the placebo group (+0.02+/-0.54 mg/dl). Additionally, the uric acid clearance in the test group showed a tendency to increase after 12 weeks more than in the placebo group (p=0.054). No abnormalities in the physical and clinical tests were observed, and no adverse diagnostic findings were attributed to the intake of the test meal. These results demonstrated the benefits and safety of the FBEP treatment to subjects with slightly high serum uric acid or mild hyperuricemia. PMID:20378966

  7. Quantitative detection of uric acid by electrochemical-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a multilayered Au/Ag substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Blackburn, Jonathan; Brosseau, Christa L

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid is a potential important biomarker in urine and serum samples for early diagnosis of preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive disorder that occurs during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal death, especially in developing nation settings. Quantitative detection of uric acid for rapid and routine diagnosis of early preeclampsia using electrochemical-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (EC-SERS) is presented herein. A uniform EC-SERS active Au/Ag substrate was developed by depositing nearly monodisperse gold and silver nanoparticles on the carbon working electrode surface of screen printed electrodes. The multilayered Au/Ag substrates were characterized by electron microscopy and used for quantitative detection of uric acid in 0.1 M NaF and synthetic urine at clinically relevant concentrations. These results showed a linear relationship between the EC-SERS signal intensity and the uric acid concentration. Relative errors calculated for selected concentrations were all within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) criterion for uric acid analysis (±17%). It is believed that routine and early diagnosis of disease could be possible through such quantitative detection of biomarkers in patient samples using this EC-SERS method. PMID:25483146

  8. Soluble ligand CD40 and uric acid as markers of atheromatosis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kosacka, M; Brzecka, A; Piesiak, P; Korzeniewska, A; Jankowska, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of atheromatosis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as based on the concentration of the pro-atherogenic soluble CD40L ligand (sCD40L) in relation to the level of uric acid. The serum levels of sCD40L and uric acid were measured in 79 OSA patients (mean apnea/hypopnea index - AHI 34.4?± 20.9) and in 40 healthy controls. We found that sCD40L was higher in the OSA patients with hyperuricemia than that in the patients with uric acid in the normal range (sCD40L: 9.0 ng/ml vs. 8.0 ng/ml, respectively, p?Uric acid correlated negatively with the mean and minimal SaO?and positively with the oxygen desaturation index (p?uric acid concentration have increased risk of atheromatosis, as indicated by a higher level of soluble pro-atherogenic ligand CD40, and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular adverse events. PMID:25315617

  9. Serum uric acid levels are associated with polymorphisms in the SLC2A9, SF1, and GCKR genes in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xue; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Rong; Tang, Shan-shan; Chen, Miao; Peng, Dan-feng; Yan, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-yun; Bao, Yu-qian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Wei-ping

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Genome-wide association studies have identified several novel loci associated with serum uric acid concentrations in individuals of European descent. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the associations between these loci and serum uric acid concentrations in a Chinese population. Methods: Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped in or near 11 loci (PDZK1, GCKR, LRP2, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, SLC22A11, SLC22A12 and SF1) were genotyped in 2329 Chinese subjects in Shanghai. Serum biochemical parameters including uric acid concentrations were determined. All the variants were analyzed for gender differences since uric acid metabolism differed between genders. Results In males after adjustments for age and BMI, GCKR rs780094, SLC2A9 rs11722228 and SF1 rs606458 were associated with the uric acid concentrations, which were statistically significant (P=0.016, 0.001 and 0.03, respectively), whereas SLC2A9 rs3775948 was marginally associated with the uric acid concentrations (P=0.071). In females, SLC22A12 rs506338 was also marginally associated with the uric acid concentrations (P=0.057). The meta-analysis for combined data from both males and females revealed that rs3775948 and rs606458 were associated with the uric acid concentrations (P=0.036 and 0.043, respectively). Furthermore, the gender significantly affected the association of rs11722228 with serum uric acid levels (P=0.012). Conclusion The SLC2A9 rs11722228, SF1 rs606458 and GCKR rs780094 variants modulate uric acid concentrations in Chinese males, while SF1 rs606458 and SLC2A9 rs3775948 are associated with the uric acid concentrations in both Chinese males and females. PMID:25283508

  10. Urea excretion in the hibernating Columbian ground squirrel (Spermophilus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Passmore, J C; Pfeiffer, E W; Templeton, J R

    1975-04-01

    Hibernation was induced in Columbian ground squirrels by placing them in refrigerated cages equipped with urine-collection pans. On arousal, urine and blood were collected from each animal, which was then allowed to reenter hibernation. After several days the animal was sacrificed and bladder urine and another blood sample were taken. In addition, four active non-hibernating ground squirrels were placed in a cage at room temperature with neither food or water. Urine was collected at 9 and 26 hours and blood was collected at 0 and 26 hours. Although only seven of ten hibernating squirrels had a higher blood-urea level when sacrificed than during the previous arousal, the other three had very high levels in the arousal period and probably further excreted urea before entering hibernation. When total body urea was calculated on a body weight basis, all except one animal showed a greater level of urea during hibernation than in the previous arousal. During their period of dehydration, the non-hibernating summer squirrels showed a marked decrease in blood urea. The osmotic concentration of the urine from these squirrels was due less to urea than that excreted during arousal by hibernating squirrels. Thus, it appears that urea accumulates in the blood during hibernation and is excreted in the urine during arousal. PMID:1127412

  11. Urea encapsulation in modified starch matrix for nutrients retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariff, Mohd. Hazwan Bin Mohd.; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    It has been estimated that 20-70% of the used urea goes to the environment via leaching, nitrification and volatilization which not only harms the environment but also reduces the urea efficiency. By coating the urea granules, the farmers can achieve high urea performance through controlling the excess release of nitrogen. Up until now, different materials have been tested for nutrients retention. However, most of them are either expensive or unfriendly to the environment. Being cheap and biodegradable materials, the starches may also be used to coat the urea fertilizer for controlling the nutrients release. However, the pure starches do not meet the standards set by many industrial processes due to their slow tacking and too low viscosities and should be modified for getting smooth, compact and mechanically stronger coatings. In these studies, the tapioca starch was modified by reacting it with urea and different masses of borax. The prepared solutions were used to coat the urea granules of 3.45 mm average diameter. Different volumes (1, 1.5 and 2 mL) of each solution were used to coat 30 g of urea fluidized above the minimum level of fluidization. It was noticed that the coating thickness, percent coating, dissolution rate and percent release follow an increasing trend with an increase of solution volume; however, some random results were obtained while investigating the solution volume effects on the percent release. It was seen that the nutrients percent release over time increases with an increase in solution volume from 1 to 1.5 mL and thereafter reaches to a steady state. It confirms that the 1.5 mL of solution for 30 g urea samples will give the optimized coating results.

  12. Urothelial injury to the rabbit bladder from alkaline irrigants useful in the treatment of uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Chernesky, C E; Rodman, J S; Reckler, J; Rotterdam, H; Marion, D; Boolbol, J; Vaughan, E D

    1987-10-01

    Irrigation of the urinary tract with alkaline solutions may be used appropriately in some clinical situations to dissolve uric acid stones. Since in vitro studies have suggested that tham-E (pH 10.6) is somewhat more effective than tham (pH 8.6) in promoting dissolution of uric acid, these studies were undertaken to assess the relative toxicities of these two irrigating solutions to the urothelium. Rabbit bladders were irrigated antegrade via a ureterotomy for twenty hours. Tham E produced considerably more mucosal injury than did tham (p = 0.0001). The minimal advantage in rapidity of stone dissolution offered by tham E over tham is more than offset by the considerably increased potential for toxic side effects. The results suggest tham and not tham E should be used for irrigation to dissolve uric acid stones. PMID:2821291

  13. Some factors in liquid supplements affecting urea toxicity

    E-print Network

    McClain, William Ray

    1979-01-01

    -U solution died. Two out of four (50/) cattle receiving their origi- nal dose of a M-U solution (24 and 25 g level) exhibited toxicity com- pared to four out of five (80X) that received the same dose of urea in W-U solutions. Mean rumen pH, rumen and blood... phosphoric acid was added to a sub-toxic dose of urea, rumen pH and ammonia concentrations were lowered. Blood ammonia concentra- tions were not affected by phosphoric acid. Urea was found in consid- erable quantities in the rumen fluid as much as three...

  14. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyon K. Choi; Simin Liu; Gary Curhan

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Various commonly consumed foods have long been suspected of affecting the serum uric acid level, but few data are available to support or refute this impression. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between dietary factors and serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of men and women in the US. Methods. Using data from 14,809 participants

  15. Association of Lipid Profile and Uric Acid with Pre-eclampsia of Third Trimester in Nullipara Women

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bharat Kumar; Vishnu, Abhishek; Mamtatyagi; Shiprasolanki; Kiran, Jas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) affects approximately 3% of all pregnancies worldwide, with onset of symptoms in the late second or third trimester, commonly after 32nd week. It is common in nulliparous women. To avoid complications it is necessary to diagnose it in advance, but the available tools are unable to clinch the diagnosis of preeclampsia effectively in majority. Aim: To find out an association of lipid profile and uric acid with PE in nullipara pregnant women in third trimester. Materials and Methods: One hundred nulliparous pregnant women in their third trimester of 18-35 years were divided into; 50 pre-eclamptics of study group and 50 non pre-eclamptic in control group; further subdivided according to age, 18-26 and 27-35 yrs. Diagnosis was confirmed as per the standard criteria. Lipid profile and uric acid levels were estimated by Vitros 250 dry chemistry analyser. Data was analysed statistically by student t-test at p<0.01 level of significance. Results: TC, LDL-c and VLDL-c levels in the study group as a whole and in the patients between 18-26 years were significant; HDL-c levels in the patients between 27-35 years were significant while TG and uric acid levels in all the three study groups were significant. Conclusion: Total cholesterol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, triglycerides (TGs) and uric acid levels were raised in preeclampsia and statistically significant; while HDL-c levels were raised in these patients but statistically non-significant, it can be concluded that there exists an association in lipid profile and uric acid with PE therefore dyslipidemia and raised uric acid levels are the features of PE in nullipara pregnant women in their third trimester. PMID:25177559

  16. Microdialytical monitoring of uric and ascorbic acids in the brains of patients after severe brain injury and during neurovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Langemann, H; Feuerstein, T; Mendelowitsch, A; Gratzl, O

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Microdialysis has been extensively used to monitor brain metabolism in the extracellular fluid of patients with severe head injury, to detect the onset of secondary ischaemic damage. The aim was to investigate whether concentrations of uric and ascorbic acids were altered in such patients. Both these compounds play a part in free radical metabolism, which is accelerated after ischaemia and brain injury.?METHODS—Patients with aneurysm or bypass operations were monitored intraoperatively to assess concentrations in minimally disturbed tissue. Afterwards, 13 patients with severe head trauma were monitored for up to 13 days in the intensive care unit.?RESULTS—Intraoperatively, concentrations of both ascorbic and uric acids were significantly higher in the bypass group than in patients with aneurysm, which might be attributed to chronic ischaemic conditions caused by the unilateral occlusion of the carotid artery. In the patients with trauma, mean values of uric acid, varying between 6 µM and 180 µM, did not correlate with type of injury (contusion or diffuse) or duration of monitoring time. Patients who died had significantly higher concentrations of uric acid than those with a good outcome. Ascorbic acid could be detected only intermittently, probably due to technical problems. Concentrations of these two compounds could not be correlated with clinical findings during the course of monitoring.?CONCLUSIONS—Although uric and ascorbic acids are influenced by ischaemic conditions—for example, in bypass patients, neither compound is suitable for monitoring for free radical activity after severe head injury. Patients with a bad outcome tended to have higher concentrations of uric acid.?? PMID:11459887

  17. The Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome according to Menopausal Status in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Kil; Hong, Gil Pyo; Han, Si Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Seung Chul; Kim, Chang Woon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome according to menopausal status in Korean women. Methods A total of 2,241 women who visited to the health promotion center at Pusan National University Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were included in this cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaires and interviews with healthcare providers were used to assess disease history, medication history, menstrual history and body size measuring. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory results were compared as presence of metabolic syndrome and menopausal status by student-t test. Logistic regression analysis was performed between presence of metabolic syndrome and presumable predictive factors, such as age, menopause and serum uric acid. Results The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome were 7.45% (63/846) in pre-menopausal group and 23.87% (333/1395) in menopausal group. Serum uric acid level was higher in menopausal women than premenopausal women (4.6 ± 1.1 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9. P = 0.000). And, its concentration was also higher in metabolic syndrome than normal women regarding of menopausal statue (premenopause 4.7 ± 1.1 vs. 4.2 ± 0.8, P = 0.001, menopause 4.9 ± 1.3 vs. 4.5 ± 1.0, P = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed serum uric acid and age have relationship with metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.453, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.074-1.111, P = 0.000; OR: 1.092, 95% CI: 1.305-1.619, P = 0.000). Conclusion We could find out some potential of uric acid as predictive factor for metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and menopausal group. Further investigation is required to clarify the relationship between serum uric acid, menopause and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25580424

  18. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is called a "lights on" FRET response. The vitamin D aptamer beacon gives a "lights off" or inversely proportional fluorescence response to the amount of vitamin D present in diluted serum. These FRET-aptamer assays are rapid (<30 minutes), sensitive (low ng/mL detection limits), and quite easy to carry out (add sample, mix, and detect in the handheld reader). Benefits include the speed of the assays as well as the small amount of space taken up by the handheld reader and cuvette assays. The aptamer DNA sequences represent novel additional features of the existing (patent-pending) FRET-aptamer assay platform.

  19. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  20. Carbon nanoparticles with tosyl functional group for distinguishing voltammetric peaks of ascorbic acid and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mandana; Imanzadeh, Hamideh; Banaei, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    In this approach, electro-oxidation of a mixture of uric acid and ascorbic acid at the surface of tosyl surface carbon nanoparticles/glassy carbon electrode has been performed. The electro-oxidation of these compounds at bare electrode is sluggish and there is no suitable peak separation between them. However, using functionalized carbon nanoparticles, two well-defined anodic peaks with a considerable enhancement in the peak current and a remarkable peak potential separation near 452 mV is obtained. The porous interfacial layer of the carbon nanoparticles modified electrode with a high specific surface area increases the conductive area; molecules can penetrate through the conductive porous channels onto the electrode more easily so leading to higher sensitivity and selectivity. The dynamic linear ranges of 1.0 × 10(-5) to 3.0 × 10(-3)M and 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4)M with detection limits 1.0 × 10(-5)M and 2.0 × 10(-8)M (for S/N=3) were obtained for ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively. Analytical utility of the modified electrode has been examined successfully using human urine samples and vitamin C commercial tablets. PMID:25492188

  1. Association of rheumatoid factor and uric acid with psoriatic arthritis: a review.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I

    2014-07-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation of the joints of psoriatic patients. Psoriatic arthritis also affects tissues surrounding the joints including tendon and ligaments. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), recognized for over 100 years, is the second most frequent diagnostic category after Rhematoid Arthritis (RA) and occurring up to 10% of patients with skin psoriasis. Although PsA is a sero-negative arthritis and the absence of rheumatoid factor is a characteristic laboratory finding, it may be present in 3% of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Hyperuricaemia has been generally accepted as a frequent accompaniment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. It has been postulated that the hyperuricaemia results from increased purine synthesis from the rapid epidermal cell turnover. With its uniquely diverse pathophysiologic and clinical features and the ability to progress into one of the most destructive arthritis known as, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), remains a challenging disease deserving of the attention in recent years. High level of serum uric acid is a risk factor for many diseases like gout, hypertension, coronary heart diseases etc. Patients with PsA remain vulnerable for many diseases like above mentioned one. So, hyperurecemia may play a vicious link with PsA and gout, hypertension and so many diseases. This article may help all dermatologists and researchers for further evaluation of serum uric acid and RA factor in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. PMID:25178623

  2. A novel chemiluminescence paper microfluidic biosensor based on enzymatic reaction for uric acid determination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shoumei; Ge, Lei; Ge, Shenguang

    2011-03-15

    In this work, chemiluminescence (CL) method was combined with microfluidic paper-based analytical device (?PAD) to establish a novel CL ?PAD biosensor for the first time. This novel CL ?PAD biosensor was based on enzyme reaction which produced H(2)O(2) while decomposing the substrate and the CL reaction between rhodanine derivative and generated H(2)O(2) in acid medium. Microchannels in ?PAD were fabricated by cutting method. And the possible CL assay principle of this CL ?PAD biosensor was explained. Rhodanine derivative system was used to reach the purpose of high sensitivity and well-defined signal for this CL ?PAD biosensor. And the optimum reaction conditions were investigated. The quantitative determination of uric acid could be achieved by this CL ?PAD biosensor with accurate and satisfactory result. And this biosensor could provide good reproducible results upon storage at 4°C for at least 10 weeks. The successful integration of ?PAD and CL reaction made the final biosensor inexpensive, easy-to-use, low-volume, and portable for uric acid determination, which also greatly reduces the cost and increases the efficiency required for an analysis. We believe this simple, practical CL ?PAD biosensor will be of interest for use in areas such as disease diagnosis. PMID:21257303

  3. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J; Buhler, Donald R

    2003-10-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population. PMID:14733290

  4. Using electronic health record systems to optimize admission decisions: The Creatinine case study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Assuli, Ofir; Shabtai, Itamar; Leshno, Moshe

    2015-03-01

    Many medical organizations have implemented electronic health record (EHR) and health information exchange (HIE) networks to improve medical decision-making. This study evaluated the contribution of EHR and HIE networks to physicians by investigating whether health information technology can lead to more efficient admission decisions by reducing redundant admissions in the stressful environment of emergency. Log-files were retrieved from an integrative and interoperable EHR that serves seven main Israeli hospitals. The analysis was restricted to a group of patients seen in the emergency departments who were administered a Creatinine test. The assessment of the contribution of EHR to admission decisions used various statistical analyses and track log-file analysis. We showed that using the EHR contributes to more efficient admission decisions and reduces the number of avoidable admissions. In particular, there was a reduction in readmissions when patient history was viewed. Using EHR can help respond to the international problem of avoidable hospital readmissions. PMID:24692078

  5. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA. PMID:25153214

  6. Urea, ammonium sulfate and dicyandiamide transformations in Costa Rican soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vilsmeier; E. Bornemisza; A. Amberger

    1987-01-01

    The transformations of urea, ammonium sulfate and dicyandiamide (DCD) were studied in an Inceptisol and three Andisols from Costa Rica, considering the influence of temperature and DCD as a nitrification inhibitor.

  7. Phloretin sensitive active urea absorption in frog skin.

    PubMed

    Svelto, M; Casavola, V; Valenti, G; Lippe, C

    1982-09-01

    This report presents evidence for urea active absorption by isolated skin of Rana esculenta. One of the supporting factors of such evidence is that at a low concentration the urea influx is five times greater than the outflux, in the absence of a chemical gradient. The transport shows a saturation kinetics with an apparent Km = 1.33 mM and is inhibited by un uncoupling agent (FCCP). 5 x 10(-4) M Phloretin, added to the external side, markedly inhibits inward urea transport, whereas it is ineffective when added to the serosal fluid. This provides evidence for a phloretin-sensitive mechanism located at the external side of the epithelium. Phloretin stimulates the sodium active transport; the possible coupling of urea and sodium movement is analysed. PMID:6983053

  8. Urea biosensors based on PVC membrane containing palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Karaku?, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule; Esma, Kiliç

    2005-01-01

    A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease with four different procedures on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid by using nonactine as an ammonium-ionophore. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the biosensor prepared by using carboxylated PVC. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, temperature, urease concentration, stirring rate and enzyme immobilization procedures on the response to urea of the enzyme electrode were investigated. The linear working range and sensitivity of the biosensor were also determined. The urea biosensor prepared by using the PVC membranes containing palmitic acid showed more effective performance than those of the carboxylated PVC based biosensors. Additionally, urea assay in serum was successfully carried out by using the standard addition method. PMID:16152697

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Urea, , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. C...

  10. Hydrolyzable polyureas bearing hindered urea bonds.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hanze; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-12-10

    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications. PMID:25406025

  11. Creatinine and creatininium cation in DMSO-d6 solution. Structure and restricted internal rotation of NH2 group.

    PubMed

    Kotsyubynskyy, Dmytro; Molchanov, Sergey; Gryff-Keller, Adam

    2004-12-01

    Investigation of 15N NMR spectra of isotopically enriched creatinine has unequivocally shown that in DMSO-d6 solution it exists as amino tautomer (2-amino-1-methylimidazoline-4-one), which in the presence of acid is protonated at N-3. Free energies of activation of the amino group rotation in creatinine and its cation have been determined to be 56 kJ/mol and 60 kJ/mol, respectively, at 298 K, by performing the simultaneous analysis of the lineshapes of -NH2 proton signals in the whole set of 1H NMR spectra recorded at various temperatures and magnetic fields. These results have been theoretically reproduced by the calculations of molecular structures and energies of creatinine and creatininium cation in their ground states and transition states of the amino group rotation, using DFT (B3LYP) method, involving the influence of the solvent. PMID:15389919

  12. Diagnostic Value of Urinary Sodium, Chloride, Urea, and Flow

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Up to 30% of hospitalized critically ill patients may have a rise in serum creatinine concentration. In addition to history and physical examination, there is diagnostic value in assessing urinary electrolytes, solute excretion, and urine flow in these patients. The correct interpretation of these urinary parameters can avoid unnecessary volume overload and mechanical ventilation, risk factors for increased mortality in patients with rising serum creatinine. The present article also discusses the role of arterial underfilling in causing prerenal azotemia in the presence of an increase in total body sodium and extracellular fluid expansion. As with extracellular fluid volume depletion, arterial underfilling secondary to impaired cardiac function or primary arterial vasodilation can delay or prevent recovery from ischemic or toxic acute tubular necrosis. The present brief review discusses the various aspects of the correct interpretation of urinary electrolytes, solute excretion, and urine flow in the setting of a rising serum creatinine concentration. PMID:21852582

  13. Detoxication of Ammonia in Sheep Fed Soy Protein or Urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM CHALUPA; JIMMY CLARK; PAMELA OPLIGER

    Urea-fed sheep were able to detoxify additional ammonia absorbed from the digestive tract by a mechanism involving increased concentrations of liver ornithine. Feeding urea as the sole nitrogen source caused decreases in activities of carbamyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase and argĂĽĂ­ase while no differences were noted in activities of arginine synthetase and argininosuccinase. Decreases in these enzyme systems were concluded

  14. Managing Urea-Containing Fertilizers1 Larry G. Bundy2

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    soil pH levels are shown in Table 1. At pH values below 7, less than 0.6 % of the N is present is an increase in soil pH in the zone where urea hydrolysis has occurred. This pH increase is important for gaseous loss of ammonia from the soil. Figure 3 illustrates the effect of urea hydrolysis on soil pH over

  15. Agronomic performance of urea briquette applicator in transplanted rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Savant; P. S. Ongkingco; F. D. Garcia; S. S. Dhane; R. R. Khadse; S. A. Chavan; K. S. Rao

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in the Philippines and India during 1989 and 1990 seasons to study comparative yield responses of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) to pillow-shaped urea briquettes (UB) deep placed by an applicator (prototype developed by IFDC) and by hand immediately after transplanting. The applicator-placed UB consistently increased grain yields over the split-applied prilled urea, and the additional

  16. Serum cystatin C predicts vancomycin trough levels better than serum creatinine in hospitalized patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Serum cystatin C can improve glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation over creatinine alone, but whether this translates into clinically relevant improvements in drug dosing is unclear. Methods This prospective cohort study enrolled adults receiving scheduled intravenous vancomycin while hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in 2012. Vancomycin dosing was based on weight, serum creatinine with the Cockcroft-Gault equation, and clinical judgment. Cystatin C was later assayed from the stored serum used for the creatinine-based dosing. Vancomycin trough prediction models were developed by using factors available at therapy initiation. Residuals from each model were used to predict the proportion of patients who would have achieved the target trough with the model compared with that observed with usual care. Results Of 173 patients enrolled, only 35 (20%) had a trough vancomycin level within their target range (10 to 15 mg/L or 15 to 20 mg/L). Cystatin C-inclusive models better predicted vancomycin troughs than models based upon serum creatinine alone, although both were an improvement over usual care. The optimal model used estimated GFR by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaborative (CKD-EPI) creatinine-cystatin C equation (R2?=?0.580). This model is expected to yield 54% (95% confidence interval 45% to 61%) target trough attainment (P <0.001 compared with the 20% with usual care). Conclusions Vancomycin dosing based on standard care with Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance yielded poor trough achievement. The developed dosing model with estimated GFR from CKD-EPIcreatinine-cystatin C could yield a 2.5-fold increase in target trough achievement compared with current clinical practice. Although this study is promising, prospective validation of this or similar cystatin C-inclusive dosing models is warranted. PMID:24887089

  17. Analysis of the Sub-Millimeter Rotational Spectrum of Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jessica R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Urea, ((NH_{2})_{2}CO), has broad presence in biological species. As a byproduct of human metabolism, this molecule is commonly tested for in blood to diagnose different pathologies. Furthermore, urea is seen in interstellar medium and its detection could yield valuable insight into the mechanisms governing star formation. Despite the prevalence of urea, an absence exists in recorded frequencies of this molecule. The new generation of the sub-millimeter telescopes, such as ALMA, HERSCHEL, and SOFIA, allows detection of interstellar molecular spectra at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions. The knowledge of the precise frequencies of spectra transitions present in interstellar molecular clouds would alleviate the problem of spectral congestion and aid in molecular identification. This paper reports the most recent investigation of the submillimeter/terahertz gas phase spectrum of urea. Up until now, only the microwave laboratory spectrum of urea's vibrational ground state has been available. This paper reports the high-resolution spectra of urea in the sub-millimeter range, and extends the spectroscopic assignment of the rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state. Additionally, the assignment of the first vibrational state and tentative assignments of two additional vibrational states have been made.

  18. Prognosis and serum creatinine levels in acute renal failure at the time of nephrology consultation: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Valdivieso, Jose Ramon; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Monedero, Pablo; de Irala, Jokin; Lavilla, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between acute serum creatinine changes in acute renal failure (ARF), before specialized treatment begins, and in-hospital mortality, recovery of renal function, and overall mortality at 6 months, on an equal degree of ARF severity, using the RIFLE criteria, and comorbid illnesses. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1008 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed as having ARF, and had been admitted in an university-affiliated hospital over 10 years. Demographic, clinical information and outcomes were measured. After that, 646 patients who had presented enough increment in serum creatinine to qualify for the RIFLE criteria were included for subsequent analysis. The population was divided into two groups using the median serum creatinine change (101%) as the cut-off value. Multivariate non-conditional logistic and linear regression models were used. Results A ? 101% increment of creatinine respect to its baseline before nephrology consultation was associated with significant increase of in-hospital mortality (35.6% vs. 22.6%, p < 0.001), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.81 (95% CI: 1.08–3.03). Patients who required continuous renal replacement therapy in the ? 101% increment group presented a higher increase of in-hospital mortality (62.7% vs 46.4%, p = 0.048), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.66 (95% CI: 1.00–7.21). Patients in the ? 101% increment group had a higher mean serum creatinine level with respect to their baseline level (114.72% vs. 37.96%) at hospital discharge. This was an adjusted 48.92% (95% CI: 13.05–84.79) more serum creatinine than in the < 101% increment group. Conclusion In this cohort, patients who had presented an increment in serum level of creatinine of ? 101% with respect to basal values, at the time of nephrology consultation, had increased mortality rates and were discharged from hospital with a more deteriorated renal function than those with similar Liano scoring and the same RIFLE classes, but with a < 101% increment. This finding may provide more information about the factors involved in the prognosis of ARF. Furthermore, the calculation of relative serum creatinine increase could be used as a practical tool to identify those patients at risk, and that would benefit from an intensive therapy. PMID:17894896

  19. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Kent, Jack W; Debnath, Subrata; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Göring, Harald H H; Carless, Melanie A; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D; Maccluer, Jean W; Moses, Eric K; Abboud, Hanna E; Mahaney, Michael C; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2013-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257, and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p < 1.3 × 10(-7)). The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2, 36.2, and 38.2%, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3-7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight, and waist circumference (p < 1.4 × 10(-3)) and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status (TAS). The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p < 1.9 × 10(-6)) for joint linkage/association (JLA) was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6) on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors. PMID:24379826

  20. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Kent, Jack W.; Debnath, Subrata; Cole, Shelley A.; Haack, Karin; Göring, Harald H. H.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Moses, Eric K.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257, and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p < 1.3 × 10?7). The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2, 36.2, and 38.2%, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3–7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight, and waist circumference (p < 1.4 × 10?3) and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status (TAS). The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p < 1.9 × 10?6) for joint linkage/association (JLA) was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6) on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors. PMID:24379826

  1. A vasodilating ?1 blocker celiprolol inhibits muscular release of uric acid precursor in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, E; Utami, S B; Ohtahara, A; Endo, S; Mishima, M; Hasegawa, A; Yamada, K; Kato, M; Yamamoto, K; Ogino, K; Ninomiya, H; Miyazaki, S; Hamada, T; Taniguchi, S-i; Cheng, J; Hisatome, I

    2013-01-01

    Although nonvasodilating ?1 blockers increase the levels of uric acid in serum, it is not known whether vasodilating ?1 blockers have a similar effect. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of celiprolol on the release of hypoxanthine, a uric acid precursor, from muscles after an exercise. We used the semi-ischemic forearm test to examine the release of lactate (?LAC), ammonia (?Amm), and hypoxanthine (?HX) before and 4, 10, and 60 min after an exercise in 18 hypertensive patients as well as 4 normotensive subjects. Before celiprolol treatment, all the levels of ?HX and ?Amm, and ?LAC were increased by semi-ischemic exercise in hypertensive patients, and the increases were remarkably larger than those in normotensive subjects. Celiprolol decreased both systolic and diastolic pressure. It also decreased the levels of ?HX and ?Amm without changes in ?LAC after an exercise. These findings also were confirmed by summation of each metabolite (??Metabolites). Celiprolol caused a marginal decrease of serum uric acid, but the difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, nonvasodilating ?1 blockers did not suppress the levels of ?HX and ?Amm, whereas they significantly increased ?LAC after an exercise. Celiprolol improved energy metabolism in skeletal muscles. It suppressed HX production and consequently did not adversely affect serum uric acid levels. PMID:22893261

  2. Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

  3. Electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine based on poly (bromocresol purple) modified glassy carbon electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wang; Li-li Tong

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on electroactive-polymerized film of bromocresol purple (BCP) modified on glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA), xanthine (XA) and hypoxanthine (HX) was presented. The preparation and basic electrochemical performance of poly (BCP) film modified glassy carbon electrode were investigated firstly in details. The electrochemical behaviors of UA, XA and HX at the

  4. Creatine metabolism in urea cycle defects.

    PubMed

    Boenzi, Sara; Pastore, Anna; Martinelli, Diego; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Boiani, Arianna; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2012-07-01

    Creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine play an essential role in energy storage and transmission. Maintenance of creatine pool is provided by the diet and by de novo synthesis, which utilizes arginine, glycine and s-adenosylmethionine as substrates. Three primary Cr deficiencies exists: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency and the defect of Cr transporter SLC6A8. Secondary Cr deficiency is characteristic of ornithine-aminotransferase deficiency, whereas non-uniform Cr abnormalities have anecdotally been reported in patients with urea cycle defects (UCDs), a disease category related to arginine metabolism in which Cr must be acquired by de novo synthesis because of low dietary intake. To evaluate the relationships between ureagenesis and Cr synthesis, we systematically measured plasma Cr in a large series of UCD patients (i.e., OTC, ASS, ASL deficiencies, HHH syndrome and lysinuric protein intolerance). Plasma Cr concentrations in UCDs followed two different trends: patients with OTC and ASS deficiencies and HHH syndrome presented a significant Cr decrease, whereas in ASL deficiency and lysinuric protein intolerance Cr levels were significantly increased (23.5 vs. 82.6 ?mol/L; p < 0.0001). This trend distribution appears to be regulated upon cellular arginine availability, highlighting its crucial role for both ureagenesis and Cr synthesis. Although decreased Cr contributes to the neurological symptoms in primary Cr deficiencies, still remains to be explored if an altered Cr metabolism may participate to CNS dysfunction also in patients with UCDs. Since arginine in most UCDs becomes a semi-essential aminoacid, measuring plasma Cr concentrations might be of help to optimize the dose of arginine substitution. PMID:22644604

  5. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Ĺsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p?=?5.2×10?201), ABCG2 (p?=?3.1×10?26), SLC17A1 (p?=?3.0×10?14), SLC22A11 (p?=?6.7×10?14), SLC22A12 (p?=?2.0×10?9), SLC16A9 (p?=?1.1×10?8), GCKR (p?=?1.4×10?9), LRRC16A (p?=?8.5×10?9), and near PDZK1 (p?=?2.7×10?9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p?=?4.0×10?26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p?=?5.0×10?8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p?=?1.4×10?57 and p?=?8.1×10?54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  6. REACTIONS OF PEROXYNITRITE WITH URIC ACID: FORMATION OF REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES, ALKYLATED PRODUCTS AND TRIURET, AND IN VIVO PRODUCTION OF TRIURET UNDER CONDITIONS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Gersch, Christine; Palii, Sergiu P.; Imaram, Witcha; Kim, Kyung Mee; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Angerhofer, Alexander; Johnson, Richard J.; Henderson, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, preeclampsia, cardiovascular disease and renal disease, all conditions associated with oxidative stress. We hypothesized that uric acid, a known antioxidant, might become prooxidative following its reaction with oxidants; and, thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Uric acid and 1,3-15N2-uric acid were reacted with peroxynitrite in different buffers and in the presence of alcohols, antioxidants and in human plasma. The reaction products were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The reactions generate reactive intermediates that yielded triuret as their final product. We also found that the antioxidant, ascorbate, could partially prevent this reaction. Whereas triuret was preferentially generated by the reactions in aqueous buffers, when uric acid or 1,3-15N2-uric acid was reacted with peroxynitrite in the presence of alcohols, it yielded alkylated alcohols as the final product. By extension, this reaction can alkylate other biomolecules containing OH groups and others containing labile hydrogens. Triuret was also found to be elevated in the urine of subjects with preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific hypertensive syndrome that is associated with oxidative stress, whereas very little triuret is produced in normal healthy volunteers. We conclude that under conditions of oxidative stress, uric acid can form reactive intermediates, including potential alkylating species, by reacting with peroxynitrite. These reactive intermediates could possibly explain how uric acid contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases such as the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. PMID:19219741

  7. Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with Uric Acid among Adults with Elevated Community Exposure to PFOA

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, Kyle; Tinker, Sarah; Shankar, Anoop; Ducatman, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are compounds that do not occur in nature, have been widely used since World War II, and persist indefinitely in most environments. Median serum levels in the United States are 4 ng/mL for PFOA and 21 ng/mL for PFOS. PFOA has been associated with elevated uric acid in two studies of chemical workers. Uric acid is a risk factor for hypertension and possibly other cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of PFOA and PFOS and uric acid among 54,951 adult community residents in Ohio and West Virginia, who lived or worked in six water districts contaminated with PFOA from a chemical plant. Analyses were conducted by linear and logistic regression, adjusted for confounders. Results Both PFOA and PFOS were significantly associated with uric acid. An increase of 0.2–0.3 mg/dL uric acid was associated with an increase from the lowest to highest decile of either PFOA or PFOS. Hyperuricemia risk increased modestly with increasing PFOA; the odds ratios by quintile of PFOA were 1.00, 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–1.43], 1.35 (95% CI, 1.26–1.45), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37–1.58), and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37–1.58; test for trend, p < 0.0001). We saw a less steep trend for PFOS. Inclusion of both correlated fluorocarbons in the model indicated PFOA was a more important predictor than was PFOS. Conclusion Higher serum levels of PFOA were associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia, but the limitations of cross-sectional data and the possibility of noncausal mechanisms prohibit conclusions regarding causality. PMID:20123605

  8. Using Serum Creatinine To Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate: Accuracy in Good Health and in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Rule; Timothy S. Larson; Erik J. Bergstralh; Jeff M. Slezak; Steven J. Jacobsen; Fernando G. Cosio

    2004-01-01

    Background: The National Kidney Foundation has advocated the use of the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories. However, healthy persons were not included in the development of the MDRD equation. Objectives: To assess the accuracy of the MDRD equation in patients with chronic kidney

  9. Serum cystatin C is superior to serum creatinine as a marker of kidney function: A meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas R. Dharnidharka; Charles Kwon; Gary Stevens

    2002-01-01

    Background: Serum cystatin C (Cys C) has been proposed as a simple, accurate, and rapid endogenous marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in research and clinical practice. However, there are conflicting reports regarding the superiority of Cys C over serum creatinine (Cr), with a few studies suggesting no significant difference. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of available data from various

  10. Serum cystatin C measured by automated immunoassay: A more sensitive marker of changes in GFR than serum creatinine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Newman; Hansa Thakkar; Robert G Edwards; Martin Wilkie; Thomas White; Anders O Grubb; Christopher P Price

    1995-01-01

    Serum cystatin C measured by automated immunoassay: A more sensitive marker of changes in GFR than serum creatinine. Serum cystatin C has been suggested as a new marker of GFR. For the introduction of this marker into clinical use a rapid and automated method is required. We have developed and validated an assay for serum cystatin C using latex particle-enhanced

  11. Elimination of Endogenous Toxin, Creatinine from Blood Plasma Depends on Albumin Conformation: Site Specific Uremic Toxicity & Impaired Drug Binding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ankita Varshney; Mohd Rehan; Naidu Subbarao; Gulam Rabbani; Rizwan Hasan Khan; Collin Stultz

    2011-01-01

    Uremic syndrome results from malfunctioning of various organ systems due to the retention of uremic toxins which, under normal conditions, would be excreted into the urine and\\/or metabolized by the kidneys. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the renal elimination of uremic toxin creatinine that accumulate in chronic renal failure. Quantitative investigation of the plausible

  12. Tandem measurements of iron and creatinine by cross injection analysis with application to urine from thalassemic patients.

    PubMed

    Choengchan, N; Mantim, T; Inpota, P; Nacapricha, D; Wilairat, P; Jittangprasert, P; Waiyawat, W; Fucharoen, S; Sirankpracha, P; Morales, N Phumala

    2015-02-01

    This work presents development of a method for the dual determination of Fe(III) and creatinine using cross injection analysis (CIA). Two CIA platforms connected in series accommodated sample and reagents plugs aspirated via y-direction channels while water was pumped through the x-direction channel toward a flow-through cell of a diode array UV-vis. detector. Iron was detected from the colorimetric reaction between Fe(II) and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino) aniline (5-Br-PSAA), with prior reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid. The Jaffe's reaction was employed for the detection of creatinine. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity ranges were achieved for iron in the range 0.5 to 7 mg L(-1) and creatinine in the range 50 to 800 mg L(-1). The CIA system was applied to spot urine samples from thalassemic patients undergoing iron chelation therapy, and was successfully validated with ICP-OES and batchwise Jaffe's method. Normalization of urinary iron excretion with creatinine is useful for correcting the iron concentration between urine samples due to variation of the collected urine volume. PMID:25435226

  13. An international assessment of the metrological equivalence of higher-order measurement services for creatinine in serum.

    PubMed

    Camara, Johanna E; Lippa, Katrice A; Duewer, David L; Gasca-Aragon, Hugo; Toman, Blaza

    2012-04-01

    The Consultative committee for amount of substance-metrology in chemistry (CCQM)-K80 Key Comparison directly assessed the equivalence of many of the world's higher-order value-assigned materials (HOVAMs) for creatinine in human serum. This 2009 international study compared the certified values and uncertainties of the materials using measurements made under repeatability conditions. The study evaluated 17 materials submitted by 6 national metrology institutes (NMIs). The creatinine quantity in these materials ranged from 3 mg/kg to 57 mg/kg (about 0.3 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL or 30 nmol/L to 500 nmol/L). All materials were stored and prepared according the specifications provided by the participating NMIs. Samples were processed and analyzed under repeatability conditions by one analyst using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two measurement campaigns. The certified values and repeatability measurements were compared using uncertainty-weighted generalized distance regression. The instrumental repeatability relative standard deviation was 1.2%. The measurement design required assessment of within-unit and between-campaign variability in addition to measurement repeatability. At a 95% level of confidence, the certified values for all 17 materials agreed to within their assigned uncertainties. CCQM-K80 demonstrated the metrological equivalence of the currently available HOVAMs for creatinine in human serum and of the creatinine measurement services provided by the participating NMIs. PMID:22392375

  14. Creatinine, Arsenic Metabolism, and Renal Function in an Arsenic-Exposed Population in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brandilyn A.; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Neugut, Y. Dana; Pilsner, J. Richard; Levy, Diane; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney disease is emerging as an arsenic (As)-linked disease outcome, however further evidence of this association is warranted. Our first objective for this paper was to examine the potential renal toxicity of As exposure in Bangladesh. Our second objective relates to examining whether the previously reported positive association between urinary creatinine (uCrn) and As methylation may be explained by renal function. We had hypothesized that these associations relate to supply and demand for s-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor for both creatine synthesis and As methylation. Alternatively, renal function could influence both As and creatinine excretion, or the As metabolites may influence renal function, which in turn influences uCrn. We conducted a cross-sectional study (N?=?478) of adults, composed of a sample recruited in 2001 and a sample recruited in 2003. We assessed renal function using plasma cystatin C, and calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Consistent with renal toxicity of As, log-uAs had a marginal inverse association with eGFR in the 2003 sample (b?=??5.6, p?=?0.07), however this association was not significant in the 2001 sample (b?=??1.9, p?=?0.24). Adjustment for eGFR did not alter the associations between uCrn and the %uAs metabolites, indicating that GFR does not explain these associations. Increased eGFR was associated with increased odds of having %uInAs >12.2% (2001: OR?=?1.01, 95%CI (1.00,1.03); 2003: OR?=?1.04, 95%CI (1.01,1.07)). In the 2003 sample only, there was a negative association between eGFR and %uDMA (b?=??0.08, p?=?0.02). These results may indicate differential effects of renal function on excretion of InAs and DMA. Alternatively, a certain methylation pattern, involving decreased %InAs and increased %DMA, may reduce renal function. Given that these studies were cross-sectional, we cannot distinguish between these two possibilities. Discrepancies between the samples may be due to the higher As exposure, poorer nutrition, and lower As methylation capacity in the 2003 sample. PMID:25438247

  15. Spot Protein/Creatinine Ratio in Preeclampsia as an Alternative for 24-Hour Urine Protein

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Kumru, P?nar; Ar?nkan, Arzu; Ard?ç, Cem; Ar?soy, Resul; Tozk?r, Elif; Tando?an, Bülent; Ayvac?, Habibe; Tu?rul, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proteinuria is a major component of preeclampsia. Urine protein measurement after 24-hour urine collection is the traditional standard method for the detection of proteinuria. It is time-consuming. As an alternative, random spot sampling for a urine protein to creatinine (P/C) ratio has been investigated. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the protein to creatinine ratio (P/C) compared with 24-hour urine collection for the detection of remarkable proteinuria and to evaluate the P/C ratio for different proteinuria ranges in patients with preeclampsia. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Two hundred and eleven pregnant women who met the criteria of preeclampsia comprised the study group and fifty three pregnant women were taken as the control group. Spot urine specimens for measuring P/C ratio were obtained taken immediately before 24-hour urine collection. The correlation between the P/C ratio in the spot urine samples and urinary protein excretion in the 24-hour collections was examined using the Spearman correlation test. Results: It was found a good positive correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-hour protein excretion, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.758. The best cut-off which gave the maximum area under the curve was 0.45 for 300 mg, 0.9 for 1000 mg, 1.16 for 2000 mg, 1.49 for 3000 mg, 2.28 for 4000 mg and 2.63 for 5000 mg per 24h. A P/C ratio above 0.9 strongly predicts significant proteinuria for more than 1 gram (AUC 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99 and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 91%, 95.4%, 95.2%, and 91.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The P/C ratio can be used as a screening test as a good predictor for remarkable proteinuria. The P/C ratio seems to be highly predictive for diagnosis to detect proteinuria over one gram and it could be used as a rapid alternative test in preeclamptic patients not to delay implementation treatment.

  16. Analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single dried blood spot using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Dennis R.; Bleyle, Lisa A.; Munar, Myrna; Cherala, Ganesh; Al-Uzri, Amira

    2014-01-01

    Long term therapeutic drug monitoring and assessment of renal function are required in renal transplant recipients on immunosuppressant therapy such as tacrolimus. Dry blood spots (DBS) have been used successfully in the clinic for many years and offers a convenient, simple and non-invasive method for repeated blood tests. We developed and performed a preliminary validation of a method for the analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single DBS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS). Tacrolimus and creatinine were extracted from a 6 mm punch with a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile containing ascomycin and deuterated creatinine as internal standards. A 10 ?l aliquot of the extract was analyzed directly after dilution for creatinine with normal phase high performance liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring. The remainder of the extract was processed and analyzed for tacrolimus. The lower limit of quantification for tacrolimus was 1 ng/ml with accuracy of 0.34% bias and precision (CV) of 11.1%. The precision ranged from 1.33% to 7.68% and accuracy from ?4.44% to 11.6% bias for the intra- and inter-day analysis. The lower limit of quantification of creatinine was 0.01 mg/dL with precision of 7.94%. Accuracy was based on recovery of additional creatinine spiked into whole blood samples and ranged from ?2.45% bias at 5 mg/dL to 3.75% bias at 0.5 mg/dL. Intra- and inter-day precision was from 3.48 to 4.11%. The assay was further validated with DBS prepared from pediatric renal transplant recipients. There was excellent correlation between the levels of tacrolimus and creatinine obtained from the clinical laboratory and the DBS method developed. After additional validation, this assay may have a significant impact on compliance with medication intake as well as potentially lowering the cost associated with intravenous blood draws in clinical laboratories. PMID:23548676

  17. Application of creatinine- and/or cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoshuang; Wei, Lu; Pei, Xiaohua; Zhu, Bei; Wu, Jianqing; Zhao, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Background No conventional creatinine- or cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation equation performed consistently outstandingly in elderly Chinese in our previous studies. This research aimed to further evaluate the performance of some recently proposed estimation equations based on creatinine and cystatin C, alone or combined, in this specific population. Materials and methods The equations were validated in a population totaling 419 participants (median age 68 [range 60–94] years). The estimated GFR (eGFR) calculated separately by ten equations was compared with the reference GFR (rGFR) measured by the 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method. Results Median serum creatinine, cystatin C, and rGFR levels were 0.93 mg/L, 1.13 mg/L, and 74.20 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The Chinese population-developed creatinine- and cystatin C-based (Cscr-cys) equation yielded the least median absolute difference (8.81 vs range 9.53–16.32, P<0.05, vs the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration serum creatinine equation), the highest proportion of eGFR within 15% and 30% of rGFR (P15 and P30, 55.13 and 85.44, P<0.05 and P<0.01, vs the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration serum creatinine equation), and the lowest root mean square error (14.87 vs range 15.30–22.45) in the whole cohort. A substantial agreement of diagnostic consistency between eGFR and rGFR (with a kappa 0.61–0.80) was also observed with the Cscr-cys equation. Moreover, measures of performance in the Cscr-cys equation were consistent across normal to mildly injured GFR strata and individuals aged ?80 years. Among all the Cscr-cys equations, the elderly Chinese-developed creatinine-based (CEscr) equation performed best in this specific population. Nevertheless, none of the equations achieved ideal manifestation in the moderately to severely GFR-injured group or in individuals aged ?80 years. Conclusion The Cscr-cys equation appeared to be optimal in elderly Chinese among the investigated equations. If cystatin C is not available, the CEscr equation is an acceptable alternative. A multicenter study with abundant subjects to develop an apposite formula for elderly Chinese is assumed to be essential. PMID:25246780

  18. The use of serum uric Acid concentration as an indicator of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy success.

    PubMed

    Menenakos, Evangelos; Doulami, Georgia; Tzanetakou, Irene P; Natoudi, Maria; Kokoroskos, Nikolaos; Almpanopoulos, Konstantinos; Leandros, Emmanouil; Zografos, George; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) effectively reduces weight by restricting gastric capacity and altering gut hormones levels. We designed a prospective study to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and weight loss. SUA and body mass index (BMI) were measured preoperatively and on first postoperative month and year in patients who underwent LSG in our department of bariatric surgery. Data on 55 patients were analyzed. Preoperative SUA concentration had a significant positive correlation with percentage of total weight loss (TWL) on first postoperative month (P = 0.001) and year (P = 0.002). SUA concentration on first postoperative month had a positive correlation with percentage of TWL on first postoperative year (P = 0.004). SUA concentration could be used as a predictor of LSG's success and could help in early detection of patients with rapid loss of weight, in order to prevent complications. PMID:25594659

  19. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-01

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K3cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K3cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K3cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls>patients after taking K3cit>patients before taking K3cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. PMID:23910312

  20. Comparison of Uric Acid Quantity with Different Food in Human Urine by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua

    2013-01-01

    Based on the inhibitory effect of uric acid (UA) on luminol-Co2+ chemiluminescence (CL) system, a sensitive method for the determination of UA at nanomolar level by flow injection (FI) CL was proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied to real-time monitoring of UA excretion in human 24?h urine with different food intake, showing that meats, vegetables, and porridge intake caused differential UA excretions of 879, 798, and 742?mg, respectively. It was also found that UA concentrations in urine under the three kinds of food intake simultaneously reached maximum at 2?h after meals with the values of 417, 318, and 288??g?mL?1, respectively. The UA concentration in human serum was also determined by this approach, and the possible mechanism of luminol-Co2+-UA?CL reaction was discussed in detail. PMID:24251067

  1. Uric acid, joint morbidity, and streptococcal antibodies in Maori and European teenagers. Rotorua Lakes study 3.

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, J M; Prior, I A

    1975-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-four New Zealand secondary school students were examined by questionnaire, and physical and biochemical methods. The sample contained almost equal numbers of Maoris and Europeans. The findings related to joint conditions are presented. Past injury and rheumatic disease accounted for some of the reported morbidity, but no important sex or race differences in these factors emerged. There were, however, significant differences in serum uric acid levels with the Maori having higher levels than the Europeans. A significant correlation with body mass was present in both race and sex groups but a correlation with haemoglobin was present only in the European females. While hyperuricaemia was not associated with morbidity in this young sample, ethnic differences anticipated the higher prevalence of gout already observed in Maori men. PMID:1190855

  2. Serum uric acid and disorders of glucose metabolism: the role of glycosuria

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, J.A.M.; Kang, H.C.; Greffin, S.; Garcia Rosa, M.L.; Lugon, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between hyperuricemia and glycemic status in a nonrandomized sample of primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study of adults ?20 years old who were members of a community-based health care program. Hyperuricemia was defined as a value >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women. The sample comprised 720 participants including controls (n=257) and patients who were hypertensive and euglycemic (n=118), prediabetic (n=222), or diabetic (n=123). The mean age was 42.4±12.5 years, 45% were male, and 30% were white. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from controls (3.9%) to euglycemic hypertension (7.6%) and prediabetic state (14.0%), with values in prediabetic patients being statistically different from controls. Overall, diabetic patients had an 11.4% prevalence of hyperuricemia, which was also statistically different from controls. Of note, diabetic subjects with glycosuria, who represented 24% of the diabetic participants, had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia, and statistically higher values for fractional excretion of uric acid, Na excretion index, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those without glycosuria. Participants who were prediabetic or diabetic but without glycosuria had a similarly elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia. In contrast, diabetic patients with glycosuria had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia and excreted more uric acid and Na than diabetic subjects without glycosuria. The findings can be explained by enhanced proximal tubule reabsorption early in the course of dysglycemia that decreases with the ensuing glycosuria at the late stage of the disorder. PMID:25250631

  3. Potent human uric acid transporter 1 inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Wempe, Michael F; Lightner, Janet W; Miller, Bettina; Iwen, Timothy J; Rice, Peter J; Wakui, Shin; Anzai, Naohiko; Jutabha, Promsuk; Endou, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human diseases. The current study investigates small molecular weight compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-urate uptake in oocytes expressing hURAT1. Using the most promising drug candidates generated from our structure-activity relationship findings, we subsequently conducted in vitro hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds were incubated with rat liver microsomes containing cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid. In vitro metabolism and PK samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods. Independently, six different inhibitors were orally (capsule dosing) or intravenously (orbital sinus) administered to fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected and analyzed; these data were used to compare in vitro and in vivo metabolism and to compute noncompartmental model PK values. Mono-oxidation (Phase I) and glucuronidation (Phase II) pathways were observed in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro data were used to compute hepatic intrinsic clearance, and the in vivo data were used to compute peak blood concentration, time after administration to achieve peak blood concentration, area under the curve, and orally absorbed fraction. The experimental data provide additional insight into the hURAT1 inhibitor structure-activity relationship and in vitro-in vivo correlation. Furthermore, the results illustrate that one may successfully prepare potent inhibitors that exhibit moderate to good oral bioavailability. PMID:23152669

  4. Potent human uric acid transporter 1 inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Wempe, Michael F; Lightner, Janet W; Miller, Bettina; Iwen, Timothy J; Rice, Peter J; Wakui, Shin; Anzai, Naohiko; Jutabha, Promsuk; Endou, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human diseases. The current study investigates small molecular weight compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-urate uptake in oocytes expressing hURAT1. Using the most promising drug candidates generated from our structure–activity relationship findings, we subsequently conducted in vitro hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds were incubated with rat liver microsomes containing cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and uridine 5?-diphosphoglucuronic acid. In vitro metabolism and PK samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods. Independently, six different inhibitors were orally (capsule dosing) or intravenously (orbital sinus) administered to fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected and analyzed; these data were used to compare in vitro and in vivo metabolism and to compute noncompartmental model PK values. Mono-oxidation (Phase I) and glucuronidation (Phase II) pathways were observed in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro data were used to compute hepatic intrinsic clearance, and the in vivo data were used to compute peak blood concentration, time after administration to achieve peak blood concentration, area under the curve, and orally absorbed fraction. The experimental data provide additional insight into the hURAT1 inhibitor structure–activity relationship and in vitro–in vivo correlation. Furthermore, the results illustrate that one may successfully prepare potent inhibitors that exhibit moderate to good oral bioavailability. PMID:23152669

  5. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming; (Columbia)

    2010-03-19

    Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 {angstrom} structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate several dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed {alpha}-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity.

  6. Improving Ammonium and Nitrate Release from Urea Using Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Compost Produced from Agricultural Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Latifah; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3? leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4+ and NO3? release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4+ and NO3? losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4+ and NO3? release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3? leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4+ retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4+ and NO3? release from urea. PMID:25793220

  7. Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Omar, Latifah; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. PMID:25793220

  8. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  9. Serum Creatinine Level: A Supplemental Index to Distinguish Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Yuling; Sun, Yiming; Liang, Yingyin; Li, Yaqin; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background. To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn) level reflects disease severity. Methods. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Results. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r = ?0.793) and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r = ?0.791; both P < 0.01). Serum Crn level was significantly higher in patients with in-frame than out-of-frame mutations (Z = ?4.716, ?P < 0.01) and in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9?yr (all P < 0.0125). After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (? = 7.140, ?t = 6.277, ?P < 0.01). Conclusions. Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  10. Role for urea in nitrification by polar marine Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Waller, Alison S.; Mende, Daniel R.; Bakker, Kevin; Farnelid, Hanna; Yager, Patricia L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Potvin, Marianne; Heinrich, Friederike; Estrada, Marta; Riemann, Lasse; Bork, Peer; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high abundance of Archaea in the global ocean, their metabolism and biogeochemical roles remain largely unresolved. We investigated the population dynamics and metabolic activity of Thaumarchaeota in polar environments, where these microorganisms are particularly abundant and exhibit seasonal growth. Thaumarchaeota were more abundant in deep Arctic and Antarctic waters and grew throughout the winter at surface and deeper Arctic halocline waters. However, in situ single-cell activity measurements revealed a low activity of this group in the uptake of both leucine and bicarbonate (<5% Thaumarchaeota cells active), which is inconsistent with known heterotrophic and autotrophic thaumarchaeal lifestyles. These results suggested the existence of alternative sources of carbon and energy. Our analysis of an environmental metagenome from the Arctic winter revealed that Thaumarchaeota had pathways for ammonia oxidation and, unexpectedly, an abundance of genes involved in urea transport and degradation. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that most polar Thaumarchaeota had the potential to oxidize ammonia, and a large fraction of them had urease genes, enabling the use of urea to fuel nitrification. Thaumarchaeota from Arctic deep waters had a higher abundance of urease genes than those near the surface suggesting genetic differences between closely related archaeal populations. In situ measurements of urea uptake and concentration in Arctic waters showed that small-sized prokaryotes incorporated the carbon from urea, and the availability of urea was often higher than that of ammonium. Therefore, the degradation of urea may be a relevant pathway for Thaumarchaeota and other microorganisms exposed to the low-energy conditions of dark polar waters. PMID:23027926

  11. A simple and sensitive fluorescence based biosensor for the determination of uric acid using H2O2-sensitive quantum dots/dual enzymes.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Ellina; Ramli, Noor Izaanin; Abdullah, Jaafar; Abdul Hamid, Mohammad Azmi; Sidek, Hamidah; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Ariffin, Nurhayati; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2015-05-15

    A novel optical detection system consisting of combination of uricase/HRP-CdS quantum dots (QDs) for the determination of uric acid in urine sample is described. The QDs was used as an indicator to reveal fluorescence property of the system resulting from enzymatic reaction of uricase and HRP (horseradish peroxidase), which is involved in oxidizing uric acid to allaintoin and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide produced was able to quench the QDs fluorescence, which was proportional to uric acid concentration. The system demonstrated sufficient activity of uricase and HRP at a ratio of 5U:5U and pH 7.0. The linearity of the system toward uric acid was in the concentration range of 125-1000 µM with detection limit of 125 µM. PMID:25113659

  12. Evaluation of a kinetic uricase method for serum uric acid assay by predicting background absorbance of uricase reaction solution with an integrated method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Liao; Yun-sheng Zhao; Li-na Zhao; Jia Tao; Xiao-yun Zhu; Lan Liu

    2006-01-01

    A patented kinetic uricase method was evaluated for serum uric acid assay. Initial absorbance of the reaction mixture before\\u000a uricase action (A\\u000a 0) was obtained by correcting the absorbance at 293 nm measured before the addition of uricase solution, and background absorbance\\u000a (A\\u000a b) was predicted by an integrated method. Uric acid concentration in reaction solution was calculated from ?A,

  13. 40 CFR 418.30 - Applicability; description of the urea subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...418.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory § 418.30 Applicability; description of the urea...

  14. 40 CFR 418.30 - Applicability; description of the urea subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...418.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory § 418.30 Applicability; description of the urea...

  15. Urea destabilizes RNA by forming stacking interactions and multiple hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases

    E-print Network

    Priyakumar, U Deva; Thirumalai, D; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2009-01-01

    Urea titration of RNA by urea is an effective approach to investigate the forces stabilizing this biologically important molecule. We used all atom molecular dynamics simulations using two urea force fields and two RNA constructs to elucidate in atomic detail the destabilization mechanism of folded RNA in aqueous urea solutions. Urea denatures RNA by forming multiple hydrogen bonds with the RNA bases and has little influence on the phosphodiester backbone. Most significantly we discovered that urea engages in stacking interactions with the bases. We also estimate, for the first time, m-value for RNA, which is a measure of the strength of urea-RNA interactions. Our work provides a conceptual understanding of the mechanism by which urea enhances RNA folding rates.

  16. Urea destabilizes RNA by forming stacking interactions and multiple hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases

    E-print Network

    U. Deva Priyakumar; Changbong Hyeon; D. Thirumalai; Alexander D. MacKerell Jr

    2009-12-07

    Urea titration of RNA by urea is an effective approach to investigate the forces stabilizing this biologically important molecule. We used all atom molecular dynamics simulations using two urea force fields and two RNA constructs to elucidate in atomic detail the destabilization mechanism of folded RNA in aqueous urea solutions. Urea denatures RNA by forming multiple hydrogen bonds with the RNA bases and has little influence on the phosphodiester backbone. Most significantly we discovered that urea engages in stacking interactions with the bases. We also estimate, for the first time, m-value for RNA, which is a measure of the strength of urea-RNA interactions. Our work provides a conceptual understanding of the mechanism by which urea enhances RNA folding rates.

  17. Conductimetric Biosensor for the Detection of Uric Acid by Immobilization Uricase on Nata de Coco Membrane—Pt Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Mulyasuryani, Ani; Srihardiastutie, Arie

    2011-01-01

    A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1–6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5–9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%. PMID:21792276

  18. Voltammetric carbon paste electrodes monitor uric acid and not 5-HIAA at the 5-hydroxyindole potential in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, R D; Fillenz, M; Grünewald, R A; Bloomfield, M R; Albery, W J; Jamieson, C M; Williams, J H; Gray, J A

    1984-03-01

    Changes in the height of peak 2 obtained using linear sweep voltammetry and carbon paste electrodes chronically implanted in discrete brain regions of the unrestrained rat were measured under a variety of conditions; in the past this peak has been attributed to the oxidation of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Unilateral 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesions of the medial forebrain bundle reduced the 5-HIAA content of the striatum and hippocampus to 10% of the unlesioned side, but did not alter the height of peak 2 recorded in these regions. In contrast, microinfusion of uricase beside striatial electrodes reduced the height of peak 2 by 96%; systemic amphetamine-induced increases in the height of the peak were also prevented by this enzyme. These results indicate that uric acid, and not 5-HIAA, is mainly responsible for peak 2, and that changes in the height of this peak reflect changes in the extracellular concentration of uric acid. PMID:6203061

  19. Uric Acid Lowering to Prevent Kidney Function Loss in Diabetes: The Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Allopurinol Study

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Caramori, M. Luiza; Cherney, David Z.I.; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Gao, Chuanyun; Jalal, Diana; Perkins, Bruce A.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rossing, Peter; Mauer, Michael; Doria, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease causes significant morbidity and mortality among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive glucose and blood pressure control have thus far failed to adequately curb this problem and therefore a major need for novel treatment approaches exists. Multiple observations link serum uric acid levels to kidney disease development and progression in diabetes and strongly argue that uric acid lowering should be tested as one such novel intervention. A pilot of such a trial, using allopurinol, is currently being conducted by the Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Consortium. Although the PERL trial targets T1D individuals at highest risk of kidney function decline, the use of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent may also be relevant to a larger segment of the population with diabetes. As allopurinol is inexpensive and safe, it could be cost-effective even for relatively low-risk patients, pending the completion of appropriate trials at earlier stages. PMID:23649945

  20. Low dose estrogen replacement therapy in early postmenopausal women effect on urinary magnesium and calcium: creatinine ratios.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B; Neri, A; Kitai, E; Pardo, Y; Blum, M; Friedman, J

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treatment for prevention of osteoporosis by means of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRP) and daily exercise, had any effect on ratios of urinary calcium:creatinine (Ca:Cre) and magnesium:creatinine (Mg:Cre). A group of 33 early postmenopausal women (menopause onset 12-18 months previously), mean age 49.12 years, were treated during 6 months with low doses of transdermal estrogen (Estraderm TTS 25 micrograms, Ciba-Geigy) opposed by oral progestogen (Duphaston 10 mg, 10 days every month), and daily exercise (walking for 1 hour). Despite HRT's statistically significant lowering effect on Ca:Cre and Mg:Cre ratios, these returned to pretreatment levels 6 months after withdrawal from HRT. The mechanism by which HRT affects magnesiuria and calciuria is discussed. PMID:7923797

  1. Serial blood pressure measurements and exogenous creatinine clearance rates in partially nephrectomized dogs: the effect of dietary sodium intake

    E-print Network

    Greco, Deborah Susan

    1987-01-01

    . , University of California, Davis. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. George E. Lees Serial arterial blood pressure measurements and exogenous creatinine clearance determinations were performed on 8 partially nephrectomized dogs (with residual renal... of functional renal impairment, and changes in GFR are not dependent upon dietary sodium intake at the concentrations tested. iv DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my father and my husband; their love of and dedication to basic science were...

  2. Cystatin C is a more sensitive marker than creatinine for the estimation of GFR in type 2 diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Mussap; Michele Dalla Vestra; Paola Fioretto; Alois Saller; Mariacristina Varagnolo; Romano Nosadini; Mario Plebani

    2002-01-01

    Cystatin C is a more sensitive marker than creatinine for the estimation of GFR in type 2 diabetic patients.BackgroundGlomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall index of renal function in health and disease. Inulin and 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearances are considered the gold standard methods for estimating GFR. Unfortunately, these methods require specialized technical personnel over a period of several

  3. Creatinine Clearance, Cockcroft-Gault Formula and Cystatin C: Estimators of True Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Elderly?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Burkhardt; G. Bojarsky; N. Gretz; R. Gladisch

    2002-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and precision of estimators of true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (Cockcroft formula, measured creatinine clearance (CCR) and a cystatin-C-based estimation) in elderly patients attending a geriatric department. Additionally, parameters influencing GFR in the elderly were evaluated. Methods: 30 patients aged 57–90 years treated in the Geriatric Department for pulmonary

  4. Evaluation and Characterization of the Effects of Ticagrelor on Serum and Urinary Uric Acid in Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Butler; R Teng

    2012-01-01

    During its development, ticagrelor, a drug designed to prevent thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes, was found to have an association with mild hyperuricemia. To investigate this effect further, we carried out a placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study in 24 healthy male volunteers. The volunteers received ticagrelor (90 mg b.i.d. for 5 days), and serum uric acid and urinary

  5. Erythrocyte permeability to urea and water: comparative study in rodents, ruminants, carnivores, humans, and birds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Lei, Tianluo; Bankir, Lise; Zhao, Dan; Gai, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xuejian; Yang, Baoxue

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian erythrocytes exhibit high urea permeability (P (urea)) due to UT-B expression in their cytoplasmic membrane. This high P (urea) allows fast equilibration of urea in erythrocytes during their transit in the hyperosmotic renal medulla. It also allows more urea (in addition to that in plasma) to participate in counter-current exchange between ascending and descending vasa recta, thus improving the trapping of urea in the medulla and improving urine concentrating ability. To determine if P (urea) in erythrocytes is related to diet and urine concentrating ability, we measured P (urea) in erythrocytes from 11 different mammals and 5 birds using stopped-flow light scattering. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibited high P (urea) (in x10(-5) cm/s, 5.3 ± 0.6, 3.8 ± 0.5 and 2.8 ± 0.7, respectively). In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) showed much lower P (urea) (0.8 ± 0.2, 0.7 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively). Erythrocyte P (urea) in human (1.1 ± 0.2), and pig (1.5 ± 0.1), the two omnivores, was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) had P (urea) intermediate between carnivores and omnivores (3.3 ± 0.4, 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.3, respectively). Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes had very low values (<0.1 × 10(-5) cm/s). In contrast to P (urea), water permeability, measured simultaneously, was relatively similar in all mammals. The species differences in erythrocytes P (urea) most probably reflect adaptation to the different types of diet and resulting different needs for concentrating urea in the urine. PMID:20878327

  6. UTILIZATION BY SHEEP OF WHOLE SHELLED CORN IMPREGNATED WITH UREA, CALCIUM, POTASSIUM AND SULFUR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Koeln; K. E. Webb; J. P. Fontenot

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight growing wether lambs (33.9 kg), adapted to urea for 40 d, were used in a metabo- lism study to determine if urea impregnation of corn could improve urea utilization. The following diets were compared: 1) whole shelled corn alone, 2) whole shelled corn impregnated with urea, calcium (Ca) as CaC12, potassium (K) as KC~H302, and sulfur (S) as Na2S203.SH20,

  7. Evidence for Urea-Induced Hypometabolism in Isolated

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    Evidence for Urea-Induced Hypometabolism in Isolated Organs of Dormant Ectotherms TIMOTHY J. MUIR� in isolated organs of dormant ectotherms. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:28­34. When faced with unfavorable environmental conditions such as low water availability or extreme temperature, terrestrial ectotherms often enter

  8. Human Utilization of Urea Nitrogen in Low Calorie Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL LINO GALLINA; ANDJOSE MIGUEL DOMĂ NGUEZ

    To evaluate the role of calorie intake on the ability of nonprotein nitrogen to substitute for part of a high biological value protein, urea was added to the low caloric milk diets of five obese women during periods of negative nitro gen balance. In five studies, negative nitrogen balance was induced by decreasing milk nitrogen intake to 3.7 g\\/day and

  9. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality.

  10. Urea–formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins for wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dunky

    1998-01-01

    Urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most important type of adhesive resins for the production of wood based panels. They convince by their high reactivity and good performance in the production and by their low price, however they lack in water resistance of the hardened resin owing to the reversibility of the aminomethylene link and hence the susceptibility to hydrolysis. This

  11. New urea-absorbing polymers for artificial kidney machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Etherified polymer is made from modified cellulose derivative which is reacted with periodate. It will absorb 2 grams of urea per 100 grams of polymer. Indications are that polymers could be used to help remove uremic wastes in artificial kidneys, or they could be administered orally as therapy for uremia.

  12. In situ poly(urea-formaldehyde) microencapsulation of dicyclopentadiene

    E-print Network

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    material are required for self-healing materials. Urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing a mechanical trigger for the self-healing process when damage occurs in the host material and the capsules rupture. The key feature of self-healing materials is the highly engineered microencapsulated healing

  13. Prebiotic formation of polyamino acids in molten urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, H.; Nomoto, S.; Terasaki, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2005-04-01

    It is important for research into the origins of life to elucidate polyamino acid formation under prebiotic conditions. Only a limited set of amino acids has been reported to polymerize thermally. In this paper we demonstrate a novel thermal polymerization mechanism in a molten urea of alkylamino acids (i.e. glycine, alanine, ?-alanine, ?-aminobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, leucine and norleucine), which had been thought to be incapable of undergoing thermal polymerization. Also, aspartic acid was found to polymerize in molten urea at a lower temperature than that at which aspartic acid alone had previously been thermally polymerized. Individual oligomers produced in heating experiments on urea-amino acid mixtures were analysed using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. Major products in the reaction mixture were three different types of polyamino acid derivatives: N-carbamoylpolyamino acids, polyamino acids containing a hydantoin ring at the N-terminal position and unidentified derivatives with molecular weights that were greater by 78 than those of the corresponding peptide forms. The polymerization reaction occurred by taking advantage of the high polarity of molten urea as well as its dehydrating ability. Under the presumed prebiotic conditions employed here, many types of amino acids were thus revealed to undergo thermal polymerization.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF N-CHLORAMINES AND DIAZOLIDINYL UREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times we...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 28, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Urea and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Of...

  16. Amperometric uric acid biosensor based on poly(vinylferrocene)-gelatin-carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Erden, P?nar Esra; Kaçar, Ceren; Öztürk, Funda; K?l?ç, Esma

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new uric acid biosensor was constructed based on ferrocene containing polymer poly(vinylferrocene) (PVF), carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and gelatin (GEL) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Uricase enzyme (UOx) was immobilized covalently through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry onto c-MWCNT/GEL/PVF/GCE. The c-MWCNT/GEL/PVF composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Various experimental parameters such as pH, applied potential, enzyme loading, PVF and c-MWCNT concentration were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions the dynamic linear range of uric acid was 2.0×10(-7) M-7.1×10(-4) M (R=0.9993) with the detection limit low to 2.3×10(-8) M. With good selectivity and sensitivity, the biosensor was successfully applied to determine the uric acid in human serum. The results of the biosensor were in good agreement with those obtained from standard method. Therefore, the presented biosensor could be a good promise for practical applications in real samples. PMID:25618698

  17. Serum uric acid level in newly diagnosed essential hypertension in a Nepalese population: A hospital based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bibek; Yadav, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Jha, Bharat; Raut, Kanak Bahadur

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop the missing link between hyperuricemia and hypertension. Methods The study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with Nephrology Unit of Internal Medicine Department. Hypertension was defined according to blood pressure readings by definitions of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee. Totally 205 newly diagnosed and untreated essential hypertensive cases and age-sex matched normotensive controls were enrolled in the study. The potential confounding factors of hyperuricemia and hypertension in both cases and controls were controlled. Uric acid levels in all participants were analyzed. Results Renal function between newly diagnosed hypertensive cases and normotensive healthy controls were adjusted. The mean serum uric acid observed in newly diagnosed hypertensive cases and in normotensive healthy controls were (290.05±87.05) µmol/L and (245.24±99.38) µmol/L respectively. A total of 59 (28.8%) participants of cases and 28 (13.7%) participants of controls had hyperuricemia (odds ratio 2.555 (95% CI: 1.549-4.213), P<0.001). Conclusions The mean serum uric acid levels and number of hyperuricemic subjects were found to be significantly higher in cases when compared to controls. PMID:24144132

  18. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (P<.05). The authors conclude that 10 weeks of consumption of fructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. PMID:25496265

  19. Conventional and planar chip sensors for potentiometric assay of uric acid in biological fluids using flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Ayman H

    2007-10-18

    The potentiometric response properties of several PVC-based membrane sensors using phthalocyanine complexes of cobalt(II) (CoPC) and Fe(II) (FePC) as anion carriers, towards uric acid were constructed and characterized. The sensors demonstrated fast near-Nernstian response for uric acid over the concentration ranges 9.1 x 10(-6) to 9.1 x 10(-2) and 3.1 x 10(-5) to 3.1 x 10(-2)M with detection limits 0.67 and 2.85 microg mL(-1) over pH 6.5-8 for CoPC and FePC based membrane sensors plasticized with o-NPOE and 1% TDMAC, respectively. A novel solid-state planar chip urate sensor was developed, characterized according to IUPAC recommendations, easily used in a single channel wall-jet flow injection system and compared with a tubular detector. The intrinsic characteristics of the detectors in a low dispersion manifold were determined and compared with data obtained under hydrodynamic mode of operation. Validation of the assay methods with the proposed sensors by measuring the lower limit, range, accuracy, precision, repeatability and between-day-variability revealed good performance characteristics confirming applicability for continuous determination of uric acid. The sensors were used for determining urate in biological fluids at an input rate of 50 samples per hour. The results compare favorably with data obtained by the standard spectrophotometry. PMID:17604587

  20. Liver function tests and glucose and lipid metabolism in growth-restricted fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alistair Roberts; Simona Nava; Luisa Bocconi; Sarah Salmona; Umberto Nicolini

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess hematologic and biochemical blood variables in growth-restricted fetuses and relate them to biophysical measurements.Methods: Blood was sampled from 22 growth-restricted fetuses. All had normal karyotypes and no congenital infections. Venous pH, partial pressure of oxygen, hematocrit, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ?-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase,

  1. Effect of the super-flux cellulose triacetate dialyser membrane on the removal of non-protein-bound and protein-bound uraemic solutes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita De Smet; Annemieke Dhondt; Sunny Eloot; Francesco Galli; Marie Anne Waterloos; Raymond Vanholder

    Background. Uraemic solutes accumulate in haemodialysis (HD) patients and interfere with physiological functions. Low-flux (LF) HD does not efficiently remove all uraemic compounds. We investigated whether large pore super-flux (SF) cellulose triacetate membranes (CTA) result in a better removal of uraemic solutes. Methods. Eleven patients were dialysed consecutively with LF-CTA and SF-CTA during 3 weeks. Urea (UR), creatinine (CR), uric

  2. Use of natural and biobased materials for controlled-release of urea in water: Environmental applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urea pearls were encapsulated in cloisite-based matrices using different natural materials (lignin, beeswax and latex) to control the release of urea over time. It was found that all cloisite-based fertilizer tablets showed better release profiles than neat urea tablets. The best release profile was...

  3. 76 FR 35405 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). The review covers...June 16, 2011. See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit...

  4. 77 FR 42273 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The review covers one producer...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation.\\2\\ On March 26,...

  5. 77 FR 64464 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Antidumping Duty Administrative...antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). The period of...from Russia. See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of...

  6. 76 FR 78885 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...A-823-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation...antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia) and Ukraine would...orders be revoked. See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final...

  7. A Journal of Integrative Biology Metabolic Depression Induced by Urea in Organs

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    to different seasons. The depressive effect of urea on metabolism was not consistent across organs, seasons. Metabolic depression induced by urea in organs of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: effects of seasonA Journal of Integrative Biology Metabolic Depression Induced by Urea in Organs of the Wood Frog

  8. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177.1900...Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10533 - Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic). 721.10533...721.10533 Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (PMN P-12-182) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10533 - Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic). 721.10533...721.10533 Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (PMN P-12-182) is...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177.1900...Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177.1900...Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177.1900...Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177.1900...Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the...

  15. Evidence for urea-induced hypometabolism in isolated organs of dormant ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Muir, Timothy J; Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms endure extended periods of dormancy by depressing their metabolism, which effectively prolongs the use of their endogenous energy stores. Though the mechanisms of hypometabolism are varied and incompletely understood, recent work suggests that urea accumulation in autumn and early winter contributes to reduced metabolism of hibernating wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Urea accumulation during dormancy is a widespread phenomenon, and it has long been presumed that numerous species from diverse taxa benefit from its hypometabolic effect. To investigate the phylogenetic prevalence of urea-induced hypometabolism, we studied four species of urea accumulators from the clades Amphibia (Spea bombifrons and Ambystoma tigrinum), Reptilia (Malaclemys terrapin), and Gastropoda (Anguispira alternata), and one amphibian species (R. pipiens) that does not accumulate urea during dormancy. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) of excised organ samples from dormant animals in the presence or absence of physiological concentrations of urea. Three of the four urea-accumulating species had at least one organ whose VO(2) was significantly decreased by urea treatment. However, VO(2) of organs from R. pipiens, the one species tested that does not accumulate urea during dormancy, was not affected by urea treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that urea accumulation can reduce metabolic rate of dormant animals and provide a base for further investigation into the evolution of urea-induced hypometabolism. PMID:19739087

  16. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion...decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate...pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea...

  17. Inhibition of Smooth Muscle Proliferation by Urea-Based Alkanoic Acids via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Inhibition of Smooth Muscle Proliferation by Urea-Based Alkanoic Acids via Peroxisome Proliferator cell proliferation. We examined the possibility that urea-based alkanoic acids activate the nuclear--These results show that attenuation of smooth muscle cell proliferation by urea-based alkanoic acids is mediated

  18. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

  19. The effect of conditioning agents on the corrosive properties of molten urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Nichols; D. T. Nguyen; M. M. Norton; B. R. Parker; L. E. Daniels

    1991-01-01

    From the process case histories of the failure of several heat exchanger tube bundles, it was revealed that molten urea containing lignosulfonate as a granulation conditioning-hardening agent (Urea LS{trademark}) is corrosive to Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The results of field and laboratory immersion corrosion tests indicated that the corrosivity of molten urea is strongly dependent on the process

  20. The effect of conditioning agents on the corrosive properties of molten urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Nichols; D. T. Nguyen; M. M. Norton; B. R. Parker; L. E. Daniels

    1991-01-01

    From the process case histories of the failure of several heat exchanger tube bundles, it was revealed that molten urea containing lignosulfonate as a granulation conditioning-hardening agent (Urea LS[trademark]) is corrosive to Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The results of field and laboratory immersion corrosion tests indicated that the corrosivity of molten urea is strongly dependent on the process

  1. Creatinine clearance as predictor of tobramycin elimination in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Town, D J; Vinks, A A; Jacobs, F; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    1996-10-01

    Assessment of renal function and relating this parameter to amino-glycoside clearance is important for an appropriate individualization of dosage regimens in patients with impaired renal function. However, it has been suggested that in cystic fibrosis (CF), creatinine clearance (CrCl) is not a good predictor of tobramycin clearance because of a lack of correlation. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the tobramycin clearance and the measured CrCl. In addition, because most pharmacokinetic computer models use an a priori relationship between CrCl and tobramycin elimination rate constant [k(el)], regression analysis of k(el) on CrCl was performed. Eighteen CF patients (12 men, 6 women, ages 21-55 years) were treated with intravenous tobramycin. Blood and urine samples were collected for tobramycin analysis and determination of the CrCl. For each patient, CrCl was also estimated using the formulas of Cockcroft and Gault (C/G), Jelliffe I (J I), and Jelliffe II (J II). Predictive performance of these formulas was evaluated using mean error and mean squared error as reflections of bias and precision. Tobramycin total body clearance as well as renal clearance correlated significantly with CrCl (r = 0.52; p = 0.02 and r = 0.78; p = 0.02, respectively). Regression of the tobramycin k(el) versus CrCl gave the following equation: k(el) = 0.135 + 0.00134*CrCl/1.73 m2 (r = 0.64; p = 0.004). The 95% confidence interval of intercept and slope of the regression line were 0.019-0.251 and 0.00049-0.00219, respectively. The formulas of C/G, J I, and J II all overpredicted CrCl. Bias was 19, 24, and 8 ml/min, and precision was 37, 42, and 33 ml/min, respectively, for the C/G, J I, and J II formulas. In our CF population the J II formula gave the best estimation of the CrCl but calculated estimates deviated -25(-)+62% from measured values. PMID:8885120

  2. Rates and predictors of ACE inhibitor discontinuation subsequent to elevated serum creatinine: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Wong, Joyce; Aroustamian, Irina; Gee, Manyee; Mody, Freny Vaghaiwalla

    2014-01-01

    Objectives ACE inhibitors (ACEI) are underutilised despite cardiovascular benefits, in part due to concerns of known transient elevations in serum creatinine (SCr) after initiation. Our objectives were to evaluate rates and predictors of ACEI discontinuation after SCr elevation post-ACEI initiation since limited data are available that examine this issue. Setting Primary and tertiary Veterans healthcare system in Los Angeles, California, USA Participants 3039 outpatients initiating an ACEI with a SCr measured within 6?months prior to and approximately 3?months after initiating an ACEI. Patients were divided into three groups (SCr <1.5, 1.5–2 and >2). Primary and secondary outcome measures Rates and factors associated with ACEI discontinuation subsequent to SCr elevation after ACEI initiation and for patients with baseline SCr >2?mg/dL, the change in SCr associated with chronic use. Predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression modelling. Results At 3?months follow-up, for those with an increase in SCr, the mean increase post-ACEI initiation was 26%, ranging from ?0.01?mg/dL to 0.42?mg/dL varying according to a level of baseline renal function. ACEI discontinuation was higher in patients with elevated baseline SCr (19/165, 11.5%) compared with those with SCr <1.5 (135/2497, 5.4%), and those with SCr 1.5–2.0 (28/377, 7.4%). Male patients, and those with heart failure were less likely to discontinue ACEI after an elevation of SCr post-ACEI initiation, while those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics and ?-blockers were more likely to discontinue ACEI. Conclusions SCr increases <30% on average within 3?months of ACEI initiation, with subsequent discontinuation rates varying by baseline SCr. Elevation in SCr was not associated with ACEI discontinuation rates. In patients with SCr >2?mg/dL at baseline, despite an acute increase in SCr after ACEI initiation, chronic ACEI use was associated with a decrease in SCr in most patients. PMID:25232564

  3. Creatinine and specific gravity normalization in biological monitoring of occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Jean-François; Lévesque, Martine; Huard, Mélanie; Drolet, Daniel; Lavoué, Jérôme; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures are generally normalized on the basis of creatinine (CR) concentration or specific gravity (SG) to account for fluctuations in urine dilution. For instance, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) uses a reference value of 1g/L for CR. The comparison of urinary concentrations of biomarkers between studies requires the adjustment of results based on a reference CR and/or SG value, although studies have suggested that age, sex, muscle mass, and time of the day can exert non-negligible influences on CR excretion, while SG appears to be less affected. The objective of this study was to propose reference values for urinary CR and SG based on the results of samples sent for analysis by occupational health practitioners to the laboratory of the Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute of Québec (IRSST). We analyzed a database containing 20,395 urinary sample results collected between 1985 and 2010. Linear mixed-effects models with worker as a random effect were used to estimate the influence of sex and collection period on urinary CR and SG. Median CR concentrations were 25-30% higher in men (1.6 g/L or 14.4 mmol/L) than in women (1.2 g/L or 10.2 mmol/L). Four percent of the samples for men and 12% for women were below the acceptable threshold for CR (4.4 mmol/L). For SG, 5% of samples for men and 12% for women were below the threshold of 1.010. The difference in SG levels between sexes was lower than for CR, with a median of 1.024 for men compared to 1.020 for women. Our results suggest that the normalization of reference values based on a standard CR value of 1 g/L as proposed by the ACGIH is a conservative approach. According to the literature, CR excretion is more influenced by physiological parameters than SG. We therefore suggest that correction based on SG should be favored in future studies involving the proposal of reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures. PMID:25192246

  4. An enzymic assay for uric acid in serum and urine compared with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Dubois, H; Delvoux, B; Ehrhardt, V; Greiling, H

    1989-03-01

    We evaluated a colorimetric method for the assay of uric acid in serum or urine, which utilises a Trinder chromogenic system modified by the inclusion of 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid for oxidative coupling to p-aminophenazone. Colour development (Amax: 512 nm) is complete within five minutes. Measurement of a sample blank is not needed. The procedure involves pre-incubation with ascorbic acid oxidase and detergent to eliminate interference by ascorbic acid and to abolish turbidity due to lipaemia; this pretreatment was effective up to 1.14 mmol/l ascorbate and up to at least 25 mmol/l triacylglycerol. Interference by icteric sera was insignificant up to about 170 mumol/l bilirubin. The method is linear up to at least 1428 mumol/l. In human serum and urine the procedure correlates well with HPLC and the uricase p-aminophenazone method on the SMAC analyser. Within-run and between-run imprecisions of the enzymic test were higher than for HPLC, but did not exceed 1.2% (CV) and 2.5% (CV), respectively. PMID:2708944

  5. The significance of serum uric acid level in humans with acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, JuanWen; Zhao, Ying; Bai, YunJuan; Lv, GuoCai; Wu, JianPing; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in cardiovascular disease and has been found to play a role in diseases exacerbated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum uric acid (UA) level is an indicator of outcome in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. A total of 205 subjects who had attempted suicide by oral ingestion of paraquat were admitted to the emergency room between January 2009 and June 2014. Initial serum UA level and other laboratory parameters were measured. A total of 66 patients died during the 30 days after admission, corresponding to a 32.2% cumulative incidence of mortality. UA levels were higher in non-survivors than survivors (P < 0.001) and 30-day mortality increased with increasing baseline serum UA level (P < 0.001). In a prediction analysis for 30-day mortality, the serum UA level had a cut-off concentration of 284?µmol/L in female patients and 352?µmol/L in male patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that white blood cell counts and UA were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, we showed that serum UA may be an independent predictor of 30-day mortality in patients with paraquat poisoning. PMID:25772718

  6. The Relationship between Uric Acid Levels and Huntington’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) may be associated with the progression of Parkinson’s disease and related neurodegenerative conditions; however, its association with Huntington’s disease (HD) progression has not been explored. A secondary analysis of 347 subjects from the CARE-HD clinical trial was performed to examine the relationship between baseline UA levels and the level of functional decline in HD. Outcomes included change in scores at 30 months for the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale components. There was less worsening of total functional capacity over time with increasing baseline UA levels (adjusted mean worsening in scores: 3.17, 2.99, 2.95, 2.28, 2.21, from lowest to highest UA quintile, p=0.03). These data suggest a possible association between higher UA levels and slower HD progression, particularly as measured by total functional capacity. If confirmed, UA could be an important predictor and potentially modifiable factor affecting the rate of HD progression. PMID:20063429

  7. Uric acid induces NADPH oxidase-independent neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Nishinaka, Yoko; Arai, Toshiyuki; Morita, Makiko; Mizugishi, Kiyomi; Adachi, Souichi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Kouhei

    2014-01-10

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of extracellular DNA fibers with antimicrobial peptides that capture and kill microbes. NETs play a critical role in innate host defense and in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. While the mechanism of NET formation remains unclear, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) are known to be an important requirement. In this study, we investigated the effect of uric acid (UA) on NET formation. UA, a well-known ROS scavenger, was found to suppress Nox-dependent ROS release in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of UA significantly inhibited Nox-dependent NET formation. However, high concentrations of UA unexpectedly induced, rather than inhibited, NET formation. NETs were directly induced by UA alone in a Nox-independent manner, as revealed by experiments using control neutrophils treated with ROS inhibitors or neutrophils of patients with chronic granulomatous disease who have a congenital defect in ROS production. Furthermore, we found that UA-induced NET formation was partially mediated by NF-?B activation. Our study is the first to demonstrate the novel function of UA in NET formation and may provide insight into the management of patients with hyperuricemia. PMID:24326071

  8. Synthesis of water soluble chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles and determination of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanh Le, Thi; Khieu Dinh, Quang; Hoa Tran, Thai; Nguyen, Hai Phong; Le Hien Hoang, Thi; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been successfully synthesized by utilizing water soluble chitosan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The colloidal Au-NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the colloidal Au-NPs had a plasmon absorption band with maximum wavelength in the range of 520–526 nm and the diameters were about 8–15 nm. In addition, a new Au-NPs-modified electrode was fabricated by self-assembling Au-NPs to the surface of the L-cysteine-modified glassy carbon electrode (Au-NPs/L-Cys/GCE). The Au-NPs-modified electrode showed an excellent character for electro-catalytic oxidization of uric acid (UA) in 0.1 mol L?1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.2). Using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DP-ASV), a high selectivity for determination of UA has been explored for the Au-NPs-modified electrode. DP-ASV peak currents of UA increased linearly with their concentration at the range of 2.0 × 10?6 to 4.0 × 10?5 mol L?1 with the detection limit of 2.7 × 10?6 mol L?1 for UA. The proposed method was applied for the detection of UA in human urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Uric Acid and the Prediction Models of Tumor Lysis Syndrome in AML

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, A. Ahsan; Pourafshar, Negiin; Mohandas, Rajesh; Smallwood, Bryan A.; Johnson, Richard J.; Hsu, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ability of serum uric acid (SUA) to predict laboratory tumor lysis syndrome (LTLS) and compared it to common laboratory variables, cytogenetic profiles, tumor markers and prediction models in acute myeloid leukemia patients. In this retrospective study patients were risk-stratified for LTLS based on SUA cut-off values and the discrimination ability was compared to current prediction models. The incidences of LTLS were 17.8%, 21% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively. SUA was an independent predictor of LTLS (adjusted OR 1.12, CI95% 1.0–1.3, p = 0.048). The discriminatory ability of SUA, per ROC curves, to predict LTLS was superior to LDH, cytogenetic profile, tumor markers and the combined model but not to WBC (AUCWBC 0.679). However, in comparisons between high-risk SUA and high-risk WBC, SUA had superior discriminatory capability than WBC (AUCSUA 0.664 vs. AUCWBC 0.520; p <0.001). SUA also demonstrated better performance than the prediction models (high-risk SUAAUC 0.695, p<0.001). In direct comparison of high-risk groups, SUA again demonstrated superior performance than the prediction models (high-risk SUAAUC 0.668, p = 0.001) in predicting LTLS, approaching that of the combined model (AUC 0.685, p<0.001). In conclusion, SUA alone is comparable and highly predictive for LTLS than other prediction models. PMID:25775138

  10. Electrochemical and catalytic investigations of dopamine and uric acid by modified carbon nanotube paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Beitollahi, Hadi; Ganjipour, Bahram; Naeimi, Hossein; Nejati, Maryam

    2009-04-01

    The redox response of a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode of 2,2'-[1, 2-ethanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone was investigated. Mixture of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA), can be separated from one another with a potential difference of 180 mV between them at a scan rate of 25 mVs(-1) by cyclic voltammetry. These conditions are sufficient to allow determination of DA and UA both individually and simultaneously. The electrocatalytic currents increases linearly with the DA and UA concentrations in the ranges of 0.1-900 microM and 20-650 microM, and the detection limits for DA and UA, were 0.087 and 15 muM, respectively. The diffusion coefficient (D/cm(2) s(-1)=7.3x10(-6)) and the kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient, (alpha=0.32) and the heterogeneous rate constant, (k'/cm s(-1)=2.21x10(-3)) for DA were determined using electrochemical approaches. PMID:19195936

  11. The significance of serum uric acid level in humans with acute paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, JuanWen; Zhao, Ying; Bai, YunJuan; Lv, GuoCai; Wu, JianPing; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in cardiovascular disease and has been found to play a role in diseases exacerbated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum uric acid (UA) level is an indicator of outcome in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. A total of 205 subjects who had attempted suicide by oral ingestion of paraquat were admitted to the emergency room between January 2009 and June 2014. Initial serum UA level and other laboratory parameters were measured. A total of 66 patients died during the 30 days after admission, corresponding to a 32.2% cumulative incidence of mortality. UA levels were higher in non-survivors than survivors (P < 0.001) and 30-day mortality increased with increasing baseline serum UA level (P < 0.001). In a prediction analysis for 30-day mortality, the serum UA level had a cut-off concentration of 284?µmol/L in female patients and 352?µmol/L in male patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that white blood cell counts and UA were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, we showed that serum UA may be an independent predictor of 30-day mortality in patients with paraquat poisoning. PMID:25772718

  12. Stop-flow studies on tubular transport of uric acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Shinosaki, T; Yonetani, Y

    1989-01-01

    A stop-flow technique using pyrazinoic acid(PZO)-treated and -untreated rats was devised to evaluate drug effects on bi-directional transport of uric acid in the tubules. Constant venous infusion of test drugs to PZO-untreated rats was used to estimate their inhibitory effects on urate secretion, while their inhibitory effects on urate reabsorption was studied by intravenous administration as a bolus to PZO-treated rats. Probenecid, tienilic acid and R-(+)-enantiomer of S-8666, which is the uricosuric component of a new uricosuric diuretic, decreased the (Tua/Pua)/(Tin/Pin) value in the distal and proximal tubules by inhibiting urate secretion in PZO-untreated rats. On the other hand, all of these drugs increased the (Tua/Pua)/(Tin/Pin) value in the tubules in PZO-treated rats, which suggested that they also inhibited the reabsorptive flux of urate. This stop-flow technique in rat kidneys showed the possibilities of bi-directional inhibition by these drugs of urate transport in the tubules. PMID:2624206

  13. Common Variants Related to Serum Uric Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Secretion in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xue; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Tang, Shanshan; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Yan, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shiyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor and predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on T2D remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of the uric acid-associated genes on the risk of T2D as well as glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Method We recruited 2,199 normal glucose tolerance subjects from the Shanghai Diabetes Study I and II and 2,999 T2D patients from the inpatient database of Shanghai Diabetes Institute. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped in or near 11 loci (PDZK1, GCKR, LRP2, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, SLC22A11, SLC22A12 and SF1) were genotyped and serum biochemical parameters related to uric acid and T2D were determined. Results SF1 rs606458 showed strong association to T2D in both males and females (p = 0.034 and 0.0008). In the males, LRRC16A was associated with 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.009 and 0.009). SLC22A11 was correlated with HOMA-B and insulin secretion (p = 0.048 and 0.029). SLC2A9 rs3775948 was associated with 2-h glucose (p = 0.043). In the females, LRP2 rs2544390 and rs1333049 showed correlations with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and insulin secretion (p = 0.028, 0.033 and 0.052 and p = 0.034, 0.047 and 0.038, respectively). SLC2A9 rs11722228 was correlated with 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.024, 0.049 and 0.049, respectively). Conclusions Our results indicated that the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on the risk of T2D, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population. PMID:25617895

  14. Dur3 is the major urea transporter in Candida albicans and is co-regulated with the urea amidolyase Dur1,2

    PubMed Central

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Das, Aditi; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Nickerson, Kenneth W.; Roberts, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Hemiascomycetes, including the pathogen Candida albicans, acquire nitrogen from urea using the urea amidolyase Dur1,2, whereas all other higher fungi use primarily the nickel-containing urease. Urea metabolism via Dur1,2 is important for resistance to innate host immunity in C. albicans infections. To further characterize urea metabolism in C. albicans we examined the function of seven putative urea transporters. Gene disruption established that Dur3, encoded by orf 19.781, is the predominant transporter. [14C]Urea uptake was energy-dependent and decreased approximately sevenfold in a dur3? mutant. DUR1,2 and DUR3 expression was strongly induced by urea, whereas the other putative transporter genes were induced less than twofold. Immediate induction of DUR3 by urea was independent of its metabolism via Dur1,2, but further slow induction of DUR3 required the Dur1,2 pathway. We investigated the role of the GATA transcription factors Gat1 and Gln3 in DUR1,2 and DUR3 expression. Urea induction of DUR1,2 was reduced in a gat1? mutant, strongly reduced in a gln3? mutant, and abolished in a gat1? gln3? double mutant. In contrast, DUR3 induction by urea was preserved in both single mutants but reduced in the double mutant, suggesting that additional signalling mechanisms regulate DUR3 expression. These results establish Dur3 as the major urea transporter in C. albicans and provide additional insights into the control of urea utilization by this pathogen. PMID:20884691

  15. Modelling and mutational analysis of Aspergillus nidulans UreA, a member of the subfamily of urea/H+ transporters in fungi and plants

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Manuel; Amillis, Sotiris; Pantano, Sergio; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Ramón, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We present the first account of the structure–function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/H+ membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using Aspergillus nidulans UreA as a study model. Based on the crystal structures of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT) and of the Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from Microbacterium liquefaciens (Mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of UreA which, combined with site-directed and classical random mutagenesis, led to the identification of amino acids important for UreA function. Our approach allowed us to suggest roles for these residues in the binding, recognition and translocation of urea, and in the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Residues W82, Y106, A110, T133, N275, D286, Y388, Y437 and S446, located in transmembrane helixes 2, 3, 7 and 11, were found to be involved in the binding, recognition and/or translocation of urea and the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Y106, A110, T133 and Y437 seem to play a role in substrate selectivity, while S446 is necessary for proper sorting of UreA to the membrane. Other amino acids identified by random classical mutagenesis (G99, R141, A163, G168 and P639) may be important for the basic transporter's structure, its proper folding or its correct traffic to the membrane. PMID:24966243

  16. The uric acid transporter SLC2A9 is a direct target gene of the tumor suppressor p53 contributing to antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Itahana, Y; Han, R; Barbier, S; Lei, Z; Rozen, S; Itahana, K

    2015-04-01

    Only humans and higher primates have high uric acid blood levels. Although high uric acid causes gout, it has been linked with human longevity because of its hypothetical antioxidant function. Recent studies reveal that p53 has significant roles in cellular metabolism. One example of this is an antioxidant function that potentially contributes to tumor suppression. Here, we reported a first beneficial link between p53 and uric acid. We identified the uric acid transporter SLC2A9 (also known as GLUT9) as a direct p53 target gene and a key downstream effector in the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through transporting uric acid as a source of antioxidant. Oxidative stress induced SLC2A9 expression in a p53-dependent manner, and inhibition of SLC2A9 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or anti-gout drugs such as probenecid significantly increased ROS levels in an uric acid-dependent manner and greatly sensitized cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Conversely, expression of SLC2A9 reduced ROS and protected against DNA damage and cell death, suggesting its antioxidant function. The increased production of ROS because of p53 loss was rescued by SLC2A9 expression. Furthermore, decreased SLC2A9 expression was observed in several cancer types and was associated with a poorer prognosis. Our findings suggest that the p53-SLC2A9 pathway is a novel antioxidant mechanism that uses uric acid to maintain ROS homeostasis and prevent accumulation of ROS-associated damage that potentially contributes to cancer development. PMID:24858040

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

  18. Choline chloride/urea as an effective plasticizer for production of cellulose films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Peng, Xinwen; Zhong, Linxin; Jing, Shuangshuang; Cao, Xuefei; Lu, Fachuang; Sun, Runcang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, choline chloride/urea (ChCl/urea), a typical deep eutectic solvent (DES), has been found to possess various applications in organic synthesis, electrochemistry, and nanomaterial preparation. Herein we reported the first attempt to plasticize regenerated cellulose film (RCF) using ChCl/urea as an effective plasticizer. Meanwhile, RCFs plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol were also prepared for comparison. The plasticized RCFs were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and mechanical testing. Transparent and soft RCFs could be successfully prepared in the presence of ChCl/urea, and high elongation at break (34.88%) suggested a significant plasticizing efficiency. No new crystal and phase separation occurred to ChCl/urea plasticized RCFs. The thermal stability of ChCl/urea plasticized RCF was lowered. These results indicated that ChCl/urea was an effective plasticizer for producing cellulose films. PMID:25498618

  19. A comparison of GFR estimating formulae based upon s-cystatin C and s-creatinine and a combination of the two

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Tidman; Ian Jones

    2008-01-01

    Background. Current recommendations (KDIGO and NKF-K\\/DOQI) are that patients with chronic kidney dis- eases (CKD) should be classified in stages 1-5 based on GFR. A serum creatinine-based prediction equation (ab- breviated MDRD formula) can be used to estimate GFR (eGFR). Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative filtration marker to creatinine. We present validation of currently used formulae for

  20. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 CCQM-K80 'Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: creatinine in human serum' is the first in a series of key comparisons directly testing the chemical measurement services provided to customers by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes. CCQM-K80 compared the assigned serum creatinine values of certified reference materials (CRMs) using measurements made on these materials under repeatability conditions. Six NMIs submitted 17 CRM materials for evaluation, all intended for sale to customers. These materials represent nearly all of the higher-order CRMs then available for this clinically important measurand. The certified creatinine mass fraction in the materials ranged from 3 mg/kg to 57 mg/kg. All materials were stored and prepared according the specifications provided by each NMI. Samples were processed and analyzed under repeatability conditions by one analyst using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The instrumental repeatability imprecision, expressed as a percent relative standard deviation, was 1.2%. Given the number of materials and the time required for each analysis, the measurements were made in two measurement campaigns ('runs'). In both campaigns, replicate analyses (two injections of one preparation separated in time) were made on each of two or three independently prepared aliquots from one randomly selected unit of each of the 17 materials. The mean value, between-campaign, between-aliquot and between-replicate variance components, standard uncertainty of the mean value, and the number of degrees of freedom associated with the standard uncertainty were estimated using a linear mixed model. Since several of the uncertainties estimated using this traditional frequentist approach were associated with a single degree of freedom, Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals, U95. Uncertainty-weighted generalized distance regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the wide range of creatinine mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, the assigned values for 16 of the 17 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. The excluded material was identified as having a marginally underestimated assigned uncertainty, giving it large and potentially anomalous influence on the KCRF. However, this material's %d of 1.4 +/- 1.5 indicates that it is equivalent with the other materials at the 95% level of confidence. The median |%d| for all 17 of the materials is 0.3 with a median U95(%d) of 1.9. All of these higher-order CRMs for creatinine in human serum are equivalent within their assigned uncertainties. The median |%D| for the participating NMIs is 0.3 with a median U95(%D) of 2.1. These results demonstrate that all participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for creatinine in human serum and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Morisseau; Marvin H. Goodrow; Deanna Dowdy; Jiang Zheng; Jessica F. Greene; James R. Sanborn; Bruce D. Hammock

    1999-01-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity

  2. Rotational viscometry for the study of urea-formaldehyde resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aime Suurpere; Peep Christjanson; Kadri Siimer

    Rotational viscometry as a generally recognized method for rheological measurements of non-Newtonian liquids was used for the study of commercial urea-formaldehyde resins. The measurement results were analysed using the power law function with evaluation of the consistency and flow indices. The resins were observed during their storage until alkali-promoted poly- condensation led to gelation. It is suitable to differentiate two

  3. Growth of urea crystals by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, R. S.; Route, R. K.; Kao, T.-M.

    1985-01-01

    This work demonstrates that high optical quality crystals of urea can be grown by the physical vapor transport method. The unique features of this method are compared with growth from methanol/water solutions. High growth rates, exceeding 2.5 mm/day, were achieved, and cm-size optical quality single crystals were obtained. Details of the growth technique and the physical properties of the crystals are presented.

  4. Novel imidazolium chiral ionic liquids that contain a urea functionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bukuo Ni; Allan D. Headley

    2006-01-01

    Nine chiral room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), which contain a chiral moiety and a urea functionality bonded to a imidazolium ring, have been designed and synthesized. The synthesis of these ionic liquids is concise and practical due to the commercial availability of the starting materials. These novel RTILs were readily prepared from 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole and amino acid ester derived isocyanates. We

  5. Antimicrobial activities of N-chloramines and diazolidinyl urea.

    PubMed Central

    Llabres, C M; Ahearn, D G

    1985-01-01

    A combination of MICs of an N-chloramine, a simple chlorinated amino acid, and diazolidinyl urea gave synergistic activity against bacteria, but not fungi. The two compounds at a higher concentration, 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, gave synergistic inhibition of fungi; kill times were 1 h for Trichophyton tonsurans, 3 h for Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme, and 6 h for Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:3920962

  6. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  7. Development and evaluation of a reagent carrier with a new reaction sequence for the determination of creatinine in blood, plasma, serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, C A; Nagel, R; Knoll, E; Wisser, H; Weidemann, G; Riesen, W F; Seiler, D; Nagel, D

    1993-05-01

    After a short outline of the history of creatinine determination methods we describe the development of a dry-reagent-carrier system for the reflometric determination of the creatinine concentration in blood, plasma, serum and urine (Reflotron Creatinine (new)). The method is based on a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed reactions producing H2O2, but which in contrast to the previously used procedure do not lead to the formation of creatine as an intermediate. Hence, pretreatment of sample material to eliminate endogenous creatine is no longer necessary. In the indicator reaction, use is made of an imidazole derivative as the chromogen. The dye formed in the presence of peroxidase can be measured by reflectance photometry beyond the long-wave absorption bands of haemoglobin and bilirubin at 642 nm. We present in detail the results of the multicentre evaluation of the analytical properties of this new test principle. The data obtained show that Reflotron Creatinine (new) correlates well with the routine method Creatinine PAP, which was used as a comparison method, with respect to accuracy and precision and even surpasses it with respect to specificity. Advantages over the first generation of Reflotron Creatinine are: shorter reaction time, longer stability of the reagent carrier, no interference by bilirubin and reduced interference by haemoglobin. PMID:8357943

  8. Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holešová, Sylva; Valášková, Marta; Hlavá?, Dominik; Madejová, Jana; Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš; Pazdziora, Erich

    2014-06-01

    Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Urea cycle disorder (UCD) is an inborn error of the metabolic pathway producing urea from ammonia, which occurs primarily in the liver. Decreased excretion of nitrogen in the urea cycle due to deficiency of carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPSI), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and N-acetyl glutamate synthase (NAGS) causes hyperammonemia. We examined the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of 177 patients with UCD from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan. Compared with a previous study conducted in Japan, a larger number of patients survived without mental retardation, even when the peak blood ammonia was >360 ?mol/L. In those with peak blood ammonia >360 ?mol/L, an indicator of poor prognosis, the frequency of convulsions, mental retardation, brain abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, hemodialysis, liver transplantation, and intake of non-protein formulas was significantly higher than in those with peak blood ammonia <360 ?mol/L. In this article, we have reported the current state of UCD to evaluate prognosis and its relationship with peak blood ammonia and hemodialysis. PMID:25039902

  10. Differential stability of the bovine prion protein upon urea unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Olivier; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Thiessen, Angela; Graether, Steffen P; Sykes, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are a group of infectious neurological diseases associated with the structural conversion of an endogenous protein (PrP) in the central nervous system. There are two major forms of this protein: the native and noninfectious cellular form, PrPC; and the misfolded, infectious, and proteinase K-resistant form, PrPSc. The C-terminal domain of PrPC is mainly ?-helical in structure, whereas PrPSc in known to aggregate into an assembly of ?-sheets, forming amyloid fibrils. To identify the regions of PrPC potentially involved in the initial steps of the conversion to the infectious conformation, we have used high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to characterize the stability and structure of bovine recombinant PrPC (residues 121 to 230) during unfolding with the denaturant urea. Analysis of the 800 MHz 1H NMR spectra reveals region-specific information about the structural changes occurring upon unfolding. Our data suggest that the dissociation of the native ?-sheet of PrPC is a primary step in the urea-induced unfolding process, while strong hydrophobic interactions between helices ?1 and ?3, and between ?2 and ?3, stabilize these regions even at very high concentrations of urea. PMID:19693935

  11. The Lowest Vibrational States of Urea from the Rotational Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    The urea molecule, (NH_2)_2CO, has a complex potential energy surface resulting from a combination of the NH_2 torsion and NH_2 inversion motions. This leads to a distribution of lowest vibrational states that is expected to be significantly different from the more familiar picture from simple inversion or normal mode models. The broadband 207-500 GHz spectrum of urea recorded in Dayton has signal to noise sufficient for assignment of rotational transitions in excited vibrational states up to at least 500 cm-1. In addition to the previously reported analysis of the ground and the lowest excited state we have been able to assign transitions in at least five other excited vibrational states. Strongly perturbed transitions in a close doublet of such states have been fitted to within experimental accuracy with a coupled fit and a splitting in the region of 1 cm-1. These assignments combined with vibrational energy estimates from relative intensity measurements allow for empirical discrimination between different models for the energy level manifestation of the large amplitude motions in urea.^b P.D.Godfrey, R.D.Brown, A.N.Hunter J. Mol. Struct., 413-414, 405-414 (1997). N.Inostroza, M.L.Senent, Chem. Phys. Lett., 524, 25 (2012).

  12. Developing Hypothetical Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Urea Transporter B Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Tou, Weng Ieong; Zhou, Hong; Li, Fei; Ren, Huiwen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-07-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.

  13. Simultaneous electrochemical detection of dopamine and uric acid over ceria supported three dimensional gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Sivakumar

    2014-12-01

    CeO2 is well known for being an active material to support the growth of Au nanoclusters (Au NCs). In this work, three dimensional (3D) Au NCs were deposited on three different shaped CeO2 nanostructures such as nanoparticles (NPs), nanorod arrays (NRAs) and nanoflowers (NFs) modified Ti substrate for electrochemical simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The electrodeposition of 3D Au NCs were carried out via cyclic voltammetric (CV) method at over-potential, while CeO2 nanostructures were deposited by galvanostatic constant current method under the optimized conditions. The morphology and elemental composition analysis of 3D Au NCs with CeO2 nanostructures were characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS and EDAX measurements. The electrocatalytic activity of 3D Au NCs on different CeO2 supports were thoroughly investigated by using voltammetric and amperometric techniques. According to the obtained results, CeO2 NPs supported 3D Au NCs (3D Au NCs@CeO2 NPs) displayed strong signal for DA as compared to that of CeO2 NRAs (3D Au NCs@CeO2 NRAs) and CeO2 NFs supported 3D Au NCs (3D Au NCs@CeO2 NFs). In addition, the 3D Au NCs@CeO2 NPs electrode resulted in more sensitive and simultaneous detection of DA in the presence of excess UA. Thus, the 3D Au NCs@CeO2 NPs electrode can practically be applied for the detection of DA using biological samples.

  14. The Interplay Between Uric Acid and Antioxidants in Relation to Physical Function in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Cherubini, Antonio; Guralnik, Jack; Semba, Richard D.; Maggio, Marcello; Ling, Shari M.; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between circulating uric acid (UA) levels and plasma antioxidants and whether antioxidant levels modulate the association between UA and physical function. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Community-based. PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred sixty-six elderly persons participating in the baseline assessment of the Invecchiare in Chianti Study. MEASUREMENTS UA, carotenoid, tocopherol, and selenium concentrations were assayed. Physical function was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Potential confounders were assessed using standardized methods. RESULTS Total carotenoids (P =.008), in particular ?-carotene (P =.02), lutein (P<.001), zeaxanthin (P<.001), lycopene (P =.07), cryptoxanthin (P =.29), and selenium (P =.04) were inversely associated with UA levels. Total tocopherols (P =.06) and ?-tocopherol (P =.10) had a positive trend across UA levels. SPPB (P =.01) and IADL disability (P =.002) were nonlinearly distributed across the UA quintiles. Participants within the middle UA quintile (4.8–5.3 mg/dL) were less disabled in IADLs and had better SPPB scores than those in the extreme UA quintiles. There was a significant interaction between UA and selenium in the model predicting SPPB score (P =.02). CONCLUSION UA levels are inversely associated with circulating carotenoids and selenium. Participants with intermediate UA levels had a higher prevalence of good physical functions, higher SPPB scores, and lower IADL disability. This study suggests that older subjects with intermediate UA levels may have an optimum balance between proinflammatory and antioxidant compounds that may contribute to better physical performance. PMID:17661959

  15. Serum Uric Acid Predicts Declining of Circulating Proangiogenic Mononuclear Progenitor Cells in Chronic Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Alexander E.; Kremzer, Alexander A.; Samura, Tatyana A.; Berezina, Tatyana A.; Martovitskaya, Yulia V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Serum uric acid (SUA) is considered a marker for natural progression of chronic heart failure (CHF) mediated cardiovascular remodelling. CHF associates with declining of circulating mononuclear progenitor cells (MPCs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship between SUA concentrations and proangiogenic MPCs in ischemic CHF patients. Methods: The study population was structured retrospectively after determining the coronary artery disease (CAD) by contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography angiography in 126 subjects with symptomatic ischemic mild-to-severe CHF and 128 CAD subjects without CHF. Baseline biomarkers were measured in all patients. Cox proportional multivariate hazard ratio was calculated for predictors of MPCs declining in both CHF and non-CHF patient population predictors of MPCs declining in CHF subjects were examined in stepwise logistic regression. C-statistics, integrated discrimination indices (IDI) and net-reclassification improvement were utilized for prediction performance analyses. Results: Cox proportional adjusted hazard ratio analyses for CD14+CD309+ and CD14+CD309+Tie2+ MPCs by SUA has shown that the higher quartiles (Q3 and Q4) of SUA compared to the lower quartiles (Q1 and Q2) are associated with increased risks of depletion of both CD14+CD309+ and CD14+CD309+Tie2+ MPCs. The addition of Q4 SUA to the ABC model improved the relative IDI by 13.8% for depletion of CD14+CD309+ MPCs and by 14.5% for depletion of CD14+CD309+Tie2+ MPCs. Conclusion: Circulating levels of proangiogenic MPCs are declined progressively depending on the levels of SUA in the HF subjects with CHF. We suggest that even mild elevations of SUA might be used to predict of relative depletion of proangiogenic MPCs among chronic HF patients. PMID:25320662

  16. A clinical study of /sup 99m/Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in obstructed kidneys: comparison with the creatinine clearance

    SciTech Connect

    De Maeyer, P.; Simons, M.; Oosterlinck, W.; De Sy, W.A.

    1982-07-01

    We studied 17 hydronephrotic kidneys owing to stenosis of the pyeloureteral junction. Preoperative uptake of /sup 99m/Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid was compared to early postoperative unilateral creatinine clearance, measured by urine collection from the nephrostomy tube. An excellent correlation was found. Therefore, uptake of /sup 99m/Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid represents a reliable parameter of renal function even in the presence of severe urinary tract obstruction. However, /sup 99m/Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake should be measured more than 24 hours after injection of the tracer.

  17. Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species.

    PubMed

    Peinado, V I; Polo, F J; Viscor, G; Palomeque, J

    1992-01-01

    Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, total phosphorus, chloride, total plasma protein, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and osmolality. PMID:18670915

  18. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and uric acid as efficient predictors of survival in colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dziaman, Tomasz; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Gackowski, Daniel; Wisniewska, Ewa; Rozalski, Rafa?; Foksinski, Marek; Siomek, Agnieszka; Speina, Elzbieta; Winczura, Alicja; Marszalek, Andrzej; Tudek, Barbara; Olinski, Ryszard

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this work was to answer the question whether the broad range of parameters which describe oxidative stress and oxidatively damaged DNA and repair are appropriate prognosis factors of colon cancer (CRC) patients survival? The following parameters were analyzed for 89 CRC patients: concentration of uric acid and vitamins A, E, C in plasma; levels of 8-oxodGuo (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) in DNA of leukocyte and colon tissues; urinary excretion rates of 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGua (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine); the activity and mRNA or protein level of repair enzymes OGG1, APE1, ANPG, TDG and PARP1. All DNA modifications and plasma antioxidants were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or HPLC/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Expression of repair proteins was analyzed by QPCR, Western or immunohistochemistry methods. Longer survival coincided with low levels of 8-oxodGuo/8oxoGua in urine and 8-oxodGuo in DNA as well as with high concentration of uric acid plasma level. In contrast to expectations, longer survival coincided with lower mRNA level in normal colon tissue of the main 8-oxoGua DNA glycosylase, OGG1, but no association was found for PARP-1 expression. When analyzing simultaneously two parameters the discriminating power increased significantly. Combination of low level of urinary 8-oxoGua together with low level of 8-oxodGuo in leukocyte (both below median value) or high concentration of plasma uric acid (above median value) have the best prediction power. Since prediction value of these parameters seems to be comparable to conventional staging procedure, they could possibly be used as markers to predict clinical success in CRC treatment. PMID:23832862

  19. Interactions of urea with native and unfolded proteins: a volumetric study.

    PubMed

    Son, Ikbae; Shek, Yuen Lai; Tikhomirova, Anna; Baltasar, Eduardo Hidalgo; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2014-11-26

    We describe a statistical thermodynamic approach to analyzing urea-dependent volumetric properties of proteins. We use this approach to analyze our urea-dependent data on the partial molar volume and adiabatic compressibility of lysozyme, apocytochrome c, ribonuclease A, and ?-chymotrypsinogen A. The analysis produces the thermodynamic properties of elementary urea-protein association reactions while also yielding estimates of the effective solvent-accessible surface areas of the native and unfolded protein states. Lysozyme and apocytochrome c do not undergo urea-induced transitions. The former remains folded, while the latter is unfolded between 0 and 8 M urea. In contrast, ribonuclease A and ?-chymotrypsinogen A exhibit urea-induced unfolding transitions. Thus, our data permit us to characterize urea-protein interactions in both the native and unfolded states. We interpreted the urea-dependent volumetric properties of the proteins in terms of the equilibrium constant, k, and changes in volume, ?V0, and compressibility, ?KT0, for a reaction in which urea binds to a protein with a concomitant release of two waters of hydration to the bulk. Comparison of the values of k, ?V0, and ?KT0 with the similar data obtained on small molecules mimicking protein groups reveals lack of cooperative effects involved in urea-protein interactions. In general, the volumetric approach, while providing a unique characterization of cosolvent-protein interactions, offers a practical way for evaluating the effective solvent accessible surface area of biologically significant fully or partially unfolded polypeptides. PMID:25365737

  20. ENSURING THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF UREA DOSING FOR ON-ROAD AND NON-ROAD

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G; Lonsdale, B

    2003-08-24

    The purpose of this presentation is to address two important issues. The first issue is nationwide availability of urea. The second is assurance by the engine maker that the engine cannot operate without urea. In regard to the first issue, North American urea production can support SCR needs for the Heavy Duty truck industry. The existing distribution methods, pathways and technology could be utilized for urea supply with no new invention required. Urea usage and storage capacity on vehicles would support long distances between tank refills, as SCR could be initially rolled out with a limited infrastructure. The price of urea should be less than diesel fuel and urea SCR should have a fuel economy advantage over competing technologies. It can be in place by 2007. In regard to the second issue, sensor technology exists to monitor urea tank level and verify that the fluid in the tank is urea. NOx sensors are available to monitor tailpipe NOx, ensuring the entire SCR system is functioning properly, and inferring that urea is in the system. The monitoring system could be used to monitor compliance, record faults, and initiate enforcement actions as necessary. The monitoring system could initiate actions to encourage compliance.

  1. Comparison of cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict coronary heart disease risk in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Yamakage, Hajime; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wada, Hiromichi; Otani, Sumire; Yonezawa, Kazuya; Ogo, Atsushi; Okajima, Taiichiro; Adachi, Masahiro; Araki, Rika; Yoshida, Kazuro; Saito, Miho; Nagaoka, Tadasu; Toyonaga, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Ota, Itsuro; Oishi, Mariko; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2015-02-27

    The aim of this study is to determine which indicator of chronic kidney disease most closely correlates with 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among serum creatinine, serum cystatin C (S-CysC), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated creatinine-based GFRs (eGFRcre), and estimated CysC-based GFRs (eGFRcys) in patients with obesity and diabetes. Serum creatinine, S-CysC, UACR, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were examined in 468 outpatients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, free of severe renal dysfunction or previous history of cardiovascular disease, as a cross-sectional survey using baseline data from the multi-centered Japan Diabetes and Obesity Study. S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with the 10-year Framingham CHD risk than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ? = 0.318; S-CysC, ? = 0.497; UACR, ? = 0.174; eGFRcre, ? = -0.291; eGFRcys, ? = -0.521; P < 0.01 by Fisher's z-test). S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with CAVI than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ? = 0.198; S-CysC, ? = 0.383; UACR, ? = 0.183; eGFRcre, ? = -0.302; eGFRcys, ? = -0.444; P < 0.05 by Fisher's z-test). The receiver operating characteristic curves to distinguish the high-risk patients for CHD revealed significantly larger areas under the curve of S-CysC and eGFRcys than those of serum creatinine, UACR, and eGFRcre (serum creatinine, 0.64; S-CysC, 0.75; UACR, 0.56; eGFRcre, 0.63; eGFRcys, 0.76; P < 0.01). The data suggested that eGFRcys can be more predictive of the 10-year CHD risk than eGFRcre in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes. PMID:25399862

  2. Efficient voltammetric discrimination of free bilirubin from uric acid and ascorbic acid by a CVD nanographite-based microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Irene; Van Hoof, Viviane; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    We report a novel electrochemical sensor based on nanographite grown on platinum microelectrodes for the determination of bilirubin in the presence of normal concentrations of albumin. The albumin is a protein with an intrinsic ability to bind the bilirubin therefore reducing the concentration of the free electroactive metabolite in human fluids. In addition, the proposed device permits the discrimination of free bilirubin from two interferents, uric acid and ascorbic acid, by the separation of their oxidation peaks in voltammetry. Preliminary measurements in human serum prove that the proposed nanostructured platform can be used to detect bilirubin. PMID:25159430

  3. Oxygen binding of fetal and adult bovine hemoglobin in the presence of organic phosphates and uric acid riboside.

    PubMed

    Smith, R C; Garbutt, G J; Isaacks, R E; Harkness, D R

    1979-01-01

    The P50 values of "stripped" fetal and adult bovine hemoglobin were 18.4 and 28.9 respectively. Neither the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve nor the Hill coefficient, n, of fetal or adult bovine hemoglobin was affected by uric acid riboside (UAR), 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or inositol pentaphosphate (IPP). Combinations of UAR and ATP with adult bovine hemoglobin or 2,3-DPG and ATP with fetal hemoglobin also had no effect. It was concluded that neither adult nor fetal bovine red cells contained an identifiable compound which affects the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin. PMID:37193

  4. Urinary hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio as a biological effect marker for exposure to NO 2 and tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Nishimura, Hajime; Matsuki, Hideaki; Osaka, Fumio; Kasuga, Hitoshi

    In order to study the relationship between NO 2 exposure and effects, we monitored personal NO 2 exposures and the hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio in urine of about 800 women in two communities near Tokyo. Monitoring was conducted during two seasons, winter and summer 1982. The hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio (HOP:C) was determined from urine samples collected in the early morning. Daily average personal NO 2 exposures (ENO 2) were measured by using a filter badge. In both seasons, HOP:C was found to have significant correlation with ENO 2 and active and passive smoking. In addition, subjects living near major roads had significantly higher HOP:C levels in the summer compared with those living far from them. We hypothesize that these higher HOP:C levels in the summer were due to higher air exchange rates resulting in infiltration of automobile exhaust into homes. ENO 2, however, did not correlate with either the distance of the subject's house from major roads or with the amount of smoking. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that HOP:C could be predicted by personal NO 2 exposures and smoking variables with a high level of confidence.

  5. The effect of inter-laboratory variability on the protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio in canine urine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Bertazzolo, W; Dondi, F; Binnella, M; Gruarin, M; Scarpa, P; Paltrinieri, S

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of proteinuria is a fundamental step in staging dogs with chronic kidney disease and in monitoring the course of disease or the efficacy of anti-proteinuric treatments. Analytical precision and accuracy of the proteinuria assessment could be affected by several factors such as biological variability, different operators and quality control materials. The aim of this study was to assess whether inter-laboratory variability could affect the urinary protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio and whether this variability may affect patient classification according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) sub-staging system. The same urine samples were analysed in three different laboratories using different instruments and different reagent brands. The results of the three laboratories were highly correlated to each other although urinary protein (UP), urinary creatinine (UC) and the UPC ratio of one laboratory were found to be significantly higher than those of the other two. No significant differences between the other two laboratories were recorded. The concordance in classifying dogs according to the IRIS guidelines was good if all three proteinuria categories were analysed separately or if borderline proteinuric (BP) dogs were included in the proteinuric group, and very good if BP dogs were merged into the non-proteinuric group. The inter-laboratory variability in UPC ratio measurement was not so great as to impede the identification of proteinuric dogs, but may influence the estimation of the magnitude of proteinuria. PMID:25744805

  6. Screening of kidney function by plasma creatinine and single-sample 51Cr-EDTA clearance determination--a comparison.

    PubMed

    Groth, S; Aasted, M; Vestergaard, B

    1989-12-01

    Nomograms or simple formulas have been suggested for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from either plasma creatinine (ClK) or from a single plasma sample drawn after an intravenous injection of 51Cr-EDTA (ClA/B). This study compares the precision of estimating GFR as ClK and ClA/B. A multiple plasma-sample standard method (ClSM) served as reference. The comparison was performed in 136 individuals. The variance of ClA/B on ClSM was 14.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 while the variance of ClK on ClSM was 204.5 ml/min/1.73 m2. It is concluded that the ClA/B values are more precise than the ClK values (p less than 0.01). The single-sample method for determination of 51Cr-EDTA clearance seems well-suited for evaluation and monitoring of patients with known or suspected kidney diseases. It may even be applied for screening purposes in cases where plasma creatinine would otherwise have been chosen instead of the usual resource-demanding method for determination of ClSM. PMID:2515587

  7. A highly selective photoelectrochemical biosensor for uric acid based on core-shell Fe3O4@C nanoparticle and molecularly imprinted TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunjing; Si, Shihui; Yang, Zhengpeng

    2014-10-16

    Combining the surface modification and molecular imprinting technique, a novel photoelectrochemical sensing platform with excellent photochemical catalysis and molecular recognition capabilities was established for the detection of uric acid based on the magnetic immobilization of Fe3O4@C nanoparticles onto magnetic glassy carbon electrode (MGCE) and modification of molecularly imprinted TiO2 film on Fe3O4@C. The developed biosensor was highly sensitive to uric acid in solutions, with a linear range from 0.3 to 34µM and a limit of detection of 0.02?M. Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited outstanding selectivity while used in coexisting systems containing various interferents with high concentration. The practical application of the biosensor was also realized for the selective detection of uric acid in spiked samples. The study made a successful attempt in the development of highly selective and sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for urine monitoring. PMID:25461147

  8. Proteinuria, 99mTc-DTPA Scintigraphy, Creatinine-, Cystatin- and Combined-Based Equations in the Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trimarchi, Hernán; Muryan, Alexis; Toscano, Agostina; Martino, Diana; Forrester, Mariano; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Lombi, Fernando; Young, Pablo; Rańa, María Soledad; Karl, Alejandra; Alonso, M.; Dicugno, Mariana; Fitzsimons, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background. Precise estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the identification of markers of progression are important. We compared creatinine, cystatin, and combined CKD-EPI equations with 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy to measure GFR and proteinuria as markers of progression. Methods. Cross-sectional, observational study including 300 subjects. CKD was classified by 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Determinations. Creatinine, 24-hour creatinine clearance, cystatin, Hoek formula, and creatinine, cystatin, and combined CKD-EPI equations. Results. In the global assessment, creatinine CKD-EPI and combined CKD-EPI equations yielded the highest correlations with 99mTc-DTPA: ? = 0.839, P < 0.0001 and ? = 0.831, P < 0.0001. Intergroup analysis versus 99mTc-DTPA: control G, creatinine clearance ? = 0.414, P = 0.013; G3, combined CKD-EPI ? = 0.5317, P < 0.0001; G4, Hoek ? = 0.618, P < 0.0001, combined CKD-EPI ? = 0.4638, P < 0.0001; and G5, creatinine clearance ? = 0.5414, P < 0.0001, combined CKD-EPI ? = 0.5288, P < 0.0001. In the global assessment, proteinuria displayed the highest significant correlations with cystatin (? = 0.5433, P < 0.0001) and cystatin-based equations (Hoek: ? = ?0.5309, P < 0.0001). When GFR < 60?mL/min: in stage 3, proteinuria-cystatin (? = 0.4341, P < 0.0001); proteinuria-Hoek (? = ?0.4105, P < 0.0001); in stage 4, proteinuria-cystatin (? = 0.4877, P < 0.0001); proteinuria-Hoek (? = ?0.4877, P = 0.0026). Conclusions. At every stage of GFR < 60?mL/min, cystatin-based equations displayed better correlations with 99mTc-DTPA. Proteinuria and cystatin-based equations showed strong associations and high degrees of correlation. PMID:24977136

  9. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  10. When and why a water-soluble antioxidant becomes pro-oxidant during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation: a study using uric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Bagnati, M; Perugini, C; Cau, C; Bordone, R; Albano, E; Bellomo, G

    1999-01-01

    The inclusion of uric acid in the incubation medium during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation exerted either an antioxidant or pro-oxidant effect. The pro-oxidant effect, as mirrored by an enhanced formation of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and increase in negative charge, occurred when uric acid was added late during the inhibitory or lag phase and during the subsequent extensive propagation phase of copper-stimulated LDL oxidation. The pro-oxidant effect of uric acid was specific for copper-induced LDL oxidation and required the presence of copper as either Cu(I) or Cu(II). In addition, it became much more evident when the copper to LDL molar ratio was below a threshold value of approx. 50. In native LDL, the shift between the antioxidant and the pro-oxidant activities was related to the availability of lipid hydroperoxides formed during the early phases of copper-promoted LDL oxidation. The artificial enrichment of isolated LDL with alpha-tocopherol delayed the onset of the pro-oxidant activity of uric acid and also decreased the rate of stimulated lipid peroxidation. However, previous depletion of alpha-tocopherol was not a prerequisite for unmasking the pro-oxidant activity of uric acid, since this became apparent even when alpha-tocopherol was still present in significant amounts (more than 50% of the original values) in LDL. These results suggest, irrespective of the levels of endogenous alpha-tocopherol, that uric acid may enhance LDL oxidation by reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), thus making more Cu(I) available for subsequent radical decomposition of lipid peroxides and propagation reactions. PMID:10229669

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics and Exposure-Uric Acid Analyses After Single and Multiple Doses of ABT-639, a Calcium Channel Blocker, in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Duan, W Rachel; Nothaft, Wolfram; Awni, Walid; Dutta, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    ABT-639 is a selective T-type calcium channel blocker with efficacy in a wide range of preclinical models of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current first-in-human (FIH) study, the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety of ABT-639 after single- (up to 170 mg) and multiple doses (up to 160 mg BID) were evaluated in healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner. ABT-639 demonstrated acceptable safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in human. Results from assessment of the routine laboratory variables showed an unexpected statistically significant and clinically relevant decrease in blood uric acid with the increase in ABT-639 dose, which is possibly due to inhibition in URAT1 transporter. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were constructed to characterize the relationship between ABT-639 exposure and uric acid response. The final model was a mechanism-based indirect response pharmacodynamic model with the stimulation of uric acid elimination by ABT-639. The model estimated K in values in males and females were 10.2 and 7.13 ?mol/h, respectively. The model estimated K out was 0.033 1/h. ABT-639 concentration that can produce 50% stimulation in uric acid elimination was estimated to be 8,070 ng/mL. Based on the final model, further simulations were conducted to predict the effect of ABT-639 on uric acid in gout patients. The simulation results indicated that, if the urate-lowering response to ABT-639 in gout patients is similar to that in healthy subjects, ABT-639 BID doses of 140 mg or higher would be expected to provide clinically meaningful lowering of blood uric acid levels below the 380 ?mol/L solubility limit of monosodium urate. PMID:25567367

  12. The effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption on serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jisuk; Park, Pil Sook; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine, a commonly consumed food constituent, is known to exert beneficial physiological effects in humans. There is a lack of comprehensive population data for the effects of caffeine intake on urate metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether coffee, tea, and caffeine intake influences serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. We enrolled 9,400 participants in this study. An assessment of various dietary intake amounts of substances such as coffee and tea was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. The content of caffeine was calculated from coffee (74 mg/cup) and tea (15 mg/cup) intake information from the past year. Multivariate logistic regression models, multiple linear regression models, and analysis of covariance were applied to identify any association of dietary intake with serum uric acid levels or the risk of hyperuricemia. No trends for coffee, tea, or caffeine intake were found according to each quintile with serum uric acid in males, although there were weak, marginally significant trends between the content of coffee and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in females (p = 0.07 for both). Tea intake in males and caffeine intake in females were significantly different between non-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). In addition, a significant association of serum uric acid level with tea intake in males (? = 0.0006, p = 0.02) and with tea intake and caffeine intake in females (? = 0.0003, p = 0.04 and ? = 0.0006, p = 0.02, respectively) was observed. There was no effect of coffee, tea, or caffeine intake on the risk of hyperuricemia in either males or females. This study suggests that caffeine consumption might have an effect on serum uric acid in females. However, coffee, tea, and caffeine intake amounts were not associated with the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:24929540

  13. Dynamic urea bond for the design of reversible and self-healing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Hanze; Zhang, Yanfeng; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymers bearing dynamic covalent bonds may exhibit dynamic properties, such as self-healing, shape memory and environmental adaptation. However, most dynamic covalent chemistries developed so far require either catalyst or change of environmental conditions to facilitate bond reversion and dynamic property change in bulk materials. Here we report the rational design of hindered urea bonds (urea with bulky substituent attached to its nitrogen) and the use of them to make polyureas and poly(urethane-urea)s capable of catalyst-free dynamic property change and autonomous repairing at low temperature. Given the simplicity of the hindered urea bond chemistry (reaction of a bulky amine with an isocyanate), incorporation of the catalyst-free dynamic covalent urea bonds to conventional polyurea or urea-containing polymers that typically have stable bulk properties may further broaden the scope of applications of these widely used materials.

  14. Trypsin-inspired poly(urethane-urea)s based on poly-lysine oligomer segment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhenqian; Wang, Fangjie; Lu, Haoxiang; Wang, Xinling; Zheng, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    A new kind of biodegradable poly(urethane-urea)s based on poly-lysine oligomer used as the soft segment was synthesized and characterized. In vitro degradation behavior of poly (urethane-urea)s was investigated, and was assessed by (1)H NMR and mass loss. The results indicated that the peptide bonds in poly(urethane-urea)s were effectively cleaved in simulated pancreatic juice containing trypsin, while those in buffer solution without trypsin remained unaffected. The degradability was obviously improved by introducing poly-lysine oligomer into the main chain of poly(urethane-urea)s. The results of cells viability test indicated that the poly (urethane-urea)s showed a good biocompatibility on endothelial cells. The thermostability and hydrophilicity of poly(urethane-urea)s increased with increase in poly-lysine oligomer content. PMID:25584962

  15. Study of photo-oxidative reactivity of sunscreening agents based on photo-oxidation of uric acid by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Moradmand Jalali, Hamed; Bashiri, Hadis; Rasa, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the mechanism of free radical production by light-reflective agents in sunscreens (TiO2, ZnO and ZrO2) was obtained by applying kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The values of the rate constants for each step of the suggested mechanism have been obtained by simulation. The effect of the initial concentration of mineral oxides and uric acid on the rate of uric acid photo-oxidation by irradiation of some sun care agents has been studied. The kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results agree qualitatively with the existing experimental data for the production of free radicals by sun care agents. PMID:25746246

  16. A Potential Role for Plasma Uric Acid in the Endothelial Pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; van de Hoef, Diana L.; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P.; Diakite, Mahamadou; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory cytokinemia and systemic activation of the microvascular endothelium are central to the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recently, ‘parasite-derived’ uric acid (UA) was shown to activate human immune cells in vitro, and plasma UA levels were associated with inflammatory cytokine levels and disease severity in Malian children with malaria. Since UA is associated with endothelial inflammation in non-malaria diseases, we hypothesized that elevated UA levels contribute to the endothelial pathology of P. falciparum malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured levels of UA and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-Selectin), thrombomodulin (sTM), tissue factor (sTF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the plasma of Malian children aged 0.5–17 years with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n?=?487) and non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM, n?=?68). In 69 of these children, we measured these same factors once when they experienced a malaria episode and twice when they were healthy (i.e., before and after the malaria transmission season). We found that levels of UA, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-Selectin and sTM increase during a malaria episode and return to basal levels at the end of the transmission season (p<0.0001). Plasma levels of UA and these four endothelial biomarkers correlate with parasite density and disease severity. In children with UM, UA levels correlate with parasite density (r?=?0.092, p?=?0.043), sICAM-1 (r ?=?0.255, p<0.0001) and sTM (r?=?0.175, p?=?0.0001) levels. After adjusting for parasite density, UA levels predict sTM levels. Conclusions/Significance Elevated UA levels may contribute to malaria pathogenesis by damaging endothelium and promoting a procoagulant state. The correlation between UA levels and parasite densities suggests that parasitized erythrocytes are one possible source of excess UA. UA-induced shedding of endothelial TM may represent a novel mechanism of malaria pathogenesis, in which activated thrombin induces fibrin deposition and platelet aggregation in microvessels. This protocol is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00669084). PMID:23349902

  17. Serum Uric Acid and Subsequent Cognitive Performance in Patients with Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molshatzki, Noa; Weinstein, Galit; Streifler, Jonathan Y.; Goldbourt, Uri; Tanne, David

    2015-01-01

    High serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with numerous vascular risk factors, and vascular disease, that predispose patients to cognitive impairment, yet UA is also a major natural antioxidant and higher levels have been linked to slower progression of several neurodegenerative disease. In-order to test the association between UA and subsequent cognitive performance among patients that carry a high vascular burden, UA levels were determined by calorimetric enzymatic tests in a sub-cohort of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease who previously participating in a secondary prevention trial. After an average of 9.8±1.7 years, we assessed cognitive performance (Neurotrax Computerized Cognitive Battery) as well as cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Among 446 men (mean age 62.3±6.4 yrs) mean UA levels were 5.8±1.1 mg/dL. Adjusted linear regression models revealed that low UA levels (bottom quintile) were associated with poorer cognitive performance. Adjusted differences between the bottom quintile and grouped top UA quintiles were (B coefficient±SE) ?4.23±1.28 for global cognitive scores (p = 0.001), ?4.69±1.81 for memory scores (p = 0.010), ?3.32±1.43 for executive scores (p = 0.020) and ?3.43±1.97 for visual spatial scores (p = 0.082). Significant difference was also found for attention scores (p = 0.015). Additional adjustment for impaired CVR and high common carotid IMT slightly attenuated the relationship. Stronger UA effect on cognitive performance was found for older (age>65) patients with significant age interaction for global cognitive score (p = 0.016) and for executive (p = 0.018) and attention domains (p<0.001). In conclusion, we demonstrate that low UA levels in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease are associated with poorer cognitive function a decade later. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of age-associated cognitive impairment. PMID:25794156

  18. Juvenile amphibians do not avoid potentially lethal levels of urea on soil substrate.

    PubMed

    Hatch, A C; Belden, L K; Scheessele, E; Blaustein, A R

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of a forest fertilizer (urea) on newly metamorphosed terrestrial amphibians (Western toads, Bufo boreas; Cascades frogs, Rana cascadae; long-toed salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum; and roughskin newts, Taricha granulosa). We examined avoidance behavior of Western toads and Cascades frogs on both paper towel and soil substrates dosed with urea (control and 100 kg N/ha and an additional treatment of 50 kg N/ha for Western toads on soil substrate) and avoidance behavior of long-toed salamanders on soil substrate dosed with urea. We further examined the survival and feeding behavior of all four species exposed to urea on soil substrate (100 kg N/ha) for 5 d. Juvenile Western toads and Cascades frogs avoided paper towels dosed with urea but did not avoid urea-dosed soil substrate. However, Western toads and Cascades frogs both suffered significant mortality when exposed to urea on a soil substrate for 5 d. Furthermore, after adjusting for weight, we found that urea-exposed juvenile Western toads and Cascades frogs consumed significantly fewer prey items (crickets) compared with nonexposed control animals. Long-toed salamanders did not discriminate against soil substrate dosed with urea, and neither long-toed salamanders nor roughskin newts died or reduced prey consumption as a result of urea exposure. Juvenile amphibians may not be able to detect and avoid harmful levels of urea fertilizer on a natural substrate. Furthermore, anthropogenic stressors such as urea fertilizer can significantly reduce the survival and prey consumption of juvenile amphibians. These effects are important to consider in light of possible threats to the conservation status of many amphibian species. PMID:11596767

  19. Speciation of hydroxyl-Al polymers formed through simultaneous hydrolysis of aluminum salts and urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenghong Feng; Qunshan Wei; Shuifeng Wang; Baoyou Shi; Hongxiao Tang

    2007-01-01

    Urea hydrolysis has always been used to prepare alumina gels and little attention has been paid to the reactive polymeric Al species that is formed before alumina sol–gels occur. Based on the hydrolysis process of aluminum in urea solution at 90°C, speciation and transformation of the reactive hydroxyl-Al polymers obtained by urea hydrolysis was investigated with Ferron assay, solution-state and

  20. Imprecision of the hemodialysis dose when measured directly from urea removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS A. DEPNER; TOM GREENE; FRANK A. GOTCH; JOHN T. DAUGIRDAS; PRAKASH R. KESHAVIAH; ROBERT A. STAR

    1999-01-01

    Imprecision of the hemodialysis dose when measured directly from urea removal.BackgroundThe postdialysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN; Ct) is a pivotal parameter for assessing hemodialysis adequacy by conventional blood-side methods, but Ct is relatively unstable because of hemodialysis-induced disequilibrium. The uncertainty associated with this method is potentially reduced or eliminated by measuring urea removed on the dialysate side, a more direct