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Sample records for ureter

  1. Ectopic Ureter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the need for stitches. Frequently asked questions: Are boys or girls more likely to have an ectopic ureter? This condition is more common in girls than boys, but can occur in either sex. What is ...

  2. Paraperitoneal Inguinal Hernia of Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Albert; Burstein, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Inguinal herniation of ureter is an uncommon finding that can potentially lead to obstructive uropathy. We report a case of inguinal herniation of ureter discovered incidentally during workup for acute renal failure and ultrasound finding of hydronephrosis. PMID:23365714

  3. Ectopic Ureter Accompanied by Duplicated Ureter: Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Senel, Ufuk; Ozmen, Zafer; Sozubir, Selami

    2015-01-01

    We report cases of ectopic ureter accompanied by three types of ureteral duplication that had been diagnosed previously and treated for enuresis. Data from three female patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years were evaluated. The ectopic ureter was observed on the left in one case, on the right in another and bilateral in the third case. Complete duplication was found in two cases, while the third had incomplete duplication. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in one case and subtotal nephrectomy was carried out in the other two cases. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed for the ectopic ureter found in the opposite urinary system in one of the cases. Ectopic duplicated ureter should be considered in treatment-resistant enuresis and urinary tract infections and after a careful physical examination, imaging as well as function tests should be performed. PMID:26500949

  4. Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cases - MP/H Rules

    Cancer.gov

    RP/Ureter Case 1 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT Surgical Pathology Report October 20, 2007 Specim en: A. Left ureter biopsy B. Uterus and bladder C. Right ureter Final Diagnosis: A. Left ureter biopsy - invasive high grade urothelial carcinoma. B.

  5. Fibroepithelial polyp of the ureter.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Karmakar, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with haematuria and a bladder mass on ultrasonogram. Cystoscopy revealed a tumour, cauliflower in shape with smooth stalk coming out from the ureteric orifice. Stalk of the polyp was identified in proximal ureter by ureteroscopy. The mass was excised endoscopically. PMID:24234435

  6. Spontaneous rupture of the ureter

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Alper; Akbas, Tugana; Arpaci, Taner

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is a very rare condition and usually results from ureteral obstruction by a calculus. Only theoretical mecha­nisms have been proposed and no possible explanation has yet been reported in the literature. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the most informative study with high sensitivity. Treatment should be individualised, and depends on the state of the patient. Minimally invasive endourological procedures with double-J catheter placement and percutaneous drainage offer excellent results. Conservative management with analgesics and antibiotic coverage may be an alternative to surgery. Herein, we present a case of spontaneous rupture of the proximal ureter with no evidence of an underlying pathological condition. PMID:25715862

  7. A proteomic glimpse into human ureter proteome.

    PubMed

    Magdeldin, Sameh; Hirao, Yoshitoshi; Elguoshy, Amr; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yates, John R; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Urine has evolved as one of the most important biofluids in clinical proteomics due to its noninvasive sampling and its stability. Yet, it is used in clinical diagnostics of several disorders by detecting changes in its components including urinary protein/polypeptide profile. Despite the fact that majority of proteins detected in urine are primarily originated from the urogenital (UG) tract, determining its precise source within the UG tract remains elusive. In this article, we performed a comprehensive analysis of ureter proteome to assemble the first unbiased ureter dataset. Next, we compared these data to urine, urinary exosome, and kidney mass spectrometric datasets. Our result concluded that among 2217 nonredundant ureter proteins, 751 protein candidates (33.8%) were detected in urine as urinary protein/polypeptide or exosomal protein. On the other hand, comparing ureter protein hits (48) that are not shown in corresponding databases to urinary bladder and prostate human protein atlas databases pinpointed 21 proteins that might be unique to ureter tissue. In conclusion, this finding offers future perspectives for possible identification of ureter disease-associated biomarkers such as ureter carcinoma. In addition, the ureter proteomic dataset published in this article will provide a valuable resource for researchers working in the field of urology and urine biomarker discovery. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002620 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002620). PMID:26442468

  8. Thulium fiber laser damage to the ureter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Our laboratory is studying experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) as a potential alternative lithotripter to the clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. Safety studies characterizing undesirable Holmium laser-induced damage to ureter tissue have been previously reported. Similarly, this study characterizes TFL induced ureter and stone basket damage. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500 ?s, and pulse rates of 150-500 Hz was delivered through a 100-?m-core, low-OH, silica optical fiber to the porcine ureter wall, in vitro. Ureter perforation times were measured and gross, histological, and optical coherence tomography images of the ablation zone were acquired. TFL operation at 150, 300, and 500 Hz produced mean ureter perforation times of 7.9, 3.8, and 1.8 s, respectively. Collateral damage averaged 510, 370, and 310 ?m. TFL mean perforation time exceeded 1 s at each setting, which is a greater safety margin than previously reported during Holmium laser ureter perforation studies.

  9. Computerized segmentation of ureters in CT urography (CTU) using COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Niland, Luke; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2013-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters on CTU, as a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is the presence of regions not well opacified with intravenous (IV) contrast. We propose a COmbined Model-guided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS) to track the ureters in CTU. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) edge profile extraction and feature analysis, and (3) path-finding and propagation. 114 ureters, filled with IV contrast material, on 74 CTU scans from 74 patients were segmented. On average the ureter occupied 286 CT slices (range:164 to 399, median:301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 114 ureters was selected manually, which served as an input to the COMPASS, to initialize the tracking. The path-finding and segmentation are guided by anatomical knowledge of the ureters in CTU. The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter. Of the 114 ureters, 75 (66%) were segmented completely (100%), 99 (87%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 104 (91%) were segmented at least 50%. Previously, without the model-guided approach, 61 (54%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 80 (70%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 96 (84%) were segmented at least 50%. COMPASS improved the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening and the narrowing of the lumen.

  10. COMPASS-based ureter segmentation in CT urography (CTU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, David; Hadjiiyski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters in CT urography (CTU), referred to as COmbined Model-guided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is the presence of regions not well opacified with intravenous (IV) contrast. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) path-finding and propagation, and (3) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. One hundred fourteen ureters in 74 CTU scans with IV contrast were collected from 74 patient files. On average, the ureters spanned 283 CT slices (range: 116 to 399, median: 301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 114 ureters was selected manually to initialize the tracking by COMPASS. Path-finding and segmentation were guided by the anatomical knowledge of ureters in CTU. The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter. Of the 114 ureters, 110 (96%) were segmented completely (100%), 111 (97%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 113 (99%) were segmented at least 50%. In comparison, using our previous method, 79 (69%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 92 (81%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 98 (86%) were segmented at least 50%. COMPASS improved significantly the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening and the narrowing of the lumen.

  11. ATP is released from guinea pig ureter epithelium on distension

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    ATP is released from guinea pig ureter epithelium on distension G. E. KNIGHT,1 P. BODIN,1 W. C. DE Knight, G. E., P. Bodin, W. C. De Groat, and G. Burn- stock. ATP is released from guinea pig ureter.2001.--Distension of the perfused guinea pig ureter at pressures from 20 to 700 cmH2O in- creased the amount of ATP

  12. Ureter tracking and segmentation in CT urography (CTU) using COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir Zick, David; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cha, Kenny; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters in CTU, referred to as combined model-guided path-finding analysis and segmentation system (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. Methods: COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) rule-based adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) path-finding and propagation, and (3) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. With institutional review board approval, 79 CTU scans performed with intravenous (IV) contrast material enhancement were collected retrospectively from 79 patient files. One hundred twenty-four ureters were selected from the 79 CTU volumes. On average, the ureters spanned 283 computed tomography slices (range: 116–399, median: 301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 124 ureters was identified manually to initialize the tracking by COMPASS. In addition, the centerline of each ureter was manually marked and used as reference standard for evaluation of tracking performance. The performance of COMPASS was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter and by estimating the average distance and the average maximum distance between the computer and the manually tracked centerlines. Results: Of the 124 ureters, 120 (97%) were segmented completely (100%), 121 (98%) were segmented through at least 70%, and 123 (99%) were segmented through at least 50% of its length. In comparison, using our previous method, 85 (69%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 100 (81%) were segmented through at least 70%, and 107 (86%) were segmented at least 50% of its length. With COMPASS, the average distance between the computer and the manually generated centerlines is 0.54 mm, and the average maximum distance is 2.02 mm. With our previous method, the average distance between the centerlines was 0.80 mm, and the average maximum distance was 3.38 mm. The improvements in the ureteral tracking length and both distance measures were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: COMPASS improved significantly the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening, and the narrowing of the lumen.

  13. Ureter Regeneration–The Proper Scaffold Has to Be Defined

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Nowacki, Maciej; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Ma?gorzata; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Ch?osta, Piotr; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two different acellular scaffolds: natural and synthetic, for urinary conduit construction and ureter segment reconstruction. Acellular aortic arch (AAM) and poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) were used in 24 rats for ureter reconstruction in both tested groups. Follow-up period was 4 weeks. Intravenous pyelography, histological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. All animals survived surgical procedures. Patent uretero-conduit junction was observed only in one case using PLCL. In case of ureter segment reconstruction ureters were patent in one case using AAM and in four cases using PLCL scaffolds. Regeneration of urothelium layer and focal regeneration of smooth muscle layer was observed on both tested scaffolds. Obtained results indicates that synthetic acellular PLCL scaffolds showed better properties for ureter reconstruction than naturally derived acellular aortic arch. PMID:25162415

  14. Observations on persistently dilated ureter after posterior urethral valve ablation.

    PubMed

    Glassberg, K I; Schneider, M; Haller, J O; Moel, D; Waterhouse, K

    1982-07-01

    The persistent ureteral dilatation frequently seen months or even years after posterior urethral valve ablation, continues to present a dilemma to the urologist. We have classified these dilated ureters into 3 types: (I) unobstructed with either an empty or filling bladder, (II) unobstructed with an empty bladder but obstructed with a filling bladder, and (III) obstructed with either an empty or filling bladder. The majority of ureters with persistent dilatation were found to be of the type II variety where appropriate treatment is not obvious. Classic ureteral tailoring and reimplantation offers little advantage since in such cases a narrower ureter is passed through a new hiatus in an otherwise unchanged bladder. When high renal pelvic pressures are found only with bladder filling, then consideration must be given to not only reconstructing the ureter but also to affecting the dynamics of the bladder and the large urinary output characteristically found in these patients. PMID:7112792

  15. Intracorporeal ileal ureter replacement using laparoscopy and robotics

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Allen; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Mischinger, Johannes; Halalsheh, Omar; Boettge, Johannes; Rausch, Steffen; Bier, Simone; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ileal ureter is a suitable treatment option for patients with long ureteric strictures. Minimally invasive techniques have been shown to be as safe as open techniques but superior in terms of post–operative recovery. We report our experience using minimally invasive techniques for total intracorporeal ureteral replacement. Material and methods A chart review revealed five patients who underwent intracorporeal ileal ureter using minimally invasive techniques in the preceding 5 years. 4 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery and 1 patient underwent robotic–assisted surgery. Patient's characteristics, perioperative data and functional outcomes as well as a detailed description of surgical technique are reported. In all 5 of these patients, the ileal ureter was performed completely intracorporeally. Results The median age of our patients is 61 (range 42–73). The median operative time was 250 minutes (range 150–320) and median blood loss was 100 ml (range 50–200). The median hospital stay was 8 days (range 6–10) and there were no major perioperative complications reported. At median follow up of 22 months (range 4–38), there were no recurrences of strictures or any other complications. Conclusions We have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of minimally invasive intracorporeal ileal ureter. Numbers are still small but its application is likely to grow further. PMID:25667767

  16. [An unusual cause of acute pyelonephritis: the retrocaval ureter].

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luigi; Lisi, Piero; Vigo, Valentina; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital malformation in which the proximal right ureter courses toward the midline on the posterior aspect of the inferior vena cava before emerging medial and anterior to this structure and then descending into the pelvis. This anatomical anomaly may be asymptomatic or manifest clinically, usually starting from the fourth decade of life, with flank pain, pyelonephritis, gross hematuria or other rarer signs. We describe the case of a young woman being hospitalized because of acute pyelonephritis; she had previously complained of flank pain associated with episodes of high fever. Computed tomography of the abdomen identified the malformation. The patient underwent surgical correction by laparoscopy and, at one year of follow-up, did not show any further clinical problem. PMID:26252261

  17. Extraperitoneal inguinoscrotal herniation of the ureter: a rare case of recurrence after hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Golgor, E; Stroszczynski, C; Froehner, M

    2009-01-01

    Inguinoscrotal herniation of the ureter is a rare finding with the potential for serious surgical complications. Two anatomic forms are defined. In the more common paraperitoneal variant, the herniating peritoneal sac drags the ureter and sometimes other abdominal structures with it. The uncommon variant--extraperitoneal inguinal herniais without a peritoneal sac and consists of the ureter and fat tissue. We report a case of extraperitoneal inguinoscrotal hernia possibly due to a prior inguinal hernia repair. PMID:19641370

  18. Ureter segmentation in CT urography (CTU) by COMPASS with multiscale Hessian enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, Duncan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cha, Kenny

    2015-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the segmentation of ureters in CTU, referred to as COmbined Modelguided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided detection of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is inconsistent opacification of the region of interest, which makes it difficult to be distinguished from other tissue in the surrounding area. COMPASS consists of four stages: (1) region finding and adaptive thresholding, (2) segmentation accuracy analysis, (3) potential backtracking and branching, and (4) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. In this study, we evaluated a new method in which CTU images were pre-processed with 3D multiscale Hessian filtering that enhances tubular structures. Our goal is to compare the performance of COMPASS with and without multiscale Hessian enhancement. With IRB approval, 79 cases with 124 ureters and 10 cases with 18 ureters were collected retrospectively from patient files as training and test sets, respectively. On average, the ureters spanned 289 CT slices (range: 115-405, median: 302). The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed as the percentage of length of each ureter that was successfully tracked relative to manually tracking. COMPASS alone segmented, on average, 99.16% and 98.74% of each ureter in the training and test sets, respectively. COMPASS with Hessian enhancement segmented, on average, 97.89% and 99.63% of each ureter in the training and test sets, respectively. Although the difference did not reach statistical significance in this small test set, Hessian-enhanced tracking shows promise for overcoming certain types of difficult cases.

  19. [Substitution of a lengthy defect of the ureter for the vermiform appendix].

    PubMed

    Komiakov, B K; Guliev, L E; Novikov, A I; Dorofeev, S Ia; Lebedev, M A

    2005-01-01

    The authors share their experiences with the substitution of the ureter for the appendix in three patients. In two of them the lengthy constriction of the pelvic portion of the ureter resulted from postirradiation alterations, in the other--from a gunshot wound of the lumbar area. The sufficient length and diameter of their appendix on a mobile mesentery allowed its being used for the substitution of the ureter. The results of operations were successful and without postoperative complications in all cases. PMID:16082842

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ATP release from the human ureter on distension and P2X3

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    . Sections of ureter were stained using antibodies against P2X3 and capsaicin receptors (TRPV1). [ATP] rose TRPV1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 Introduction Pain due to a calculus causing an acute

  1. Bleeding Ureter: Endometriosis Mascarading as a Ureteral Malignancy - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Puvvada; Pathade, Amey; Nagaraj, H K

    2014-01-01

    Ureteral endometriosis is a serious localization of disease burden that can lead to urinary tract obstruction, with subsequent hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and potential kidney loss. As the diagnosis is elusive, a heavy clinical suspicion is necessary. Surgical technique to treatment varies, but the goal is to salvage renal function and decrease disease burden. Here, we are presenting a rare case of bleeding ureter in a young lady who had endometriosis of the ureter. PMID:25478397

  2. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy in an in vitro ureter model.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Luke A; Wilson, Christopher R; Irby, Pierce B; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2014-12-01

    Using a validated in vitro ureter model for laser lithotripsy, the performance of an experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) was studied and compared to the clinical gold standard holmium:YAG laser. The holmium laser (? = 2120 nm) was operated with standard parameters of 600 mJ, 350 ?s, 6 Hz, and 270-?m-core optical fiber. The TFL (?=1908 nm) was operated with 35 mJ, 500 ?s, 150 to 500 Hz, and a 100-?m-core fiber. Urinary stones (60% calcium oxalate monohydrate/40% calcium phosphate) of uniform mass and diameter (4 to 5 mm) were laser ablated with fibers through a flexible video-ureteroscope under saline irrigation with flow rates of 22.7 and 13.7 ml/ min for the TFL and holmium laser, respectively. The temperature 3 mm from the tube's center and 1 mm above the mesh sieve was measured by a thermocouple and recorded throughout each experiment for both lasers. Total laser and operation times were recorded once all stone fragments passed through a 1.5-mm sieve. The holmium laser time measured 167±41 s (n=12). TFL times measured 111±49, 39±11, and 23±4 s, for pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz, respectively (n=12 each). Mean peak saline irrigation temperatures reached 24±1°C for holmium, and 33±3°C, 33±7°C, and 39±6°C, for TFL at pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz, respectively. To avoid thermal buildup and provide a sufficient safety margin, TFL lithotripsy should be performed with pulse rates below 500 Hz and/or increased saline irrigation rates. The TFL rapidly fragmented kidney stones due in part to its high pulse rate, high power density, high average power, and observation of reduced stone retropulsion and may provide a clinical alternative to the conventional holmium laser for lithotripsy. PMID:25518001

  3. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy in an in vitro ureter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-12-01

    Using a validated in vitro ureter model for laser lithotripsy, the performance of an experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) was studied and compared to the clinical gold standard holmium:YAG laser. The holmium laser (?=2120 nm) was operated with standard parameters of 600 mJ, 350 ?s, 6 Hz, and 270-?m-core optical fiber. The TFL (?=1908 nm) was operated with 35 mJ, 500 ?s, 150 to 500 Hz, and a 100-?m-core fiber. Urinary stones (60% calcium oxalate monohydrate/40% calcium phosphate) of uniform mass and diameter (4 to 5 mm) were laser ablated with fibers through a flexible video-ureteroscope under saline irrigation with flow rates of 22.7 and 13.7 ml/min for the TFL and holmium laser, respectively. The temperature 3 mm from the tube's center and 1 mm above the mesh sieve was measured by a thermocouple and recorded throughout each experiment for both lasers. Total laser and operation times were recorded once all stone fragments passed through a 1.5-mm sieve. The holmium laser time measured 167±41 s (n=12). TFL times measured 111±49, 39±11, and 23±4 s, for pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz, respectively (n=12 each). Mean peak saline irrigation temperatures reached 24±1°C for holmium, and 33±3°C, 33±7°C, and 39±6°C, for TFL at pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz, respectively. To avoid thermal buildup and provide a sufficient safety margin, TFL lithotripsy should be performed with pulse rates below 500 Hz and/or increased saline irrigation rates. The TFL rapidly fragmented kidney stones due in part to its high pulse rate, high power density, high average power, and observation of reduced stone retropulsion and may provide a clinical alternative to the conventional holmium laser for lithotripsy.

  4. Obstructed kidney and sepsis secondary to urethral catheter misplacement into the distal ureter.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Ruairidh Lorn Hunter; Liston, Thomas; Bong, Ai Shiang; Cunnane, Max Joshua

    2015-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman underwent routine catheter replacement in the community. The new catheter failed to drain urine. Attempts to remove the catheter failed, both by the community nurse as well as by the urology team in the hospital. A CT scan confirmed that the catheter balloon was inflated in the distal right ureter. The patient was started on antibiotics and listed for cystoscopy under general anaesthetic. The catheter was visualised entering the right ureter and the balloon punctured using a wire under image intensifier guidance. Once removed, a new catheter was inserted. Very dilated ureteric orifices were noted. Post operatively the patient required HDU support for 48?h due to sepsis and on recovery was discharged home. The key learning point in this case is to always consider catheter misplacement in the ureter if it is not draining well and the patient presents with pain. PMID:25976188

  5. Fused ureters in patient with horseshoe kidney and aortic abdominal aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Obidike, Stephen; Woha, Akeh; Aftab, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a very common developmental abnormality in the kidney. They are associated with abnormalities like multiple renal arteries, abnormal position of the ureter in the renal pelvis and highly placed ureteropelvic junction. These can result in urological complications. However, the ureters run their separate course and empty individually into the urinary bladder. Surprisingly, anatomical anomalies do occur and can lead to unexpected findings on investigation or surgical treatment. Such anomalies can present diagnostic and management challenges to unsuspecting clinicians. This report deals with one of such anomalies that seem not to have been reported before in the literature. This case is a rare finding of fused ureters over the renal isthmus in a patient with HSK who also has aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA). Simultaneous occurrences of HSK and AAA have been reported severally in the past, and the authors are paying attention on the ureteral anomaly. PMID:25433080

  6. Fused ureters in patient with horseshoe kidney and aortic abdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Obidike, Stephen; Woha, Akeh; Aftab, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a very common developmental abnormality in the kidney. They are associated with abnormalities like multiple renal arteries, abnormal position of the ureter in the renal pelvis and highly placed ureteropelvic junction. These can result in urological complications. However, the ureters run their separate course and empty individually into the urinary bladder. Surprisingly, anatomical anomalies do occur and can lead to unexpected findings on investigation or surgical treatment. Such anomalies can present diagnostic and management challenges to unsuspecting clinicians. This report deals with one of such anomalies that seem not to have been reported before in the literature. This case is a rare finding of fused ureters over the renal isthmus in a patient with HSK who also has aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA). Simultaneous occurrences of HSK and AAA have been reported severally in the past, and the authors are paying attention on the ureteral anomaly. PMID:25433080

  7. Comparison of a New Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Metallic Stent to a Noncovered Stent in Canine Ureters

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon Lee, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Hong Suk; Kim, Young Sik; Kang, Byung Chul; Frisoli, Joan K.; Razavi, Mahmood K.

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a newly designed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered metallic stent in the ureter by comparing its effectiveness with that of the noncovered stent in a canine model. We placed 14 stents in the ureters of seven mongrel dogs that weighed 30-40 kg each. The covered and noncovered stents were deployed in the right and left ureters, respectively, of six dogs. In the seventh dog, a covered stent and a double-J catheter were inserted in the right ureter, and a covered stent only was inserted in the left ureter. The first six dogs were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after deployment of the stents (two for each follow-up period), and the seventh dog was sacrificed at 30 weeks. There was no migration or poor expansion of any of the stents observed on plain radiography. On intravenous pyelogram and retrograde pyelogram, all of the covered stents at each follow-up period had patent lumens at the stented segments without hydronephrosis, and the passage of contrast material through it was well preserved. The noncovered stents in the dogs sacrificed at 5 and 10 weeks and one of the two dogs sacrificed at 15 weeks showed near-complete occlusion of the stent lumen due to ingrowth of the soft tissue, and severe hydronephrosis was also noted. The noncovered stent in the other dog sacrificed at 15 weeks showed the passage of contrast material without hydronephrosis, but the lumen of the stent was still nearly occluded by the soft tissue. There was no evidence of hydronephrosis or passage disturbance of the contrast material in both ureters of the dog sacrificed at 30 weeks. We conclude that the newly designed PTFE-covered stent effectively prevented the luminal occlusion caused by urothelial hyperplasia compared to the near-total occlusion of the noncovered stents, and no migration of the covered stents was noted.

  8. Spontaneous rupture of the ureter after cystectomy and creation of orthotopic ileal neobladder: treatment with percutaneous nephrostomy and drainage.

    PubMed

    Deliveliotis, Ch; Chrisofos, M; Argyropoulos, V; Protogerou, V; Alamanis, Ch; Dimopoulos, C

    2003-02-01

    A case of rupture of the upper ureter following creation of a continent orthotopic neobladder, treated conservatively with percutaneous nephrostomy and drainage of a paranephric collection, is reported. PMID:12639359

  9. Transvesical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Management of Distal Ureter During Laparoscopic Radical Nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Nunez Bragayrac, Luciano A; Machuca, Victor; Saenz, Eric; Cabrera, Marino; de Andrade, Robert; Sotelo, Rene J

    2014-09-11

    Abstract Objective: To describe the management of the distal ureter during radical nephroureterectomy with the transvesical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (T-LESS) approach. Methods: Between January 2010 and October 2013, five patients underwent laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC) with the T-LESS approach. Patients were placed in the supine position. A 2.5-cm skin incision was made in the line between the pubis and the umbilicus. The bladder was identified and a multiport was inserted into the bladder. The patients were repositioned to a lateral decubitus position; pneumovesicum was established and the ureteral openings were identified. We marked the bladder cuff with electrocautery all the way through to the extravesical fat. The bladder defect was sealed with sutures. After checking for any leak or bleeding, the multiport was removed and the bladder was closed. At this point, we continued with nephrectomy by standard laparoscopy or LESS. A 18F Foley catheter was placed into the bladder. Results: The mean age was 70 years (range 58-81 years), the mean operative time was 198 minutes (range 115-390 minutes), the mean time for the management of the distal ureter was 35 minutes (range 27-45 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 234?mL (range 60-850?mL), and the mean hospital stay was 3.8 days (range 2-8 days). In all patients the bladder cuff was free of disease. Conclusion: The transvesical laparoendoscopic single-site approach to the distal ureter for UTUC appears safe and reproducible, with faster closure of the bladder defect and improved cosmesis. PMID:25211699

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Plays a Key Role in the Inhibitory Neurotransmission to the Pig Intravesical Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Vítor S.; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Martínez, Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M.; Martínez-Sáenz, Ana; Recio, Paz; Benedito, Sara; Bustamante, Salvador; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2014-01-01

    According to previous observations nitric oxide (NO), as well as an unknown nature mediator are involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the intravesical ureter. This study investigates the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) role in the neurogenic relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter. We have performed western blot and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of the H2S synthesis enzymes cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), measurement of enzymatic production of H2S and myographic studies for isometric force recording. Immunohistochemical assays showed a high CSE expression in the intravesical ureter muscular layer, as well as a strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibres distributed along smooth muscle bundles. CBS expression, however, was not consistently observed. On ureteral strips precontracted with thromboxane A2 analogue U46619, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and the H2S donor P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinylphosphinodithioic acid (GYY4137) evoked frequency- and concentration-dependent relaxations. CSE inhibition with DL-propargylglycine (PPG) reduced EFS-elicited responses and a combined blockade of both CSE and NO synthase (NOS) with, respectively, PPG and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), greatly reduced such relaxations. Endogenous H2S production rate was reduced by PPG, rescued by addition of GYY4137 and was not changed by L-NOARG. EFS and GYY4137 relaxations were also reduced by capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) desensitization with capsaicin and blockade of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels, transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (VIP/PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors with glibenclamide, HC030031, AMG9810, PACAP6–38 and CGRP8–37, respectively. These results suggest that H2S, synthesized by CSE, is involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the pig intravesical ureter, through an NO-independent pathway, producing smooth muscle relaxation via KATP channel activation. H2S also promotes the release of inhibitory neuropeptides, as PACAP 38 and/or CGRP from CSPA through TRPA1, TRPV1 and related ion channel activation. PMID:25415381

  11. [Ectopic insertions of single ureters in children. Apropos of 9 cases].

    PubMed

    Haffaf, Y; Fremond, B; Babut, J M; Guibert, L

    1986-01-01

    The authors present 9 cases of ectopic implantation of a single ureter in children. Ureteric ectopia is part of a congenital anomaly of the whole of the urinary tract, which explains the incidence of renal ectopia and associated dysplastic lesions of the renal parenchyma. The authors stress the importance of ultrasonography and, more recently, the CT scan for the localisation of the kidney homolateral to the ureteral ectopia. An analysis of the treatment and the results demonstrates the contrast between the unilateral forms which are easily treated and which have a good prognosis and the bilateral forms which are more difficult to treat and have a less favourable prognosis. PMID:3514641

  12. Laparoscopic management of distal ureteric stones in a bilharzial ureter: Results of a single-centre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Hani H.; Elgobashy, Samir E.; Elkholy, Amr; Kamal, Ahmad M.; Roshdy, Mamdouh A.; Elbaz, Ahmad G.; Riad, Essam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic management of an impacted distal ureteric stone in a bilharzial ureter, as bilharzial ureters are complicated by distal stricture caused by the precipitation of bilharzial ova in the distal ureter. These cases are associated with poorly functioning and grossly hydronephrotic kidneys that hinder the endoscopic manipulation of the coexistent distal high burden of, and long-standing, impacted stones. Patients and methods We used laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, with four trocars, to manage 51 bilharzial patients (33 men and 18 women; mean age 40.13 years) with distal ureteric stones. The ureter was opened directly over the stone and the stone was extracted. A JJ stent was inserted into the ureter, which was then closed with a 4–0 polyglactin running suture. Results The mean stone size was 2.73 cm. Conversion to open surgery was required in only one patient. The mean operative duration was 92 min, the postoperative pain score was 20–60, the mean (range) number of analgesic requests after surgery was 1.72 (1–3), comprising once in 21 patients, twice in 23 and thrice in seven. The mean hospital stay was 2.74 days, and the total duration of follow-up was 7–12 months. The stone recurred in four patients and a ureteric stricture was reported in two. All patients were rendered stone-free. Conclusion Laparoscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for distal ureteric stones in a bilharzial ureter with hydronephrosis. PMID:26413344

  13. Investigating the Flow Dynamics in the Obstructed and Stented Ureter by Means of a Biomimetic Artificial Model

    PubMed Central

    Clavica, Francesco; Zhao, Xuefeng; ElMahdy, Motaz; Drake, Marcus J.; Zhang, Xunli; Carugo, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Double-J stenting is the most common clinical method employed to restore the upper urinary tract drainage, in the presence of a ureteric obstruction. After implant, stents provide an immediate pain relief by decreasing the pressure in the renal pelvis (P). However, their long-term usage can cause infections and encrustations, due to bacterial colonization and crystal deposition on the stent surface, respectively. The performance of double-J stents - and in general of all ureteric stents - is thought to depend significantly on urine flow field within the stented ureter. However very little fundamental research about the role played by fluid dynamic parameters on stent functionality has been conducted so far. These parameters are often difficult to assess in-vivo, requiring the implementation of laborious and expensive experimental protocols. The aim of the present work was therefore to develop an artificial model of the ureter (i.e. ureter model, UM) to mimic the fluid dynamic environment in a stented ureter. The UM was designed to reflect the geometry of pig ureters, and to investigate the values of fluid dynamic viscosity (?), volumetric flow rate (Q) and severity of ureteric obstruction (OB%) which may cause critical pressures in the renal pelvis. The distributed obstruction derived by the sole stent insertion was also quantified. In addition, flow visualisation experiments and computational simulations were performed in order to further characterise the flow field in the UM. Unique characteristics of the flow dynamics in the obstructed and stented ureter have been revealed with using the developed UM. PMID:24498322

  14. Preliminary results of laser tissue welding in extravesical reimplantation of the ureters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Milton, Daniel T.; Dean, Gregory E.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Libutti, Steven K.; Treat, Michael R.; Nowygrod, Roman; Hensle, Terry W.

    1993-07-01

    One future use of laparoscopic technology is in extravesical reimplantation of the ureters. Technical difficulty arises, however, when intracorporal fine suturing is necessary. We have assessed the efficacy of laser-activated fibrinogen solder to close vesical muscle flaps over submucosal ureters (Lich-Gregoir technique) in a canine model. Four dogs were subjected to unilateral flap closures via a protein solder consisting of indocyanine green and fibrinogen applied to the serosal surface of the bladder and exposed to 808 nm continuous wave diode laser energy. Contralateral reimplantation was performed using 4 - 0 vicryl muscle flap closures and served as controls. Urinary drainage catheters were left in place for 24 hours postoperatively. At 7 (n equals 1), 14 (n equals 2), and 28 (n equals 1) days following reimplantation, intravenous pyelograms confirmed bilateral renal function and ureteral patency. Disruption of wound closures were considered the point of wound dehiscence, vesical diverticulum, or leakage. At intravesical pressures above 100 cm H2O there was no evidence of wound disruption in either of the groups. However, surrounding normal tissue was noted to disrupt. In conclusion, laser-welded vesical wound closures appear at least as strong as suture closures in the canine model.

  15. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology. PMID:26483314

  16. Regional differences of energetics, mechanics, and kinetics of myosin cross-bridge in human ureter smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vargiu, Romina; Perinu, Anna; Tintrup, Frank; Broccia, Francesca; Lisa, Antonello De

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information about baseline mechanical properties of the entire muscle and the molecular contractile mechanism in human ureter smooth muscle and proposed to investigate if changes in mechanical motor performance in different regions of isolated human ureter are attributable to differences in myosin crossbridge interactions. Classic mechanical, contraction and energetic parameters derived from the tension-velocity relationship were studied in ureteral smooth muscle strips oriented longitudinally and circularly from abdominal and pelvic human ureter parts. By applying of Huxley’s mathematical model we calculated the total working crossbridge number per mm2 (?), elementary force per single crossbridge (?0), duration of maximum rate constant of crossbridge attachment 1/f1 and detachment 1/g2 and peak mechanical efficiency (Eff.max). Abdominal longitudinal smooth muscle strips exhibited significantly higher maximum isometric tension and faster maximum unloaded shortening velocity compared to pelvic ones. Contractile differences were associated with significantly higher crossbridge number per mm2. Abdominal longitudinal muscle strips showed a lower duration of maximum rate constant of crossbridge attachment and detachment and higher peak mechanical efficiency than pelvic ones. Such data suggest that the abdominal human ureter showed better mechanical motor performance mainly related to a higher crossbridge number and crossbridge kinetics differences. Such results were more evident in the longitudinal rather than in the circular layer. PMID:26069527

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Localized Ureter Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Maehata, Yoshiyasu; Kuriyama, Kengo; Aoki, Shinichi; Araya, Masayuki; Marino, Kan; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard management for ureter transitional cell carcinoma (UTCC) is radical nephroureterectomy with excision of the bladder cuff. However, some patients cannot undergo this procedure for several reasons. In the case reports described herein, we performed stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on three patients with inoperable or surgery-rejected localized UTCC. Two out of the three patients did not develop local recurrence or distant metastasis during the observation period. However, recurrence was detected in the bladder of one patient 22 months after the treatment. No acute or late adverse events occurred in any of the three patients. SBRT may become one of the treatment options for inoperable or surgery-rejected UTCC patients. PMID:26442166

  18. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Wo?niak, Magdalena Maria; Wieczorek, Andrzej Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the principles of performing proper ultrasound examinations of the urinary tract. The following are discussed: preparation of patients, type of optimal apparatus, technique of examination and conditions which its description should fulfill. Urinary track examination in adults and in children constitutes an integral part of each abdominal examination. Such examinations should be performed with fasting patients or several hours after the last meal, with filled urinary bladder. Apparatus Ultrasound examinations in children and infants are performed using transducers with the frequency of 5.0–9.0 MHz and in adults – with the frequency of 2.0–6.0 MHz. Doppler options are desirable since they improve diagnostic capacity of sonography in terms of differentiation between renal focal lesions. Scanning technique Renal examinations are performed with the patients in the supine position. The right kidney is examined in the right hypochondriac region using the liver as the ultrasound “window.” The left kidney is examined in the left hypochondriac region, preferably in the posterior axillary line. Ultrasound examinations of the upper segment of the ureters are performed after renal examination when the pelvicalyceal system is dilated. A condition necessary for a proper examination of the perivesical portion of the ureter is full urinary bladder. The scans of the urinary bladder are performed in transverse, longitudinal and oblique planes when the bladder is filled. Description of the examination The description should include patient's personal details, details of the referring unit, of the unit in which the examination is performed, examining physician's details, type of ultrasound apparatus and transducers as well as the description proper.

  19. Lipid Cell and Micropapillary Variants of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Miyama, Yu; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a case of urothelial carcinoma (UC) with lipid cell and micropapillary variants in the ureter. A 64-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Urinary cytology revealed the presence of atypical urothelial cells. Computed tomography and drip infusion/retrograde pyelography identified a mass-occupying lesion in the left mid-ureter, as well as left hydronephrosis. A clinical diagnosis of left ureteral cancer was given and the patient underwent left nephroureterectomy. Microscopically, the major component of the tumor was a conventional high-grade UC. In the invasive region, however, lipid cell and micropapillary variants of UC were also observed. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, all of the components were diffusely positive for cytokeratin 7 and p53. Intense membranous expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was also observed in both the lipid cell and micropapillary variants of UC, whereas weak and incomplete staining was observed in most regions of the conventional UC. The pathological stage was pT3 N2. Multiple times, the patient experienced recurrence of the UC in the urinary bladder and urethra. Although the patient underwent total cystectomy and urethrectomy, 52 months following the initial surgery, signs of local recurrence developed, as well as multiple lymph node and bone metastases. The patient died 75 months following the initial surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lipid cell variant of ureteral UC. The overexpression of HER2 may be associated with both the lipid cell and micropapillary variants of UC. PMID:26668574

  20. Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter with a Small Cell Component: Report of a Rare Pathologic Entity and Potential for Diagnostic Error on Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, Kent; Tojuola, Bayo; Al-Quran, Samer; Parekattil, Sijo; Hamilton, William; Vila Duckworth, Lizette

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcomas of the ureter are rare biphasic neoplasms, composed of both malignant epithelial (carcinomatous) and malignant mesenchymal (sarcomatous) components. Carcinosarcomas of the urinary tract are exceedingly rare. We report a unique case of a carcinosarcoma of the ureter with a chondrosarcoma and small cell tumor component arising in a 68-year-old male who presented with microscopic hematuria. CT intravenous pyelogram revealed right-sided hydroureter and hydronephrosis with thickening and narrowing of the right ureter. The patient underwent robot-assisted ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient is disease-free at 32 months after treatment. We provide a brief synoptic review of carcinosarcoma of the ureter and bladder with utilization of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains and potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:25587477

  1. Intraoperative Management of an Incidentally Identified Ectopic Ureter Inserting Into the Prostate of a Patient Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Udit; Dauw, Casey A.; Li, Amy Y.; Miller, David C.; Wolf, J. Stuart; Morgan, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Congenital variations in urinary tract anatomy present unique surgical challenges when they present without prior knowledge. Ectopic ureters occur as a rare anatomic variation of the urinary tract and are often associated with duplicated renal collecting systems. While the condition is uncommon, even more atypical is its discovery and subsequent diagnosis during surgical intervention for treatment of localized prostate cancer. We describe the intraoperative management of a unique case of bilateral ectopic ureters, with a right-sided ureter inserting into the prostate of a 54-year-old male undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. While unknown at the time of surgery, this right-sided ureter was associated with a nonfunctioning right upper renal moiety of a duplex renal collecting system. This aberration was discovered intraoperatively and confirmed with imaging, and a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy with right distal ureterectomy was performed. PMID:26266359

  2. An unusual combination of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma and arteriovenous malformation of the ureter in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Ali; Aziz, Wajahat; Nazim, Syed Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old gentleman who presented with painless pan haematuria for 2?weeks. During the workup, he was diagnosed to have a retrocaval mass after a CT scan while cystoscopy revealed a polypoidal pulsating lesion in the left ureter. After surgical manipulation of the retrocaval mass, the blood pressure of the patient raised to 260/130?mm?Hg. It was completely resected and diagnosed as extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) after histopathology. The lesion in the ureter was completely excised and fulgurated and diagnosed as an arteriovenous malformation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient to be presented in the literature with this unusual combination. PMID:23616332

  3. Fatal cardiac thromboembolism in a patient with a pacemaker during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureter stone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mee Young; Chae, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    Intracardiac thrombosis is an infrequent and fatal complication in patients with an inserted pacemaker. A patient with an inserted pacemaker scheduled for ureter stone removal experienced cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation under general anesthesia. Echocardiography showed multiple intracardiac thrombi. Preoperative diagnostic workup including echocardiography for the detection of pacemaker lead thrombus, and the need for anticoagulation should be considered in patients with an inserted pacemaker and high-risk factors for thrombosis. PMID:25664159

  4. Mutations in TBX18 Cause Dominant Urinary Tract Malformations via Transcriptional Dysregulation of Ureter Development.

    PubMed

    Vivante, Asaf; Kleppa, Marc-Jens; Schulz, Julian; Kohl, Stefan; Sharma, Amita; Chen, Jing; Shril, Shirlee; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Kaminski, Michael M; Shukrun, Rachel; Kemper, Markus J; Lehnhardt, Anja; Beetz, Rolf; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Verbitsky, Miguel; Gharavi, Ali G; Stuart, Helen M; Feather, Sally A; Goodship, Judith A; Goodship, Timothy H J; Woolf, Adrian S; Westra, Sjirk J; Doody, Daniel P; Bauer, Stuart B; Lee, Richard S; Adam, Rosalyn M; Lu, Weining; Reutter, Heiko M; Kehinde, Elijah O; Mancini, Erika J; Lifton, Richard P; Tasic, Velibor; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Jüppner, Harald; Kispert, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2015-08-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Identification of single-gene mutations that cause CAKUT permits the first insights into related disease mechanisms. However, for most cases the underlying defect remains elusive. We identified a kindred with an autosomal-dominant form of CAKUT with predominant ureteropelvic junction obstruction. By whole exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous truncating mutation (c.1010delG) of T-Box transcription factor 18 (TBX18) in seven affected members of the large kindred. A screen of additional families with CAKUT identified three families harboring two heterozygous TBX18 mutations (c.1570C>T and c.487A>G). TBX18 is essential for developmental specification of the ureteric mesenchyme and ureteric smooth muscle cells. We found that all three TBX18 altered proteins still dimerized with the wild-type protein but had prolonged protein half life and exhibited reduced transcriptional repression activity compared to wild-type TBX18. The p.Lys163Glu substitution altered an amino acid residue critical for TBX18-DNA interaction, resulting in impaired TBX18-DNA binding. These data indicate that dominant-negative TBX18 mutations cause human CAKUT by interference with TBX18 transcriptional repression, thus implicating ureter smooth muscle cell development in the pathogenesis of human CAKUT. PMID:26235987

  5. Errors in the ultrasound diagnosis of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Andrzej Pawe?; Tyloch, Janusz F.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the most frequent errors made in the ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system. They usually result from improper technique of ultrasound examination or its erroneous interpretation. Such errors are frequent effects of insufficient experience of the ultrasonographer, inadequate class of the scanner, insufficient knowledge of its operation as well as of wrong preparation of patients, their constitution, severe condition and the lack of cooperation during the examination. The reasons for misinterpretations of ultrasound images of the urinary system may lie in a large polymorphism of the kidney (defects and developmental variants) and may result from improper access to the organ as well as from the presence of artefacts. Errors may also result from the lack of knowledge concerning clinical and laboratory data. Moreover, mistakes in ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system are frequently related to the lack of knowledge of the management algorithms and diagnostic possibilities of other imaging modalities. The paper lists errors in ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system divided into: errors resulting from improper technique of examination, artefacts caused by incorrect preparation of patients for the examination or their constitution and errors resulting from misinterpretation of ultrasound images of the kidneys (such as their number, size, fluid spaces, pathological lesions and others), ureters and urinary bladder. Each physician performing kidney or bladder ultrasound examination should possess the knowledge of the most frequent errors and their causes which might help to avoid them.

  6. Memokath Metallic Stent in the Treatment of Transplant Kidney Ureter Stenosis or Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Boyvat, Fatih E-mail: boyvatf@yahoo.com; Aytekin, Cuneyt; Colak, Turan; Firat, Ali; Karakayali, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of the Memokath 051 stent (Engineers and Doctors, Hornbaek, Denmark) in the treatment of recurrent ureteral stenosis or occlusion in transplant kidneys. Methods. From October 1985 through January 2004, 1,131 renal transplantations were performed at our center. Four patients who developed recurrent renal transplant ureter obstruction had nephrostomy catheters placed. Antegrade pyelography showed ureteral stenosis in three cases and complete occlusion in one patient. In each case, a Memokath 051 stent was inserted via an antegrade approach. Mean follow-up was 20 months (range 18-21 months). Creatinine levels were measured and ultrasonography was performed during follow-up. Results. All stent procedures were technically successful. During follow-up, one stent migrated within 10 days after stent insertion and was removed cystoscopically. Another stent had to be removed in the 14th month due to resistant infection, and was replaced with a new Memokath 051 stent which remained patent for another 8 months. The other two stents were fully patent at the 18th and 21st month of follow-up, respectively. Conclusion. Placement of a Memokath 051 stent appears to be a promising treatment alternative to balloon dilation, double-J stents and open surgical intervention for ureteral stenosis or occlusion in kidney transplant recipients. Further study of larger series is necessary.

  7. The Effect of Terpene Combination on Ureter Calculus Expulsion After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dai Hee; Goh, Hyeok Jun; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Kyu Shik; Kim, Yong Tae; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Seung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Terpene combination (Rowatinex) is known to help with the expulsion of urinary stones. The aim of this study was to determine how Rowatinex affects the expulsion of remnant stones after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Materials and Methods Clinical data were collected retrospectively from 499 patients with a diagnosis of ureteral stones who underwent SWL from January 2009 to August 2012. Ureteral stones were diagnosed in all patients by kidney, ureter, and bladder x-ray and abdominal computed tomography (CT). The progress of patients was documented every 2 weeks to confirm remnant stones after SWL. The patients with remnant stones underwent SWL again. Group 1 consisted of patients who were prescribed an analgesic, Tamsulosin 0.2 mg, and Rowatinex. Group 2 consisted of patients who were prescribed only an analgesic and Tamsulosin 0.2 mg. The expulsion rate of urinary stones was compared between groups. Results The expulsion rate of urinary stones was not significantly different between the two groups after 2 weeks. However, after 4 weeks, group 1 had a significantly higher expulsion rate (72.2% compared with 61.1%, p=0.022). Fifteen patients (10.2%) in group 1 and 40 (11.4%) in group 2 had to undergo ureteroscopic removal of the stone (p=0.756). Acute pyelonephritis occurred in one patient (0.7%) in group 1 and in one patient (0.3%) in group 2 (p=0.503). Conclusions The long-term administration of Rowatinex for 4 weeks increased the expulsion rate of urinary stones after SWL. PMID:24466395

  8. Renal colic due to fatty tissue obstruction of the ureter following selective arterial embolisation of a 10 cm angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Rouffilange, Jean; Forgues, Aurélien; Grenier, Nicolas; Robert, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted for preventive embolisation of a 10 cm angiomyolipoma (AML) of the right kidney. Three weeks after embolisation, he was readmitted at the emergency unit for a right renal colic. The CT scan confirmed the obstruction of the right ureter due to the presence of fatty tissue into the lumen. Understanding fatty tissue migration into the collecting system is not simple. We hypothesised that the use of alcohol during the embolisation procedure could have led to focal necrosis of the collecting system, thus enabling migration of fatty tissue into the renal calyces. PMID:26224660

  9. DLG1 influences distal ureter maturation via a non-epithelial cell autonomous mechanism involving reduced retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Tae; Ahn, Sun-Young; Swat, Wojciech; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2014-06-15

    The absence of Discs-large 1 (DLG1), the mouse ortholog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor, results in congenital hydronephrosis characterized by urinary tract abnormalities, reduced ureteric bud branching, and delayed disconnection of the ureter from the common nephric duct (CND). To define the specific cellular requirements for Dlg1 expression during urogenital development, we used a floxed Dlg1 allele and Pax2-Cre, Pax3-Cre, Six2-Cre, and HoxB7-Cre transgenes to generate cell type-restricted Dlg1 mutants. In addition, we used Ret(GFP) knockin and retinoic acid response element-lacZ transgenic mice to determine the effects of Dlg1 mutation on the respective morphogenetic signaling pathways. Mutation of Dlg1 in urothelium and collecting ducts (via HoxB7-Cre or Pax2-Cre) and in nephron precursors (via Pax2-Cre and Six2-Cre) resulted in no apparent abnormalities in ureteric bud branching or in distal ureter maturation, and no hydronephrosis. Mutation in nephrons, ureteric smooth muscle, and mesenchyme surrounding the lower urinary tract (via the Pax3-Cre transgene) resulted in congenital hydronephrosis accompanied by reduced branching, abnormal distal ureter maturation and insertion, and smooth muscle orientation defects, phenotypes very similar to those in Dlg1 null mice. Dlg1 null mice showed reduced Ret expression and apoptosis during ureter maturation and evidence of reduced retinoic acid signaling in the kidney. Taken together, these results suggest that Dlg1 expression in ureter and CND-associated mesenchymal cells is essential for ensuring distal ureter maturation by facilitating retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis of the urothelium. PMID:24699546

  10. Sodium currents in smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from stomach fundus of the rat and ureter of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, K; Imaizumi, Y; Watanabe, M

    1991-01-01

    1. Inward currents elicited by depolarization from holding potentials of -80 to -10 mV in single smooth muscle cells isolated from stomach fundus of the rat and ureter of the guinea-pig had two components. The initial fast component (Ifi) was activated and mostly inactivated within 1-2 and 10 ms, respectively, at 21 degrees C. The following sustained component (Isi) lasted over 50 and 500 ms in fundus and ureter cells, respectively. Ifi was blocked by tetrodotoxin but not affected by 0.5 microM-mu-conotoxin in both types of cells. Isi was abolished by the substitution of extracellular Ca2+ with Mn2+. 2. The sensitivity of Ifis to TTX was markedly different in fundus and ureter cells. The half-inhibition was obtained at 870 and 11 nM, respectively. The amplitude of Ifi was highly dependent on extracellular Na+ concentration in a solution containing 2.2 mM-Mn2+ and 0 mM-Ca2+ in both cells. It is concluded that Ifis in these cells are TTX-sensitive and mu-conotoxin-insensitive Na+ currents. 3. Some of the kinetics of INa measured at 10 degrees C were markedly different in fundus and ureter cells. The current-voltage relationships for Ifi in fundus and ureter cells had peaks at about -10 and 0 mV, respectively. The voltage dependence of the steady-state inactivation of Ifi was also significantly different in these cell types. The half-inactivation voltages were about -74 and -45 mV, respectively. The recovery time course from inactivation in fundus cells was about 10 times slower than that in ureter at -80 mV, where it was 25 ms. 4. The contribution of Ifi to the rising phase of an action potential was examined using TTX under current clamp mode at 21 degrees C. A fast notch-like potential elicited by a subthreshold stimulus for action potential generation was blocked by TTX in both types of cells. Action potentials elicited by a stimulus around threshold were occasionally suppressed by TTX, whereas an action potential was never observed when extracellular Ca2+ was replaced with Mn2+. 5. In conclusion, the existence of at least two types of Na+ channel currents, which were distinguished by their TTX sensitivity and kinetics, was strongly suggested in smooth muscle cells from the rat fundus and the guinea-pig ureter. INa in these cells may have a physiological role to accelerate the generation of an action potential by triggering a rapid activation of ICa, while not being essential for activation of action potentials. PMID:1665861

  11. Retrograde balloon dilation >10 weeks after renal transplantation for transplant ureter stenosis – our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rabenalt, Robert; Winter, Christian; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Eisenberger, Claus-Ferdinand; Grabitz, Klaus; Albers, Peter; Giessing, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Objective Despite many efforts to prevent ureteric stenosis in a transplanted kidney, this complication occurs in 3–5% of renal transplant recipients. Balloon dilatation (BD) is a possible minimally invasive approach for treatment, but reports to date refer only to the antegrade approach; we analysed our experience with retrograde BD (RBD) and reviewed previous reports. Patients and methods From October 2008 to February 2011, eight patients after renal transplantation (RTX) underwent RBD for transplant ureteric stenosis at our hospital. We retrospectively analysed the outcome and reviewed previous reports. Results The eight recipients (five men and three women; median age 55 years, range 38–69) were treated with one or two RBDs for transplant ureteric stenosis. There were no complications. The median (range) time after RTX was 4.5 (2.5–11) months. Long-term success was only achieved in one recipient, while five patients were re-operated on (three with a new implant, two by replacement of transplanted ureter with ileum) after a median (range) of 2.8 (0.7–7.0) months after unsuccessful RBD(s). For two recipients the success remained unclear (one graft loss due to other reasons, one result pending). When the first RBD was unsuccessful there was no improvement with a second. Conclusion RBD is technically feasible, but our findings and the review of previous reports on antegrade ureteric dilatation suggest that the success rate is low when the ureter is dilated at ?10 weeks after RTX. From our results we cannot recommend RBD for transplant ureteric stenosis at ?10 weeks after RTX, while previous reports show favourable results of antegrade BD in the initial 3 months after RTX.

  12. Correlation of Traditional Point a With Anatomic Location of Uterine Artery and Ureter in Cancer of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.-L.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chao, K. S. Clifford Wu, M.-H.; Tai, H.-C.; Chen, T.-C.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, J.-R.; Su, T.-H.; Chen, Y.-J.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: Point A, used for dose specification for intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, is the point at which the uterine artery and ureter cross. This study assessed compatibility of commonly used traditional point A (TPA) and actual anatomic point A (APA). Methods and Materials: We visualized and placed radiopaque clips at the APA during pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy in 11 patients with cervical carcinoma. Orthogonal and oblique radiographs were obtained after insertion of brachytherapy applicators. We measured the distance between the TPA and APA and estimated the brachytherapy dose to each of the two points. Results: A total of 64 brachytherapy treatments were performed. The mean distances between the TPA and APA were 5.2 {+-} 1.0 cm on the right and 5.4 {+-} 1.1 cm on the left. The estimated brachytherapy doses delivered to the APA as a percentage of the presumed 500-cGy fraction size to the TPA were 35.2% (176.6 {+-} 59.0 cGy) on the right and 30.0% (150.2 {+-} 42.9 cGy) on the left. The marked discrepancy in the position of the two points was not related to individual kinetic variations during brachytherapy treatment, tumor size, or bladder filling. Conclusions: The conventional TPA does not provide an accurate estimate of the APA determined during lymphadenectomy, indicating a need to reevaluate the current practice for determining the brachytherapy prescription for cervical cancer. ( (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier, NCT00319462)

  13. Does diabetes affect the distribution and number of interstitial cells and neuronal tissue in the ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra of humans?

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hayriye; Kandemir, Olcay; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the distribution and number of interstitial cells (ICs) and neuronal tissue in the ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra of human patients with and without diabetes. Material and methods Human tissue was obtained from patients who had undergone radical cystectomy for bladder cancer (10 diabetic and 11 non–diabetic males). Interstitial cells were stained immunohistochemically with anti–human CD117 (c–kit) rabbit polyclonal antibody, Vimentin, and Connexin–43. Neural tissue was stained with synaptophysin. The number of ICs and neurons was evaluated and compared between the groups (diabetic versus non–diabetic). Results The mean number of c–kit (+) ICs in bladder lamina propria was significantly decreased in diabetics (32.40 ±12.96 versus 57.18 ±25.37, p = 0.036). The mean number of ICs in the detrusor muscle was significantly decreased in diabetics (40.50 ±16.79 versus 64.55 ±22.08, p = 0.013). Between the groups, no significant differences were detected regarding the number of ICs at the level of the ureter, urethra, and prostate. No significant differences were detected regarding the number of nerves in the ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra of both groups. Conclusions The number of ICs may be decreased in the lamina propria and detrusor muscle of the human bladder in diabetes. This can be an underlying cause of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in diabetics. Research into the development of drugs targeting or stimulating IC function in order to prevent diabetic LUT dysfunction is warranted. PMID:25667756

  14. Injury - kidney and ureter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as uric acid (which can occur with gout or treatment of bone marrow, lymph node, or ... lower uric acid in the blood due to gout) Pain medicines Eliminating medicines or exposure to substances ...

  15. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Therapy for a Hypoplastic Pelvic Kidney with a Single Vaginal Ectopic Ureter to Control Incontinence: The Usefulness of Three-Dimensional CT Angiography Using Multidetector-Row Helical CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kudoh, Kouichi Kadota, Masataka; Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Yasuda, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Inadome, Akito; Yoshida, Masaki; Ueda, Shouichi

    2003-09-15

    A girl with continuous urinary incontinence was successfully treated by angiographic embolization of a hypoplastic pelvic kidney with a single unilateral vaginal ectopic opening of the ureter. For this intervention, CT angiography was useful for detecting the corresponding renal artery of the hypoplastic kidney.

  16. Results of a Seven-Year, Single-Centre Experience of the Long-Term Outcomes of Bovine Ureter Grafts Used as Novel Conduits for Haemodialysis Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Neelan Bratby, Mark J.; Shrivastava, Vivek; Cornall, Alison J.; Darby, Christopher R.; Boardman, Philip; Anthony, Susan; Uberoi, Raman

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcomes of bovine ureter grafts as novel conduits for haemodialysis fistulas. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent placement of a total of 40 SynerGraft 100 (SG100; CryoLife Europa{sup Registered-Sign}, Guildford, UK) bovine ureter grafts between April 2002 and February 2009. Prospective data were collected on all patients, including active surveillance with blood flow studies and 6-monthly duplex ultrasound studies. Main outcome measures were primary and secondary patency rates. Results: Mean follow-up time was 97 weeks (range 4-270). Thirteen patients died from unrelated causes during the study period; 12 of these patients had a functioning graft at the time of death. Five patients underwent transplantation, and all had a functioning graft at transplantation. Twelve patients had a functioning graft at the end of the study period. One hundred and ten stenoses were detected, and 97 venoplasty procedures were performed. Of the stenoses, 41.8% were located at the venous anastomosis, 12.7% within the graft, 17.3% in the outflow veins, and 28.1% in central veins. No arterial stenoses were detected. Primary patency rates were 53% at 6 months and 14% at 1 year. Secondary patency rates were 81% at 6 months, 75% at 1 year, and 56% at 2 years. Conclusions: Active surveillance and intervention was able to achieve satisfactory long-term secondary patency for these novel conduits compared with those made of PTFE seen in other studies.

  17. Impact of Colic Pain as a Significant Factor for Predicting the Stone Free Rate of One-Session Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Treating Ureter Stones: A Bayesian Logistic Regression Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Doo Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Dae Hun; Han, Jang Hee; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Jung, Hae Do; Kown, Jong Kyou; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Lee, Joo Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate colic pain as a prognostic pretreatment factor that can influence ureter stone clearance and to estimate the probability of stone-free status in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) patients with a ureter stone. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,418 patients who underwent their first SWL between 2005 and 2013. Among these patients, 551 had a ureter stone measuring 4–20 mm and were thus eligible for our analyses. The colic pain as the chief complaint was defined as either subjective flank pain during history taking and physical examination. Propensity-scores for established for colic pain was calculated for each patient using multivariate logistic regression based upon the following covariates: age, maximal stone length (MSL), and mean stone density (MSD). Each factor was evaluated as predictor for stone-free status by Bayesian and non-Bayesian logistic regression model. Results After propensity-score matching, 217 patients were extracted in each group from the total patient cohort. There were no statistical differences in variables used in propensity- score matching. One-session success and stone-free rate were also higher in the painful group (73.7% and 71.0%, respectively) than in the painless group (63.6% and 60.4%, respectively). In multivariate non-Bayesian and Bayesian logistic regression models, a painful stone, shorter MSL, and lower MSD were significant factors for one-session stone-free status in patients who underwent SWL. Conclusions Colic pain in patients with ureter calculi was one of the significant predicting factors including MSL and MSD for one-session stone-free status of SWL. PMID:25902059

  18. Variable pulsewidth erbium:YAG laser ablation of the ureter and urethra in vitro and in vivo: optimization of the laser fluence, pulse duration, and pulse repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Ong, Albert M.; Rha, Koon H.; Hejazi, Pooya

    2004-07-01

    Stricture recurrence frequently occurs due to mechanical or thermal insult during endourologic treatment of ureteral and urethral strictures. Optimization of the Er:YAG laser for precise incision of strictures was conducted using ureteral and urethral tisssue samples, ex vivo, and a laparoscopic porcine ureteral model with exposed ureter, in vivo. Erbium:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 microns, pulse lengths of 8, 70, and 220 microseconds, output energies of 2 - 35 mJ, fluences of 1 - 25 J/cm2, and pulse repetition rates of 5 - 30 Hz, was delivered through germanium oxide optical fibers in contact with the tissue. Incision of the ureteral wall was achieved in vivo with less than 20 pulses at a laser fluence of 4 J/cm2. Thermal damage was reduced from 30 - 60 microns to 10 - 20 microns by shortening the laser pulse duration from 220 to 70 microseconds. Pulse repetition rates above 20 Hz resulted in larger thermal damage zones ranging from 60 - 120 microns. The Er:YAG laser, operating at a pulse duration of approximately 70 microseconds, a fluence of 4 J/cm2 or greater, and a repetition rate less than 20 Hz, is capable of rapidly incising urethral and ureteral tissues, in vivo, with minimal thermal and mechanical side-effects.

  19. Should low-dose computed tomography kidneys, ureter and bladder be the new investigation of choice in suspected renal colic?: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Tamsin; Jain, Nitin; Bryant, Timothy; Wilson, Iain; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computed tomography kidneys, ureter and bladder (CTKUB) is the accepted gold standard investigation for suspected renal colic. Dose considerations are particularly pertinent in the context of detecting urolithiasis given the high risk of disease recurrence, which can necessitate multiple radiological examinations over the lifetime of a stone-former. We performed a systematic review of the literature to see whether there was any evidence that reducing the effective radiation dose of a CTKUB compromised the diagnostic accuracy of the scan. Materials and Methods: Relevant databases including MedLine, EMBASE, DARE and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to October 2012. All English language articles reporting on prospective studies where non-contrast, low-dose CT (LDCT) was used to investigate adults (males and non-pregnant females) presenting with flank pain or suspected urolithiasis were included. LDCT was defined as an effective radiation dose <3 mSv per examination. Results: Our initial search identified 497 records. After removing duplicates, 390 abstracts were screened, of which 375 were excluded, principally because outcomes of interest were not presented. Six papers remained for the final analysis, reporting on a total of 903 patients. Individual studies showed a prevalence of urolithiasis ranging between 36% and 88%, with additional pathologies found in 5-16%. The effective radiation dose of the LDCT techniques used ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 mSv. The sensitivity of LDCT for diagnosing stone disease was 90-97% with a specificity of 86-100%. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of CTKUB for diagnosing urolithiasis remains high, even when the effective radiation dose is lowered. LDCT may miss some small stones (<3 mm), especially in obese patients (>30 kg/m2), but in this group LDCT still identifies most alternative diagnoses. With at least one level 1A and two level 1B studies supporting the use of LDCT, there is Grade A recommendation for its use as the first-line investigation in suspected renal colic in non-obese patients. PMID:24744508

  20. Extrinsic Obstruction of the Ureter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education materials on urologic ... Health Care Providers Browse Through Our Free Educational Materials We provide free patient education materials on many ...

  1. Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of blockages or kidney stones complications of a urinary tract infection (UTI) cysts or tumors Preparation Usually, you don't ... Diseases in Childhood Kidneys and Urinary Tract Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Wilms Tumor ...

  2. General Information about Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  3. [Novelties and new possibilities in the radiological diagnostics of kidney and ureter tumors].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Tibor

    2014-12-01

    The author analyses the opportunities granted by diagnostic imaging for the early perception of kidney and urethral tumors and exact tumor staging. The wide-scale application of non-invasive ultrasound scans has lead to an increase in incidentalomas. Volumetric (multidetector or dual source) CT scans, the various MR techniques and, more recently, PET/CT scans have largely contributed to the exact preoperative staging of tumorous diseases, and help characterize the tumors found. In the case of small kidney tumors, attempts are made to decide which masses require operation and which do not, based on the tumor's absorption of the contrast agent and its wash-out intensity as observed by dynamic contrast-enhanced scans. The author points out that despite the achieved development, especially in terms of small tumors, image-guided biopsies still play a significant role. Medical imaging techniques are also indispensable for post-therapy follow-up of patients (PET/CT, CT and MR perfusion imaging). PMID:25517446

  4. Human bilharzial ureters: I. Fine structure of eggs deposited in the submucosa and muscularis.

    PubMed

    el-Shoura, S M

    1995-05-01

    The internal fine structure of the partially calcified Schistosoma haematobium eggs in the lower ureteral segments of Saudi patients with chronic urinary schistosomiasis is described. The egg shell is penetrated by cribriform pores and consists of the three previously described layers: outer microspinous, middle intermediately dense, and inner dense layers. The space between the egg shell and the developing embryo is partitioned by three layers. An outer acellular Reynolds' layer of unknown origin and function consists of a fibrillar material mixed with a finely granular matrix extending to the egg-shell pores via racimose channels. The middle von Lichtenberg's envelope consists of a single layer of flattened epithelial cells containing several mitochondria in other previously described Schistosoma eggs suggesting an active, and perhaps selective, transport in or out of the egg shell. The inner fluid filled cavity, or Lehman's lacuna, between the von Lichtenberg's envelope and the embryo contains numerous lipoid bodies suggesting a relation to vitelline cells. - Four systems (out of eight previously described for the free, mature Schistosoma miracidium) have been recognized for the first time in the developing miracidium within S. haematobium eggs and include: 1) ciliated epidermal plates representing the epithelial system, 2) an outer circular and an inner longitudinal muscle layers forming the musculatures, 3) lateral penetration glands, and 4) ciliated flame cells representing the excretory system. PMID:7550439

  5. Human bilharzial ureters: I. Fine structure of eggs deposited in the submucosa and muscularis.

    PubMed

    el-Shoura, S M; Ramadan, N F; Hassouna, O; Mahmoud, H I; Shetty, S; Westmuckett, A

    1995-09-01

    The internal fine structure of the partially calcified Schistosoma haematobium eggs in the lower ureteral segments of Saudi patients with chronic urinary schistosomiasis is described. The egg shell is penetrated by cribriform pores and consists of the three previously described layers: outer microspinous, middle intermediately dense, and inner dense layers. The space between the egg shell and the developing embryo is partitioned by three layers. An outer acellular Reynolds' layer of unknown origin and function consists of a fribrillar material mixed with a finely granular matrix extending to the egg-shell pores via racemose channels. The middle von Lichtenberg's envelope consists of a single layer of flattened epithelial cells containing several mitochondria as in other previously described Schistosoma eggs suggesting an active, and perhaps selective, transport in or out of the egg shell. The inner fluid filled cavity, or Lehman's lacuna, between the von Lichtenberg's envelope and the embryo contains numerous lipoid bodies suggesting a relation to vitelline cells. Four systems (out of eight previously described for the free, mature Schistosoma miracidium) have been recognized for the first time in the developing miracidium within S. haematobium eggs and include: (1) ciliated epidermal plates representing the epithelial system, (2) an outer circular and an inner longitudinal muscle layer forming the musculatures, (3) lateral penetration glands, and (4) ciliated flame cells representing the excretory system. PMID:8798955

  6. Asymptomatic extraperitoneal inguinoscrotal hernia involving ureter: A case presentation and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Veloudis, George; Exarchou, Elena; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    An inguinoscrotal hernia is a common disorder that usually contains intraperitoneal organs (small intestine, colon, appendix, ovaries). Extraperitoneal ureteral herniation into an inguinoscrotal hernia is a rare condition and often associated with congenital abnormalities or postoperative anatomic changes. A high index of suspicion is needed in order to avoid intraoperative ureteric injuries. We herein report the case of a ureteric herniation into an inguinoscrotal hernia incidentally found during a scheduled hernia repair.

  7. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney and ureter associated with diverse mesonephric remnant hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Jerome, Jean-Gilles; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described. PMID:26309900

  8. The pelvis–kidney junction contains HCN3, a hyperpolarization-activated cation channel that triggers ureter peristalsis

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Romulo; Bub, Gil; Herzlinger, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Peristaltic waves of the ureteric smooth muscles move urine down from the kidney, a process that is commonly defective in congenital diseases. To study the mechanisms that control the initiation and direction of contractions, we used video microscopy and optical mapping techniques and found that electrical and contractile waves began in a region where the renal pelvis joined the connective tissue core of the kidney. Separation of this pelvis–kidney junction from more distal urinary tract segments prevented downstream peristalsis, indicating that it housed the trigger for peristalsis. Moreover, cells in the pelvis–kidney junction were found to express isoform 3 of the hyperpolarization-activated cation on channel family known to be required for initiating electrical activity in the brain and heart. Immunocytochemical and real-time PCR analyses found that hyperpolarization-activated cation-3 is expressed at the pelvis–kidney junction where electrical excitation and contractile waves originate. Inhibition of this channel caused a loss of electrical activity at the pelvis–kidney junction and randomized the origin of electrical activity in the urinary tract, thus markedly perturbing contractions. Collectively, our study demonstrates that hyperpolarization-activated cation-3 channels play a fundamental role in coordinating proximal-to-distal peristalsis of the upper urinary tract. This provides insight into the genetic causes of common inherited urinary tract disorders such as reflux and obstruction. PMID:20032965

  9. Atlantic cod is a common host for myxosporeans, few reported as pathogens eg. Myxobolus aeglefini Auerbach, 1906 (Kabata, 1957)

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    in middle trunk kidney Occlusion of collecting ducts & ureters Ureter in head kidney Collecting duct in posterior kidney Ureter in posterior kidney Massive to the epithelium, discharging into the luminal space Ureter in posterior kidney #12

  10. MP/H Rules Presentation - Urinary

    Cancer.gov

    1 Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary 2 Equivalent Terms, Definitions, Tables and Illustrations 3 Introduction • Change in groupings – Previous: Kidney, ureter, renal pelvis • Bladder, ureter, renal pelvis – Lower urinary tract – Lined by

  11. Analysis of factors affecting spontaneous expulsion of ureteral stones that may predict unfavorable outcomes during watchful waiting periods: What is the influence of diabetes mellitus on the ureter?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Taesoo; Choi, Seung-Kwon; Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Dong-Gi; Min, Gyeong Eun; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of several factors with spontaneous stone expulsion, including ureteral stone characteristics (size, location, hydronephrosis, perinephric stranding), types of medications prescribed (?-blocker, low-dose steroid), and other possible demographic and health-history factors (gender, age, serum creatinine, underlying diabetes mellitus [DM], and hypertension). Materials and Methods A total of 366 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled. All patients underwent watchful waiting without any invasive procedures. Initial diagnoses of ureteral stones were confirmed by computed tomography scans, which were taken at approximately 1-month intervals to check for stone expulsion. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify significant factors that contributed to stone expulsion. Results Among 366 patients, 335 patients (91.5%) experienced spontaneous stone passage during a mean follow-up period of 2.95±2.62 weeks. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the success of spontaneous stone passage. Univariate analyses revealed that stone location (p=0.003), stone size (p=0.021), and underlying DM (p<0.001) were significant predictors of stone passage. Multivariate analyses confirmed that stone size (p=0.010), stone location (p=0.008), and underlying DM (p=0.003) were independent predictive factors affecting stone passage. Conclusions Stone size, location, and underlying DM were confirmed to be significant predictive factors for spontaneous passage of ureteral stones. Urologists should consider active procedures, such as shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy, rather than conservative management in patients presenting with proximally located stones, large ureteral stones, or underlying DM. PMID:26078843

  12. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Cancer of the Urothelium

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-28

    Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

  13. Reflux nephropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occur from swelling of the ureters after a kidney transplant or from injury to the ureter. Risk factors for reflux nephropathy include: Abnormalities of the urinary tract Personal or family history of vesicoureteral reflux Repeat urinary tract infections

  14. 76 FR 75458 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... muscle(s) that requires permanent urinary diversion and/or hemodialysis, either of which is reasonably... damage to the urethra, ureter(s), both kidneys, bladder, or urethral sphincter muscle(s) that...

  15. Eribulin Mesylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Cancer of the Urothelium and Kidney Dysfunction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-29

    Distal Urethral Carcinoma; Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Associated With Urethral Carcinoma; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Proximal Urethral Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Urethra Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Ureter Carcinoma

  16. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Cisplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Urinary Tract Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Distal Urethral Carcinoma; Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Associated With Urethral Carcinoma; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Proximal Urethral Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Urethra Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Ureter Carcinoma

  17. Pembrolizumab and Docetaxel or Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients Urothelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-26

    Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma

  18. Collecting and Studying Blood and Tissue Samples From Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate or Bladder/Urothelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-16

    Healthy Control; Localized Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  19. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Cisplatin or High-Dose Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Urothelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Anterior Urethral Cancer; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Posterior Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer

  20. Unusual drainage of the main kidney on accessory kidney

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Gülnur; U?ra?, Murat; Demiröz, Sevgi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an accessory kidney are characterized by an excessive number of kidneys. The ureter of the accessory kidney either drains separately into the bladder or merges with the ureter of the main kidney. In our case, interestingly, the ureter of the left main kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney and the ureter of the latter was the common drainage route for both. The drainage of a normal kidney via the ureter of an accessory kidney has not been reported in the literature, so far. The aim of this report is to present the case with radiological findings and to emphasize the effects of this situation on planned surgical procedures. A 62-year-old female patient had an interesting abnormality on the left collecting system, which was revealed on excretory urography (EU), retrograde urography (RU) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A kinky left ureter, which formed a U shape, was revealed on EU. On MDCT, an accessory kidney was revealed at the anterior aspect of the middle zone of left main kidney. The ureter of the main left kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney. The course of this drainage was confirmed by retrograde urography. An accessory kidney is a rare entity associated with horseshoe kidney, ectopic ureter draining into the vagina, bifid collecting system and coarctation of the aorta. In our case, an unusual association between the ureters of the main and accessory kidneys was revealed, which may have an impact on planned surgery in the groin and retroperitoneal areas. PMID:26328163

  1. Study of Genes and Environment in Patients With Cancer in East Anglia, Trent, or West Midlands Regions of the United Kingdom

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-23

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Esophageal Cancer; Intraocular Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Lymphoma; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

  2. Kidney Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney, Renal Pelvis, and Ureter Kidney C649, Renal Pelvis C659, Ureter C669 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor

  3. Lack of usefulness of ureteral reconstruction with free bladder mucosa flap in dogs confirmed by microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Kuzaka, Boles?aw; Borkowski, Tomasz; Kuzaka, Piotr; Szostek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data addressing the blood supply in the surgically reconstructed ureter, and complete lack of microangiographic studies of the reconstructed ureter with the use of a free bladder mucosa flap. The present study evaluated the blood supply in the reconstructed dog ureter after a 5-centimeter segment resection, supplemented by a tube constructed from a free bladder mucosa flap. Material/Methods Female mongrel dogs (n=29) were used in this study. Under general anaesthesia, a 5-centimeter autologous free bladder mucosa flap was used to construct a tube, which was afterwards grafted to replace a 5-centimeter ureter resection. After a period of 3 months (n=2) and after 1 year (n=2), microangiography was performed to assess the revascularization of the grafted ureter. Results In our study, we observed the continuity of the ureter, but the grafted reconstruction was narrowed by the cicatrization in about 86% (n=25) of cases. This resulted in the development of hydronephrosis, as described in previous publications. The ureteral wall was covered by a normal urothelium, but consisted of fibrous connective tissue, which failed to restore a regular (normal) coat. The reconstructed segment showed no smooth muscle cells. A few smooth monocytes were found only at the border with intact portions of the ureter. The microangiography performed at the end of the experiments showed no vascularization of the restored segment of the ureter. Conclusions The experiments showed a whole regeneration of urothelium in the transected and reanastomosed ureters. However, there was no regeneration of the muscular coat and a complete lack of revascularization. PMID:24980521

  4. Renographic Demonstration of Desmoid Tumor-Ureteral Fistula.

    PubMed

    Kim, David U; McQuinn, Garland; Lin, Eugene; Lee, Marie

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with Gardner syndrome and intra-abdominal desmoid tumors presented with increasing abdominal pain. CT demonstrated a new area of central hypodensity in a presumed desmoid tumor, compressing the left ureter. Findings were suspicious for abscess or fistula to the ureter. Subsequent Tc-MAG3 renogram demonstrated persistent extraureteral radiotracer activity in the region of the tumor, confirming a desmoid tumor-ureteral fistula. Desmoid tumors are benign but locally aggressive fibrous neoplasms that can be sporadic or associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndromes, specifically Gardner syndrome. Fistula formation to the ureter has been reported infrequently. PMID:26284772

  5. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...

  6. UPJ obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... unborn baby. Tests after birth may include: BUN Creatinine clearance CT scan Electrolytes IVP - less utilized tests CT urogram - scan of both kidneys and ureters with IV contrast Nuclear scan of kidneys Voiding cystourethrogram

  7. "Clip-strasse": A novel complication following partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Andrew C; Bhatti, Aftab; Sakthivel, Ashok; Naisby, Geoffrey; Gowda, Basavaraj

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with recurrent visible haematuria and loin pain 18 months after open partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. A computed tomography urogram revealed three obstructing calculi in the mid- to distal ureter with hydronephrosis. Rigid ureteroscopy revealed three calcified objects in the pelvic ureter. These had the appearance of calcified Weck® clips. A laser was used to remove the calcification, confirming the presence of three Weck clips, which had been used for haemostasis during the partial nephrectomy. These were removed with graspers after balloon dilatation of the distal ureter. This phenomenon of multiple clips migrating with stone formation and obstruction of the ureter was named "clip-strasse". PMID:25927283

  8. Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). It also may be stuck ...

  9. Math. Model. Nat. Phenom. Vol. ?, No. ?, 20??, pp. ?-?

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    with the fluid, such as ovum transport in the oviduct or kidney stones in the ureter. In some of these biological contractions in the oviduct and uterus contribute to ovum transport and embryo implantation in the uterus [4

  10. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  15. Renal calyceal anatomy characterization with 3-dimensional in vivo computerized tomography imaging

    E-print Network

    Miller, J; Durack, JC; Sorensen, MD; Wang, JH; Stoller, ML

    2012-01-01

    to treat stones in the rest of the kidney. Lower pole renalto treat stones in the remainder of the kidney. In our studyand stones in the renal pelvis, lower pole calyces and ureter. 15 In 95% of the kidneys

  16. Mathematical Medicine and Biology Page 1 of 24 doi:10.1093/imammb/dqn020

    E-print Network

    Waters, Sarah

    of pressure (e.g. tumours) and internal blockages (e.g. kidney stones). The high urine pressures generated can pelvis from the kidney with a prescribed flux. The stent, ureter and renal pelvis are filled with urine

  17. Nephrolithiasis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney stones result when urine becomes too concentrated and substances in the urine crystalize to form stones. Symptoms ... to move down the ureter causing intense pain. Kidney stones may form in the pelvis or calyces of ...

  18. Kidney stones

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine becomes ... being stretched, and when stones form and distend it, the stretching can be very painful. Often, people ...

  19. MPH Urinary Practicum : Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 20 07

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM BREEZE SESSION Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary Sites Practicum February

  20. Ureteral Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rays, and examination of the ureter with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  1. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device...fiberoptic bundle that emits light throughout its length and...the ureter to be seen during lower abdominal or pelvic...

  2. Novel application of an established technique for removing a knotted ureteric stent.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Heidi; Turney, Ben; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a case whereby a ureteric stent became knotted during removal and lodged within the upper ureter. The authors describe a novel minimally invasive technique to remove the knotted ureteric stent using the holmium laser. PMID:22701009

  3. Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  4. Muscles of the Upper Extremity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  5. Introduction to the Human Body

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  6. Components of the Lymphatic System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  7. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  8. Components of the Urinary System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  9. Pharynx

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  10. Cell Structure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  11. Appendicular Skeleton

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  12. Tonsils

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  13. Mouth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  14. Stomach

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  15. Muscles of the Head and Neck

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  16. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  17. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  18. Classification & Structure of Blood Vessels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  19. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  20. Regions of the Digestive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  1. Nose, Nasal Cavities & Paranasal Sinuses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  2. Small & Large Intestine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  3. Muscles of the Trunk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  4. Muscles of the Lower Extremity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  5. Structure of the Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  6. Larynx & Trachea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  7. Axial Skeleton

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  8. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  9. Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often first detected when a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) with a fever. Symptoms of a UTI ... ON THIS TOPIC Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary Tract Infections Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Kidneys ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  11. Kidney removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidney is then removed. Your surgeon will also take out the surrounding fat, and sometimes the adrenal gland ... of the cuts larger (around 4 inches) to take out the kidney. The surgeon will cut the ureter, ...

  12. Cystinuria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cystine builds up in the urine and forms crystals or stones. These crystals may get stuck in the kidneys, ureters, or ... may be prescribed to help dissolve the cystine crystals. Eating less salt can also decrease cystine release ...

  13. A Giant Ureteral Stone without Underlying Anatomic or Metabolic Abnormalities: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Selcuk; Resorlu, Berkan; Ozyuvali, Ekrem; Bozkurt, Omer Faruk; Oguz, Ural; Unsal, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A 28-year old man presented with left flank pain and dysuria. Plain abdominal film and computed tomography showed a left giant ureteral stone measuring 11.5?cm causing ureteral obstruction and other stones 2.5?cm in size in the lower pole of ipsilateral kidney and 7?mm in size in distal part of right ureter. A left ureterolithotomy was performed and then a double J stent was inserted into the ureter. The patient was discharged from the hospital 4 days postoperatively with no complications. Stone analysis was consistent with magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium oxalate. Underlying anatomic or metabolic abnormalities were not detected. One month after surgery, right ureteral stone passed spontaneously, left renal stone moved to distal ureter, and it was removed by ureterolithotomy. Control intravenous urography and cystography demonstrated unobstructed bilateral ureter and the absence of vesicoureteral reflux. PMID:24324500

  14. MPH Urinary Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 16 07

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM Breeze Session Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter and Bladder and Other Urinary Sites February 16, 2007

  15. Tritium-bradykinin binding site localization in guinea pig urinary system

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, D.C.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) causes vasodilation and increases free water and sodium excretion in the kidney and stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the ureter and bladder. Several proposed sites of action for BK include the renal medullary collecting duct, renal blood vessels and the ureter and bladder smooth muscle. This study employs 3H-BK autoradiography to localize the sites of BK action. 3H-BK binding sites in the kidney are localized in the medullary interstitium where BK may produce prostaglandins which mediate its blood flow, natriuretic and diuretic effects. 3H-BK binding sites in the ureter and bladder are localized in the lamina propria below the basal epithelial layer and absent over the muscle layers suggesting an indirect action on urinary tract smooth muscle.

  16. Imaging of Urinary System Trauma.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joel A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Linnau, Ken F; Voelzke, Bryan B; Sandstrom, Claire K

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the kidney, ureter, and bladder permit accurate and prompt diagnosis or exclusion of traumatic injuries, without the need to move the patient to the fluoroscopy suite. Real-time review of imaging permits selective delayed imaging, reducing time on the scanner and radiation dose for patients who do not require delays. Modifying imaging parameters to obtain thicker slices and noisier images permits detection of contrast extravasation from the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, while reducing radiation dose on the delayed or cystographic imaging. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading system is discussed, along with challenges and limitations. PMID:26046510

  17. Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia: Presentations on 99mTc-MAG3 Scan, 99mTc-DMSA SPECT, and Multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Min-Woo; Kim, Young Jun; Sun, In O

    2015-10-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is an uncommon developmental anomaly in which both kidneys are located on the same side of the body. The present case describes a 20-year-old man who underwent the military entrance physical examination. The ultrasound showed the right kidney in normal site with slightly increased size, but the left kidney was not identified. Tc-MAG3 scan showed a single kidney with 2 ureters, and the orifices of the ureters were connected at both sides of bladder. Tc-DMSA SPECT and contrast-enhanced multidetector CT were performed and revealed crossed fused renal ectopia. PMID:26252333

  18. Ureteral quintuplication with renal atrophy in an infant after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Beata; Z?bkowski, Tomasz; Shevchuk, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    Ureteral duplication is a comparatively frequent urinary tract anomaly. Ureteral triplication is rare, but quadruplication is extremely rare. In this study, we describe a case of ureteral quintuplication, the first such report in the English-language literature. A newborn female baby was diagnosed with left ureteral quintuplication. The left ureter was divided into 5 ureters with 5 renal pelvises within approximately 3 cm of the urinary bladder, and trace parenchyma of the kidney was noted. The patient was born within 60 km of the epicenter of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, 24 years after the catastrophic nuclear accident, and is currently aged 3 years. PMID:24001707

  19. Split-bolus MR urography: synchronous visualization of obstructing vessels and collecting system in children

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Kocao?lu, Murat; Akgün, Veysel; ?nce, Selami; Gök, Faysal; Ta?ar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Several vascular abnormalities related with urinary system such as crossing accessory renal vessels, retroiliac ureters, retrocaval ureters, posterior nutcracker syndrome, and ovarian vein syndrome may be responsible for urinary collecting system obstruction. Split-bolus magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using contrast material as two separate bolus injections provides superior demonstration of the collecting system and obstructing vascular anomalies simultaneously and enables accurate preoperative radiologic diagnosis. In this pictorial review we aimed to outline the split-bolus MRU technique in children, list the coexisting congenital collecting system and vascular abnormalities, and exhibit the split-bolus MRU appearances of concurrent urinary collecting system and vascular abnormalities. PMID:26359874

  20. A rare complication after renal transplantation: Forgotten stent.

    PubMed

    Karab?cak, Mustafa; Ipekci, Tumay; Isoglu, Cemal Selcuk; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Budak, Salih; Turk, Hakan; Celik, Orcun; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2015-06-01

    In renal transplantation surgery, double J stents (DJS) are often used to reduce complications, protect the anastomosis between ureter and bladder, provide drainage in ureteral obstructions and enhance healing if there is an ureter injury. Urinary tract infections, hematuria and irritative voiding symptoms are the early complications of DJS. Migration, fragmentation, encrustation and rarely sepsis are among the late complications of DJS. In this report we describe a renal transplantation case whose DJS stent was forgotten because the patient did not attend the regular follow-up and noticed 5 years after surgery. PMID:26150043

  1. Renal dysfunction due to hydronephrosis by SAPHO syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kakoki, Katsura; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Enokizono, Mikako; Uetani, Masataka; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome shows varied pathological symptoms. This is the first report of hydronephrosis due to the mechanical compression of bilateral ureters as a result of SAPHO syndrome. From our experience, MRI is the most useful imaging examination to check the upper urinary tract in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:26331013

  2. Is Hydronephrosis a Complication after Anterior Lumbar Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Ruth M.; Behrbalk, Eyal; Mosharraf, Syed; Müller, Roger M.; Boszczyk, Bronek M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Prospective follow-up design. Objective?Ureteral injury is a recognized complication following gynecologic surgery and can result in hydronephrosis. Anterior lumbar surgery includes procedures like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and total disk replacement (TDR). Anterior approaches to the spine require mobilization of the great vessels and visceral organs. The vascular supply to the ureter arising from the iliac arteries may be compromised during midline retraction of the ureter, which could theoretically lead to ureter ischemia and stricture with subsequent hydronephrosis formation. Methods?Potential candidates with previous ALIF or TDR via anterior retroperitoneal access between January 2008 and March 2012 were chosen from those operated on by a single surgeon in a university hospital setting (n?=?85). Renal ultrasound evaluation of hydronephrosis was performed on all participants. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were used to generate results. Results?A total of 37 voluntary participants were recruited (23 male, 14 female subjects; average age 51.8 years). The prevalence of hydronephrosis in our population was 0.0% (95% confidence interval 0 to 8.1%). Conclusions?Retraction of the ureter across the midline in ALIF and TDR does not result in an increase in hydronephrosis and appears to be a safe surgical technique. PMID:26682096

  3. The new england journal of medicine 1576 n engl j med 349;16 www.nejm.org october 16, 2003

    E-print Network

    Gold, Lois Swirsky

    of the kidneys and ureters; urothelial carcinoma was diagnosed in 18 of them. Aristolochic acid nephropathy has and 95 products suspected to contain aristolochic acid for sale on the Web. These products and approxi In rabbits, aris- tolochic acidinduces nephrotoxic effects, the same DNA adducts in kidney as in humans

  4. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  5. EUS Annual Meeting, April 25, 2009, Chicago, IL Page 28 of 102 ABSTRACT 13 OUTSTANDING PAPER AWARD

    E-print Network

    Janardan, Ravi

    for diagnosing and treating stones, scar tissue and tumors in the ureter and collecting system of the kidney the size and location of stones, and scope selection and manipulation) are based on imaging data taken allow stone placement), and rectangular alignment tabs were added. The model was then sliced into layers

  6. Modeling and Simulation for Flexible Ureteroscopy

    E-print Network

    Janardan, Ravi

    Background: A flexible ureteroscope is a small-caliber endoscope for treating stones, scar tissue, and tumors in the ureter and collecting system of the kidney. Presently, surgical planning decisions (e.g., understanding patient-specific calyceal anatomy, identifying stone size and location, and scope selection

  7. EGF AND TGF ALPHA EXPRESSION INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF TCDD: DOSE RESPONSE AND AHR PHENOTYPE IN EGF, TGF ALPHA AND EGF+TGF ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    The environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis (HN) in mice. The etiology of these defects involves hyperproliferation of epithelial cells of the secondary palatal shelf and ureter, respectively. ...

  8. Horseshoe kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kanyári, Zsolt; Zádori, Gergely; Zsom, Lajos; Berhés, Mariann; Hamar, Mátyás; Kóbor, Krisztina; Péter, Antal

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is a fusion anomaly found in approximately one in 400–600 people. Due to vascular and ureteral variations, transplantation with a horseshoe kidney presents a technical challenge. In our case, the isthmus connected the upper poles and contained parenchyma. It consisted of three renal arteries, five veins collected to the inferior vena cava, and two ureters and pyelons. It was implanted en bloc to the left side retroperitoneally. During the early period, cellular and humoral rejection was confirmed and treated. For a urine leak, double J catheters were implanted into both ureters. Later, the first catheter was removed. Subsequently, urinary sepsis developed, necessitating graftectomy. The uncommon anatomy of ureters and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) may both be factors for a ureter tip necrosis led to an infected urinoma. After other Hungarian authors, we also report a horseshoe kidney transplantation that was technically successful. However, after an adequately treated but severe acute humoral rejection, the patient developed sepsis, and the kidney had to be removed. We conclude that transplantation with horseshoe kidney is technically feasible but may increase the risk for urinary complications and resultant infections. Careful consideration of risk and benefit is advised when a transplant professional is faced with this option. PMID:26120481

  9. Continuous dual-wavelength, high-intensive Nd:YAG laser in operative urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, Leonid L.; Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Miroshnicov, B. I.; Snezhko, D. A.; Nikitichev, A. A.; Pokrovskiy, Vasiliy P.; Gomberg, Vladimir G.

    1994-05-01

    A ruby laser with a 0.694 mkm wavelength was used as a source of a new model of laser lithotriptor. The optical irradiation parameters selected included 1 mks duration pulse, frequency from 1 to 5 Hz, energy at an output of up to 120 mJ, transmitted via light guide quartz fiber of 400 kmk. The tip of the light guide was directed to the calculus through a catheterized cystoscope. Light guide position control was done by the presence of a specific acoustic signal accompanying plasma formation. Plasma is not formed by laser action on the ureter wall. In doubtful cases we used roentgenological examination. After lithotripsy and direct processing by irradiation, histological investigations of the ureter wall showed only slight submucosal hemorrhage or revealed no changes. Implantation of the calculus and fiber particles into the ureter wall was not observed. Twenty-nine patients were subjected to lithotripsy of calculus (oxalates, urates, phosphates) in the low and mid-ureter. Usually from 1000 to 3000 impulses were used to destroy the calculus. Calculus fragments passed without assistance (13 patients) or were removed by extractors (7 patients). The recovery of passing of urine and removal of renal colic were observed during lithotripsy if obturation had occurred (8 patients). Ureteral perforation, blood loss, and acute pyelonephritis did not occur.

  10. Non-synaptic transmission at autonomic neuroeffector junctions Geoffrey Burnstock *

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    -motor; Smooth muscle; Sympathetic; Ureter; Vas deferens 1. Introduction Non-synaptic transmission at autonomic, 2004b; Gabella, 1995). It also occurs in the central nervous system (see Vizi, this issue). Evidence to occur in cerebral blood arteries, where there is a continuously increasing density of sympathetic

  11. Urogenital System Objectives -see handout or website

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    of the Excretory or Urinary System Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra External Genitalia #12;Kidneys Perirenal Fascia ­ contains kidney and adrenal gland Perirenal Fat ­ cushions kidney within location retroperitoneal on superior posterior abdominal wall both kidneys "capped" superiorly by suprarenal (= adrenal

  12. Original Paper Exp Nephrol 2002;10:3442

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    /cpk mice W Western blotting W Congenital polycystic kidney disease W Immunolocalization of P2X7 Abstract was also documented in ureter development. In cpk/cpk kidneys, P2X7-expressing collecting duct cysts kidneys pyknotic nuclei were rarely identified in P2X7- expressing epithelia, but were detected between

  13. Disruption of the GDNF Binding Site in NCAM Dissociates Ligand Binding and Homophilic Cell Adhesion*S

    E-print Network

    Ibáńez, Carlos

    .e. GDNF, Neurturin, Artemin, and Persephin, share 40% of their amino acid sequence. GDNF and Artemin, 15) and ureter morphogenesis during kidney development (16, 17). On the other hand, in the presence of the elongated dimer of GDNF family ligands. In addition, a model of the extracellular region of RET based

  14. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 where the cooling in MSU-2R is largest

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    permeability using traditional solute-flux techniques with isolated hemibladders prepared from cold- acclimated R. sylvatica. We filled ligated hemibladders with a glucose-laden mucosal solution, formulated to approximate uretal urine of recently thawed frogs, and suspen- ded them in hypertonic saline which we

  15. Ureteral Dilatation with No Apparent Cause on Intravenous Urography: Normal or Abnormal? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Vinita; Agrawal, Sachin; Bhatt, Shuchi; Sharma, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was done in 18 adults to assess the significance of ureteral dilatation having no apparent cause seen on Intravenous Urography (IVU). A clinicoradiological evaluation was undertaken to evaluate the cause of ureteral dilatation, including laboratory investigations and sonography of the genitourinary tract. This was followed, if required, by CT Urography (using a modified technique). In 9 out of 18 cases, the cause of ureteral dilatation on laboratory investigations was urinary tract infection (6) and tuberculosis (3). In the remaining 9 cases, CTU identified the cause as extrinsic compression by a vessel (3), extrinsic vascular compression of the ureter along with ureteritis (2), extrinsic vascular impression on the right ureter and ureteritis in the left ureter (1), ureteral stricture (2), and ureteral calculus (1). Extrinsic vascular compression and strictures did not appear to be clinically significant in our study. Hence, ureteral dilatation without any apparent cause on intravenous urogram was found to be clinically significant in 12 out of 18 (66.6%) cases. We conclude that ureteral dilatation with no apparent cause on IVU may indicate urinary tract tuberculosis, urinary tract infection (E. coli), or a missed calculus. Thus, cases with a dilated ureter on IVU, having no obvious cause, should undergo a detailed clinicoradiological evaluation and CTU should be used judiciously. PMID:26576150

  16. Leslie A. Dierauf, V.M.D. August 1994

    E-print Network

    Body Orifices Peripheral Lymph Nodes Mammary Glands Scrotum Internal Examination of the Carcass Intestine Large Intestine Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Pancreas and Pancreatic Ducts Spleen Liver Gall Bladder and Bile Duct Adrenal Glands Kidneys Ureters Bladder and Urethra Reproductive Organs Female Ovaries

  17. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  18. Durability of anti-reflux effect of ureteral reimplantation for primary vesicoureteral reflux: findings on long-term cystography

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Katherine C.; Kokorowski, Paul J.; Huang, Lin; Prasad, Michaella M.; Rosoklija, Ilina; Retik, Alan B.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ureteral reimplantation (UR) is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) but few studies have documented its long-term results. We reviewed late cystography (LC) results following successful UR. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of all children with primary VUR who underwent successful open UR (grade 0 VUR into the reimplanted ureter(s) on initial cystogram) at our institution from January 1990 – December 2002. We identified successful UR patients who underwent LC ? 1 year after UR and reviewed the results for the presence of recurrent VUR into the reimplanted ureter(s). Results 794 patients underwent successful open UR for primary VUR, of whom 60 (7.6%) had a subsequent LC. Preoperative VUR grade was ?II in 20 (34.5%), ?III in 38 (65.5%). Median age at UR was 3.5 years (IQR: 1.3–6.2 years); 51 (85%) were female. UR was intravesical in 45 (75%) and bilateral in 19 (32%). LC was performed at a median of 38.7 months after UR (IQR: 19.6–66.1 months). Indication for LC was febrile UTI in 16 (27%), non-febrile UTI’s in 15 (25%), follow-up of contralateral VUR in 16 (27%) and other clinical indications in 13 (21%). The recurrence rate was 0%; of the 79 reimplanted ureters, 100% (95% CI: 95.4–100) had no VUR (grade 0). Conclusions Among children who underwent successful open UR for primary VUR, there was no VUR recurrence on extended follow-up. This suggests that the late durability of open anti-reflux surgery is excellent. PMID:22245304

  19. Distribution of ureteral stones and factors affecting their location and expulsion in patients with renal colic

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Joon; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Jin Bum; Chang, Young-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the distribution of ureteral stones and to determine their characteristics and expulsion rate based on their location. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed computed tomography (CT) findings of 246 patients who visited our Emergency Department (ED) for renal colic caused by unilateral ureteral stones between January 2013 and April 2014. Histograms were constructed to plot the distribution of stones based on initial CT findings. Data from 144 of the 246 patients who underwent medical expulsive therapy (MET) for 2 weeks were analyzed to evaluate the factors responsible for the stone distribution and expulsion. Results The upper ureter and ureterovesical junction (UVJ) were 2 peak locations at which stones initially lodged. Stones lodged at the upper ureter and ureteropelvic junction (group A) had a larger longitudinal diameter (4.21 mm vs. 3.56 mm, p=0.004) compared to those lodged at the lower ureter and UVJ (group B). The expulsion rate was 75.6% and 94.9% in groups A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference in the time interval from initiation of renal colic to arrival at the ED between groups A and B (p=0.422). Stone diameter was a significant predictor of MET failure (odds ratio [OR], 1.795; p=0.005) but the initial stone location was not (OR, 0.299; p=0.082). Conclusions The upper ureter and UVJ are 2 peak sites at which stones lodge. For stone size 10 mm or less, initial stone lodge site is not a significant predictor of MET failure in patients who have no previous history of active stone treatment in the ureter. PMID:26495073

  20. Ontogeny of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoichi; Ichikawa, Iekuni

    2003-10-01

    Ectopic budding of the initial ureter from the Wolffian duct is the first ontogenic misstep that leads to many congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). The ectopia results in hypoplastic kidney, ectopia of ureterovesical orifice, urinary outflow obstruction and/or reflux. Recent studies on several mutant mouse models verified that ectopic ureteric budding indeed occurs prior to the formation of CAKUT. Often, the genes involved in navigating the site of ureteric budding also regulate later ontogenic processes of the kidney and other urinary tract systems. These additional functions of the genes underlie the wide spectrum of CAKUT, for example multicystic dysplastic kidney, megaureter and atretic ureter, because the genes regulate the morphogenesis of the many portions of the excretory system through their distinctive cellular functions. PMID:14521544

  1. [Replacement continent bladder in dogs by opening an antro-pyloric graft onto the abdominal wall (seven cases between 1980 and 1983)].

    PubMed

    Bourdelat, D; Vrsansky, P; Gruel, Y; Babut, J M

    1996-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of antral bladder controlled by the pyloric sphincter denervated for urological applications, bladder replacement was performed in 17 dogs using the antral segment with its own sphincter, initially with the pylorus supplied by the left gastro-epiploic artery, and later by the right gastro-epiploic artery. The smooth pyloric muscle was denervated to obtain permanent spasm and pulled through the striated anterior abdominal muscle. Both ureters were anastomosed by a Cohen's procedure. The best results were obtained with a gastric pouch supplied by the right gastro-epiploic artery; dissection and reimplantation of the ureters in the gastric wall are difficult. IVP and cystography indicated good function of the antral pouch, with no reflux. The antral bladder controlled by the denervated pyloric sphincter could be a possible alternative in the surgical management of neurogenic or exstrophic bladder. PMID:8767812

  2. Ureteroscopy-Assisted Biopsy for a Retroperitoneal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yoko; Kawahara, Takashi; Tanabe, Mikiko; Kumano, Yohei; Ohtaka, Mari; Kondo, Takuya; Mochizuki, Taku; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yumura, Yasushi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Retroperitoneal tumor is often seen in urology clinical practice. To diagnose the tumor, tumor specimens must be obtained. However, in some cases, the tumor is penetrated by vessels around the ureter, and it may be difficult to detect the optimal spot for obtaining a specimen, even when performing open surgery. Case Presentation A 53-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital for further examination of left back pain due to hydronephrosis. Enhanced computed tomography demonstrated ureter stenosis in front of the ilium, which was surrounded by a retroperitoneal tumor. The tumor was penetrated by blood vessels; therefore, we performed an open surgical biopsy on the suspicion of a retroperitoneal tumor using ureteroscopic assistance. The diagnosis of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis was made according to the biopsy. Conclusion We herein report the first case of a ureteroscopy-assisted biopsy for the pathological diagnosis of a retroperitoneal tumor. PMID:26351434

  3. Percutaneous removal of ureteral calculi: clinical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D W; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Young, A T; Cardella, J; Lund, G; Rysavy, J A; Hulbert, J; Lange, P; Reedy, P; Amplatz, K

    1985-08-01

    Between May 1983 and October 1984, 51 patients who had 68 ureteral stones underwent treatment at the University of Minnesota. All 68 stones were removed successfully using percutaneous techniques. The 100% success rate is a great improvement over previous results at our institution. The primary factors appear to be the development of the retrograde-flush technique, familiarity with and access to a wider range of methods, and the increasing use of the retrograde ureterorenoscope to see stones in the lower ureter. The average patient was a 45-year-old man who had no other medical problems. The average hospital stay was 6.8 days. Experimental studies with dogs indicate that injection rates of up to 30 ml/sec of contrast material through a retrograde catheter in the ureter are safe if a vent is present in the upper collecting system. PMID:4011895

  4. Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment. PMID:19096525

  5. Is there an advantage in performing a combined examination: diuretic renal scintigraphy and low dose computed tomography compared to the separate use of these methods in urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Hadzhiyska, Valeriya; Kostadinova, Irena; Demirev, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US), radiography of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (RKUB), intravenous urography (IVU) and especially non-enchanced CT are well established diagnostic modalities in screening patients with urolithiasis, while not always fully diagnostic especially when obstructive uropathy or calculous pyelonephritis are present . Diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS) can determine obstruction, may differentiate between complete or partial, acute or chronic obstruction, but can not specify the cause and often the location of obstruction. The imaging protocol, including DRS with technetium-99m-mercaptylacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3) and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPET/CT) of the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder allows for both functional and morphological information, visualization of renal stones and possible renal complications. The main advantages and limitations of this combined examination are discussed and the test is compared to the separate use of DRS and low dose of CT, in urolithiasis. PMID:26187205

  6. [Morbus Ormond (idiopatic retroperitoneal fibrosis)].

    PubMed

    Michaligová, A; Plank, L; Jezíková, A; Manka, V; Makovický, P; Mokán, M

    2011-05-01

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a rare condition characterized by the development of fibrotic tissue around the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries and often involves structures as ureters and the inferior vena cava. The age at onset of signs and symptoms is between 40-60 years, males predominane over females. In most cases the clinical manifestation is presented as compressive syndrom of ureters, therefore the first known cases were described by urologists. In this report we present the case of 37-years old male examinated for persistent fever about 38 degrees C and high inflammatory activity in spite of empiric antibiotic therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) showed locality of high metabolic activity of fluorodeoxyglucose with maximum paraaortal left. Microscopic examination of extracted mass showed presence of fibrous and inflammatory components. With clinical presentation, imaging and histological findings we made out the diagnosis of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis--morbus Ormond. PMID:21695934

  7. Inequalities in reported cancer patient experience by sociodemographic characteristic and cancer site: Evidence from respondents to the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Catherine L.; Abel, Gary A.; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    ,280 1.9 Ovarian 1,823 2.6 Pancreatic 673 1 Prostate 5,568 8.1 Rectal 3,541 5.1 Renal 950 1.4 Secondary 4,308 6.2 Small-intestine 215 0.3 Soft tissue sarcoma 575 0.8 Stomach 1,019 1.5 Testicular 256 0.4 Thyroid 493 0.7 Ureter and rarer urological 349 0... ; Pancreatic C25; Prostate C61; Rectal C19, C20; Renal C64; Secondary C77, C78, C79; Small-intestine C17, C26; Soft tissue sarcoma C48, C49, C46; Stomach C16; Testicular C62; Thyroid C73; Ureter and rarer urological C60, C63, C65, C66, C68; Vulval / vaginal C51...

  8. Urinary Diversions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Once the bladder has been removed or declared non-functional, some form of urinary diversion must be performed. The diversion can be as simple as bringing the ureters to the skin and as complicated as the creation of a functioning neobladder. The indications for and expectations of the most common types of diversion are explained. Some new techniques for continent diversion are described. PMID:21229045

  9. Prosthetic Sphincter Controls Urination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenny, John B., Jr

    1986-01-01

    People who lost muscular control of urinary canal through disease or injury aided by prosthetic sphincter. Implanted so it surrounds uretha, sphincter deflated and inflated at will by wearer to start and stop urina tion. Operating pressure adjusted after implantation to accommodate growth or atrophy of urinary canal and prevent tissue damage from excess pressure. Principle adapted to other organs, such as colon, ureter, or ileum.

  10. Elucidating the Life History and Ecological Aspects of Allodero hylae (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae), A Parasitic Oligochaete of Invasive Cuban Tree Frogs in Florida.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jessee M; Childress, Jasmine N; Iakovidis, Triantafilos J; Langford, Gabriel J

    2015-06-01

    Given their ubiquitous nature, it is surprising that more oligochaete annelid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) have not adopted an endoparasitic lifestyle. Exceptions, however, are the understudied members of the genus Dero (Allodero) that parasitize the ureters of tree frogs and toads. This study experimentally explores the life cycle and host specificity of Allodero hylae, the worm's use of chemical cues in host searching, and its seasonal prevalence and abundance over a year-long collection period on the Florida Southern College campus. A total of 2,005 A. hylae was collected from the ureter, urinary bladder, or expressed urine of wild Osteopilus septentrionalis ; a significant positive correlation was found between host snout-vent length and parasite intensity for female but not male hosts. Monthly prevalence of A. hylae reached a peak of 58% in April, but never dropped below 20% in any month; mean abundance peaked March-May, whereas few worms were recovered in December and January. Confirming a parasitic lifestyle, wild-collected hosts with intense infections, typically >40 worms, showed obvious dilatation of the ureter wall, and some young-of-the-year O. septentrionalis exposed to A. hylae in the laboratory were killed by the apparent rupture of the host's ureter. The worm has a direct life cycle: worms expelled in the host's urine are capable of locating and re-infecting other hosts within aquatic microhabitats such as bromeliad tanks, and worms can survive for weeks in a free-living environment, even undergoing a morphological change. Further, chemotaxis assays found a positive response to a tree frog attractant for worms recently removed from hosts. Overall, this study provides the first multifaceted investigation on the life history and ecology of any Allodero spp., which offers new insights into an understudied endoparasitic oligochaete. PMID:25730299

  11. Chronic renal failure in a patient with bilateral ureterocele

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Samuel A.; Rafiu, Mojeed O.; Olanrewaju, Timothy O.

    2015-01-01

    Ureterocele is a congenital anomaly, in which there is mal-development of the caudal segments of the ureter. There is a female preponderance with most cases seen in Caucasians. Among the reported complications of this condition, chronic renal failure occurring in the setting of ureterocele has not been well documented. We report a case of a young girl with bilateral ureterocele presenting with chronic renal failure, whose management presented a diagnostic failure and inadequate treatment. PMID:26108593

  12. Excising multiple ureteral cysts endoscopically utilizing the OmniPlus-Max 80 W holmium laser

    PubMed Central

    Blewniewski, Mariusz; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of ureteral cysts in the left ureter treated by an endoscopic holmium laser. These cysts caused asymptomatic hydronephrosis in the left kidney. Complete cyst removal was performed by a ureteroscopically applied holmium laser. Six months post-procedure, the patient had no recurrence, which suggests that endoscopic excision is an optimal treatment for this disorder. Periodic ureteroscopic examination is indicated for further observation. PMID:25624968

  13. Are there valid reasons for using anti-muscarinic drugs in the management of renal colic?

    PubMed

    Tomiak, R H; Barlow, R B; Smith, P J

    1985-10-01

    Experiments have been carried out with isolated ring preparations of human ureter. The tissue displayed spontaneous activity and contracted when exposed to barium chloride (0.5-4 mM) but no responses were obtained with carbachol (0.1 micromolar-0.1 mM). This raises questions about the value of treating ureteric colic with anti-muscarinic drugs. PMID:4063728

  14. Effective radiation exposure evaluation during a one year follow-up of urolithiasis patients after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Tekinarslan, Erdem; Keskin, Suat; Buldu, ?brahim; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Karatag, Tuna; Istanbulluoglu, Mustafa Okan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To determine and evaluate the effective radiation exposure during a one year follow-up of urolithiasis patients following the SWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) treatment. Material and methods Total Effective Radiation Exposure (ERE) doses for each of the 129 patients: 44 kidney stone patients, 41 ureter stone patients, and 44 multiple stone location patients were calculated by adding up the radiation doses of each ionizing radiation session including images (IVU, KUB, CT) throughout a one year follow-up period following the SWL. Results Total mean ERE values for the kidney stone group was calculated as 15, 91 mSv (5.10-27.60), for the ureter group as 13.32 mSv (5.10-24.70), and in the multiple stone location group as 27.02 mSv (9.41-54.85). There was no statistically significant differences between the kidney and ureter groups in terms of the ERE dose values (p = 0.221) (p >0.05). In the comparison of the kidney and ureter stone groups with the multiple stone location group; however, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) (p <0.05). Conclusions ERE doses should be a factor to be considered right at the initiation of any diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure. Especially in the case of multiple stone locations, due to the high exposure to ionized radiation, different imaging modalities with low dose and/or totally without a dose should be employed in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up bearing the aim to optimize diagnosis while minimizing the radiation dose as much as possible. PMID:26568880

  15. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis treated with posaconazole

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Stacey R.; Lindsley, Mark D.; Hurst, Steven F.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Damodaran, Thara; Bennett, John

    2012-01-01

    A 67 year-old Caucasian male from Arizona presented with indolent symptoms of intestinal obstruction and hydronephrosis, found at surgery to be caused by a mass involving the terminal ileum and cecum, extending into the posterior abdominal wall and obstructing the right ureter. Histopathology was diagnostic of basidiobolomycosis. PCR of tissue and sequencing identified the fungus as, Basidiobolus ranarum. During one year of posaconazole treatment, the residual mass shrank, hydronephrosis was relieved and peripheral eosinophilia resolved. PMID:24432205

  16. Ureterolithotripsy in a paediatric population: a single institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Beata; Z?bkowski, Tomasz; Samotyjek, Joanna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents one institution's experiences in ureterolithotripsy (URSL)--a particular endoscopic treatment modality. The incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis in the paediatric population continues to increase. However, the choice of the most appropriate treatment remains a challenging problem for paediatric surgeons. Between January 2006 and June 2013, the Department of Pediatric Surgery performed 157 URSLs. The patient population consisted of 126 children (60 girls and 66 boys) aged 10 months-17 years and having a body mass >8 kg. Dilatation of the pyelocalyceal system along with dilatation of the ureter above the concrement was present in all patients. Pneumatic, laser (Ho:YAG--pulsed laser), ultrasonic lithotripters with rigid, flexible ureteroscopes of 4.5/6 and 6.5/8 Ch were used. URSL was performed in 157 cases. During the first session, excellent results were obtained in 134 of 157 cases (85.3 %). In 15 cases (9.6 %), a second URSL was required. In five cases (3.2 %), URSL was performed a third time. A final stone-free rate of 98.1 % was obtained within the ureter. In three cases (1.9 %), complications were observed. In ten cases (6.37 %), a pigtail catheter was placed and retained in the ureter. URSL is a very good and effective endoscopic treatment for the removal of concrements localized in ureters. These concrements cause alterations in flow from the upper urinary tract in children. Because of the relatively small diameter and volume of the urinary tract in children aged <5 years, URSL in this population requires great precision, experience, and technical skill. PMID:24368682

  17. Basic investigation of laser therapy for the ureteral stricture using ultraviolet argon laser and multifiber catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidoh, Yuichiro; Arai, Tsunenori; Murai, Masaru; Suda, Akira; Kikuchi, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Komime, Yukikuni; Utsumi, Atsushi

    1992-06-01

    In order to develop new, easy, and safe treatment for urinary tract stricture, we investigated the laser plasty using a combination of an uv Ar laser for ablation and a novel multi-fiber catheter for laser delivery. To investigate the characteristics of the uv Ar laser ablation to ureteral tissue, the experiment in vitro was performed. The ureter was clearly ablated with sufficient thin coagulation layer. The proper laser power for the tissue ablation was about 0.5 W for 0.4 mm core-diameter fiber. The multi-fiber catheter (1.6 mm in outer diameter) consisted of 13 pixels of silica glass fibers (0.2 mm in core diameter) for laser delivery and a through lumen (0.9 mm in inner diameter) for guidewire. The catheter was inserted into a canine ureter under the general anesthesia. The ureter and urinary tract were irradiated using about 0.6 W of laser power at the catheter tip with 40s duration. The irradiated urinary tract tissues were histologically investigated. The ureter was ablated up to the submucosa layer. The urinary tract endotherium was eliminated by the laser ablation without the carbonization. No perforation was found at various irradiation conditions. To investigate the ureteral tissue damage of the uv Ar laser irradiation, the serosa temperature was measured by a thermocouple. The temperature elevation of the serosa could be restricted up to 60 degree(s)C, at which the protein was not coagulated. We concluded that the combination of uv Ra laser and multi-fiber catheter offered easy, reliable therapy for coronary structure.

  18. [Megacalyces or Puigvert's disease. Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Mazas-Artasona, L; Led Huerta, A; Balmaseda Toyas, C; González Pastor, J F; Miranda Blanco, J J

    1991-01-01

    Megacalyces is an uncommon congenital urinary anomaly consisting of oversized calyces and a renal pelvis of normal caliber. The under development of the pyramids with lack of projection of the papillae into the calyces probably produces the dilatation of the calyces. The diagnostic criteria are the characteristic appearance of the calyces, the normal caliber of the pelvis and ureter, and the absence of vesico-ureteral reflux. Two cases of congenital megacalyces are presented. PMID:1776788

  19. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  20. Ureteral metastasis of a prostatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Otta, Renan Javier; Gordillo, Carlos; Fernández, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The ureter is a rare location of metastasis for any kind of primary tumour. The first case of truly ureteral metastasis was described by Stow in 1909. Regarding prostatic metastasis, the frequency is much lower with only 43 cases reported in the last century. We present a case of an exceedingly rare ureteral metastasis of a prostatic adenocarcinoma. In spite of its low incidence, it should be considered in patients with ureteral obstruction and concurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25844106

  1. Danazol in the management of ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Krueger, R.P.; Wiser, W.L.

    1985-08-01

    A case is reported in which a woman was diagnosed with ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis after cystourethrogram, retrograde pyelogram and a renal scan. After unsuccessful treatment with danazol, a retroperitoneal ureteroneocystotomy was performed. The ureter was found to be obstructed by dense fibrous tissue that contained endometrial glands. It was concluded that danazol is unlikely to relieve endometriotic ureteric obstruction once dense fibrosis has occurred. 8 references, 2 figures.

  2. Deletion (11)(q14.1q21)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Lazarus, K.H.; Ritchie, E.J.L.; Bell, A.M.

    1994-02-01

    The authors report on a 4-year-old girl with moderate development delay, horseshoe kidney, bilateral duplication of the ureters with right upper pole obstruction, hydronephrosis and nonfunction, and subsequent Wilms tumor of the right lower pole. She had an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11 involving the region 11(q14.1q21). 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Possible complications of ureteroscopy in modern endourological era: two-point or "scabbard" avulsion.

    PubMed

    Gaizauskas, Andrius; Markevicius, Marius; Gaizauskas, Sergejus; Zelvys, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    Indication has led ureteroscopy to be a worldwide technique, with the expected appearance of multiple types of complications. Severe complications are possible including ureteral perforation or avulsion. Ureteral avulsion has been described as an upper urinary tract injury related to the action of blunt trauma, especially from traffic accidents, being the mechanism of injury, the result of an acute deceleration/acceleration movement. With the advent of endourology, that term is also applied to the extensive degloving injury resulting from a mechanism of stretching of the ureter that eventually breaks at the most weakened site, or ureteral avulsion is referred to as a discontinuation of the full thickness of the ureter. The paper presents a case report and literature review of the two-point or "scabbard" avulsion. The loss of long segment of the upper ureter, when end-to-end anastomosis is not technically feasible, presents a challenge to the urological surgeon. In the era of small calibre ureteroscopes these complications, due to growing incidence of renal stones will become more and more actual. Our message to other urologists is to know such a complication, to know the ways of treatment, and to analyse ureteroscopic signs, when to stop or pay attention. PMID:25610699

  4. Critical role of cyclooxygenase-2 activation in pathogenesis of hydronephrosis caused by lactational exposure of mice to dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Noriko Matsumura, Fumio; Vogel, Christopher F.A.; Nishimura, Hisao; Yonemoto, Junzo; Yoshioka, Wataru; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2008-09-15

    Congenital hydronephrosis is a serious disease occurring among infants and children. Besides the intrinsic genetic factors, in utero exposure to a xenobiotic, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), has been suggested to induce hydronephrosis in rodents owing to anatomical obstruction in the ureter. Here, we report that hydronephrosis induced in mouse pups exposed lactationally to TCDD is not associated with anatomical obstruction, but with abnormal alterations in the subepithelial mesenchyma of the ureter. In the kidneys of these pups, the expressions of a battery of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and interleukin (IL) -1{beta} were up-regulated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7. The amounts of cyclooxygenase (COX) -2 mRNA and protein as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) were conspicuously up-regulated in an arylhydrocarbon-receptor-dependent manner in the TCDD-induced hydronephrotic kidney, with a subsequent down-regulation of the gene expressions of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} transporters, NKCC2 and ROMK. Daily administration of a COX-2 selective inhibitor to newborns until PND 7 completely abrogated the TCDD-induced PGE{sub 2} synthesis and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and electrolyte transporters, and eventually prevented the onset of hydronephrosis. These findings suggest an essential role of COX-2 in mediating the TCDD action of inducing hydronephrosis through the functional impairment rather than the anatomical blockade of the ureter.

  5. Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

  6. Ureteral stricture formation after ureteroscope treatment of impacted calculi: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singam, Praveen; Ho, Christopher Chee Kong; Sridharan, Radhika; Hod, Rozita; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Goh, Eng Hong; Tan, Guan Hee; Zainuddin, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary calculi is a familiar disease. A well-known complication of endourological treatment for impacted ureteral stones is the formation of ureteral strictures, which has been reported to occur in 14.2% to 24% of cases. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study. Ureterotripsy treatment was used on patients with impacted ureteral stones. Then, after 3 months and 6 months, the condition of these patients was assessed by means of a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) ultrasound. If the KUB ultrasound indicated moderate to serious hydronephrosis, the patient was further assessed by means of a computed tomography intravenous urogram or retrograde pyelogram to confirm the occurrence of ureteral strictures. Results Of the 77 patients who participated in the study, 5 developed ureteral strictures. Thus, the stricture rate was 7.8%. An analysis of the intraoperative risk factors including perforation of the ureter, damage to the mucous membrane, and residual stone impacted within the ureter mucosa revealed that none of these factors contributed significantly to the formation of the ureteric strictures. The stone-related risk factors that were taken into consideration were stone size, stone impaction site, and duration of impaction. These stone factors also did not contribute significantly to the formation of the ureteral strictures. Conclusions This prospective study failed to identify any predictable factors for ureteral stricture formation. It is proposed that all patients undergo a simple postoperative KUB ultrasound screening 3 months after undergoing endoscopic treatment for impacted ureteral stones. PMID:25598938

  7. Holmium:YAG laser treatment of ureteral calculi: A 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Farkas, A; Péteri, L; Lorincz, L; Salah, M A; Flaskó, T; Varga, A; Tóth, Cs

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an account of the 5-year experience we have gained using holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Ho:YAG) lasertripsy in the treatment of ureteral stones. One-hundred thirty-seven transurethral ureterolithotripsies were performed in 131 patients. A Ho:YAG laser device, fibres with diameters of 360 and 550 mum, a video camera as well as semi-rigid and flexible ureterorenoscopes were used. Results showed that the direct success rates-which meant stone-free ureters on the first post-operative day-in the upper, middle and lower ureters were 84.6, 88.7 and 94.8%, respectively. The final success rates--which meant stone-free ureters 4 weeks after the operation without a second intervention--were 84.6, 96.7 and 96.7%, respectively. The pulsatile Ho:YAG laser beam fragmented all kinds of stones easily. No ureteral stricture or reflux was identified during the follow-up period. The advantages of Ho lasertripsy outweighed its disadvantages. Based on our experience, the Ho:YAG laser is one of the most effective and safest energy sources in the treatment of ureteral calculi. PMID:16897107

  8. Endourological management of ureteric strictures after kidney transplantation: Stenting the stent

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Christian; Kabir, Mohammed; Zaman, Faruquz; Kachrilas, Stefanos; Masood, Junaid; Junaid, Islam; Buchholz, Noor

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of ureteric obstruction after kidney transplantation is 3–12.4%, and the most common cause is ureteric stenosis. The standard treatment remains open surgical revision, but this is associated with significant morbidity and potential complications. By contrast, endourological approaches such as balloon dilatation of the ureter, ureterotomy or long-term ureteric stenting are minimally invasive treatment alternatives. Here we discuss the available minimally invasive treatment options to treat transplant ureteric strictures, with an emphasis on long-term stenting. Using an example patient, we describe the use of a long-term new-generation ureteric metal stent to treat a transplant ureter where a mesh wire stent had been placed 5 years previously. The mesh wire stent was heavily encrusted throughout, overgrown by urothelium and impossible to remove. Because the patient had several previous surgeries, we first considered endourological solutions. After re-canalising the ureter and mesh wire stent by a minimally invasive procedure, we inserted a Memokath® (PNN Medical, Kvistgaard, Denmark) through the embedded mesh wire stent. This illustrates a novel method for resolving the currently rare but existing problem of ureteric mesh wire stents becoming dysfunctional over time, and for treating complex transplant ureteric strictures.

  9. Bricker versus Wallace anastomosis: A meta-analysis of ureteroenteric stricture rates after ileal conduit urinary diversion

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Niall F.; Burke, John P.; McDermott, TED; Flynn, Robert; Manecksha, Rustom P.; Thornhill, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Data comparing the incidence of ureteroenteric strictures for Bricker and Wallace anastomoses are limited. This study compares both anastomotic techniques in terms of ureteroenteric stricture rates after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion. Methods: Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane database) were searched for studies comparing Bricker and Wallace ureteroeneteric anastomoses for ileal conduit urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Meta-analyses were performed using the random effects method. The primary outcome measure was to determine differences in postoperative ureteroenteric stricture rates for both surgical techniques. Four studies describing 658 patients met the inclusion criteria. The total number of ureters used for ureteroeneteric anastomoses was 1217 (545 in the Bricker group and 672 in the Wallace group). Results: There were no significant differences in age (p = 0.472), gender (p = 0.897), duration of follow-up (p = 0.168), and duration to stricture development between groups (p = 0.439). The overall stricture rate was 29 of 1217 (2.4%); 16 of 545 ureters (2.9%) in the Bricker group and 13 of 672 ureters (1.9%) in the Wallace group. The Bricker anastomosis was not associated with a significantly higher overall stricture rate compared to the Wallace ureteroenteric anastomosis (odds ratio: 1.393, 95% confidence interval: 0.441–4.394, p = 0.572). Conclusion: Accepting limitations in the available data, we found no significant difference in the incidence of ureteroenteric stricture for Bricker and Wallace anastomoses. PMID:26029296

  10. Laparoscopic management of primary pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction: Single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Hani; Mostafa, Ahmad; Gobashy, Samir; Elganzoury, Hossam; Elkholy, Amr; Riad, Essam

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect and safety of laparoscopic pyeloplasty in the treatment of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). Patients and methods In 34 patients, laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty was used to treat primary PUJO. Information was obtained for symptoms, results of a nuclear scan before and after surgery, intraoperative blood loss, operative duration, stenting method, and hospital stay. Under general anaesthesia and in the flank position, a 10 mm trocar was first placed above the umbilicus; three 5 mm working ports were then placed. The ureter and pelvis were freed from surrounding adhesions. The obstructive pelvi-ureteric segment was then excised, and the opened point of the ureter spatulated. Ureteropyeloplasty between the lower pole, pelvis and spatulated ureter was made using a 4-0 polyglactin suture around a JJ stent. Results The mean (SD) preoperative nuclear scan result was 23.6 (6.4) mL/min, with retention of tracer. The median operative duration was 200 min, and the median blood loss 120 mL. All patients were stented with a JJ stent. The mean hospital stay was 5 days. The final results were assessed at 6 months after surgery, when the mean (SD) nuclear scan result was 30 (7.4) mL/min. Conclusion Laparoscopic pyeloplasty is a safe and effective option which can produce satisfactory results both clinically and radiologically.

  11. Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

  12. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  13. Treatment of Ureteroarterial Fistulae with Covered Vascular Endoprostheses and Ureteral Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose I. Cosin, Octavio; Bastarrika, Gorka; Rosell, David; Zudaire, Javier; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2005-04-15

    Background. Ureteroarterial fistulae (UAFs) are a rare entity, often difficult to identify, and associated with a high mortality rate. This fact has been attributed to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Five conditions that can predispose to the development of this uncommon entity have been described: prior pelvic surgery, prolonged ureteral stenting, radiation therapy, previous vascular surgery and vascular pathology. Methods. We present 4 patients with UAFs and at least three of the above-mentioned conditions. Ureteral ischemia and subsequent necrosis promote the formation of these fistulae. The constant pulsation of the iliac artery is transmitted to an already compromised ureter containing a stiff intraluminal foreign body, resulting in pressure necrosis, most likely where the ureter crosses the iliac artery. Results and Conclusion. Cases were managed percutaneously with a combination of the deployment of a covered prosthesis and, when needed, with mechanical occlusion of the ureter. Hematuria stopped in all the patients with no evidence of immediate rebleeding. One patient presented a new episode of vaginal bleeding 13 months after endograft placement and ureteral embolization. Arteriography showed the presence of a hypogastric artery pseudoaneurysm that was occluded using coils. No new bleeding has occurred in this patient 12 months after the second embolization. At present all 4 patients are alive with follow-up periods of 5, 9, 11 and 25 months since the first procedure.

  14. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of renal stone disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masselli, G; Weston, M; Spencer, J

    2015-12-01

    The distinction of pain in pregnancy due to urolithiasis from that related to physiological dilation of the renal tract is a common conundrum as renal colic is one of the commonest causes for non-obstetric pain in pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging test but although it may demonstrate renal dilation, it may not show the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to make the distinction. Physiological dilation will show smooth tapering of the ureter in the middle third as it is compressed between the gravid uterus and the retroperitoneum. Obstruction due to calculi causes renal enlargement and perinephric oedema. When a stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter will be seen below the physiological constriction. The stone itself may be shown. Computed tomography (CT) is an acceptable alternative if there is a contraindication to MRI, but even low-dose regimes involve some ionising radiation. This paper serves to highlight the role of MRI compared to US and CT in the imaging of renal colic in pregnancy. Multidisciplinary collaboration between obstetricians, urologists, and radiologists is required for effective management. PMID:26454345

  15. Syntactic methods of shape feature description and its application in analysis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2000-02-01

    The paper presents specialist algorithms of morphologic analysis of shapes of selected organs of abdominal cavity proposed in order to diagnose disease symptoms occurring in the main pancreatic ducts and upper segments of ureters. Analysis of the correct morphology of these structures has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition. Its main objective is computer-aided support to early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions and pancreatitis based on images taken in the course of examination with the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) method and a diagnosis of morphological lesions in ureter based on kidney radiogram analysis. In the analysis of ERCP images, the main objective is to recognize morphological lesions in pancreas ducts characteristic for carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. In the case of kidney radiogram analysis the aim is to diagnose local irregularity of ureter lumen. Diagnosing the above mentioned lesion has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition, in particular the languages of shape features description and context-free attributed grammars. These methods allow to recognize and describe in a very efficient way the aforementioned lesions on images obtained as a result of initial image processing into diagrams of widths of the examined structures.

  16. Discrimination between urinary tract tissue and urinary stones by fiber-optic-pulsed photothermal radiometry method in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidoh, Yuichiro; Arai, Tsunenori; Suda, Akira; Kikuchi, Makoto; Komine, Yukikuni; Murai, Masaru; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1991-07-01

    To minimize urotherial tissue injuries by false laser irradiation during the laser stones fragmentation, a novel fiber-optic analytical system was developed which was able to distinguish urotherial tissues from urinary stones in vivo. This system was composed of the fiber-optic pulsed photo-thermal radiometry (PPTR) system together with a thin-fiber endoscope. The ultraviolet Ar laser was employed as the excitation light source. The catheter of this system was 6F in diameter and consisted of SiO2 glass fiber (400 micrometers (phi) ) as an excitation line, an As-S glass fiber (400 micrometers (phi) ) as a detection line, and a thin-fiber endoscope (610 micrometers (phi) ). A urinary stone was introduced into the canine ureter uneter under general anesthesia. The catheter system was inserted through an opening of the ureter distal to the stone. The e-folding decay time of the PPTR waveform of which optical and/or thermal properties of the tissues and stones were characterized was measured in vivo. The e-folding decay times were significantly different between urinary stones and the canine ureter. These results suggest that the fiber-optic PPTR analysis might be significantly useful procedure to prevent urotherial tissue from false irradiation injuries in clinical laser stone fragmentation.

  17. Intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy and ureteral obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Robert C.; Haddock, Michael G.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Furth, Alfred F.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the risk of ureteral obstruction (UO) after intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT). Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-six patients received IOERT of 7.5 to 30 Gy to 168 ureters; 132 patients received external radiotherapy. Results: Follow-up ranged from 0.01 to 19.1 years (median, 2.1 years). The rates of clinically apparent type 1 UO (UO from any cause) after IOERT at 2, 5, and 10 years were 47%, 63%, and 79%, respectively. The rates of clinically apparent type 2 UO (UO occurring at least 1 month after IOERT, excluding UO caused by tumor or abscess and patients with stents) at 2, 5, and 10 years were 27%, 47%, and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of UO before IOERT (p < 0.001) was associated with an increased risk of clinically apparent type 1 UO. Increasing IOERT dose (p < 0.04) was associated with an increased risk of clinically apparent type 2 UO. UO rates in ureters not receiving IOERT at 2, 5, and 10 years were 19%, 19%, and 51%, respectively. Conclusions: Risk of UO after IOERT increases with dose. However, UO risk for ureters not receiving IOERT was also high, which suggests an underlying risk of ureteral injury from other causes.

  18. Urinary Incontinence in Juvenile Female Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers: Hospital Prevalence and Anatomic Urogenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Callard, Jason; McLoughlin, Mary A; Byron, Julie K; Chew, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in juvenile female dogs is often associated with urogenital anatomic anomalies. Study objectives include: (1) determine hospital prevalence of urinary incontinence in juvenile female soft-coated wheaten terriers (SCWTs) compared to other affected dogs; (2) characterize anatomic anomalies affecting urinary incontinent juvenile female SCWTs utilizing uroendoscopy; and (3) compare incidence of ectopic ureters, paramesonephric remnants, and short urethras in juvenile female urinary incontinent SCWTs to other juvenile female dogs with urinary incontinence. We hypothesize juvenile SCWTs have an increased prevalence of urinary incontinence and an increased incidence of ectopic ureters, paramesonephric remnants, and short urethras compared to non-SCWTs with urinary incontinence within our hospital population. Medical records of female dogs 6 mo of age and younger with clinical signs of urinary incontinence and video uroendoscopic evaluation presenting to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Twelve juvenile SCWTs and 107 juvenile non-SCWTs met the inclusion criteria. Juvenile SCWTs were found to have an increased hospital prevalence of urinary incontinence compared to other affected breeds. Observed anomalies in SCWTs include: ectopic ureters, shortened urethras, paramesonephric remnants, and bifid vaginas. This information will help guide veterinarians in recognizing a breed-related disorder of the lower urogenital tract in SCWTs. PMID:26606208

  19. Cutaneous tube ureterostomy: a fast and effective method of urinary diversion in emergency situations

    PubMed Central

    Abdin, Tamer; Zamir, Gideon; Pikarsky, Alon; Katz, Ran; Landau, Ezekiel H; Gofrit, Ofer N

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report on a simple and rapid method of urinary diversion. This method was applied successfully in different clinical scenarios when primary reconstruction of the ureters was not possible. Materials and methods The disconnected ureter is catheterized by a feeding tube. The tube is secured with sutures and brought out to the lateral abdominal wall as cutaneous tube ureterostomy (CTU). Results This method was applied in three different clinical scenarios: a 40-year-old man who sustained multiple high-velocity gunshots to the pelvis with combined rectal and bladder trigone injuries and massive bleeding from a comminuted pubic fracture. Damage control included colostomy and bilateral CTUs. A 26-year-old woman had transection of the right lower ureter during abdominal hysterectomy. Diagnosis was delayed for 3 weeks when the patient developed sepsis. The right kidney was diverted with a CTU. A 37-year-old male suffered from bladder perforation and hemorrhagic shock. Emergency cystectomy was done and urinary diversion was accomplished with bilateral CTUs. In all cases, effective drainage of the urinary system was achieved with normalization of kidney function. Conclusion When local or systemic conditions preclude definitive repair and damage control surgery is needed, CTU provides fast and effective urinary diversion. PMID:26090343

  20. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J; Buhler, Donald R

    2003-10-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population. PMID:14733290

  1. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  2. Visualization of Proteus mirabilis morphotypes in the urinary tract: the elongated swarmer cell is rarely observed in ascending urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Angela M; Lockatell, C Virginia; Johnson, David E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2003-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of nosocomial and catheter-associated urinary tract infection, colonizes the bladder and ascends the ureters to the proximal tubules of the kidneys, leading to the development of acute pyelonephritis. P. mirabilis is capable of swarming, a form of multicellular behavior in which bacteria differentiate from the short rod typical of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, termed the swimmer cell, into hyperflagellated elongated bacteria capable of rapid and coordinated population migration across surfaces, called the swarmer cell. There has been considerable debate as to which morphotype predominates during urinary tract infection. P. mirabilis(pBAC001), which expresses green fluorescent protein in both swimming and swarming morphotypes, was constructed to quantify the prevalence of each morphotype in ascending urinary tract infection. Transurethral inoculation of P. mirabilis(pBAC001) resulted in ascending urinary tract infection and kidney pathology in mice examined at both 2 and 4 days postinoculation. Using confocal microscopy, we were able to investigate the morphotypes of the bacteria in the urinary tract. Of 5,087 bacteria measured in bladders, ureters, and kidneys, only 7 (0.14%) were identified as swarmers. MR/P fimbria expression, which correlates with the swimmer phenotype, is prevalent on bacteria in the ureters and bladder. We conclude that, by far, the predominant morphotype present in the urinary tract during ascending infection is the short rod-the swimmer cell. PMID:12761147

  3. Small caliceal stones: is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy justified?

    PubMed

    Mee, S L; Thuroff, J W

    1988-05-01

    Of 446 patients treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 22 had small nonobstructive caliceal stones associated with lumbar or flank pain. Size (less than 1 cm.) and location of the stone did not explain the severity of the symptoms, nor would they have been an indication for open or percutaneous stone removal. Followup consisted of a sonogram and a film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder on postoperative day 1, a film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder 2 weeks after treatment, and a film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and/or excretory urography after 3 months for patients with residual stone fragments. All patients were interviewed 3 to 15 months after treatment to ascertain the resolution or persistence of the symptoms. After extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, 3 of 22 patients had persistent stone fragments for more than 3 months: 2 reported no change and 1 had marked improvement of the symptoms. Of the remaining 19 patients 15 (79 per cent) had complete resolution of the pain and 4 (21 per cent) had significant symptomatic improvement. Thus, 20 of 22 patients (91 per cent) achieved complete or significant relief of pain. The only complication was a perirenal hematoma that resolved spontaneously. These results indicate that small, nonobstructive caliceal stones can be responsible for persistent, severe flank pain. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is an effective, noninvasive treatment for caliceal stones and it can be justified as therapeutic treatment when the correlation between a small caliceal stone and persistent flank pain is indeterminable. PMID:3361660

  4. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-20

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal's ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the "stepwise peristaltic ureter" (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  5. Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-30

    Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Ureter Cancer

  6. Conversion of the electrohydraulic electrode to an electromechanical stone impactor: basic studies and a case report.

    PubMed

    Dretler, S P; Bhatta, K M; Rosen, D

    1991-09-01

    A 3.3F electrohydraulic electrode (Wolf 2137.23) has been confined within a spring with a metal end cap, irrigated with water and covered with a 0.003-inch metal sheath (outside diameter 5F). The electrohydraulic lithotripsy discharge (Wolf Generator 2137.50) at E1 causes the metal cap to extend 3 mm. at 1,500 cm. per second and creates an impact pressure of 600 to 800 bar. Stone fragmentation efficiency of the electromechanical impactor was equivalent to unshielded electrohydraulic lithotripsy (gallstone 2.83 mg. per pulse, struvite/apatite 1.41 mg. per pulse, cystine 0.41 mg. per pulse, uric acid 1.48 mg. per pulse and 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate 0.10 mg. per pulse). Studies of the discharge of the electromechanical impactor within the pig ureter showed that minimal ureteral submucosal edema and hemorrhage occurred at 300 shocks discharged at a single point, and disruption of the mucosa and partial injury to the muscle layer occurred after 600 shocks given at the site of a pinched pig ureter. Pushing the electromechanical impactor perpendicular to the wall of the pig bladder will create a mechanical perforation within 35 shocks (electrohydraulic lithotripsy within 2 shocks). One patient had excellent fragmentation of a lower ureteral mixed monohydrate and dihydrate stone under direct vision performed with the electromechanical impactor passed via a 9.5F ureteroscope. There was no evidence of mucosal injury with 500 shocks. The electromechanical impactor has been developed to provide a safe and inexpensive method of ureteral stone fragmentation or disimpaction. These studies were performed to establish limits of safety that may allow use of the electromechanical impactor for stone fragmentation in the ureter without the need for ureteroscopy. PMID:1875485

  7. Evaluation of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Efficacy in Treatment of Urinary System Stones

    PubMed Central

    Junuzovic, Dzelaludin; Prstojevic, Jelena Kovacevic; Hasanbegovic, Munira; Lepara, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Elimination of stone is determined by size and its localization. Stone from the ureter in 80% of cases can be eliminated spontaneously. If the stone by its characteristics is not spontaneously eliminated, taken are further steps and therapeutic protocols to solve this problem. Material and methods: The study was prospective, open and comparative. It was conducted at the Urology Clinic Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in the period from 2007 to 2013. The study included 404 patients with urinary tract lithiasis treated by ESWL. ESWL treatment is performed on the machine Siemens Model Lithostar Multiline, which has a combined ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic display, large energy density in order to obtain optimum focus (without damaging surrounding tissue) and minimal pain that on rare occasions requires for mild sedation-sedation. Results: From a total of 404 patients included in the study there were 234 (57.92%) male and 170 (42.08%) female patients. The most common type of stone both in female and male patients was calcium type. From a total of 262 calcium stones, 105 of them (40.07%) was present in female patients and 157 (59.92%) in male. Share of infectious type of stone in female patients was 63 (49.60%) and 64 among males (50.39%). Other stones were less abundant in both the gender groups and their total number was only 17. In women their frequency was 2 (13.33%) and 13 among males (86.67%). There was a significant difference in the frequency of different types of stones by gender (x2 = 11.47, p = 0.009). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant correlation between the number of treatments and localization of stones in the ureter, as well as a statistically significant correlation between the size of the stone and the localization of calculus in the ureter. PMID:25568579

  8. Tissue Engineering of Ureteral Grafts: Preparation of Biocompatible Crosslinked Ureteral Scaffolds of Porcine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Holger; Hammer, Niels; Ossmann, Susann; Schierle, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich; Hofmann, Jörg; Wecks, Mike; Boldt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The surgical reconstruction of ureteric defects is often associated with post-operative complications and requires additional medical care. Decellularized ureters originating from porcine donors could represent an alternative therapy. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of manufacturing decellularized ureters, the characteristics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the biocompatibility of these grafts in vitro/in vivo after treatment with different crosslinking agents. To achieve these goals, native ureters were obtained from pigs and were decellularized. The success of decellularization and the ECM composition were characterized by (immuno)histological staining methods and a DNA-assay. In vitro: scaffolds were crosslinked either with carbodiimide (CDI), genipin (GP), glutaraldehyde, left chemically untreated or were lyophilized. Scaffolds in each group were reseeded with Caco2, LS48, 3T3 cells, or native rat smooth muscle cells (SMC). After 2?weeks, the number of ingrown cells was quantified. In vivo: crosslinked scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into rats and the type of infiltrating cells were determined after 1, 9, and 30?days. After decellularization, scaffold morphology and composition of ECM were maintained, all cellular components were removed, DNA destroyed and strongly reduced. In vitro: GP and CDI scaffolds revealed a higher number of ingrown 3T3 and SMC cells as compared to untreated scaffolds. In vivo: at day 30, implants were predominantly infiltrated by fibroblasts and M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages. A maximum of MMP3 was observed in the CDI group at day 30. TIMP1 was below the detection limit. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of decellularization to create biocompatible porcine ureteric grafts, whereas a CDI-crosslink may facilitate the remodeling process. The use of decellularized ureteric grafts may represent a novel therapeutic method in reconstruction of ureteric defects. PMID:26157796

  9. Tissue Engineering of Ureteral Grafts: Preparation of Biocompatible Crosslinked Ureteral Scaffolds of Porcine Origin.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger; Hammer, Niels; Ossmann, Susann; Schierle, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich; Hofmann, Jörg; Wecks, Mike; Boldt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The surgical reconstruction of ureteric defects is often associated with post-operative complications and requires additional medical care. Decellularized ureters originating from porcine donors could represent an alternative therapy. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of manufacturing decellularized ureters, the characteristics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the biocompatibility of these grafts in vitro/in vivo after treatment with different crosslinking agents. To achieve these goals, native ureters were obtained from pigs and were decellularized. The success of decellularization and the ECM composition were characterized by (immuno)histological staining methods and a DNA-assay. In vitro: scaffolds were crosslinked either with carbodiimide (CDI), genipin (GP), glutaraldehyde, left chemically untreated or were lyophilized. Scaffolds in each group were reseeded with Caco2, LS48, 3T3 cells, or native rat smooth muscle cells (SMC). After 2?weeks, the number of ingrown cells was quantified. In vivo: crosslinked scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into rats and the type of infiltrating cells were determined after 1, 9, and 30?days. After decellularization, scaffold morphology and composition of ECM were maintained, all cellular components were removed, DNA destroyed and strongly reduced. In vitro: GP and CDI scaffolds revealed a higher number of ingrown 3T3 and SMC cells as compared to untreated scaffolds. In vivo: at day 30, implants were predominantly infiltrated by fibroblasts and M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages. A maximum of MMP3 was observed in the CDI group at day 30. TIMP1 was below the detection limit. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of decellularization to create biocompatible porcine ureteric grafts, whereas a CDI-crosslink may facilitate the remodeling process. The use of decellularized ureteric grafts may represent a novel therapeutic method in reconstruction of ureteric defects. PMID:26157796

  10. Effects of PDE5 Inhibitors and sGC Stimulators in a Rat Model of Artificial Ureteral Calculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandner, Peter; Tinel, Hanna; Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2015-01-01

    Urinary colics from calculosis are frequent and intense forms of pain whose current pharmacological treatment remains unsatisfactory. New and more effective drugs are needed to control symptoms and improve stone expulsion. Recent evidence suggested that the Nitric Oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) / phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) system may contribute to ureteral motility influencing stone expulsion. We investigated if PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators influence ureteral contractility, pain behaviour and stone expulsion in a rat model of ureteral calculosis. We investigated: a)the sex-specific PDE5 distribution in the rat ureter; b)the functional in vitro effects of vardenafil and sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitors) and BAY41-2272 (sGC stimulator) on induced ureteral contractility in rats and c)the in vivo effectiveness of vardenafil and BAY41-2272, alone and combined with ketoprofen, vs hyoscine-N-butylbromide alone or combined with ketoprofen, on behavioural pain indicators and stone expulsion in rats with artificial calculosis in one ureter. PDE5 was abundantly expressed in male and female rats’ ureter. In vitro, both vardenafil and BAY41-2272 significantly relaxed pre-contracted ureteral strips. In vivo, all compounds significantly reduced number and global duration of “ureteral crises” and post-stone lumbar muscle hyperalgesia in calculosis rats. The highest level of reduction of the pain behaviour was observed with BAY41-2272 among all spasmolytics administered alone, and with the combination of ketoprofen with BAY41-2272. The percentage of stone expulsion was maximal in the ketoprofen+BAY41-2272 group. The NO/cGMP/PDE5 pathway is involved in the regulation of ureteral contractility and pain behaviour in urinary calculosis. PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators could become a potent new option for treatment of urinary colic pain. PMID:26509272

  11. Application of syntactic methods of pattern recognition for data mining and knowledge discovery in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents and discusses possibilities of application of selected algorithms belonging to the group of syntactic methods of patten recognition used to analyze and extract features of shapes and to diagnose morphological lesions seen on selected medical images. This method is particularly useful for specialist morphological analysis of shapes of selected organs of abdominal cavity conducted to diagnose disease symptoms occurring in the main pancreatic ducts, upper segments of ureters and renal pelvis. Analysis of the correct morphology of these organs is possible with the application of the sequential and tree method belonging to the group of syntactic methods of pattern recognition. The objective of this analysis is to support early diagnosis of disease lesions, mainly characteristic for carcinoma and pancreatitis, based on examinations of ERCP images and a diagnosis of morphological lesions in ureters as well as renal pelvis based on an analysis of urograms. In the analysis of ERCP images the main objective is to recognize morphological lesions in pancreas ducts characteristic for carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, while in the case of kidney radiogram analysis the aim is to diagnose local irregularities of ureter lumen and to examine the morphology of renal pelvis and renal calyxes. Diagnosing the above mentioned lesion has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition, in particular the languages of description of features of shapes and context-free sequential attributed grammars. These methods allow to recognize and describe in a very efficient way the aforementioned lesions on images obtained as a result of initial image processing of width diagrams of the examined structures. Additionally, in order to support the analysis of the correct structure of renal pelvis a method using the tree grammar for syntactic pattern recognition to define its correct morphological shapes has been presented.

  12. Postoperative ureteral obstruction after endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min; Park, Chang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We undertook this study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, management, and outcome of postoperative ureteral obstruction after endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Materials and Methods Ninety patients undergoing endoscopic treatment for VUR were retrospectively reviewed and classified into two groups according to ureteral obstruction: the nonobstruction group (83 cases, 122 ureters; mean age, 7.0±2.8 years) and the obstruction group (7 cases, 10 ureters; mean age, 6.2±8.1 years). We analyzed the following factors: age, sex, injection material, laterality, voiding dysfunction, constipation, renal scarring, preoperative and postoperative ultrasound findings, endoscopic findings, injection number, and injection volume. Additionally, we reviewed the clinical manifestations, natural course, management, and outcome of ureteral obstruction after endoscopic treatment. Results The incidence of ureteral obstruction after endoscopic treatment was 7.6% (10/132 ureters). The type of bulking agent used and injection volume tended to be associated with ureteral obstruction. However, no significant risk factors for obstruction were identified between the two groups. Three patients showed no symptoms or signs after the onset of ureteral obstruction. Most of the patients with ureteral obstruction experienced spontaneous resolution within 1 month with conservative therapy. Two patients required temporary ureteral stents to release the ureteral obstruction. Conclusions In our experience, the incidence of ureteral obstruction was slightly higher than in previous reports. Our study identified no predictive risk factors for developing ureteral obstruction after endoscopic treatment. Although most of the ureteral obstructions resolved spontaneously within 1 month, some cases required drainage to relieve symptoms or to prevent renal function deterioration. PMID:26175873

  13. Characteristics of Calculi in the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Prstojevic, Jelena Kovacevic; Junuzovic, Dzelaludin; Hasanbegovic, Munira; Lepara, Zahid; Selimovic, Mirsad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elimination of stone is determined by size and its localization. Stone from the ureter in 80% of cases can be eliminated spontaneously. If the stone by its characteristics is not spontaneously eliminated, taken are further steps and therapeutic protocols to solve this problem. Material and methods: The study was prospective, open and comparative. It was conducted at the Urology Clinic Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in the period from 2007 to 2013. The study included 404 patients with urinary tract lithiasis treated by ESWL. ESWL treatment is performed on the machine Siemens Model Lithostar Multiline, which has a combined ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic display, large energy density in order to obtain optimum focus (without damaging surrounding tissue) and minimal pain that on rare occasions requires for mild sedation-sedation. Results: From a total of 404 patients included in the study there were 234 (57.92%) male and 170 (42.08%) female patients. The most common type of stone both in female and male patients was calcium type. From a total of 262 calcium stones, 105 of them (40.07%) was present in female patients and 157 (59.92%) in male. Share of infectious type of stone in female patients was 63 (49.60%) and 64 among males (50.39%). Other stones were less abundant in both the gender groups and their total number was only 17. In women their frequency was 2 (13.33%) and 13 among males (86.67%). There was a significant difference in the frequency of different types of stones by gender (?2 = 11.47, p = 0.009). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant correlation between the number of treatments and localization of stones in the ureter, as well as a statistically significant correlation between the size of the stone and the localization of calculus in the ureter. PMID:25568625

  14. Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; which is better: Transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach?

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mostafa; Omar, Rabea; Abdel-baky, Shabieb; Mohey, Ahmed; Sebaey, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective This was a prospective study to compare the outcome of laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (LTU) with laparoscopic retroperitoneal ureterolithotomy (LRU) as a primary treatment for a large stone in the proximal ureter. Material and methods A total of 24 patients with a solitary, large (>1.5 cm), and impacted stone in the proximal ureter was selected and randomly divided into two groups. The first group included 13 patients who were treated by LTU, and the second group included 11 patients who were treated by LRU. Patient demographics and stone characteristics as well as the operative and postoperative data of both groups were compared and statistically analyzed. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding patient demographics and stone characteristics. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the LTU group than in the LRU group [116.2±21.8 min vs 137.3±17.9 min, respectively (p=0.02)]. The mean time to oral intake was significantly longer in the LTU group than in the LRU group [21.2±4.9 h vs 15.5±2.8 h, respectively (p=0.002)]. There was significant higher rate (27.3%) of changing to open surgery in LRU (p=0.04). The stone-free rate was significantly higher in the LTU group than in the LRU group [100% vs. 72.8%, respectively (p=0.03)]. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean blood loss, mean hospital stay, mean analgesia dose, blood transfusion rate, postoperative fever, and stone migration during surgery. Conclusion Both approaches of laparoscopic ureterolithotomy are effective in treating large impacted stones in the proximal ureter. LTU has significantly shorter operative time and lower rate of open conversion but has a significantly longer time to oral intake. PMID:26623147

  15. Late effects of intraoperative radiation therapy on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct in a large animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.E.; Kinslla, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Terrill, R.; Matthews, D.; Johnstone, P.A.S.; Anderson, W.J.; Bollinger, B.K.

    1994-07-01

    The late histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on retroperitoneal tissues, intestine, and bile duct were investigated in dogs. Fourteen adult foxhounds were subjected to laparotomy and varying doses (0-45 Gy) of IORT (11 MeV electrons) delivered to retroperitoneal tissues including the great vessels and ureters, to a loop of defunctionalized small bowel, or to the extrahepatic bile duct. One control animal received an aortic transection and reanastomosis at the time of laparotomy; another control received laparotomy alone. This paper describes the late effects of single-fraction IORT occurring 3-5 years following treatment. Dogs receiving IORT to the retroperitoneum through a 4 X 15 cm portal showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at 20 Gy. At doses ranging from 30-45 Gy, radiation changes in normal tissues were consistently observed. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with encasement of the ureters and great vessels developed at doses {ge}30 Gy. Radiation changes were present in the aorta and vena cava at doses {ge}40 Gy. A 30 Gy dog developed an in-field malignant osteosarcoma at 3 years which invaded the vertebral column and compressed the spinal cord. A 40 Gy animal developed obstruction of the right ureter with fatal septic hydronephrosis at 4 years. Animals receiving IORT through a 5 cm IORT portal to an upper abdominal field which included a defunctionalized loop of small bowel, showed few gross or histologic abnormalities at a dose of 20 Gy. At 30 Gy, hyaline degeneration of the intestinal muscularis layer of the bowel occurred. At a dose of 45 Gy, internal intestinal fistulae developed. One 30 Gy animal developed right ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis at 5 years. A dog receiving 30 Gy IORT through a 5 cm portal to the extrahepatic bile duct showed diffuse fibrosis through the gastroduodenal ligament. These canine studies contribute to the area of late tissue tolerance to IORT. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Sonographic screening for urinary tract abnormalities in patients with Schistosoma haematobium infection: pitfalls in examining pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, J.; Wagatsuma, Y.; Aryeetey, M.; Feldmeier, H.

    1996-01-01

    In areas where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic, urinary schistosomiasis and pregnancy are frequently concomitant; however, both these conditions may produce similar urinary tract changes in ultrasound scans and hence their differential diagnosis may be difficult. In patients with urinary schistosomiasis, focal and/or diffuse urinary bladder wall changes are frequently detected ultrasonically. Dilatation of one or both ureters and progressive hydronephrosis may be observed in more severe cases. Satisfactory ultrasound examination of the urinary bladders of pregnant women is generally not feasible because mechanical compression by the fetus or transitory lower urinary tract infection hampers adequate filling of the bladder. Pregnancy itself is frequently associated with dilatation of one or both ureters and/or hydronephrosis; this is due to hormonal factors, infection, or compression of one or both ureters by the enlarged uterus and growing fetus. Hence, when sonography of the urinary bladder is not feasible such pregnancy-associated changes are virtually indistinguishable from those caused by S. haematobium, and may be incorrectly attributed to the latter. Pregnant women, therefore, should be excluded from ultrasonic surveys of urinary schistosomiasis. In contrast, ultrasound scans of adolescents and of women with positive parasitological findings and/or pathological alterations in the urinary tract should include examination of the uterus in order to assess whether the woman is pregnant; thereby, misinterpretation of sonographic findings can be avoided. Pregnant women with significant hydronephrosis must be closely followed up by an obstetrician since this condition may indicate a complication of the pregnancy; in some cases only a postpartum examination will permit definitive diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8706238

  17. Tbx18 expression demarcates multipotent precursor populations in the developing urogenital system but is exclusively required within the ureteric mesenchymal lineage to suppress a renal stromal fate.

    PubMed

    Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Bettenhausen, Eva; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Foik, Anna B; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Blank, Patrick; Airik, Rannar; Kispert, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    The mammalian urogenital system derives from multipotent progenitor cells of different germinal tissues. The contribution of individual sub-populations to specific components of the mature system, and the spatiotemporal restriction of the respective lineages have remained poorly characterized. Here, we use comparative expression analysis to delineate sub-regions within the developing urogenital system that express the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18. We show that Tbx18 is transiently expressed in the epithelial lining and the subjacent mesenchyme of the urogenital ridge. At the onset of metanephric development Tbx18 expression occurs in a band of mesenchyme in between the metanephros and the Wolffian duct but is subsequently restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the distal ureter stalk. Genetic lineage tracing reveals that former Tbx18(+) cells of the urogenital ridge and the metanephric field contribute substantially to the adrenal glands and gonads, to the kidney stroma, the ureteric and the bladder mesenchyme. Loss of Tbx18 does not affect differentiation of the adrenal gland, the gonad, the bladder and the kidney. However, ureter differentiation is severely disturbed as the mesenchymal lineage adopts a stromal rather than a ureteric smooth muscle fate. DiI labeling and tissue recombination experiments show that the restriction of Tbx18 expression to the prospective ureteric mesenchyme does not reflect an active condensation process but is due to a specific loss of Tbx18 expression in the mesenchyme out of range of signals from the ureteric epithelium. These cells either contribute to the renal stroma or undergo apoptosis aiding in severing the ureter from its surrounding tissues. We show that Tbx18-deficient cells do not respond to epithelial signals suggesting that Tbx18 is required to prepattern the ureteric mesenchyme. Our study provides new insights into the molecular diversity of urogenital progenitor cells and helps to understand the specification of the ureteric mesenchymal sub-lineage. PMID:23685333

  18. Laparoscopic reconstruction of ureteral strictures involving solitary renal units-1 year and 5 year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, George P.; Das, Krishanu; Siddiaiah, Avinash T.; Ramaswami, Krishnamohan; George, P. Datson; Abraham, Jisha J.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Long-term outcome following a laparoscopic reconstruction of ureteral strictures (US) involving solitary renal units (SRU) are scarcely reported. AIMS: The aim was to report short-term (1 year) and long-term (5 years) outcomes following a laparoscopic reconstruction of US in a solitary kidney. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of patients operated for similar scenarios between January 2004 and January 2014 were evaluated. Clinical, biochemical and radiological profile were noted. Operative and post-operative profile were recorded. Follow-ups were scheduled at regular intervals (3 months post-procedure, 6 monthly for 2 years and yearly thereafter. Imaging was repeated at yearly intervals). Outcome was assessed by comparing pre-operative and post-operative clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SAS software 9.2 version. A P < 0.05 was inferred as statistically significant. RESULTS: Seven patients underwent a laparoscopic reconstruction. Stricture location was upper ureter (n = 1), mid ureter (n = 2), lower ureter (n = 4). Surgeries performed were ureteroureterostomy, Boari flap ureteroneocystostomy and ureteroneocystostomy with psoas hitch. Four patients reported prior contralateral nephrectomy. Three patients underwent prior endoscopic correction. Four patients presented with elevated serum creatinine (>1.4 mg/dl). Till last follow-up, improvement in symptomatology and improvement or stabilisation of serum creatinine was perceived in all. Ureteral patency with resolution of hydronephrosis was observed in five patients at 1 year follow-up. Two patients revealed ureteral patency with persistence of hydronephrosis. Clinical, biochemical and radiological outcomes were maintained till long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic reconstruction of US in SRU offers impressive short- and long-term outcome. PMID:26622112

  19. Malignant lymphoma occurring simultaneously in the urinary bladder wall and bilateral renal parenchyma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; GENG, HAO; YU, DEXIN; ZHANG, TAO; ZHANG, ZHIQIANG

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted to hospital with acid regurgitation, acute right lower abdominal pain and mild fever. Multiple suspicious mass lesions were detected in the patient's kidneys, the right side wall of his bladder and the right lower ureter, using CT urography and PET-CT. He underwent palliative surgery of the bladder and percutaneous renal biopsy. Postoperative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining indicated that the tumor was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Although DLBCL is by far the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, it is rare for DLBCL to simultaneously involve the kidneys, bladder and the lower ureteric tract.

  20. Unilateral ureteric stone associated with gross hydronephrosis and kidney shrinkage: a cadaveric report.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Omid; Tay, Ern-Wei; Bay, Boon-Huat; Ng, Yee-Kong

    2014-12-01

    Ureteric stones are a common cause of obstruction of the urinary tract, usually presenting with characteristic signs and symptoms, such as acute ureteric colic and hematuria. Occasionally, stones may present with non-specific symptoms such as low back pain and remain unidentified, leading to stone growth, chronic ureteric obstruction and complications such as hydronephrosis and renal damage. Here, we report a large ureteric stone in a cadaver with complete obstruction at the left ureterovesical junction, resulting in severe dilatation of the left ureter and renal pelvis. PMID:25548725

  1. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Salivary glands Nasopharynx Other oral cavity and pharynx Esophagus Stomach Colon Rectum Liver, gallbladder, and other biliary tract Liver Gallbladder Other biliary tract Pancreas Nose, nasal cavity, and sinuses Larynx Lung, trachea, bronchus, and pleura Bones and joints Connective tissue Melanoma of skin Other skin Breast1 Bladder Kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter Eye Brain and other nervous system Thyroid gland Other endocrine glands Hodgkin's disease Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Multiple myeloma Leukemia Other and unspecified cancers 0.1 1 10 20 49 Figure 1b.

  2. Postoperative Ureteral Leak Treated Using a Silicone-Covered Nitinol Stent

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Jung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Hong, Bum Sik

    2015-01-01

    Ureteral fistula is a serious complication of abdomino-pelvic surgeries, often resulting in poor outcomes owing to lack of proper treatment. We report the case of a 49-year-old woman who underwent placement of a silicone-covered ureteral occlusion stent in her right ureter for the management of ureteral leakage after pelvic surgery. A ureterogram obtained 18 months following the stent placement confirmed that there was no stent migration or additional urine leakage. We propose that the silicone-covered ureteral occlusion stent is practical, fast, and safe for the management of ureteral leakage. PMID:25833481

  3. Diurnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Robson, W L

    1997-12-01

    Daytime wetting is a common problem in childhood; in most cases, it is an intermittent or self-limited problem with a benign and easily identifiable cause. The history is the most important aspect of the assessment. A urinalysis is helpful to look for UTI, and ultrasonography of both the kidney and the bladder is an excellent noninvasive screening study. More invasive diagnostic imaging studies are necessary only if the patient has symptoms or signs suggestive of urethral obstruction, neurogenic bladder, Hinman syndrome, or ectopic ureter. With time and appropriate treatment, the prognosis is excellent for the majority of patients. PMID:9401399

  4. A noninvasive renal fungus ball caused by Rhizopus--a previously unreported manifestation of zygomycosis.

    PubMed

    Palacio-Bedoya, Federico; Cadena, Jose A; Thompson, George R; Sutton, Deanna A; Owens, Aaron D; Patterson, Thomas F

    2010-09-01

    We describe the first reported case of renal zygomycosis presenting as an isolated fungus ball (bezoar) without renal parenchymal invasion. Since all previous descriptions of renal involvement have discussed tissue invasion, our case is unique in that the infection was confined solely in the renal pelvis and extended to the distal ureter without signs of contiguous renal infection. Our patient later developed renal insufficiency while receiving amphotericin B Lipid Complex (ABLC). The therapy was changed to posaconazole with subsequent clinical, mycologic, and radiographic improvement and the patient has remained free of recurrence 5 years after diagnosis. PMID:20353310

  5. Asymptomatic ureteral rupture secondary to chronic urinary retention from massive prostatic enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Piyush B.; Noah, Anthony; Kelly, Brian D.; Ryan, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Non-traumatic ureteral rupture has been reported more frequently, resulting from increased intraluminal pressures from distal urinary tract obstruction. We report the case of a 77-year-old man presenting with chronic urinary retention secondary to massive prostatic enlargement through acute kidney injury. Ultrasound scan detected a shallow left perinephric fluid collection with a possible bladder mass, demonstrated on flexible cystoscopy to be a massive median lobe of prostate. Computed tomography confirmed extravasation of urine from the left proximal ureter. In the absence of specific symptoms, the patient had successful conservative management with antibiotics and urinary catheterization for his acute episode, although declined further surgical intervention. PMID:26521159

  6. Chyluria: is retrograde pyelogram mandatory prior to endoscopic sclerotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sagorika; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Viswajeet; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2014-01-01

    Chyluria is the passage of milky urine due to a lymphourinary fistula secondary to lymphatic stasis caused by obstruction of the lymphatic flow. This can be caused by parasitic or non-parasitic infections. Though chyluria is a commonly encountered entity in clinical practice particularly in developing countries like India, it is rarely discussed in English literature. We report a case of chyluria with right bifid ureter in a 50-year-old male patient who was treated with intrarenal pelvic instillation of 1% silver nitrate (AgNO3) and emphasis on the diagnostic implication of retrograde pyelography prior to endoscopic sclerotherapy in managing chyluria particularly in renal anomalies. PMID:24395870

  7. Immortalisation of human urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, J L; Leigh, I M; Duffy, P G; Sexton, C; Masters, J R

    1995-01-01

    A cell line derived from the urothelium lining the ureter of a 12-year-old girl was immortalised using a temperature-sensitive SV40 large T-antigen gene construct, and designated UROtsa. Following immortalisation, UROtsa cells expressed SV40 large T-antigen, but did not acquire characteristics of neoplastic transformation, including growth in soft agar or the development of tumours in nude mice. Metaphase spreads had a normal chromosomal appearance and number. UROtsa cells remained permissive for cell growth at 39 degrees C, indicating that they did not retain temperature sensitivity. UROtsa provides an in vitro model of "normal" urothelium. PMID:8788275

  8. Single ectopic ureteral orifice with bilateral duplicated renal collecting systems in an adult girl: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Liu, Bianjiang; Li, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal duplication accompanied by ureteral ectopia is an uncommon urinary congenital abnormality. We report the case of a 21-year-old girl who suffered from lifelong continuous urinary leakage. She was finally diagnosed with bilateral duplicated collecting systems complicated with right ectopic ureteral orifice – an extremely rare case. The patient underwent ureteric re-implantation for the ectopic side, and her urinary incontinence ceased soon thereafter. In this case, traditional imaging failed to show the exact insertion of an ectopic ureter. However, magnetic resonance urography combined with retrograde intubation radiography successfully depicted the point of ureteric insertion, which may make the diagnostic process accurate and efficient.

  9. Computed tomography as a supplement to urography in the evaluation of suspected neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M. J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1982-02-01

    Eleven children in whom a retropertioneal neuroblastoma was suspected on the basis of plain radiographic or urographic findings underwent computed tomography (CT). CT identified and localized a neurogenic tumor in eight patients. Calcifications were demonstrated by CT in six lesions, but by urography in only four. One neuroblastoma detected by CT was not seen on the urogram; in five patients greater extent of the tumor was defined by CT than by conventional radiologic procedures. In three patients CT excluded a neuroblastoma, but diagnosed other disorders (hepatic tumor, pancreatitis, and retrocaval ureter). Our results confirm that CT is a simple and accurate method for diagnosis, delineation of extent, or exclusion of neuroblastoma.

  10. How a dentist's name became a synonym for a life-saving device: the story of Dr. Charles Stent.

    PubMed

    Ring, M E

    2001-07-01

    Stents have been used in numerous medical disciplines, as well as in oral surgical procedures. Uses range from rebuilding mandibles and constructing new ureters, to keeping coronary arteries patent after angioplasty. The earliest use of the word "stent" to describe this item was in 1916, when a Dutch plastic surgeon described how he used a dental impression compound as a matrix around which to form tissue in the process of rebuilding a shattered face. What is generally unknown is that the word "stent" derives from the name of an English dentist, who invented this impression compound in 1856. PMID:11484317

  11. Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Children after Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grande, M.; Lisi, G.; Bianchi, D.; Bove, P.; Miano, R.; Esser, A.; De Sanctis, F.; Neri, A.; Grande, S.; Villa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction is a rare complication after appendectomy in children. We report a case of bilateral ureteric obstruction in a 14-year-old boy nine days after surgery for an acute appendicitis. After saline-filling of the urinary bladder, transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis of moderate degree. No abscess was found with CT but presence of millimetric stones on both distal ureters was shown, with bilateral calyceal dilatation. Cystoscopy revealed inflammatory changes in the bladder base. Following introduction of bilateral ureteric stents, there was rapid normalisation of urinary output and serum creatinine. PMID:26295001

  12. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of a Small Renal Mass Complicated by Appendiceal Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Judith; Bex, Axel; Prevoo, Warner

    2012-06-15

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained wide acceptance as nephron-sparing therapy for small renal masses in select patients. Generally, it is a safe procedure with minor morbidity and acceptable short-term oncologic outcome. However, as a result of the close proximity of vital structures, such as the bowel, ureter, and large vessels, to the ablative field, complications regarding these structures may occur. This is the first article describing appendiceal perforation as a complication of computed tomography-guided RFA despite hydrodissection. When performing this innovative and promising procedure one should be aware of the possibility of particular minor and even major complications.

  13. [Ureteral obstruction from endometriosis: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Frachet, O; Mallick, S; Comoz, F; Rousselot, P; Bensadoun, H

    2006-09-01

    Endometriosis frequently affects women with genital activity and exceptionally involves the urinary tract, and the ureter in particular. From a case report of a female consulting for renal colic pain related to an intrinsic-type pelvic ureteral endometriosis, we report the difficulty in diagnosing this pseudotumoral obstruction and finding therapeutic options with a review of the literature. Ureteral endometriosis is marked by non-specific symptoms liable to delay preoperative diagnosis with a risk of deterioration of renal function due to the obstruction. Regarding the therapeutic approach, the surgical treatment associated or not with GNRH agonists seems best. PMID:16940920

  14. Endovascular Management of Ureteroarterial Fistula: A Rare Potentially Life Threatening Cause of Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Copelan, Alexander; Chehab, Monzer; Cash, Charles; Korman, Howard; Dixit, Purushottam

    2014-01-01

    Ureteroarterial fistula is a rare, potentially life-threatening cause of hematuria characterized by an abnormal channel between a ureter and artery. The rarity of this condition, complexity of predisposing risk factors and intermittence of symptoms may delay or obscure its diagnosis. With a high index of suspicion and careful angiographic evaluation, embarking on this condition is not only possible but sets the stage for curative intervention. We report a case of a ureteroarterial fistula presenting with intermittent hematuria, successfully diagnosed at angiography and managed with endovascular stent graft placement. PMID:25426238

  15. Unusual Appearance for Urinary Bladder Obstruction Detected With 99mTc-MDP Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Sharma, Akash

    2015-12-01

    Unanticipated but clinically significant nonosseous findings can be detected during routine bone scintigraphy. We present a case of an 83-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture of the right femur. Whole-body bone scintigraphy for osseous staging revealed intense radiotracer accumulation in the kidneys and ureters but no activity within the urinary bladder. The patient had not voided for 14 hours. A Foley catheter was inserted, and more than 2000 mL of urine was drained, most consistent with urinary bladder obstruction. Subsequent repeat images demonstrated marked reduction of the renal and ureteral activity with trace activity in the urinary bladder. PMID:26544902

  16. An investigation into the mechanism whereby pH affects tension in guinea-pig ureteric smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Burdyga, T V; Taggart, M J; Wray, S

    1996-01-01

    1. We have altered intracellular (pHi) and extracellular pH (pHo) in the smooth muscle of guinea-pig ureter and determined the effects on evoked phasic contractions. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of pH alteration, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), pHi, electrical activity and force were measured. 2. Intracellular acidification, produced by the weak acid butyrate, application of CO2 at constant pHo or removal of weak bases, greatly increased phasic contractions. Alkalinization with weak bases or by removal of CO2 inhibited contractions. The results were similar whether Hepes or CO2-HCO3-buffered the solutions. 3. Phasic contractions were preceded by intracellular Ca2+ transients in the ureter. Acidification of the cytoplasm led to an increase in the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient, and alkalinization decreased its magnitude. 4. In the ureter the action potential leads to Ca2+ influx, therefore electrophysiological recordings of its configuration were made during alteration of pHi. Acidification led to the action potential duration and amplitude being increased, whereas alkalinization shortened the action potential and reduced its amplitude. 5. As the effects of acidification on the action potential resembled the effects of blocking of K+ channels, we investigated whether pHi alteration was able to alter tension when K+ channels were blocked by tetraethylammonium. Acidification was unable to potentiate force under these conditions nor did alkalinization decrease force. 6. External pH over the range 6.8-8.0 had little or no effect on pHi, phasic contractions and [Ca2+]i. Tonic contractions were enhanced, however, when pHo was increased. 7. These data suggest that pHi alteration in the guinea-pig ureter modulates the action potential, probably by alteration of K+ currents. Subsequent changes in [Ca2+]i and contraction then occur. A potentiating effect of acidic pH on force is not common in muscle, but may be a characteristic of the smooth muscle of the urinary tract. Changes of pHo had little effect on phasic force or pHi, but modulated tonic contractions. The possible physiological significance of these results is discussed. PMID:8799906

  17. Use of invisible near infrared light fluorescence with indocyanine green and methylene blue in urology. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the second part of this paper, concerning the use of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urology, other possible uses of this new technique will be presented. In kidney transplantation, this concerns allograft perfusion and real time NIR–guided angiography; moreover, perfusion angiography of tissue flaps, NIRF visualization of ureters, NIR–guided visualization of urinary calcifications, NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. In this part, we have also analysed cancer targeting and imaging fluorophores as well as cost benefits associated with the use of these new techniques. Material and methods PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Results Although NIR–guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in a few more major domains of urology, including 1) kidney transplantation: kidney allograft perfusion and vessel reconstruction; 2) angiography perfusion of tissue flaps; 3) visualization of ureters; 4) visualization of urinary calcifications; and 5) NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. Conclusions Near infrared technology in urology is at its early stages. More studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. Initial studies show that this pioneering tool may influence various aspects of urology. PMID:25247093

  18. Long-term effects of pediatric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Yigit; Yucel, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in children. Objectives To investigate the long-term effects of pediatric ESWL on renal function in light of updated literature. Methods PubMed and Medline were searched for studies on ESWL in a pediatric population with keywords including efficacy, child, kidney calculi, ureter calculi, lithotripsy, injury, vascular trauma, and shock waves. The research was limited to the English literature during a period from 1980 to 2014. In total, 3,000 articles were evaluated, but only 151 papers were considered. Only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included in the current study. Results However, the acute effects of ESWL in kidney are well-described. Although there are limited studies on the long-term effects of ESWL in children, there is a widespread opinion that ESWL is not affecting renal functions in the long-term. Conclusion ESWL is a safe, effective, and noninvasive treatment option in children. Although ESWL can cause some acute effects in the kidney, there is no long-term effect on the growing kidneys of children. PMID:24892029

  19. Imaging in ureteral complications of renal transplantation: value of static fluid MR urography.

    PubMed

    Schubert, R A; Göckeritz, S; Mentzel, H J; Rzanny, R; Schubert, J; Kaiser, W A

    2000-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is an infrequent complication after renal transplantation that may cause rapid loss of transplant function. We tested static fluid MR urography for determining the cause of graft hydronephrosis. Magnetic resonance urography was performed in nine transplants with dilated collecting systems on ultrasound. A heavily T2-weighted 3D turbo spin-echo sequence on a 1.5-T scanner was used and maximum intensity projections were obtained. The patients also underwent excretory urography (n = 1), renal scintigraphy (n = 1), antegrade pyelography (n = 3), voiding cystourethrography (n = 4), and non-enhanced CT (n = 2). Six patients had pathologic conditions including ureteral stricture, compression by lymphoceles, implantation stenosis, vesicoureteral reflux, and late-occurring transitional cell carcinoma at the implantation site. Static MRU was able to diagnose or exclude a dilation of the graft collecting system. It visualized the course of the ureters and localized the obstruction site in four of five obstructed transplants. In one case the ureter was obscured by lymphoceles, which were demonstrated by hydrographic MRU as well. The definite cause for obstruction was provided in only 2 of 5 cases. Dilation due to vesicoureteral reflux could not be differentiated. The current multimodality approach to renal transplant imaging already provides comprehensive assessment of graft hydronephrosis. Static MRU may be useful in some cases since complications associated with intravenous iodinated contrast or antegrade pyelography can be avoided. Its main drawback, the lack of functional information, may be overcome by combining it with contrast-enhanced MRU. PMID:11003413

  20. Laparoscopy-assisted cutaneous ureterostomy at suprapubic creaseline facilitates subsequent reimplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Md. Jafrul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous ureterostomy is still practiced despite a trend towards primary surgical correction for obstructive or refluxive uropathy. For future open reimplantation, ureterostomy can be created by minimal invasive technique at the end(s) of the suprapubic creaseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1 January 2009 to 31 July 2012, seven children were treated with laparoscopy-assisted cutaneous ureterostomy followed by ureteric reimplantation. Indications were primary obstructive megaureter 3, hugely dilated ureters with reflux 3 and posterior urethral valve with poor general health 1. The distal manoeuverable part of tortuous ureter was pulled to the surface at either end of suprapubic creaseline to create the stoma. During reimplantation, this stoma was dismembered and brought inside urinary bladder obviating the need for stoma-site repair. RESULTS: Mean age was 4.6 ± 2.8 years with six males. There were three bilateral cases with total 10 lesions. Mean operating time was 39.8 ± 12.5 minutes. Mean follow-up was 1.7 ± 0.8 years and except for peri-stomal excoriations no major complication occurred. All these were reimplanted 6-12 months after ureterostomy and faring well except in one case. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy-assisted cutaneous ureterostomy can be fashioned at suprapubic creaseline to facilitate future reimplantation without much jeopardy and extra scar. PMID:25883455

  1. Abdominal Hysterectomy: A New Approach for Conventional Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present comparative study helps in developing a new approach to conventional hysterectomy procedure so as prevent intra-operative and Post-operative complications during the procedure. Methods: Ligation of uterine and ovarian arteries was performed, prior to abdominal hysterectomy procedures, in Group A (n-1000) and conventional method of abdominal hysterectomy in Group B (n-450) from January 2000 to December 2009. It was a prospective study. Results: In Group A it was noted that traumatic injury to (L) uterine vessel was present in 4 (0.4%) cases and (R) uterine vessel in 3 (0.3%) cases without any noticeable injury to the ovarian vessels, ureters or bladder as compared to in Group B where injury to (L) uterine was noted in 11 (2.4%) cases, ureters in 1 (0.1%) case, bladder in 6(1.5%) cases, hematoma in 10 (2.2%). Post-operative complications were found to be uneventful in Group A. Conclusion: The Present study concludes that ligation of uterine and ovarian arteries, prior to conventional abdominal hysterectomy procedures is found to be extremely safe procedure thereby reducing the risk of intra-operative and post- operative complications. PMID:24959484

  2. Clinical benefits of tubeless umbilical cutaneous ureterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Numakura, Kazuyuki; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Takahashi, Makoto; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Akihama, Susumu; Saito, Mitsuru; Inoue, Takamitsu; Narita, Shintaro; Huang, Mingguo; Satoh, Shigeru; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We assess a novel technique of tubeless bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy, with a single umbilical stoma, for bladder cancer patients with short ureters after cystectomy. The benefit of cutaneous ureterostomy is equal to other incontinent urinary diversions, when the tubeless procedure is successfully achieved. This simple technique makes it easy to monitor the upper urinary tract (UUT) and is beneficial to patients with a high risk of UUT recurrence. Methods: This old and new surgical technique was used to perform total cystectomy and urinary diversion on three patients with bladder cancer at a high risk of UUT recurrence. Results: Two men and one woman (mean age: 73 years) underwent this surgery and the mean follow-up period was 8.3 years. The surgical approaches were laparotomy (n = 2) and laparoscopy (n = 1). One case developed para-stomal erosion, whereas another developed ureteral stenosis requiring catheter reinsertion. Although postoperative hydronephrosis was observed in all cases, the mean preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels were 0.70 and 0.76, respectively. UUT recurrence was not observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion: This tubeless umbilical cutaneous ureterostomy procedure greatly improves the outcome of urinary diversion for cancer patients with short ureters at a high risk of UUT recurrence. The benefits are equivalent to other urinary diversions when the tubeless procedure is successfully achieved. PMID:26225182

  3. [Primary obstructive megaureter in infants: medical or surgical treatment? Apropos of 24 cases].

    PubMed

    Vidal, V; Fremond, B; Chapuis, M; Babut, J M

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyse 24 cases of primary obstructive megaureter diagnosed before the age of 3 months. 18 were discovered by antenatal echography between 28 and 39 weeks, whereas 6 were detected by the occurrence of early urinary tract infection. Initial investigations included echography, intravenous urography and micturating cystouretrogram. Primary megaureter was bilateral in 14 cases, unilateral in 12. According to the urographic classification of Beurton, there were 12 ureters stage III, 12 stage II, 10 stage I. 15 patients were operated, 4 of them during the first months (2 reimplantations, 2 urinary diversions). 12 were submitted to later reimplantation at the mean age of 15 months, one had a non functioning kidney removed. 9 were non operated and treated conservatively by antibacterials and regular supervision. Results analysis evaluated according to radiological stage and treatment showed that in more cases, surgery should be differed initially. Complete clinical and radiological resolution is possible even in severe obstructions. Antibacterial treatment beginning at birth favorises regression of dilated ureter. Thus reimplantation should be deferred undercover of regular biological and radiological survey. The age of 12 to 18 months is the most technically favorable time to ureteric reimplantation. PMID:3058813

  4. OCT-aided anastomosis platform study in the rodent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-02-01

    Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.

  5. New valve-mechanical model of urinary tract function: the theory of biological dual valves

    PubMed Central

    Szendr?, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Until now, peristalsis has been the only known method of urine transport. The main objective of this paper was to study urinary tract function – especially the upper urinary tract, the ureter – from a new mechanical point of view. The physical (physical dual valves) and biological basis (biological dual valves) of a new functional model is presented based on previous observations and knowledge. Methods A review of the literature was performed, with special emphasis on ureter motility. Results After analyzing the anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract, complemented by basic physical observations, the authors have developed a new valve-mechanical model of urinary tract function. A comprehensive mechanical hypothesis is also presented, integrating the role of peristalsis. Conclusions The authors believe that the new theory enhances previous knowledge. From a structural point of view, the urinary tract may be considered to consist of dualvalves. The dual-valve mechanism combined with peristalsis allows better explanation of the function of the upper urinary tract in particular. The main conclusion is that the flow in the urinary tract must be studied integrally within the body. This new theory does not contradict well-known and acknowledged theories, and moreover, it may help solve certain medical problems. PMID:24578880

  6. CD40 Generation 2.5 Antisense Oligonucleotide Treatment Attenuates Doxorubicin-induced Nephropathy and Kidney Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Donner, Aaron J; Yeh, Steve T; Hung, Gene; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Mullick, Adam E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest CD40 activation contributes to renal inflammation and injury. We sought to test whether upregulation of CD40 in the kidney is a causative factor of renal pathology and if reduction of renal CD40 expression, using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting CD40, would be beneficial in mouse models of glomerular injury and unilateral ureter obstruction. Administration of a Generation 2.5 CD40 ASO reduced CD40 mRNA and protein levels 75-90% in the kidney. CD40 ASO treatment mitigated functional, transcriptional, and pathological endpoints of doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. Experiments using an activating CD40 antibody revealed CD40 is primed in kidneys following doxorubicin injury or unilateral ureter obstruction and CD40 ASO treatment blunted CD40-dependent renal inflammation. Suborgan fractionation and imaging studies demonstrated CD40 in glomeruli before and after doxorubicin administration that becomes highly enriched within interstitial and glomerular foci following CD40 activation. Such foci were also sites of ASO distribution and activity and may be predominately comprised from myeloid cells as bone marrow CD40 deficiency sharply attenuated CD40 antibody responses. These studies suggest an important role of interstitial renal and/or glomerular CD40 to augment kidney injury and inflammation and demonstrate that ASO treatment could be an effective therapy in such disorders. PMID:26623936

  7. Progesterone--specific binding sites in the kidney of the female baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Weaker, F.J.; Herbert, D.C.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1984-10-01

    The uptake and retention of a radiolabeled synthetic progestin, ORG 2058, was studied in the urinary tract of the female baboon. Four estrogen-primed baboons were injected intravenously with 2.5 micrograms./kg. body weight of 3H-ORG 2058. One animal, which served as a control, received an additional injection of 2.5 mg./kg. body weight of unlabeled progesterone. One hour after the injections, the animals were killed and the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of progestin was observed in the nuclei of the convoluted and straight segments of the distal tubule, the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle and both cortical and medullary collecting tubules. Connective tissue cells were also labeled in the medulla and cortex of the kidney. An absence of silver grains was noted in the renal corpuscle, all segments of the proximal tubule and the thin loop of Henle. Concentration of the tritiated steroid was not observed in either the ureter or bladder or in any portions of the urinary tract of the control animal. This study suggests that progesterone has a direct effect via a progesterone specific receptor on the various target cells that sequestered the 3H-ORG 2058.

  8. Subcutaneous ureteral bypass device for treatment of iatrogenic ureteral ligation in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caitlin M; Culp, William T N; Palm, Carrie A; Zacuto, Alyse C

    2015-10-15

    Case Description-A 17-week-old spayed female Sphinx was evaluated after a 3-day history of inappetence, lethargy, and vomiting. Three weeks prior, the kitten had undergone routine elective ovariohysterectomy. Clinical Findings-Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate hydronephrosis of the left kidney, and the left ureter was tortuous and dilated from the kidney to the level of the midureter, where it abruptly tapered. No discrete cause of obstruction could be identified. Clinicopathologic analyses revealed that the kitten was nonazotemic. Treatment and Outcome-Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the distal portion of the left ureter was irregular with ill-defined margins and abundant scar tissue, likely secondary to iatrogenic ureteral ligation during the ovariohysterectomy (suture was not observed). Intraoperative antegrade pyelography confirmed complete left ureteral obstruction extending distally from the level of the midureter. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device was placed to allow for renal decompression. No complications were encountered in the perioperative period, and the kitten recovered well after anesthesia. The kitten was discharged from the hospital 7 days after initial evaluation and continued to do well after surgery. At long-term follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Clinical Relevance-A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device successfully allowed renal decompression in a kitten with iatrogenic ureteral ligation. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device may be an alternative to historical surgical options in cases of unilateral ureteral obstruction and may result in a good long-term outcome. PMID:26421405

  9. Radiological findings and the clinical importance of megacalycosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzis, Christos; Patris, Emmanuel; Deligeorgiou, Evangelia; Sountoulides, Petros; Bantis, Athanasios; Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the radiological findings and the clinical importance of megacalycosis. Materials and methods On the basis of a case report and literature review, diagnostic criteria and clinical significance of megacalycosis are presented. Result Megacalycosis is mostly asymptomatic and is usually discovered either accidentally or as a result of its complications, such as stone formation, flank pain, hematuria, infection, and fever. The renal pelvis, infundibulum, and ureter are not dilated. Calyces have a semilunar configuration rather than the conventional triangular or conical form. The tip of each pyramid is flat, and the calyces possess neither fornix nor papillae impressions. The number of calyces is increased compared to the healthy condition, typically from 20–25. The renal parenchyma has a normal width but with a slight narrowing of the renal medulla. The kidney exhibits normal function, in particular with respect to its ability to concentrate the urine. Conclusion Megacalycosis is a rare, usually unilateral dilatation of the kidney calyces in the presence of a normal, undilated renal pelvis and ureter. Its pathological significance lies in the occurrence of complications. PMID:26528455

  10. Characterization of nanostructured ureteral stent with gradient degradation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Shan, Hongli; Wang, Jixue; Hou, Yuchuan; Ding, Jianxun; Chen, Qihui; Guan, Jingjing; Wang, Chunxi; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) ureteral stent composed of nanofibers with micropores was fabricated by double-needle electrospinning. The stent was ureteroscopically inserted into six Changbai pigs, and the commercial polyurethane Shagong® stent was inserted into four pigs as control. Intravenous pyelography revealed that the PCL/PLGA stent gradually degraded from the distal end to proximal terminal, and all stents were completely degraded at 10 weeks post-insertion. No significant difference was observed in hydronephrosis severity between the two groups. The levels of serum creatinine and urine pH remained similar throughout the study in the two groups, but the number of white blood cells in the urine was significantly higher in the Shagong® stent group. On Day 70, histological evaluation indicated equivalent histological severity scores in the middle and distal ureter sections and bladder in the two groups. However, the PCL/PLGA stent-implanted pigs had significantly lower mean severity scores in the kidney and proximal ureter sites. These data revealed that the PCL/PLGA stent degraded in a controlled manner, did not induce obstruction, and had a lower urothelial impact in comparison to the Shagong® stent, indicating that the stent exhibited great potential for clinical application. PMID:25945051

  11. Upper-urinary-tract urothelial tumors: conservative treatment by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboardi, Franco; Bozzola, Andrea; Melodia, Tommaso; Gulfi, Gildo M.; Galli, Stefano

    1993-05-01

    Upper urinary malignancies are rare tumors whose diagnosis sometimes represents a difficult dilemma. In selected cases, it is possible to treat the tumor with laser irradiation. This approach is reserved to low-stage low-grade tumors, a tumor in a solitary kidney, bilateral syncroneous disease or patients with deterioration of renal function. Thirty one patients suspected to have malignancies, as they presented upper tract filling defects at IVP, underwent uretero-pyeloscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Twenty patients with upper urinary tract urothelial tumors were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Before the procedure, the ureter and the pelvis were accessed by 0.038 inch guide-wire or 4 French ureteral catheter. A power of 25 - 30 watts/3 seconds was carried out for the laser irradiation of the tumor and of the base. Sometime after the procedure a ureter single J catheter was left indwelling for 48 hours. In the follow-up the patients had endoscopic surveillance every three months. Actually 12 patients are tumor-free after 3 - 36 months. Eight patients had a recurrence after the first treatment and they underwent new laser irradiation. All the recurrences were in other sites of the upper urinary tract and seemed to be related to tumor grade. In conclusion, conservative endourological ureteropyeloscopy coupled with Nd:YAG laser irradiation should be considered a useful treatment in selected patients.

  12. Anodized 20 nm diameter nanotubular titanium for improved bladder stent applications

    PubMed Central

    Alpaslan, Ece; Ercan, Batur; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Materials currently used for bladder applications often suffer from incomplete coverage by urothelial cells (cells that line the interior of the bladder and ureter) which leads to the continuous exposure of the underlying materials aggravating an immune response. In particular, a ureteral (or sometimes called an ureteric or bladder) stent is a thin tube inserted into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney. The main complications with ureteral stents are infection and blockage by encrustation, which can be avoided by promoting the formation of a monolayer of urothelial cells on the surface of the stent. Nanotechnology (or the use of nanomaterials) may aid in urothelialization of bladder stents since nanomaterials have been shown to have unique surface energetics to promote the adsorption of proteins important for urothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. Since many bladder stents are composed of titanium, this study investigated the attachment and spreading of human urothelial cells on different nanotextured titanium surfaces. An inexpensive and effective scaled up anodization process was used to create equally distributed nanotubular surfaces of different diameter sizes from 20–80 nm on titanium with lengths approximately 500 nm. Results showed that compared to untreated titanium stents and 80 nm diameter nanotubular titanium, 20 nm diameter nanotubular titanium stents enhanced human urothelial cell adhesion and growth up to 3 days in culture. In this manner, this study suggests that titanium anodized to possess nanotubular surface features should be further explored for bladder stent applications. PMID:21499419

  13. Management of symptomatic ureteral calculi during pregnancy: Experience of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kader, Mohammad S.; Tamam, Abdel-Aziz; Elderwy, Ahmad A.; Gad, Mohammad; El-Gamal, Mohammad A.; Kurkar, Adel; Safwat, Ahmed S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present our experience in the management of symptomatic ureteral calculi during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three pregnant women, aged between 19 and 28 years presented to the obstetric and urology departments with renal colic (17 cases, 73.9%) and fever and renal pain (6 cases, 26.1%); suggesting ureteric stones. The diagnosis was established by ultrasonography (abdominal and transvaginal). Outpatient follow-up consisted of clinical assessment and abdominal ultrasonography. Follow-up by X-ray of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder (KUB), or intravenous urography (IVU) was done in the postpartum period. Results: Double J (DJ) stent was inserted in six women (26%) with persistent fever followed by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) one month post-partum. Ureteroscopic procedure and pneumatic lithotripsy were performed for 17 women (distal ureteric stone in 10, middle ureter in 5, and upper ureteric stone in 2). Stone-free rate was 100%. No urologic, anesthetic, or obstetric complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy, pneumatic lithotripsy, and DJ insertion could be a definitive and safe option for the treatment of obstructive ureteric stones during pregnancy. PMID:24311902

  14. Evaluation of the sensitivity of scout radiographs on unenhanced helical CT in identifying ureteric calculi: a large UK tertiary referral centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Yap, W W; Belfield, J C; Bhatnagar, P; Kennish, S; Wah, T M

    2012-01-01

    Objective Unenhanced helical CT for kidney, ureter and bladder (CT KUB) has become the standard investigation for renal colic. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of scout radiographs in detecting ureteric calculi using CT KUB as a standard reference. Methods A retrospective review of consecutive patients who presented with acute flank pain and were investigated using CT KUB. 201 patients with positive ureteric calculi were included. Two radiologists independently reviewed the scout radiographs with access to CT KUB images. Each observer recorded the presence or absence of calculi, location, size and mean Hounsfield units of each calculus. Results 203 ureteric calculi were analysed from 201 patients. The overall sensitivity of scout radiographs for Observer A was 42.3% and for Observer B 52.2%, with an interobserver reliability ?-value of 0.78. The significance of mean Hounsfield units and size between two groups of patients with visible stones and those not visible were tested; the p-value for both variables was <0.0001, which is statistically significant. The study found that calculi in the upper ureter and larger than 4 mm are more likely to be seen on the scout radiograph. Conclusions Usage of CT scout radiography should be encouraged and reported routinely in conjunction with CT KUB as a baseline for treatment follow-up. PMID:22665926

  15. Brucella abortus ure2 region contains an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transport system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Urease is a virulence factor that plays a role in the resistance of Brucella to low pH conditions, both in vivo and in vitro. Brucella contains two separate urease gene clusters, ure1 and ure2. Although only ure1 codes for an active urease, ure2 is also transcribed, but its contribution to Brucella biology is unknown. Results Re-examination of the ure2 locus showed that the operon includes five genes downstream of ureABCEFGDT that are orthologs to a nikKMLQO cluster encoding an ECF-type transport system for nickel. ureT and nikO mutants were constructed and analyzed for urease activity and acid resistance. A non-polar ureT mutant was unaffected in urease activity at neutral pH but showed a significantly decreased activity at acidic pH. It also showed a decreased survival rate to pH 2 at low concentration of urea when compared to the wild type. The nikO mutant had decreased urease activity and acid resistance at all urea concentrations tested, and this phenotype could be reverted by the addition of nickel to the growth medium. Conclusions Based on these results, we concluded that the operon ure2 codes for an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transporter necessary for the maximal activity of the urease whose structural subunits are encoded exclusively by the genes in the ure1 operon. PMID:20380737

  16. Pitfalls in radiologic and histopathologic diagnosis of urologic disease--report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Hughes, Peter L; Mansour, Paul; Singh, Gurpreet

    2006-01-01

    Cases are presented to illustrate pitfalls in radiologic and histopathologic diagnosis in urology. In a 73-year-old woman, ultrasound revealed calcification in an irregular mass arising from the left wall of the bladder. Bladder biopsy reported the mass as papillary transitional cell carcinoma. Histologically, the specimen showed marked hyperplasia of the urothelium with formation of Brunn's nests and no evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. A review of medical images showed that the mass was a calcified uterine fibroid. In a 36-year-old man, a calcified opacity in the pelvis was reported as a ureteric calculus, and the patient underwent ureteroscopy. No stone was found. A review of an intravenous urogram showed that the radio-opaque shadow appeared outside the left ureter. A 41-year-old man with tetraplegia developed hydronephrosis as the result of a calculus in the renal pelvis. Ureteric stenting was performed, followed by shock wave lithotripsy. A follow-up x-ray of the abdomen showed a small radioopacity that projected over the line of the left ureter at the L-3 level-probably a ureteric calculus. A review of a computed tomography scan revealed that the calculus, noted on plain film at the level of L-3, had become extruded and was lying posterior to the ureter. A 59-year-old man underwent nephrectomy for a 5-cm solid lesion in the mid pole of the left kidney. Histology showed multiple synchronous renal cell carcinomas and angiomyolipomas. The patient underwent further investigation for von Hippel-Lindau disease and tuberous sclerosis. A review of tissue blocks from the nephrectomy specimen, however, showed no evidence of angiomyolipoma. What was interpreted as renal angiomyolipoma was actually simple distorted blood vessels in areas of renal scarring. To prevent mistakes in diagnosis and to detect medical errors without delay, the authors recommend that physicians set aside time to reflect upon their clinical practice, regularly participate in honest and informal case discussions, and seek a second opinion when in doubt. PMID:17276970

  17. Sirenomelia type VI (sympus apus) in one of dizygotic twins at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nokeaingtong, Kwannapas; Kaewchai, Sirirat; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Khuwuthyakorn, Varangthip

    2015-01-01

    Those born with sirenomelia, a rare congenital anomaly, have features resembling a mermaid. Characteristics of sirenomelia are a single lower limb, sacral and pelvic bone defects, and anorectal and urogenital malformations. There is an increased incidence of sirenomelia in males and twins. This case was a preterm male, dizygotic twin and product of in vitro fertilisation. The baby was born by caesarean section due to breech presentation. He was found to have a fused lower extremity and absent external genitalia and anus. The baby passed away shortly after birth due to severe respiratory failure. Radiographic findings showed small lung volume and pneumothoraces. There were multiple segmental fusions of the vertebrae. Single femur and single tibia were presented in a fused lower limb. Autopsy demonstrated large intestinal atresia, intra-abdominal testes, absence of kidney, ureter and bladder, single umbilical artery, agenesis of blood vessels at lower extremity and agenesis of sacrum and coccyx. PMID:25976191

  18. Embryogenesis of the congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Fumiyo; Miyazaki, Yoichi; Ichikawa, Iekuni

    2002-01-01

    Ectopia of the initial ureter is the first ontogenic mis-step that leads to many congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). The ectopia results in hypoplastic kidney, ectopia of the ureteral orifice, urinary outflow obstruction and/or reflux. Recent studies on several mutant mouse models verified that ectopic ureteral budding indeed occurs prior to the formation of CAKUT. Often, the genes involved in navigating the site of ureteral budding also regulate later ontogenic processes of the kidney and other urinary tract systems. These additional functions of the genes underlie the wide spectrum of CAKUT, as the genes are expressed at multiple sites at multiple ontogenic stages, and regulate the morphogenesis of the many portions of the excretory system through their distinctive cellular functions. PMID:12386286

  19. [Clinical application of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to 5 solitary kidney patients with upper urinary tract stones].

    PubMed

    Numa, H; Yoshida, K; Yoneshima, H; Kase, H; Kageyama, Y; Okada, K

    1991-08-01

    We performed extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to 5 solitary kidney patients with upper urinary tract stones (4 kidneys and 1 lower ureter) using the EDAP lithotripter LT-01 and achieved 4 complete and 1 well results. The size of stones ranged from 8 mm to staghorn and trials were 1 to 10 units. We could accomplish perfect crushing and abortion of stones in the 4 renal stone patients without any adjuvant systems as ureteral stent but nephrostomy was needed in the 1 lower ureteral stone patient developed anuria. The values of blood pressure, hematology, blood chemical constituents and urine excretion enzymes at a month after the last ESWL were not so changed compared with those of preoperation and also excretory urogram showed favorable findings. In this series decreased renal functions by ESWL were not observed. We confirmed ESWL was an effective and a safe method even in the cases of solitary kidney patients and monotherapy without any adjuvants was possible. PMID:1957726

  20. About a Case Report of Giant Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mediavilla, Enrique; Ballestero, Roberto; Correas, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Our objective is to report a case of an infrequent entity as the giant hydronephrosis. Case Report. We report the case of an 82-syear-old male referred for a poor general condition. A radiological study revealed a great left hydronephrosis secondary to an urothelial carcinoma. The patient died due to his poor general condition. A histological diagnosis revealed a transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis and ureter and atrophic renal parenchyma. Conclusion. Giant hydronephrosis represents a very often entity to be taken into account in cases with big cystic abdominal masses in absence of unilateral or bilateral kidney. Simple nephrectomy is the treatment of choice in most cases. Nevertheless, in cases of nonsubsidiary surgery, percutaneous drainage may be necessary. PMID:24191226

  1. Peristaltic pumping of solid particles immersed in a viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrispell, John; Fauci, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Peristaltic pumping of fluid is a fundamental method of transport in many biological processes. In some instances, particles of appreciable size are transported along with the fluid, such as ovum transport in the oviduct or kidney stones in the ureter. In some of these biological settings, the fluid may be viscoelastic. In such a case, a nonlinear constitutive equation to describe the evolution of the viscoelastic contribution to the stress tensor must be included in the governing equations. Here we use an immersed boundary framework to study peristaltic transport of a macroscopic solid particle in a viscoelastic fluid governed by a Navier-Stokes/Oldroyd-B model. Numerical simulations of peristaltic pumping as a function of Weissenberg number are presented. We examine the spatial and temporal evolution of the polymer stress field, and also find that the viscoelasticity of the fluid does hamper the overall transport of the particle in the direction of the wave.

  2. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature.

    PubMed

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  3. Obstructed Hemivagina with Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Santos, Xiomara M; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    The association of obstructed hemivagina with ipisilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) is a well-described entity. While there has been an increased familiarity with this disorder, the exact incidence of OHVIRA is unknown. Our aim was to review the available literature on this topic, look at common presentations, and uncommon presentations. This condition is a well-described entity but requires careful evaluation, because unique presentations do occur. Diagnostic challenges include time of presentation and symptoms associated with presentation. Surgical challenges include microperforation of the hemivaginal septum, pelvic inflammatory disease, thick septum, or high septum. Each of these must be managed carefully. Although a solitary kidney is frequently thought to be associated with OHVIRA, dysplastic kidneys, pelvic kidneys, or ectopic ureters can occur. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for relief of symptoms and prevention of complications. To minimize problems associated with delayed diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging evaluation is recommended along with referral to a center with expertise in these conditions. PMID:26165909

  4. Necropsy findings in a fetus with a 46,XY,dic t(X;21)(p11.1;p11.1).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N M; Fernandez, H; Chambers, H M; Callen, D F

    1992-01-01

    We report the findings in a fetus terminated because of multiple abnormalities diagnosed on ultrasound, including asymmetry of the limbs, a hypoplastic diaphragm, unilateral duplex kidney with a double ureter, unilateral cystic kidney, and congenital heart disease including total pulmonary atresia. Cytogenetic studies showed an unbalanced translocation of the long arm of the X chromosome to chromosome 21, resulting in a 46,XY,dic t(X;21)(p11.1;p11.1) karyotype. The cytogenetics were confirmed by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation using probes specific to pericentric alphoid repeats. Parental chromosomes were normal indicating this to be a de novo translocation. It is suggested that the inactivation of the long arm of the X chromosome has resulted in an effective monosomy for chromosome 21. Images PMID:1640434

  5. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder9 181 188, 189.9 188, 189.3Đ.9 Kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter 180 189.0Đ.2 189.0Đ.2 Eye 192 190 190 Brain and other nervous system 193 191Đ2 191Đ2 Thyroid gland 194 193 193 Other endocrine glands 195 194 194, 164.0 HodgkinŐs disease 201 201 201 Non-HodgkinŐs lymphoma 200, 202, 205 200, 202 159.1, 200, 202, except 202.2Đ.6 Multiple myeloma 203 203 203 except 203.1 Leukemia 204 204Đ7 202.4, 203.1, 204Đ208 359 Appendix Table 3.

  6. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A.; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G.; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  7. Current status of robot assisted laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sey Kiat; Shin, Tae-Young; Rha, Koon Ho

    2013-04-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UC) are usually aggressive tumours and require radical treatments. The standard of care for localised UUT-UC is radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgeries are currently employed in various urological procedures, including RNU. We conducted a literature search on medical databases (PubMed/ MEDLINE) using free text keywords nephroureterectomy, distal ureter, bladder cuff, urothelial carcinoma and/or robotic. In this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date status on robot-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RAL-NU) for the management of UUT-UC. The various surgical techniques and approaches for RAL-NU and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) will be discussed and their perioperative and early oncological outcomes reported. The feasibility and safety of RAL-NU has been demonstrated in a number of studies but intermediate and long term clinical and oncological outcomes are still lacking. PMID:23307588

  8. [Retroperitoneal fibrosis: case series of five patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shiber, Shacahf; Noa, Eliakim-Raz; Yair, Molad

    2014-10-24

    Chronic periaortitis (CP) is an umbrella term used to describe a group of nosologically allied conditions that include idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease), inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm, and perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis. Retroperitoneal fibrosis encompasses a range of diseases characterized by the presence of a fibro-inflammatory tissue, which usually surrounds the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries and extends into the retroperitoneum to envelop neighboring structures-ureters. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is generally idiopathic, but can also be secondary to the use of certain drugs, malignant diseases, infections, and surgery. Here we describe a 5 years follow up (2006-2011) of 5 patients admitted to our hospital with symptoms, laboratory, imaging and pathologic finding compatible with retroperitoneal fibrosis. We review our clinical course of our patient with respect to the literature. PMID:25440701

  9. Modern management of stone disease in patients with a solitary kidney

    PubMed Central

    Tkocz, Micha?; Ziaja, Damian

    2011-01-01

    Analysing the data available in the literature, contemporary methods of treatment of nephrolithiasis are limited to the methods of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy (URSL), not excluding their use in the presence of developmental abnormalities and kidney impairment only. Minimally invasive methods have become standard procedures. A complement to ineffective URSL and PCNL treatment is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. This is confirmed by 30 years of observation in the only treatment of kidney calculi by Alken launched in 1981 and continued by Jones et al. Before the era of endoscopic procedures (PCNL and URSL) effectively removed the only deposits in the kidney in open operations. Minimally invasive treatments are recommended for patients with localized deposits in the pelvicalyceal system or solitary kidney ureter. They are recognized as safe and effective treatment in a solitary kidney in particular in patients who have already been operated on. PMID:23255993

  10. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Indications, technique, and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Chen, R N; Moore, R G; Kavoussi, L R

    1998-05-01

    Laparoscopic pyeloplasty is one of several minimally invasive treatment options for UPJ obstruction. In fact, several endoscopically and fluoroscopically controlled methods of incising the obstructed UPJ are now available that are significantly less invasive and less morbid in comparison with open pyeloplasty. However, the long-term success rates of these incisional techniques are less than the rates reported for open pyeloplasty. Several causes of obstruction may be present in the primarily obstructed UPJ, including kinking or compression related to crossing vessels or intrinsic narrowing at the UPJ. One potential reason for the inferior success rates of incisional methods in comparison with open pyeloplasty is that the former techniques address the intrinsically narrowed UPJ but may not address extrinsic problems such as kinking of the ureter associated with fibrotic bands or compression from crossing vessels. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty addresses all potential causes of obstruction. Any fibrotic bands kinking the ureter are divided, and the ureter is spatulated through the level of the UPJ prior to completion of the anastomosis. If a crossing vessel is encountered, a dismembered pyeloplasty is performed, the ureter and renal pelvis are transposed to the opposite side of the vessels, and the anastomosis is completed. An additional disadvantage of incisional techniques is the significant risk of hemorrhage following incision of the UPJ, with as many as 3% to 11% of patients requiring blood transfusion. Hemorrhage may occur owing to an errant anterior incision, the presence of a crossing vessel, incision into the renal parenchyma adjacent to the UPJ, or as the result of bleeding from the percutaneous access site. In contrast, mean estimated blood loss in the authors' series of 57 laparoscopic pyeloplasties was 139 mL, and none of the patients required blood transfusion. Although it is more morbid in comparison with retrograde or fluoroscopically controlled endopyelotomy, laparoscopic pyeloplasty seems at least comparable to antegrade percutaneous endopyelotomy in terms of the length of hospitalization and patient convalescence. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty, however, offers a higher success rate than with incisional techniques, not only from a radiographic standpoint but from a subjective standpoint as determined by the results of the analogue pain and activity questionnaire. The major disadvantage of laparoscopic pyeloplasty is the need for proficiency in laparoscopic techniques and for a longer operative time. As a result, the literature on laparoscopic pyeloplasty consists primarily of small series. Janetschek and co-workers reported on a series of 17 patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty, including 14 via a transperitoneal approach and 3 via a retroperitoneal approach. Procedures performed included ureterolysis alone, dismembered pyeloplasty, and nondismembered (Fenger) pyeloplasty. "Fenger-plasty" is similar to Y-V pyeloplasty and is performed by incising the UPJ longitudinally and closing the incision transversely in a Heineke-Mikulicz fashion. Janetschek and colleagues reported a 100% success in the eight patients who underwent dismembered pyeloplasty but believed that this technique was too cumbersome and should be reserved for patients with long stenoses, dorsally crossing vessels, or large renal pelvis. Because two of the four patients undergoing ureterolysis alone failed treatment, Janetschek and colleagues have abandoned this technique. They now prefer the Fenger-plasty technique, even in the setting of ventrally crossing vessels, because the technique can be performed quickly with one to three sutures, and the anastomosis can be sealed with fibrin glue and a flap of Gerota's fascia. Their experience with this technique, however, remains relatively limited. Technologic advances such as the Endostitch device have facilitated reconstructive laparoscopic procedures such as pyeloplasty. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9633588

  11. Quantitative autoradiography of angiotensin II receptors in brain and kidney: focus on cardiovascular implications

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlert, D.R.; Speth, R.C.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative techniques of receptor autoradiography have been applied to localize (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in brain and kidney. High densities of autoradiographic grains, indicating the presence of angiotensin II receptors, have been localized to several rat brain nuclei including the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, anterior pituitary, locus coeruleus and several hypothalamic nuclei. Cat thoracic spinal cord exhibited a high density of sites over the intermedio-lateral cell column. In sections of rat kidney, angiotensin II receptors were detected in the glomerulus, vasa recta and ureter. The cardiovascular implications of these results are apparent and relate angiotensin II to hypertensive mechanisms. Thus, angiotensin II represents an endocoid which is involved in control of blood pressure through its effects on peripheral organs as well as the central nervous system.

  12. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueńas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly. PMID:12596123

  13. Evaluation of normal and pathologic ureteral dynamics: comparison of a radioisotopic method with ureteral pressure/flow perfusion study

    SciTech Connect

    Braren, V.; Bauriedel, J.K.; Jones, W.B.; Goddard, J.

    1982-05-01

    The ureteral pressure/flow perfusion study has lately been repopularized and its use demonstrated in many forms of suspected obstructive uropathy. The present study was undertaken to compare the ureteral pressure/flow perfusion study with a radioisotopic method of investigating ureteral obstruction. The 2 methods were evaluated with a mongrel canine laboratory model. Both diagnostic modalities were employed concomitantly on intact renoureteral units; first with the ureter unobstructed, then after submission to varying degrees of ureteral occlusion. Analysis of data from these studies shows that the curve pattern produced by the computer generated 99mTc-DTPA renogram is as accurate as ureteral pressure/flow perfusion study in determining the presence and degree of ureteral obstruction.

  14. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Recurrent Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, Sebastian Bruners, Philipp; Brehmer, Bernhard; Mahnken, Andreas Horst

    2008-07-15

    Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming more and more established in the treatment of various neoplasms, including retroperitoneal tumors of the kidneys and the adrenal glands. We report the case of RFA in a patient suffering from the third relapse of a retroperitoneal liposarcoma in the left psoas muscle. After repeated surgical resection and supportive radiation therapy of a primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma and two surgically treated recurrences, including replacement of the ureter by a fraction of the ileum, there was no option for further surgery. Thus, we considered RFA as the most suitable treatment option. Monopolar RFA was performed in a single session with a 2-cm umbrella-shaped LeVeen probe. During a 27-month follow-up period the patient remained free of tumor.

  15. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  16. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25-35 minutes (20-sec. frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical tunction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  17. The Adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules Are Maintained by Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Liu, Wei; Hou, Steven X.

    2007-01-01

    Summary All animals must excrete the waste products of metabolism. Excretion is performed by the kidney in vertebrates and by the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila. The mammalian kidney has an inherent ability for recovery and regeneration following ischemic injury. Stem cells and progenitor cells have been proposed to be responsible for repair and regeneration of injured renal tissue. In Drosophila, the Malpighian tubules are thought to be very stable, and no stem cells have been identified. We have identified pluripotent stem cells in the region of lower tubules and ureters of the Malpighian tubules. Using lineage tracing and molecular marker labeling, we demonstrated that several differentiated cells in the Malpighian tubules arise from the stem cells and an autocrine JAK-STAT signaling regulates the stem cells' self-renewal. Identifying adult kidney stem cells in Drosophila may provide important clues for understanding mammalian kidney repair and regeneration during injury. PMID:18371350

  18. [Urine incontinence in childhood; the importance of a good micturition history].

    PubMed

    Ab, E; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, J A A M; de Jong, T P V M

    2002-02-01

    Four children, three girls aged 9, 5.5 and 6.5 years, and a boy aged 8 years, suffered from urinary incontinence. The underlying conditions, urge syndrome with urge incontinence, ectopic ureter, meatus stenosis, and pelvic floor dysfunction, respectively, were identified and treated, after which the children were no longer incontinent. Diurnal incontinence is present in 2-3% of 7-year-olds. Incontinence is accompanied by recurrent urinary tract infections and vesicoureteric reflux in 40% of cases. A combination of these two disorders can lead to impaired renal function. Especially in girls, involuntary urine loss is usually based on dysfunctional voiding, a non-neurogenic coordination problem between the detrusor muscle of the bladder and the pelvic floor. A careful history is the most important tool in reaching the correct diagnosis. PMID:11851076

  19. Is the Left Kidney the Right One for Kidney Donation in Women Planning on Future Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    K?ran, H.; K?ran, G.; Ar?kan, D.; Yüzba??o?lu, M.; Bakacak, M.; Ercan, Ö.; Köstü, B.

    2015-01-01

    The kidney transplantation surgery requires left nephrectomy because of the anatomical disadvantages. But hydroureteronephrosis is the most significant renal functional alteration of pregnancy, accounted for by both hormonal and mechanical factors. Dilatation of the ureters and renal pelvis is more prominent on the right side than the left side and is seen in up to 80% of pregnant women. A 23-year-old woman who become pregnant after 4 months from left kidney donation was admitted to our emergency department with acute right kidney injury during her 39th week of pregnancy. She did not response to conservative treatment and required emergency delivery because of the progressive increase in her serum creatinine levels. After delivery, progressive decrease at creatinine level had been observed and in one month, it had reached the normal level. Mother candidates should be advised they donate their kidneys after completing their childbearing if possible, or undergo right nephrectomy. PMID:26576264

  20. Nephrectomy in an Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Higbie, Christine T; Carpenter, James W; Armbrust, Laura J; Klocke, Emily; Almes, Kelli

    2014-09-01

    A 10-yr-old, captive, intact male Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) with a history of bilateral nephrolithiasis was presented for acute-onset lethargy and inappetance of 5 days duration. On physical examination, the otter was about 8% dehydrated and a palpable fluid wave was present in the abdomen. An abdominal ultrasound revealed hydronephrosis of the left kidney and a hyperechoic structure present within the lumen of the left ureter, causing an obstruction. A urinalysis revealed struvite crystalluria, bacteriuria, and an elevated pH. Following 4 days of antibiotic therapy, a left ureteronephrectomy was performed. Upon opening the kidney to retrieve calculi, a large amount of purulent material was noted within the renal pelvis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a nephrectomy in an Asian small-clawed otter. Nephrectomy should be considered as a viable option for treatment of ureteral obstruction, hydronephrosis, or severe pyelonephritis. PMID:25314845

  1. [Application of rowatinex in the perioperative period in the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Popkov, V M; Bliumberg, B I; Osnovin, O V; Shatylko, T V

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high efficacy and safety of ESWL used to disintegrate stones in pyelocaliceal system and upper ureter, the issue of further reduction of the risk of complications of this procedure remains unresolved. The inclusion ofphytopreparations with anti-inflammatory and lithokinetic properties in the scheme of perioperative treatment is one of the ways for prevent complications of ESWL. The effect of the drug Rowatinex on the process of discharge of calculi fragments after ESWL is evaluated. The frequency and intensity of qualitative changes of urine after appointment this drug were assessed. It is concluded that Rowatinex has positive impact on the final result of ESWL in the case of its inclusion in the complex medical treatment, which manifests in terms of reducing the time of discharge of fragments, mitigation of subjective symptoms, as well as reducing the frequency of subclinical bacteriuria and severe complications. PMID:24956667

  2. The development of a laser for stone fragmentation and its place in the management of stones in the era of extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Watson, G

    1990-01-01

    The parameters of a laser which govern stone fragmentation are the pulse duration, wavelength and fibre diameter. The pulse duration is the most important parameter governing fibre transmission. The shorter the pulse duration the less tissue damage and the easier the plasma production at the stone surface but the greater the difficulty to transmit the laser energy through the fibre. At 1 microsecond pulse duration the laser wavelength is highly significant because it governs the degree of absorption at the stone surface necessary for plasma production. Transmission of this laser energy through 200 micron core fibres is straightforward. Fragmentation is achieved by placing the fibre in contact with the stone surface. There is negligible tissue injury. A miniaturised ureteroscope has been developed specifically for the laser. This appears to be easier to use and carries less risk of instrumentational injury to the ureter. PMID:1983282

  3. Comparison of the pulsed dye and holmium lasers for stone fragmentation: in-vitro studies and clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Graham M.; Smith, Neil

    1993-05-01

    The pulsed dye laser used with a 1 microsecond pulse duration at 504 nm delivered via a 320 micron core fiber is designed specifically for ureteric calculi. The threshold for stone fragmentation is in the region of 40 to 50 mJ for the majority of stones. Fragmentation is efficient in the 60 to 70 mJ range but for some stones 100 mJ is required. The Candela MDL 2000 (Candela Corporation) is capable of delivering 140 mJ. This laser has minimal effect on tissue. The holmium laser delivers 300 microsecond pulses of 2.1 microns wavelength (Sunrise Technologies and Coherent Ltd). A maximum of 1 J per pulse at 5 Hz is usually recommended because of the significant action on tissue. Even using this regimen significant damage can be inflicted on the ureter. In this paper the action of these two laser regimens on stones is contrasted.

  4. RENAL AND CLOACAL CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS (CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AVIAN GENOTYPE V) IN A MAJOR MITCHELL'S COCKATOO (LOPHOCHROA LEADBEATERI).

    PubMed

    Curtiss, Jeffrey B; Leone, Angelique M; Wellehan, James F X; Emerson, Jessica A; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Farina, Lisa L

    2015-12-01

    A 7-yr-old male Major Mitchell's cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) presented with a recent history of lethargy and anorexia. Physical examination revealed poor body condition and cloacal prolapse. Abnormalities on serum chemistry included severe hyperuricemia and hyperphosphatemia with a low calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. Symptomatic treatment was initiated including intravenous fluids and antibiotics. The bird continued to decline and died within a few days. Visceral gout and renal and cloacal pathology were observed on gross necropsy. Histopathology revealed chronic inflammation within the kidney, ureter, and cloaca in association with protozoal organisms and an invasive cloacal adenocarcinoma tumor. The location and morphology was consistent with Cryptosporidium sp., confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular testing. Direct sequencing identified Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported infection of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V associated with clinical disease in birds and the first renal Cryptosporidium infection in a psittacine. PMID:26667555

  5. Results in the use of extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy (EPL) for treatment of urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, M; Mast, G; Neisius, D; Zwergel, T; Kopper, B; Zwergel, U; Wurster, H; Riedlinger, R

    1988-01-01

    The Piezolith 2200 as an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter uses piezoelectrically generated, high-energy sonic impulses for treatment of urinary calculi; the shock wave generator is self-focussing. Localization of concrements is performed by means of ultrasound imaging. Treatment with the Piezolith 2200 is painless for the patient and thus possible without anesthesia and analgesia. We report on 806 cases of treatment involving a total of 572 kidneys in 567 patients (561 adults, 6 children) suffering from calculi of various sizes in the renal pelvis (n = 126), calculi in the calyces (n = 384), partial (n = 24) or full (n = 19) staghorn calculi, as well as calculi in the upper part of the ureter (n = 19). In 88% of these cases the concrements could be removed completely. Since cardiac activity is not influenced by piezoelectrically generated high-energy impulses, this procedure is particularly suited to the treatment of patients with heart problems. PMID:3376362

  6. Label-free Au cluster used for in vivo 2D and 3D computed tomography of murine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaling; Xu, Chao; Zhai, Jiao; Gao, Fuping; Liu, Ru; Gao, Liang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Gao, Xueyun

    2015-01-01

    Kidney disease is a worldwide health hazard. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography are often used for diagnosis, to guide treatment, and to assess a disease state over the long-term. The physiology of the kidneys can be assessed with contrast agents. We present an albumin-stabilized Au cluster with red fluorescence and robust X-ray attenuation. In vivo studies revealed distribution of the Au clusters in the liver, spleen, and kidneys, with excretion mostly via the kidneys. Under optimal conditions, this agent can outline the anatomy of mouse kidneys on 2D and 3D computed tomography imaging, with clear visualization of the renal collecting system and ureters. This is a promising agent for kidney visualization and disease diagnosis. PMID:25483010

  7. Second primary cancers in the Vaud and Neuchâtel Cancer Registries.

    PubMed

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Rafael, Blanc-Moya; Manuela, Maspoli-Conconi; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    An increasing proportion of new cancers is registered in patients who have received a previous cancer diagnosis. As data are inconsistent across studies, we provided information for populations long covered by valid cancer registration. Data were derived from the Swiss cancer Registries of Vaud and Neuchâtel (885,000 inhabitants). Patients diagnosed with a new malignancy (except skin basal and squamous cell carcinomas) during the period 2005-2010 were included. Over the period 2005-2010, 24,859 patients were registered with incident cancer. Of these, 3127 (13%) had multiple primary cancers and 578 (2.3%) were synchronous. Breast, prostate, colorectum, skin, melanomas, and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SHN) and bladder/ureter were the most common sites of first neoplasms, whereas breast, lung, colorectum, prostate, melanoma, and SHN were the most common sites of second neoplasms. The most common pairing was breast with breast (31% synchronous), followed by the bladder/ureter with the prostate (72% synchronous), prostate with the colorectum, SHN with SHN, and SHN with lung. Five-year crude survival of patients with synchronous cancers (34%) was not significantly lower than that of patients with single neoplasms (39%). This population-based study indicates that about one in eight incident neoplasms in these mature registries are second neoplasms and almost 1/40 patients are diagnosed with synchronous primary cancers. These are related to shared genetic and environmental factors as well as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. As cancer diagnosis and survival is likely to improve, the proportion of patients with multiple primary cancers will further increase in the future. PMID:25397586

  8. The induction of rat bladder cancer by 2-naphthylamine

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, R. M.; Wright, R.; Wakefield, J. St J.

    1982-01-01

    The widely held belief that 2-naphthylamine is not carcinogenic for the rat has been re-examined. Twenty female Wistar rats were dosed by gastric intubation weekly for 57 weeks with 2-naphthylamine, 300 mg/kg body wt, in arachis oil and 20 controls were given arachis oil alone. Animals which became moribund were killed during the course of the experiment and the remainder after 100 weeks. A 2-naphthylamine-treated animal died at 21 weeks; all others survived 57 weeks or longer. The urinary tracts of all but two 2-naphthylamine-treated animals, which were found dead and cannibalized, were examined histologically. No neoplastic disease of the urinary tract was present in control animals. In 10 of the 2-naphthylamine-treated rats there was neither neoplasia nor hyperplasia of the urothelium, but 4 of the 18 examined histologically had large, macroscopically visible bladder cancers; one of these also had bilateral transitional cell tumours of the kidney calyces and multiple tumours in both ureters. Another animal had bilateral urothelial cancers in the ureters. The histology and ultrastructure of these urothelial cancers were comparable to those of rat transitional-cell carcinomas experimentally induced with other chemical carcinogens. These results, considered in the context both of early and more recently published biochemical studies of 2-naphthylamine metabolism in the rat, support the possibility that production of the active carcinogenic metabolite in this species may be influenced by a pH-dependent, non-enzymic mechanism in the urine, which could account for individual, strain- and diet-related variations in response in the rat. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Figs 5(a), (b)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Figs. 10(a), (b)Fig. 11 PMID:7138770

  9. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Meral Torun; Alaygut, Demet; Turkmen, Mehmet; Soylu, Alper; Kavukcu, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common abnormality of the urinary tract in childhood. Objectives: As urine enters the ureters and renal pelvis during voiding in vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), we hypothesized that change in body water composition before and after voiding may be less different in children with VUR. Patients and Methods: Patients were grouped as those with VUR (Group 1) and without VUR (Group 2). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed before and after voiding, and third space fluid (TSF) (L), percent of total body fluid (TBF%), extracellular fluid (ECF%), and intracellular fluid (ICF%) were recorded. After change of TSF, TBF, ECF, ICF (?TSF, ?TBF%, ?ECF%, ?ICF%), urine volume (mL), and urine volume/body weight (mL/kg) were calculated. Groups 1 and 2 were compared for these parameters. In addition, pre- and post-voiding body fluid values were compared in each group. Results: TBF%, ECF%, ICF%, and TSF in both pre- and post-voiding states and ?TBF%, ?ECF%, ?ICF%, and ?TSF after voiding were not different between groups. However, while post-voiding TBF%, ECF% was significantly decreased in Group 1 (64.5 ± 8.1 vs 63.7 ± 7.2, P = 0.013 for TBF%), there was not post-voiding change in TSF in the same group. On the other hand, there was also a significant TSF decrease in Group 2. Conclusions: Bladder and ureter can be considered as the third space. Thus, we think that BIA has been useful in discriminating children with VUR as there was no decreased in patients with VUR, although there was decreased TSF in patients without VUR. However, further studies are needed to increase the accuracy of this hypothesis. PMID:26396698

  10. Flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Sninsky, Brian C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to present the outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy (URS) for upper urinary tract stone disease in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients performed by a single surgeon. A retrospective analysis was performed for SCI patients treated with flexible URS for proximal ureter and kidney stone disease by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2013. Patient characteristics, operative outcomes, metabolic evaluation, and stone analyses were assessed in detail. A total of 27 URS procedures were performed for urolithiasis in 21 renal units of 19 patients. The mean age was 52.1 ± 15.6 years (16-72) and mean BMI was 29.2 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) (20-45.7). Etiology of SCI was trauma (n: 10), multiple sclerosis (n: 6), cerebrovascular accident (n: 1), or undetermined (n: 2). The mean stone size was 15.9 ± 8.6 (6-40) mm. In the 27 URS procedures, stones were located in the ureter (n: 5), the kidney (n: 14), and both areas (n: 8). Mean hospitalization time was 2.0 ± 2.4 (0-10) days. Postoperative complications were observed in 6 cases (22.2 %). Three major complications included urosepsis (n: 1) and respiratory failure (n: 2), that were observed postoperatively and required admission to the intensive care unit. The 2 minor complications were hypotension, fever and UTI, and required medical treatment. Fourteen (66.6 %) of the 21 renal units were stone free. Calcium phosphate carbonate (n: 9) and struvite (n: 5) were the primary stone compositions detected. Hypocitraturia (n: 6), hypercalciuria (n: 5), hypernaturia (n: 5), hyperoxaluria (n: 4), and hyperuricosuria (n: 1) were common abnormalities in 24-h urine analysis. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy can be an effective treatment modality for SCI patients with upper urinary tract calculi. PMID:25987450

  11. Treatment of ureteral calculus obstruction with laser lithotripsy in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Todd L; Sur, Roger L

    2012-03-01

    An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with acute anorexia secondary to progressive azotemia (blood urea nitrogen = 213 mg/dl, creatinine [Cr] = 9.5 mg/dl) and electrolyte abnormalities (K = 7.4 mEq/L). It was later diagnosed with postrenal obstruction secondary to bilaterally obstructing ureteral calculi seen on ultrasound. Treatment of the obstruction required two endoscopic procedures, cystoscopy for ureteral stent placement and ureteroscopy to perform intracorporeal lithotripsy on the obstructing calculi. Before the first procedure, the dolphin's azotemia was stabilized with aggressive fluid therapy, peritoneal dialysis, and treatment for acidosis. Diuresis subsequent to the fluid therapy enabled passage of the right obstructing urolith. For both endoscopic procedures, the dolphin was placed in left lateral recumbency due to the peritoneal dialysis catheter in the right retroperitoneal region. For the first procedure, a 12-French (Fr) flexible cystoscope was inserted retrograde into the bladder via the urethra, whereupon a calculus was seen obstructing the left ureteral orifice. A 4.8-Fr, 26-cm double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed up the left ureter to relieve the postrenal obstruction. Inadvertent proximal migration of the left ureteral stent occurred during the procedure. However, renal parameters (serum Cr = 5.8, K = 5.4) improved significantly by the next day. For the second procedure, 28 hr later, ureteroscopy was performed to treat the calculus and replace the existing stent with a longer stent. The left ureteral calculus was pulverized into tiny fragments by using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser inserted through a 6.9-Fr semirigid ureteroscope. The migrated stent was visualized in the distal left ureter and replaced with a 90-cm single-pigtail ureteral stent that was sutured exterior to the urogenital slit and removed 3 days later. Renal function normalized over the next several days, and the dolphin recovered over the next 2 mo. PMID:22448516

  12. Effects of cadmium on the renal and skeletal muscle microcirculation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chong.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on the arteriolar diameters of the kidney and skeletal muscle were quantified, because of the hypertensive effect of cacmium. The effect of cacmium on the constrictor response of the renal arterioles to angiotensin II (Ang II) were also assessed. In vivo preparations of the rat hydronephrotic kidney and cremaster muscle were used for direct visualization of the microvessels with intravital television microscopy. Hydronephrosis was induced in twenty-seven male Wistar-Kyoto rats (150-180 g) by unilateral ureter ligation. The hydronephrotic kidney, with intact cortical circulation and innervation, was exteriorized in a specially designed bath for microcirculation observation 6-8 weeks following the ureter ligation. The cremaster muscle experiments were conducted in another thirty-seven male WKY rats (120-180 g). Disparate effects of cadmium were observed in these two microcirculation beds. Topical cadmium (1.35 [mu]M-0.45 mM) increased the diameters of the pre- and postglomerular vessels in the hydronephrotic kidney maximally by 15-26%. Cadmium (0.27 mM) inhibited the Ang II response of the arterioles non-competitively. However, intraperitoneally injected cadmium (2 mg/kg), which significantly increased the mean arterial pressure, did not dilate the arterioles nor alter the Ang II response. On the other hand, cadmium (13.5 [mu]M-0.72 mM) constricted the larger arterioles in the cremaster muscle (60-160 [mu]m) concentration-dependently, but not small arterioles (15-30 [mu]m). In summary, topical cadmium dilates renal arterioles and decreases their reactivity to Ang II, but constricts the larger cremaster arterioles. The disparate effects of cadmium suggest different Ca[sup 2+] utilization mechanisms in different vascular beds. The construction of the cremaster arterioles may contribute to cadmium-induced hypertension by increasing peripheral resistance.

  13. Intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denstedt, John D.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Chun, Samuel S.; Sales, Jack L.

    1995-05-01

    A variety of devices are currently available for intracorporeal stone fragmentation. Recently a new wavelength of laser, the Holmium:YAG, has demonstrated a variety of potential urologic applications including ablation of soft tissue lesions as well as stone fragmentation. This laser has a wavelength of 2100 nm and operates in a pulsed mode. Energy is delivered through a 400 um quartz end-firing fiber. In this presentation we review our clinical experience with the Holmium:YAG laser for the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi. Over a 23 month period, 63 patients underwent 67 procedures. Seven procedures consisted of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy for large or staghorn renal calculi. Sixty procedures were performed for ureteral stones. Procedures for proximal ureteral stones (6) employed a retrograde approach using flexible ureteroscopes (8.5 or 9.8). Stones in the mid ureter (12) and distal ureter (42) were approached transurethrally using a 6.9 rigid ureteroscope. Complete stone fragmentation without the need for additional procedures was achieved in 82% of cases. Treatment failures included 1 stone migration into the renal pelvis during laser activation, 6 patients who had incomplete fragmentation and 3 patients in which laser malfunction precluded complete fragmentation. Stone analysis available in 23 patients revealed calcium oxalate monohydrate (15), calcium oxalate dihydrate (2), cystine (2), uric acid (3) and calcium phosphate (1). A single complication of ureteral perforation occurred when the laser was fired without direct visual guidance. Radiographic follow-up at an average of 16 weeks is available in 22 patients and has identified 2 patients with ureteral strictures that are not believed to be related to laser lithotripsy. In summary, we have found the Holmium:YAG laser to be a reliable and versatile device for intracorporeal lithotripsy. Its safety and efficacy make it a suitable alternative for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy of urinary calculi.

  14. Clinical effectiveness of the PolyScope™ endoscope system combined with holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of upper urinary calculi with a diameter of less than 2 cm

    PubMed Central

    GU, SI-PING; HUANG, YUN-TENG; YOU, ZHI-YUAN; ZHOU, XIAOMING; LU, YI-JIN; HE, CAO-HUI; QI, JUAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of the PolyScope™ endoscope system in the treatment of upper urinary calculi with a diameter of <2 cm. A total of 86 patients hospitalized with upper urinary tract calculi were included. The patients were placed under general or spinal anesthesia and in a lithotomy position. Following the dilation of the ureter, a guide wire was inserted under the direct vision of an F8/9.8 rigid ureteroscope, and an F12/14 flexible ureteral access sheath was positioned along the guide wire. Holmium laser lithotripsy was subsequently performed, using an F8.0 ‘PolyScope’ modular flexible ureteroscope. Plain film of the kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) was performed 1 day subsequent to the surgery, in order to determine the result of the lithotripsy and the position of the double-J stent which was inserted after after holmium laser lithotripsy. In addition, in certain patients, KUB radiography was performed 2–4 weeks subsequent to the surgery, and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed if the diameter of the residual stones was >6 mm. Lithotripsy was successful in 77 patients and the duration of the surgery ranged between 25 and 80 min (mean duration, 42 min). Little bleeding was observed. Three patients presented with a slight fever following the surgery; however, no ureteral perforation, high fever or septicemia was observed among the patients following anti-inflammatory treatment. The stone-free rate (SFR) of the single-pass lithotripsy was 89.5% (77/86) and the SFR with ESWL was 96.5% (83/86). The study demonstrated that the F8 modular flexible ureteroscope was safe, convenient and effective for the lithotripsy of upper-tract calculi. PMID:24137232

  15. [Retroperitoneal fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt Soares, S; Fehr, A; Brandt, A S; Roth, S

    2007-05-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is characterised by inflammatory fibrotic processes affecting the retroperitoneal structures. Its prevalence of 1 - 2/200,000 makes it a rare disease. To date, there are no guidelines for the diagnosis of or therapy for the disease. If untreated, the disease may be fatal. In 2006, the Department of Urology of the HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal undertook to establish a nationwide patient registry, which would facilitate prospective therapy trials and the drafting of recommendations for diagnostic procedures. The pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear. Since some RPF-patients present with associated autoimmune diseases, autoimmune processes are suspected to play a role in causing the disease. The presence of autoantibodies and histological similarities with vasculitis support this hypothesis. Following initial general symptoms, patients display localised symptoms (flank pain, leg oedema, abdominal discomfort), caused by the displacing effect of the fibrotic plaques. Laboratory tests show elevated ESR and C-reactive protein and in some cases a moderate anaemia. Histological examinations should be undertaken to rule out the presence of malignant tumours. Radiological diagnostics (excretory urography, CT, MRI) show a retroperitoneal mass which blocks, compresses and displaces, completely or in part, the large vessels and the ureter. Initial therapy aims at restoring the function of the affected hollow organs through the application of (ureteric) stents, followed by immunosuppressive therapy. If drug therapy is unsuccessful, surgical procedures will follow to protect the ureter from compression. In some cases, ureteral replacement or an autotransplant of the kidney may be necessary. Life-long observation of the patients is necessary, as the disease may be chronic and relapsing. Interdisciplinary and nationwide cooperation is of crucial importance to further investigate this disease. PMID:17516381

  16. Genitourinary schistosomiasis: life cycle and radiologic-pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Shebel, Haytham M; Elsayes, Khaled M; Abou El Atta, Heba M; Elguindy, Yehia M; El-Diasty, Tarek A

    2012-01-01

    Genitourinary schistosomiasis is produced by Schistosoma haematobium, a species of fluke that is endemic to Africa and the Middle East, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality in those regions. It also may be seen elsewhere, as a result of travel or immigration. S haematobium, one of the five fluke species that account for most human cases of schistosomiasis, is the only species that infects the genitourinary system, where it may lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs. In the early stages, it primarily involves the bladder and ureters; later, the kidneys and genital organs are involved. It rarely infects the colon or lungs. A definitive diagnosis of genitourinary schistosomiasis is based on findings of parasite ova at microscopic urinalysis. Clinical manifestations and radiologic imaging features also may be suggestive of the disease, even at an early stage: Hematuria, dysuria, and hemospermia, early clinical signs of an established S haematobium infection, appear within 3 months after infection. At imaging, fine ureteral calcifications that appear as a line or parallel lines on abdominopelvic radiographs and as a circular pattern on axial images from computed tomography (CT) are considered pathognomonic of early-stage schistosomiasis. Ureteritis, pyelitis, and cystitis cystica, conditions that are characterized by air bubble-like filling defects representing ova deposited in the ureter, kidney, and bladder, respectively, may be seen at intravenous urography, intravenous ureteropyelography, and CT urography. Coarse calcification, fibrosis, and strictures are signs of chronic or late-stage schistosomiasis. Such changes may be especially severe in the bladder, creating a predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma. Genital involvement, which occurs more often in men than in women, predominantly affects the prostate and seminal vesicles. PMID:22786992

  17. Treatment and outcome of fibroepithelial ureteral polyps: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Dina J.; Buddingh, Karel T.; Kums, Jan J.M.; Kropman, René F.; Roshani, Hossain; Hirdes, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fibroepithelial polyps of the ureter are rare. Cases and small series are reported in the literature. The treatment of choice, outcome and appropriate follow-up regimen remain unclear. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of papers reporting fibroepithelial polyps of the ureter in adult patients. Articles published before 1980 were excluded. Results: The search yielded 144 papers, of which 68 met the inclusion criteria. A reference scan from the included 68 yielded an additional 7 new articles. In total, our study included 75 articles (68 + 7). A total of 134 patients were described. Most patients had a single lesion (range: 1–10). The median length of the polyp was 4.0 cm (range: 0.4–17.0). The percentage of polyps resected endoscopically increased from 0% before 1985 to 67% after 2005. Two perioperative complications were reported in 72 procedures (2.8%): a deep venous thrombosis and a case of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Both of these occurred after open surgery. Follow-up data were available for 57 patients. The median follow-up was 12 months (range: 1–180). Four patients (7.0%) developed recurrent complaints: 2 had urinary stones, 1 had a ureteral stricture and 1 had recurrence of the polyp. Three of these events followed endoscopic resection, and occurred within a year after the procedure. Conclusion: Endoscopic resection of fibroepithelial polyps seems to be safe and effective. It is minimally invasive and should be considered the gold standard where endoscopic expertise is available. We advise follow-up imaging by computed tomographic intravenous urography after 3 months and ultrasound after 1 year to detect late complications. PMID:26425226

  18. Urothelial Defects from Targeted Inactivation of Exocyst Sec10 in Mice Cause Ureteropelvic Junction Obstructions

    PubMed Central

    Fogelgren, Ben; Polgar, Noemi; Lui, Vanessa H.; Lee, Amanda J.; Tamashiro, Kadee-Kalia A.; Napoli, Josephine Andrea; Walton, Chad B.; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of congenital obstructive nephropathy are the result of ureteropelvic junction obstructions, and despite their high prevalence, we have a poor understanding of their etiology and scarcity of genetic models. The eight-protein exocyst complex regulates polarized exocytosis of intracellular vesicles in a large variety of cell types. Here we report generation of a conditional knockout mouse for Sec10, a central component of the exocyst, which is the first conditional allele for any exocyst gene. Inactivation of Sec10 in ureteric bud-derived cells using Ksp1.3-Cre mice resulted in severe bilateral hydronephrosis and complete anuria in newborns, with death occurring 6–14 hours after birth. Sec10FL/FL;Ksp-Cre embryos developed ureteropelvic junction obstructions between E17.5 and E18.5 as a result of degeneration of the urothelium and subsequent overgrowth by surrounding mesenchymal cells. The urothelial cell layer that lines the urinary tract must maintain a hydrophobic luminal barrier again urine while remaining highly stretchable. This barrier is largely established by production of uroplakin proteins that are transported to the apical surface to establish large plaques. By E16.5, Sec10FL/FL;Ksp-Cre ureter and pelvic urothelium showed decreased uroplakin-3 protein at the luminal surface, and complete absence of uroplakin-3 by E17.5. Affected urothelium at the UPJ showed irregular barriers that exposed the smooth muscle layer to urine, suggesting this may trigger the surrounding mesenchymal cells to overgrow the lumen. Findings from this novel mouse model show Sec10 is critical for the development of the urothelium in ureters, and provides experimental evidence that failure of this urothelial barrier may contribute to human congenital urinary tract obstructions. PMID:26046524

  19. Ureteroperitoneal fistula secondary to tubal sterilization by laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Machuca, J; Martinez de la Ossa, R; Camara, M

    1996-12-01

    In Spain, a 32-year-old woman presented at Motril Hospital in Granada with pain and a fever arising 3 days after undergoing laparoscopic tubal sterilization with electrocoagulation at a nearby hospital. She had tenderness on palpation in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Since no pathology was evident on ultrasonography but laboratory studies revealed leucocytosis, the physicians diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease and treated her with clindamicin and gentamicin. She returned to Motril Hospital a month later with pain in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen and in the left costovertebral angle and a fever of 2 days' duration. The physical examination indicated peritonitis. The hemoglobin level was 100 g/l; the hematocrit was 32%; and she had leucocytosis. Free fluid in the pelvic peritoneum and mild ureterohydronephrosis were found by ultrasonography and confirmed by IVP. Retrograde pyelography indicated an ureteric fistula with contrast medium passing to the Douglas pouch. The clinicians could not pass a catheter via the affected ureteric segment. Laparotomy revealed uroperitoneum with a hole at the posterior parietal peritoneum through which urine passed. Surgeons dissected the area up to the ureteric injury, presumably caused by electrocoagulation during laparoscopy, anastomosed the ureter end-to-end, and placed a 6 F stent catheter in the ureter for 10 days. The IVP 2 months later was normal. As new laparoscopic procedures emerge, there will be new cases of ureteric injury. The first treatment choice is percutaneous nephrostomy. Surgery should be the treatment choice for cases of failure or when clinicians suspect other complications associated with the ureteric injury. PMID:9014731

  20. Optimization of dosimetry and safety using the holmium laser for urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Zeijlemaker, Bram Y. W.; Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Boon, Tom A.

    1998-07-01

    The holmium laser has become accepted as a versatile instrument for urological applications, such as prostate resection, urethrotomy, tumor coagulation and lithotripsy. Presently, more powerful lasers have become available generating pulses up to 4 J at 80 W. The necessity of these high power systems in urology is ambiguous. In this study, the dosimetry as to efficacy and especially safety was investigated for various applications. The holmium laser ((lambda) equals 2.1 micrometer) emits its energy in 350 microsecond pulses which instantly turn water into vapor. Using high-speed photography explosive vapor bubbles with diameters over 10 mm were captured. The mechanical force of these bubbles, effectively fragments stones but may dilate and rupture a small lumen like the ureter. After implosion of the bubble, the energy of vaporization turns into heat. Depending on pulse energy and pulse repetition rate, tissue can be thermally affected up to 5 mm. For soft tissue applications, e.g., urethrotomy, prostatectomy or tumor coagulation, pulse energies of 0.5 - 1.5 J were applied at a high repetition rate (20 - 40 Hz) to provide sufficient coagulative and hemostatic effects. At higher pulse energies, the fiber tip was vibrating vigorously and the tissue was ripped to pieces decreasing hemostasis and visibility. For hard tissue applications, bursts of 0.5 J pulses at 5 Hz, proved to be sufficient to fragment all types of stones (including cystine) in the ureter and the bladder without mechanical or thermal damage to surrounding tissue. At higher settings, targeting the stone was less controlled and effective due to 'jumping' of the fiber tip with resulting mechanical and thermal trauma to the surrounding tissue. The holmium laser can be used effectively to coagulate and cut soft tissue and fragment stones at relatively low energy and power settings, thus minimizing the risk of complications.

  1. The adverse effects of oral 2-mercaptobenzimidazole on pregnant rats and their fetuses.

    PubMed

    Yamano, T; Noda, T; Shimizu, M; Morita, S

    1995-05-01

    The effects of oral 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) on pregnant Wistar rats were examined. In a preliminary dose-finding study, pregnant rats treated with 2-MBI over Days 7-17 of gestation showed reduction in maternal thymus weights with compound-related mortality at doses > or = 40 mg/kg. No adverse effects on fetuses were found at doses < or = 40 mg/kg. However, anasarca, cleft palate, and dilated lateral ventricles were present in all fetuses from the only survivor among the dams treated with 60 mg/kg of 2-MBI. In the teratology study, pregnant rats were treated with 2-MBI at doses of 0, 3.3, 10, and 30 mg/kg during the period of organogenesis (Gestation Days 7-17). In addition, pregnant rats of three groups were also treated with 60 mg/kg of 2-MBI for 3 or 4 days during specific periods of organogenesis (Days 7-10, 11-14, or 15-17 of gestation). Treatment on Gestation Days 7-17 resulted in reduced maternal thymus weights at doses of > or = 3.3 mg/kg. In addition to reduced fetal weights, visceral variations (kinked ureter and dilated renal pelvis) and delayed ossification were seen in the fetuses at doses > or = 10 mg/kg, and skeletal variations (rudimentary lumbar ribs) were seen at 30 mg/kg. In the fetuses from the dams treated with 60 mg/kg of 2-MBI, rudimentary lumbar ribs were seen mainly in the group treated on Days 7-10 of gestation, whereas kinked ureter and dilated renal pelvis were evident mainly in the group treated on Gestation Days 15-17.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665005

  2. The feasibility of ureteral tissue engineering using autologous veins: an orthotopic animal model with long term results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an earlier study we demonstrated the feasibility to create tissue engineered venous scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. In this study we investigated the use of tissue engineered constructs for ureteral replacement in a long term orthotopic minipig model. In many different projects well functional ureretal tissue was established using tissue engineering in animals with short-time follow up (12 weeks). Therefore urothelial cells were harvested from the bladder, cultured, expanded in vitro, labelled with fluorescence and seeded onto the autologous veins, which were harvested from animals during a second surgery. Three days after cell seeding the right ureter was replaced with the cell-seeded matrices in six animals, while further 6 animals received an unseeded vein for ureteral replacement. The animals were sacrificed 12, 24, and 48 weeks after implantation. Gross examination, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), H&E staining, Trichrome Masson’s Staining, and immunohistochemistry with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, smooth muscle alpha actin, and von Willebrand factor were performed in retrieved specimens. Results The IVP and gross examination demonstrated that no animals with tissue engineered ureters and all animals of the control group presented with hydronephrosis after 12 weeks. In the 24-week group, one tissue engineered and one unseeded vein revealed hydronephrosis. After 48 weeks all tissue engineered animals and none of the control group showed hydronephrosis on the treated side. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed a multilayer of urothelial cells attached to the seeded venous grafts. Conclusions Venous grafts may be a potential source for ureteral reconstruction. The results of so far published ureteral tissue engineering projects reveal data up to 12 weeks after implantation. Even if the animal numbers of this study are small, there is an increasing rate of hydronephrosis revealing failure of ureteral tissue engineering with autologous matrices in time points longer than 3 months after implantation. Further investigations have to prove adequate clinical outcome and appropriate functional long-term results. PMID:25381044

  3. Shock-wave lithotripsy in the elderly: Safety, efficacy and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Philippou, Prodromos; Lamrani, D.; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Wazait, Hassan; Masood, Junaid; Buchholz, Noor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) for elderly patients can be challenging. Patients often have a long-standing complex stone burden and significant comorbidities. We report a cohort of patients aged ?70 years who were treated by SWL, with special attention to treatment outcomes, complications and the need for adjuvant procedures. Patients and methods Over a period of 4 years, 2311 patients were treated with SWL in a tertiary referral centre. Among these patients, 137 were aged ?70 years (5.9%). Patient and stone data were obtained from an electronic database and the patients’ electronic medical records were reviewed. Results During the pre-procedural assessment, 29 patients (21.2%) were considered to be at high anaesthetic risk, due their comorbidities (American Society of Anesthesiology score 3+). In terms of stone burden, 16 stones (11.7%) were located in the distal ureter (mean stone diameter 7.9 mm) and 28 (20.4%) were in the proximal ureter (mean diameter 10.1 mm). In the kidney, 54 stones (39.4%) were in the renal pelvis, upper or mid calyx (mean diameter 10.6 mm), while 39 stones (28.5%) were in the lower calyx (mean diameter 10.1 mm). The median (range) number of SWL sessions per patient was 2.0 (1–3). The overall stone-free rate achieved by SWL alone was 63.5% (65.9% for ureteric stones and 62.4% for renal stones). In total, 38 patients (27.7%) had an adjuvant procedure to achieve stone clearance (ureteroscopy in 23, PCNL in 14 and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in one case). Apart from six cases (4.3%) of ureteric obstruction due to steinstrasse, there were no severe complications noted. Conclusions The management of elderly patients presenting with urolithiasis is challenging, due to the presence of significant comorbidities. Careful assessment of an integrated management plan for geriatric patients with urolithiasis is essential, and SWL still remains a safe and efficient first-line tool in well-selected cases.

  4. En route Spacing Tool: Efficient Conflict-free Spacing to Flow-Restricted Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Air Traffic Management (ATM) problem within the U.S. of flow-restricted en route airspace, an assessment of its impact on airspace users, and a set of near-term tools and procedures to resolve the problem. The FAA is committed, over the next few years, to deploy the first generation of modem ATM decision support tool (DST) technology under the Free-Flight Phase-1 (FFp1) program. The associated en route tools include the User Request Evaluation Tool (URET) and the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). URET is an initial conflict probe (ICP) capability that assists controllers with the detection and resolution of conflicts in en route airspace. TMA orchestrates arrivals transitioning into high-density terminal airspace by providing controllers with scheduled times of arrival (STA) and delay feedback advisories to assist with STA conformance. However, these FFPl capabilities do not mitigate the en route Miles-In-Trail (MIT) restrictions that are dynamically applied to mitigate airspace congestion. National statistics indicate that en route facilities (Centers) apply Miles-In-Trail (MIT) restrictions for approximately 5000 hours per month. Based on results from this study, an estimated 45,000 flights are impacted by these restrictions each month. Current-day practices for implementing these restrictions result in additional controller workload and an economic impact of which the fuel penalty alone may approach several hundred dollars per flight. To mitigate much of the impact of these restrictions on users and controller workload, a DST and procedures are presented. The DST is based on a simple derivative of FFP1 technology that is designed to introduce a set of simple tools for flow-rate (spacing) conformance and integrate them with conflict-probe capabilities. The tool and associated algorithms are described based on a concept prototype implemented within the CTAS baseline in 1995. A traffic scenario is used to illustrate the controller's use of the tool, and potential display options are presented for future controller evaluation.

  5. Second cancer following lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers in Connecticut, 1935-82.

    PubMed

    Greene, M H; Wilson, J

    1985-12-01

    The risk of developing a second primary cancer was evaluated in approximately 19,000 persons with initial cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system in Connecticut between 1935 and 1982. Significant excesses for all second cancers were observed among patients with leukemia (34%), Hodgkin's disease (70%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (25%), and multiple myeloma (24%). In general, the risk of second cancers was greater in males than in females, even for cohorts not showing an excess of surveillance-related prostate cancer. Among patients with leukemia, significant excesses of cancers of the lung, kidney/ureter, and prostate were noted; cutaneous melanoma was elevated only in males. These excesses did not persist in the small number of long-term survivors. Possible etiologic factors included tobacco smoking for lung and kidney cancers, medical surveillance artifact for prostate cancer, and immunosuppression for malignant melanoma and lung cancer. The large number and good prognoses of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia strongly influenced the pattern of second cancers when all leukemias were analyzed together; no evidence was found for an increased risk of second cancer in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. A disproportionate number of subsequent cancers, particularly those of the kidney and ureter, were diagnosed incidentally at autopsy. Patients with Hodgkin's disease displayed significant excesses of cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, lung, female breast, and thyroid. The latter 3 sites remained significantly elevated in long-term survivors (10 yr or more postdiagnosis), so that radiation therapy may have contributed to their development. Among persons with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancers of the stomach, lung, brain, and connective tissue occurred excessively. The first 3 sites, plus cancers of the urinary bladder, remained elevated among long-term survivors. The brain cancer excess, not previously reported, may represent misclassification of central nervous system lymphoma. The risk of gastric cancer is reminiscent of similar findings in patients with both acquired and genetically determined immunodeficiency disorders. The alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, used extensively in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is known to cause bladder cancer in man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4088298

  6. The case study in the applicability of the improvements in the treatment of urinary system stone diseases in Anatolia: the last ten years with the sample of Western Black Sea region

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; ?rk?lata, Lokman; Ekmekçio?lu, Ozan; Canat, Halil Lütfi; Dilmen, Cem; Özkaya, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of stone diseases is high in Turkey. Thanks to the technological improvements and to the increase in the number of qualified and experienced specialists in the last thirty years, there has been an increase in the application of minimally invasive methods in the stone disease surgery. This study, with a sample survey of Western Black Sea region, aims at revealing the changes and improvements in the treatment of stone diseases in different centers in Anatolia within the last ten years. Material and methods Six centers in 4 of the provinces of the Western Black Sea Region were selected and the patients’ files were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment methods that were recommended for and/or applied to the patients diagnosed with urinary stone diseases were recorded by years. The urinary stone diseases were divided into three separate groups; kidney, ureters and bladder. Treatment options were recorded into categories as open surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, retrograde intrarenal surgery, semirigid ureterorenoscopy, flexible ureterorenoscopy, and ESWL. Results A total of 26044 patients with stone diseases have been treated in the above-mentioned centers for the last 10 years. The distributions of the stone diseases in relation to their localization were as follows: - kidney stones: 9040 (34.7%), ureter stones: 15264 (58.6%), and bladder stones: 1740 (6.7%). As for the distribution of the treatment in relation to the treatment methods, it was seen that open surgery for 1032 (4%) patients, endoscopic surgery for 15038 (58%) patients, and ESWL for 9974 (38%) patients had been applied. While URS and PCNL are currently the commonly used treatment methods in the Western Black Sea Region, RIRS has begun to be used in a limited number of patients for the last 3 years. Conclusion Though being a little late, the advances in endrourology offer practical applications in the Western Black Sea region as well. Although this study suggests implications for the evaluating of the periphery outcomes of the improvements in stone disease treatments, for the planning of training schemes, and for equipment planning, further research based on more data from more centers is needed to have a nation-wide perspective. PMID:26516597

  7. Effect of Schistosoma haematobium and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine on the development of urothelial neoplasia in the baboon

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, R. M.; James, C.; Webbe, G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether bladder cancer would develop in primates (Papio sp.) infected with S. haematobium and concurrently exposed to low initiating doses of the bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). To control for the systemic effects of schistosomiasis, 5 baboons were infected with S. mansoni, which does not lay its eggs in the bladder wall; to control for the effect of the carcinogen alone, 5 others were treated with BBN alone at the rate of 5 or 50 mg/kg per week for the duration of the experiment. Five animals were infected with S. haematobium and had no further treatment, and the main experimental group of 10 baboons was infected with S. haematobium and also treated weekly with 5 mg/kg BBN for up to 2˝ years. Four of the 10 animals in the last group, but none in the three control groups developed neoplastic disease of the urothelium. Four animals with S. haematobium plus BBN treatment developed in situ carcinoma in the bladder (3 latent adenomatous lesions and 1 more advanced papillary tumour) and 2 of these animals plus 1 other had slightly dysplastic urothelial endophytic papillary growths of the ureter which penetrated the muscle layer. By contrast, none of the control animals developed urothelial carcinomas, though 4/5 of those with S. haematobium infection alone had inflamed bladders with polypoid lesions, and one individual had endophytic papillary hyperplasia of the ureter. The animals were killed after 2˝ years while still relatively immature or adolescent, and it is possible that had they been allowed to survive longer some of the BBN-only group would have developed bladder cancer, and more of the latent lesions seen in the BBN + schistosomiasis group would have progressed to invasive carcinoma. It is postulated that, in this model for human bilharzial bladder cancer, schistosomiasis supplies the proliferative stimulus necessary to accelerate cancer growth from latent tumour foci produced by exposure to low doses of the bladder carcinogen. In areas of endemic schistosomiasis, carcinogenesis might be initiated, for example, by low doses of nitrosamines produced in the urinary tract during bouts of bacteriuria. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32 PMID:7459210

  8. Overexpression of Robo2 causes defects in the recruitment of metanephric mesenchymal cells and ureteric bud branching morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jiayao; Medical College of NanKai University, Tianjin ; Li, Qinggang; Xie, Yuansheng; Zhang, Xueguang; Cui, Shaoyuan; Shi, Suozhu; Chen, Xiangmei; Medical College of NanKai University, Tianjin

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Robo2 caused reduced UB branching and glomerular number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fewer MM cells surrounding the UB after overexpression of Robo2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No abnormal Epithelial Morphology of UB or apoptosis of mm cells in the kidney. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Robo2 affected MM cells migration and caused UB deficit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced glomerular number can also be caused by fewer MM cells. -- Abstract: Roundabout 2 (Robo2) is a member of the membrane protein receptor family. The chemorepulsive effect of Slit2-Robo2 signaling plays vital roles in nervous system development and neuron migration. Slit2-Robo2 signaling is also important for maintaining the normal morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary collecting system, especially for the branching of the ureteric bud (UB) at the proper site. Slit2 or Robo2 mouse mutants exhibit multilobular kidneys, multiple ureters, and dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and collecting duct system, which lead to vesicoureteral reflux. To understand the effect of Robo2 on kidney development, we used microinjection and electroporation to overexpress GFP-Robo2 in an in vitro embryonic kidney model. Our results show reduced UB branching and decreased glomerular number after in vitro Robo2 overexpression in the embryonic kidneys. We found fewer metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells surrounding the UB but no abnormal morphology in the branching epithelial UB. Meanwhile, no significant change in MM proliferation or apoptosis was observed. These findings indicate that Robo2 is involved in the development of embryonic kidneys and that the normal expression of Robo2 can help maintain proper UB branching and glomerular morphogenesis. Overexpression of Robo2 leads to reduced UB branching caused by fewer surrounding MM cells, but MM cell apoptosis is not involved in this effect. Our study demonstrates that overexpression of Robo2 by microinjection in embryonic kidneys is an effective approach to study the function of Robo2.

  9. Effect of Flos carthami Extract and ?1-Adrenergic Antagonists on the Porcine Proximal Ureteral Peristalsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Yuan; Man, Kee-Ming; Shen, Jui-Lung; Chen, Huey-Yi; Chang, Chiao-Hui; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Winardi, Daniel; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Tsai, Kao-Sung; Lin, Yu-Ning; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been proposed to prevent urolithiasis. In China, Flos carthami (FC, also known as Carthamus tinctorius) (Safflower; Chinese name: Hong Hua/??) has been used to treat urological diseases for centuries. We previously performed a screening and confirmed the in vivo antilithic effect of FC extract. Here, ex vivo organ bath experiment was further performed to study the effect of FC extract on the inhibition of phenylepinephrine (PE) (10?4 and 10?3?M) ureteral peristalsis of porcine ureters with several ?1-adrenergic antagonists (doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin) as experimental controls. The results showed that doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin dose (approximately 4.5 × 10?6 ? 4.5 × 10?1??g/mL) dependently inhibited both 10?4 and 10?3?M PE-induced ureteral peristalsis. FC extract achieved 6.2% ± 10.1%, 21.8% ± 6.8%, and 24.0% ± 5.6% inhibitions of 10?4?M PE-induced peristalsis at doses of 5 × 103, 1 × 104, and 2 × 104??g/mL, respectively, since FC extract was unable to completely inhibit PE-induced ureteral peristalsis, suggesting the antilithic effect of FC extract is related to mechanisms other than modulation of ureteral peristalsis. PMID:25170340

  10. Effect of Flos carthami Extract and ? 1-Adrenergic Antagonists on the Porcine Proximal Ureteral Peristalsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Yuan; Man, Kee-Ming; Shen, Jui-Lung; Chen, Huey-Yi; Chang, Chiao-Hui; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Winardi, Daniel; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Tsai, Kao-Sung; Lin, Yu-Ning; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been proposed to prevent urolithiasis. In China, Flos carthami (FC, also known as Carthamus tinctorius) (Safflower; Chinese name: Hong Hua/) has been used to treat urological diseases for centuries. We previously performed a screening and confirmed the in vivo antilithic effect of FC extract. Here, ex vivo organ bath experiment was further performed to study the effect of FC extract on the inhibition of phenylepinephrine (PE) (10(-4) and 10(-3)?M) ureteral peristalsis of porcine ureters with several ? 1-adrenergic antagonists (doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin) as experimental controls. The results showed that doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin dose (approximately 4.5 × 10(-6) - 4.5 × 10(-1)??g/mL) dependently inhibited both 10(-4) and 10(-3)?M PE-induced ureteral peristalsis. FC extract achieved 6.2% ± 10.1%, 21.8% ± 6.8%, and 24.0% ± 5.6% inhibitions of 10(-4)?M PE-induced peristalsis at doses of 5 × 10(3), 1 × 10(4), and 2 × 10(4)??g/mL, respectively, since FC extract was unable to completely inhibit PE-induced ureteral peristalsis, suggesting the antilithic effect of FC extract is related to mechanisms other than modulation of ureteral peristalsis. PMID:25170340

  11. Methodological Standardization for the Preclinical Evaluation of Renal Sympathetic Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Edelman, Elazer R.; Markham, Peter; Stanley, James R.L.; Keating, John; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu; Joner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter ablation of renal autonomic nerves is a viable option for the treatment of resistent arterial hypertension; however, structured preclinical evaluation with standardization of analytical procedures remains a clear gap in this field. Here we discuss the topics relevant to the preclinical model for the evaluation of renal denervation (RDN) devices and report methodologies and criteria towards standardization of the safety and efficacy assessment, including histopathological evaluations of the renal artery, peri-arterial nerves, and associated peri-adventitial tissues. The preclinical swine renal artery model can be used effectively to assess both the safety and efficacy of RDN technologies. Assessment of the efficacy of RDN modalities primarily focuses on the determination of the depth of penetration of treatment-related injury (eg, necrosis) of the peri-arterial tissues and its relationship (ie, location and distance) and affect on the associated renal nerves and the correlation thereof with proxy biomarkers including renal norepinephrine concentrations and nerve-specific immunohistochemical stains (eg, tyrosine hydroxylase). The safety evaluation of RDN technologies involves assessing for adverse effects on tissues local to the site of treatment (ie, on the arterial wall) as well as tissues at a distance (eg, soft tissue, veins, arterial branches, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland, ureters). Increasing experience will help to create a standardized means of examining all arterial beds subject to ablative energy and in doing so enable us to proceed to optimize development and assessment of these emerging technologies. PMID:25240550

  12. Acoustical And Optical Feedback Guidance For Pulsed Laser Lithotripsy And Angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, David I.; Bhatta, Krishna M.; Dretler, Stephen P.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using acoustic and plasma optical feedback emissions for guidance during pulsed laser lithotripsy and angioplasty procedures was studied in-vitro. A flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser operating at a wavelength of 504 nm (coumarin green) was used as the laser source. Acoustic signals were recorded with a hydrophone which has a useful frequency response of up to 350 KHz. Plasma optical emissions were transmitted retrograde along the laser fiber and reflected through a beam splitter to an optical detection system consisting of a series of spectral filters (to transmit plasma radiation from 380 to 440 nm and block any 504 nm laser light) and a photomultiplier tube. Measurements of the laser-induced acoustic and the plasma optical emission signals were obtained from urinary and biliary calculi, ex-vivo bovine ureters, blood, blood clots, bile, atheromatous plaque and normal arterial wall. Results of monitoring show that it is possible to know without direct vision whether the laser energy is being discharged in the lumen, on healthy soft tissue, or on calculus or atheromatous plaque. Blood, blood clots, bile produced strong acoustic signals but no plasma signals; calculi and plaque produced strong plasma and strong acoustic signals. Neither plasma nor significant acoustic signals were produced by normal ureteral or arterial wall. These distinctions may allow clinical laser fragmentation of calculi or ablation of plaque to be performed with fewer complications.

  13. Diagnostic value of combined static-excretory MR Urography in children with hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Emad-Eldin, Sally; Abdelaziz, Omar; El-Diasty, Tarek A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, accuracy and diagnostic potential of combined static-excretory MR Urography in children with sonographically detected hydronephrosis. We prospectively evaluated 28 children (11 girls and 17 boys), mean age 8.3 years (range 2 months-16 years). Static-excretory MR Urography was performed in all cases. The results of MR Urography were compared with the results of other imaging modalities, cystoscopy and surgery. In 28 children, 61 renal units were evaluated by MR Urography (the renal unit is the kidney and its draining ureter). The final diagnoses included: normal renal units (n = 23); uretropelvic junction obstruction (n = 14); megaureter (n = 8); midureteric stricture (n = 1), complicated duplicated systems (n = 5), post ESWL non-obstructive dilation (n = 2), extrarenal pelvis (n = 4), dysplastic kidney (n = 4). Complex pathology and more than one disease entity in were found in 7 children. The MRI diagnosis correlated with the final diagnosis in 57 units, with diagnostic accuracy 93.4%. In conclusions static and excretory MRU give both morphological and functional information in a single examination without exposure to ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast agent. It is a valuable imaging technique for children with upper urinary tract dilatation; especially in cases of complex congenital pathologies and severely hydronephrotic kidney. PMID:25750748

  14. [Occupational uroepithelial cancer: current status in Wakayama city and clinical study].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Uekado, Y; Aoshi, H; Hirano, A; Shinka, T; Ohkawa, T; Fujinaga, T; Nakamura, J

    1989-12-01

    According to the records of Wakayama Labor Standard Office, at least 1,085 workers had been exposed to benzidine or beta-naphthylamine in the dyestuff factories in Wakayama City. By October 1988, 101 of them (9.3%) were confirmed to have urinary tract tumors. Including 2 other cases exposed in Osaka, a total of 103 cases of occupational uroepithelial cancer were studied here clinically. Site of tumors was bladder in 91 cases, renal pelvis in 2, ureter in 5 and papillomatosis type in 5. The age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 25 to 87 years with a mean of 53.8 years. The average latent period was 22.7 years, but the older the age of the worker at the start of exposure, the shorter was the latent period. In Wakayama, the proper system of healthy examination for chemical workers using urinary cytology was begun in 1970. Since then, more tumor cases have been discovered in comparison to the patients admitted with subjective symptoms of hematuria. The effectiveness of this group examination was significant in the incidence of total cystectomy in surgical treatment and in survival rate. In the comparative study between the groups of patients with occupational and spontaneous bladder cancer, the average age at diagnosis in the former was about ten years younger. Although the histological grade of tumor was not different between the two groups, the incidence of total cystectomy was lower and the survival rate was significantly higher in the occupational group. PMID:2618900

  15. How can we predict ureteral obstruction after gynecological surgery? The changes in Doppler resistive index and plasma creatinine and magnesium concentrations after surgical, unilateral ureteral obstruction in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Terek, M C; Tamsel, S; Aygul, S; Akman, L; Irer, S V; Itil, I M; Alper, G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in Doppler resistive index (RI) and plasma creatinine and magnesium concentrations after unilateral ureteral obstruction in a rabbit model. Fourteen adult female rabbits were used in this study. In seven rabbits, the left ureter was ligated with silk suture, and the control group was sham operated. Before surgery and on the second and seventh days after surgery, blood samples were obtained to measure plasma creatinine and magnesium concentrations. Doppler RIs of both kidneys were also measured before surgery and on the second and seventh days after the surgical procedure. With regard to magnesium levels, there was a significant within-subjects sessions difference [F(2, 20) = 15.21, P= 0.001] indicating a decrease through sessions. Magnesium concentrations decreased significantly at the postoperative second and seventh days compared to preoperative baseline levels (P= 0.003 and P= 0.001, respectively). Multifactorial analysis of variance was applied for each session separately with laterality, and groups as factors. The Doppler RI and the creatinine level did not show any significant differences or interactions for all sessions (P > 0.05). The decreasing plasma magnesium concentration after surgery may indicate ureteral injury; however, Doppler studies and creatinine levels may not be useful as well. PMID:16445661

  16. Vesicoureteral reflux in young children: a study of radiometric thermometry as detection modality using an ex vivo porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Řystein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-09-01

    Microwave radiometry is evaluated for renal thermometry tailored to detect the pediatric condition of vesicoureteral urine reflux (VUR) from the bladder through the ureter into the kidney. Prior to a potential reflux event, the urine is heated within the bladder by an external body contacting a hyperthermia applicator to generate a fluidic contrast temperature relative to normal body temperature. A single band, miniaturized radiometer (operating at 3.5 GHz) is connected to an electromagnetic-interference-shielded and suction-coupled elliptical antenna to receive thermal radiation from an ex vivo porcine phantom model. Brightness (radiometric) and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying urine phantom reflux volumes (20-40 mL) and contrast temperatures ranging from 2 to 10 °C within the kidney phantom. The kidney phantom itself is located at 40 mm depth (skin-to-kidney center distance) and surrounded by the porcine phantom. Radiometric step responses to injection of urine simulant by a syringe are shown to be highly correlated with in situ kidney temperatures measured by fiberoptic probes. Statistically, the performance of the VUR detecting scheme is evaluated by error probabilities of making a wrong decision. Laboratory testing of the radiometric system supports the feasibility of passive non-invasive kidney thermometry for the detection of VUR classified within the two highest grades

  17. Expression of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) in mouse urine.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Z Y; Kim, M O; Kim, K E; Bahk, Y Y; Lee, J W; Park, S H; Kim, J H; Byun, S J; Hwang, H Y; Youn, J; Kim, T Y

    2001-06-01

    We have generated transgenic mice expressing human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) in urine. In particular, the expression plasmid DNA containing mouse uroplakin II promoter was used to direct uroepithelium-specific transcription of transgene. In this study, hGM-CSF transcript was detected only in bladder uroepithelium as determined by northern blot analysis. Furthermore, hGM-CSF protein was detected in the suprabasal layer of the uroepithelium and ureter by immunohistochemistry. The hGM-CSF was secreted into urine at high level (up to 180 ng/ml), and enhanced proliferation of hGM-CSF-dependent human acute monocyte leukemic cells, suggesting that transgenic urine-derived hGM-CSF was bioactive. This is the first case of demonstrating biological activity of a cytokine produced in the urine of a transgenic animal. Our results demonstrate that bladder can be used as a bioreactor to produce biologically important substances. In addition, it suggests a potential application of bladder expression system to livestock for high-yield production of pharmaceuticals. PMID:11437276

  18. Case Report of Multimodality Imaging in Omental Cake: Plain Radiograph, Computed Tomography, and Ultrasonography: A Care-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Cheung, Yun-Chung; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Ng, Shu-Hang; Huang, Jen-Seng; Chang, Liang-Che; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2015-11-01

    The imaging finding of omental cake has been demonstrated in other modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. However, to the best of our knowledge, the image presentation of omental cake on a routine kidney-ureter-bladder film has not been reported before in the literature.We presented a unique case of a 61-year-old woman, with known advanced cecal colon mucinous adenocarcinoma, presented to our institution with abdominal fullness, poor appetite, and decreased stool passage for 20 days. Physical examination was unremarkable, except distended abdomen. Subsequent study revealed massive post-pigtail catheter drainage ascites with a prominent soft-tissue mass-causing centralization and tethering of focally distended small bowel gas, suggestive of omental cake on plain radiograph. The imaging finding in plain radiograph corresponds to the findings in other imaging modalities, including abdominal sonography and computed tomography. The patient underwent subtotal colectomy and ileostomy during later courses of chemotherapy due to adhesion ileus and possible intraabdominal abscess, and pathologic study confirmed the diagnosis of cecal mucinous adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis.Although the image finding of omental cake on plain radiograph has never been described, this image finding is unique and should be recognized, as it may suggest the presence of omental cake when first identified in the emergency department from patients with abdominal distension and warrant further evaluation to evaluate the underlying cause. PMID:26559303

  19. Genitourinary health in a population-based cohort of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Romitti, Paul A.; Conway, Kristin M. Caspers; Kim, Sunkyung; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Michele; Mathews, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Genitourinary (GU) health among patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DBMD) has not been explored using population-based data. Methods Medical records of 918 males ascertained by the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network were reviewed for documentation of GU-related hospitalizations and prescribed medications. Percentages of males who received these medical interventions were calculated, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for associations with sociodemographics (study site, race/ethnicity), symptoms (early-versus late-onset, ambulation status, scoliosis), and treatments (respiratory support, steroids). Results Among the 918 males, 81 (9%) had a GU condition; voiding dysfunction (n=40), GU tract infection (n=19), and kidney/ureter calculus (n=9) were most common. A Kaplan-Meier curve produced a cumulative probability of 27%. Cox regression showed GU conditions were more common when males were non-ambulatory (HR=2.7, 95% CI=1.3-5.6). Discussion These findings highlight increased awareness of GU health and multidisciplinary care of DBMD patients. PMID:25297835

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water, Transition Cell Cancer and Chronic Cystitis in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Mohammad Golam; Cherry, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC) of the ureter, bladder or urethra in these villagers. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has conclude that arsenic in drinking water causes bladder cancer, we expected to find higher risk with increasing arsenic concentration. We used histology/cytology results from biopsies carried out at a single clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to October 2011. We classified these into four groups, TCC (n = 1466), other malignancies (n = 145), chronic cystitis (CC) (n = 844) and other benign (n = 194). Arsenic concentration was estimated from British Geological Survey reports. Odds ratios were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounding and allowing for geographic clustering. We found no consistent trend for TCC with increasing arsenic concentration but the likelihood of a patient with benign disease having CC was significantly increased at arsenic concentrations >100 µg/L. We conclude that the expected relationship of TCC to arsenic was masked by over-matching that resulted from the previously unreported relationship between arsenic and CC. We hypothesize that CC may be a precursor of TCC in high arsenic areas. PMID:26516891

  1. A guidewire introducer as a ureteral foreign body: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Tarik Emre; Cloutier, Jonathan; Audouin, Marie; Villa, Luca; Traxer, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old male, previously treated for a ureteral tumour by a right-sided segmental ureterectomy and end-to-end anastomosis of ureteral segments, was referred to our clinic for endoscopic follow-up. During his follow-up, he was diagnosed with partial right-sided ureteral stricture which eventually progressed to complete obstruction. During the ureteroscopy, as the stenotic segment did not allow passage of an hydrophilic guidewire, an antegrade-retrograde approach was decided. On the antegrade endoscopic view, a near-complete stenosis was diagnosed and a nephrostomy catheter (12 Fr) was placed. A second intervention was planned and from the nephrostomy tract, the ureteroscope was placed into the right pyelocaliceal system. The diagnostic ureteroscopy revealed a foreign object proximal to the stenotic area. Right-sided segmental ureterectomy of the stenotic segment with ureteroneocystostomy and removal of the foreign object was performed. This is the only case in literature to reveal a guidewire introducer as a ureteral foreign body. This case also highlights the importance of the fragility of the ureter, the importance of the equipment, of always being watchful during a surgery, and the importance of checking the integrity of the equipment at the end of each procedure. PMID:26225183

  2. Calculus-related ureteral intussusception: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, James; Blecher, Gideon; Tsai, Ken; Bishop, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ureteral intussusception is a rarely reported condition, primarily as a complication of ureteric tumours. Fewer than 30 case reports have been made. This case represents the first reported case, to our knowledge, of ureteral intussusception caused by a ureteric calculus. Presentation of case We present the case of a 70 year old man with a history of conservatively managed renal calculi, in whom obstructive ureterolithiasis was incidentally detected. Retrograde pyelography and ureteroscopy revealed intussusception of the ureter around a calculus. Extensive biopsies revealed no evidence of tumour, and the intussusception resolved following stone clearance. Discussion Literature review of previously reported cases of ureteral intussusception revealed 26 cases, of which 22 were secondary to tumour and 4 were secondary to surgical procedures. We propose a mechanism by which calculus-related ureteral intussusception may occur, and suggest treatment for this condition. Conclusion Calculus-related ureteral intussusception is a rare condition, of which this represents the only case report. Management of the condition should involve excluding the presence of tumour, and then clearing the stone, avoiding the use of a basket for retrieval of fragments. PMID:26011803

  3. Multichannel impedance monitoring for evaluation of alpha-adrenoblocker effect on the ureteral function in patients with stone disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolikhin, O. I.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Mudraya, I. S.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Serdyuk, A. A.

    2010-04-01

    The study of distal ureter function was carried out on patients with stones in the upper urinary tract, who underwent ureteroscopy and lithotripsy procedures. The parameters of ureteral peristalsis such as peristalsis amplitude, peristalsis rate, ureteral wall tone, contractile wave duration, and its direction obtained by multichannel impedance ureterography were assessed and compared from two groups of patients. The group I patients received tamsulosin in addition to standard regimen, while the group II patients matched according to the stone size and location were managed without tamsulosin medical therapy. In comparison with group II, the group I patients demonstrated smaller average peristalsis amplitude (0.60±0.08 vs 0.81±0.06 Ohm), shorter contractions (7.1±0.3 vs 7.7±0.3 s), greater peristalsis rate (3.3±0.3 vs 2.8±0.2 per minute), and diminished ureteral tone (4.0±0.5 vs 4.7±0.2 Ohm-1). Incidence of the retrograde contractile waves was two-fold greater in the group II, while normal antegrade regular contractions were 30% more frequent in the group I. In addition, our results showed that the effect of tamsulosin on ureteral function was manifested in the patients with different stone size and location in the upper urinary tract, and it depended pronouncedly on individual ureteral tone and contractility parameters.

  4. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) without ureteral access sheath (UAS)

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Uemura, Hiroji; Yao, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We previously described ureteroscopy assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN). In UARN, it is possible to continuously visualize the dilation of the ureter from puncture to insertion of the nephroaccess sheath with minimal complication. But in the course of making nephrostomy, UARN requires ureteral access sheath (UAS). UAS has a potential risk of ureteral stricture. Herein, we report the first case of UARN without the use of UAS. Presentation of case A 53-year-old female was referred to our hospital for treatment of her right renal stone. Because her stone burden was 27 mm, we planned to perform percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using UARN without UAS. Discussion UAS facilitates a decrease in the intrarenal pressure due to irrigation, and it makes controlling the URS easier. However, in terms of the risk of ureteral stricture, unnecessary insertion of a UAS should be avoided. Conclusion We describe the first case of a renal stone successfully treated by PCNL using the UARN method without the use of a UAS. PMID:25813125

  5. MR imaging of renal masses: correlation with findings at surgery and pathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ivan; Sun, Maryellen R; Spencer, Matthew; Genega, Elizabeth M; Olumi, Aria F; Dewolf, William C; Rofsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful in the characterization of renal masses. The MR imaging manifestations and pathologic diagnoses of 82 renal masses were reviewed and correlated. The MR imaging appearance of clear cell type renal cell carcinoma varies depending on the presence of cystic components, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Papillary renal cell carcinomas appear as well-encapsulated masses with homogeneous low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and homogeneous low-level enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast material, or as cystic hemorrhagic masses with peripheral enhancing papillary projections. Transitional cell carcinoma may be seen as an irregular, enhancing filling defect in the pelvicaliceal system or ureter. Lymphomatous masses are usually hypointense relative to the renal cortex on T2-weighted images and enhance minimally on delayed gadolinium-enhanced images. Bulk fat is a distinguishing feature of angiomyolipoma. Oncocytoma has a variable and nonspecific appearance at MR imaging. MR imaging findings may allow the characterization of various renal masses and can provide valuable information for their clinical management. PMID:18635625

  6. Regeneration and Experimental Orthotopic Transplantation of a Bioengineered Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeremy J; Guyette, Jacques; Gilpin, Sarah; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Vacanti, Joseph P; Ott, Harald C

    2013-01-01

    Over 100,000 individuals in the United States currently await kidney transplantation, while 400,000 individuals live with end-stage kidney disease requiring hemodialysis. The creation of a transplantable graft to permanently replace kidney function would address donor organ shortage and the morbidity associated with immunosuppression. Such a bioengineered graft must have the kidney’s architecture and function, and permit perfusion, filtration, secretion, absorption, and drainage of urine. We decellularized rat, porcine, and human kidneys by detergent perfusion, yielding acellular scaffolds with vascular, cortical and medullary architecture, collecting system and ureters. To regenerate functional tissue, we seeded rat kidney scaffolds with epithelial and endothelial cells, then perfused these cell-seeded constructs in a whole organ bioreactor. The resulting grafts produced rudimentary urine in vitro when perfused via their intrinsic vascular bed. When transplanted in orthotopic position in rat, the grafts were perfused by the recipient’s circulation, and produced urine via the ureteral conduit in vivo. PMID:23584091

  7. Long-term follow-up of children with vesicoureteral reflux with and without antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Georgaki-Angelaki, H; Kostaridou, S; Daikos, G L; Kapoyiannis, A; Veletzas, Z; Michos, A G; Syriopoulou, V P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the outcome of children with persistent vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis. Children with VUR who had been on antibiotic prophylaxis for at least 2 y and were free of urinary tract infections (UTI), had normal voiding patterns, and no hydronephrosis or new kidney scarring, had antibiotic prophylaxis discontinued, were followed up prospectively with urine cultures, voiding cystourethrography, and technecium-99m dimercaptosuccinate renal scintigraphy. The findings were compared with those of the same patients while they were on antibiotic prophylaxis. In 54 children (39 girls and 15 boys), antibiotic prophylaxis was discontinued. The mean follow-up time on and off antibiotic prophylaxis was 4.4+/-2.1 and 4.4+/-2.2 y, respectively. Nine UTI episodes occurred during the on- and 8 during the off-prophylaxis period. In 80 of 96 and in 68 of 74 ureters the reflux resolved or downgraded during the on- and off-prophylaxis periods, respectively. No new scar lesions were detected in any of the children. In conclusion, in children with persistent VUR and certain characteristics, antibiotic prophylaxis can be safely discontinued. PMID:16308218

  8. Origin of Parietal Podocytes in Atubular Glomeruli Mapped by Lineage Tracing

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Kevin; Berger, Katja; Boor, Peter; Jirak, Peggy; Gelman, Irwin H.; Arkill, Kenton P.; Neal, Christopher R.; Kriz, Wilhelm; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Parietal podocytes are fully differentiated podocytes lining Bowman’s capsule where normally only parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are found. Parietal podocytes form throughout life and are regularly observed in human biopsies, particularly in atubular glomeruli of diseased kidneys; however, the origin of parietal podocytes is unresolved. To assess the capacity of PECs to transdifferentiate into parietal podocytes, we developed and characterized a novel method for creating atubular glomeruli by electrocoagulation of the renal cortex in mice. Electrocoagulation produced multiple atubular glomeruli containing PECs as well as parietal podocytes that projected from the vascular pole and lined Bowman’s capsule. Notably, induction of cell death was evident in some PECs. In contrast, Bowman’s capsules of control animals and normal glomeruli of electrocoagulated kidneys rarely contained podocytes. PECs and podocytes were traced by inducible and irreversible genetic tagging using triple transgenic mice (PEC- or Pod-rtTA/LC1/R26R). Examination of serial cryosections indicated that visceral podocytes migrated onto Bowman’s capsule via the vascular stalk; direct transdifferentiation from PECs to podocytes was not observed. Similar results were obtained in a unilateral ureter obstruction model and in human diseased kidney biopsies, in which overlap of PEC- or podocyte-specific antibody staining indicative of gradual differentiation did not occur. These results suggest that induction of atubular glomeruli leads to ablation of PECs and subsequent migration of visceral podocytes onto Bowman’s capsule, rather than transdifferentiation from PECs to parietal podocytes. PMID:24071005

  9. Adenocarcinoma at Anastomotic Site of Ureterosigmoidostomy Potentially of Urothelial Origin Spreading to the Upper Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Katsuhiro; Kume, Haruki; Morikawa, Teppei; Niimi, Aya; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Homma, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Ureterosigmoidostomy is associated with the risk of several late complications including cancer development at anastomotic sites. We present an unusual case with adenocarcinoma of the anastomotic site associated with multiple adenocarcinoma lesions in the upper urinary tract. A 69-year-old man complained of persistent melena and hematuria. He had undergone radical cystectomy for high-grade bladder cancer and ureterosigmoidostomy 30 years before. Colonoscopy showed a tumor at the right ureterocolonic anastomosis, which was endoscopically resected and histologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Seven years later, a tumor of the left ureterocolonic anastomosis associated with hydronephrosis was found. He underwent temporal percutaneous nephrostomy followed by sigmoidectomy and left ureterocutaneostomy. Eighteen months after the operation, computed tomography (CT) detected left renal pelvic tumor with a mass along the former nephrostomy tract. Left nephroureterectomy and resection of the nephrostomy tract tumor revealed adenocarcinoma with multiple lesions of adenocarcinoma in the ureter. These tumors showed atypical immunohistochemistry as a colonic adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7, negative for cytokeratin 20, and negative for ?-catenin nuclear accumulation. Anastomotic site adenocarcinoma of the present case is potentially of urothelial origin because of unusual clinical manifestation and immunohistochemistry as a colon cancer.

  10. Factors influencing the failure of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with Piezolith 3000 in the management of solitary ureteral stone.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insang; Jung, Seung-Il; Kim, Kwang Ho; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2014-06-01

    Studies of predictive factors of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) failure in patients with ureteral stones have not yielded results sufficient to prevent ESWL failure. The present study investigated patients with ureteral stone and analyzed the predictive factors of ESWL failure. Ninety patients with ureteral stone treated from January 2006 to June 2012 using ESWL for ureteral stone were enrolled. Patient's demographic data including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), symptoms and calculous characteristics including location, size, episode and the grade of hydronephrosis were recorded. Statistical results were performed using univariate and multivariate analyses for the predictive factors of ESWL failure. In univariate analysis, calculous location, size, and grade of hydronephrosis between two groups displayed significant differences (p < 0.05). The predictive factors of ESWL failure were BMI >25 kg/m(2) [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-11.0], calculous size ? 1 cm (OR = 10.5, 95% CI 3.0-36.2), calculous location (mid-ureter; OR = 8.49, 95% CI 1.5-45.7) and severe grade of hydronephrosis (OR = 12.3, 95% CI 1.9-79.5). In conclusions, ESWL failure can be predicted in cases of obesity, calculous size exceeding 1 cm, mid-ureteral stone and severe hydronephrosis. When we consider calculous management in patients with these risk factors, initial surgical approach is recommended instead of ESWL. PMID:24496560

  11. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPAR? + ? Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Southgate, Jennifer; Iversen, Lars; Egerod, Frederikke L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPAR? and ? (here termed PPAR?+? agonists) have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPAR? is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPAR? can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPAR? as well as PPAR?, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPAR?+? agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology). Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPAR?+? agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPAR? and ? in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPAR?+? agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds. PMID:19197366

  12. Optically triggered solid state driver for shock wave therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2012-10-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) represents one of several first-line therapies for the treatment of stones located in the kidneys and ureters. Additional applications for shock wave therapy are also under exploration, including non-urinary calculi, orthopedics, and neovascularization. Except for the elimination of a large water bath in which the treatment is performed, current procedures remain largely unchanged, with one of the original commercial devices (the Dornier HM3) still considered a gold standard for comparison. To accelerate research in this area, Coleman, et al. published an experimental electrohydraulic shock wave generator capable of simulating the acoustic field generated by the HM3. We propose a further update of this system, replacing the triggered spark gap with an optically triggered solid state switch. The new system has better reliability, a wider operating range, and reduced timing jitter allowing synchronization with additional acoustic sources under exploration for improving efficacy and reducing injury. Originally designed for exciting electrohydraulic spark electrodes, the system can also be adapted for driving piezoelectric and electromagnetic sources.

  13. [Joseph Dietl (1804-1878). Reformer of medicine and his contributions to urology].

    PubMed

    Zajaczkowski, T

    2006-01-01

    Two centuries have now passed since the birth of Joseph Dietl, whose uncommon ability, industry, inexhaustible energy, dogged perseverance, and courage contributed to the development of medical science in Europe. He also contributed to reform of the educational system, and to bringing order to the badly neglected city of Cracow. He belonged to the so-called New Vienna School of Medicine. Dietl, chief physician at the Wieden Hospital in Vienna since 1941, had voiced his disbelief in the existing therapy in such strong terms that it was recorded in the history of medicine as the program of therapeutic nihilism. Dietl demonstrated experimentally in Vienna and Cracow that bloodletting in pneumonia is not indicated, since it does not promote recovery and is indeed harmful, raising mortality rates three times compared to those patients who had received dietary treatment only. He eliminated bloodletting in pneumonia therapy. Dietl was the first to investigate and classify Galician and Silesian therapeutic springs as well as work out detailed prescriptions for spa treatments. He understood that treatment in a health resort could not be limited to balneotherapy, and he indicated that climatotherapy and physiotherapy should also play a role. Dietl described the crisis attributable to a kink in the renal vessels or ureter when the kidney dropped. It was also Dietl who gave a description of the floating kidney problem and of kidney partial incarceration, a condition still known as Dietl's crisis. He recommended conservative therapy for these cases. PMID:16307223

  14. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery: recent advances in urology.

    PubMed

    Autorino, Riccardo; Zargar, Homayoun; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize recent developments in the field of urologic robotic surgery. A nonsystematic literature review was performed to retrieve publications related to robotic surgery in urology and evidence-based critical analysis was conducted by focusing on the literature of the past 5 years. The use of the da Vinci Surgical System, a robotic surgical system, has been implemented for the entire spectrum of extirpative and reconstructive laparoscopic kidney procedures. The robotic approach can be applied for a range of adrenal indications as well as for ureteral diseases, including benign and malignant conditions affecting the proximal, mid, and distal ureter. Current evidence suggests that robotic prostatectomy is associated with less blood loss compared with the open surgery. Besides prostate cancer, robotics has been used for simple prostatectomy in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent studies suggest that minimally invasive radical cystectomy provides encouraging oncologic outcomes mirroring those reported for open surgery. In recent years, the evolution of robotic surgery has enabled urologic surgeons to perform urinary diversions intracorporeally. Robotic vasectomy reversal and several other robotic andrological applications are being explored. In summary, robotic-assisted surgery is an emerging and safe technology for most urologic operations. The acceptance of robotic prostatectomy during the past decade has paved the way for urologists to explore the entire spectrum of extirpative and reconstructive urologic procedures. Cost remains a significant issue that could be solved by wider dissemination of the technology. PMID:24993800

  15. Vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric age: where are we today?

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Gerocarni Nappo, Simona; Guidotti, Michele; Caione, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux and of reflux nephropathy is a well-established and shared procedure, its treatment nowadays is still very controversial. New developments on the knowledge of pathophysiology of renal damage associated to reflux opened the way towards a different diagnostic work-up and different therapeutic approaches. Recently, the "top-down" diagnostic approach has gained wider interest, versus the "down-top" protocol. The attention has recently focused on the renal parenchyma damage and less interest has been given to the presence and the radiological degree of vesicoureteral reflux. The review criteria were based on an in-depth search of references conducted on PubMed, using the terms "vesicoureteral reflux", "children", "incidence", "etiology", "diagnosis", "treatment" and "outcomes". The selection of the papers cited in this review was influenced by the content and the relevance to the points focused in the article.Conservative approaches include no treatment option with watchful waiting, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and bladder rehabilitation. The operative treatment consists of endoscopic, open, laparoscopic and robotic procedures to stop the refluxing ureter.No final consensus has been achieved in literature yet, and further studies are necessary in order to better define the subset of children at risk of developing progression of renal damage.This review aims to clarify the diagnostic management and the urological-nephrological treatment of reflux in pediatric age, on the basis of a review of the best-published evidence. PMID:25083520

  16. Use of a long-term metal stent in complex uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammed N.; Bach, Christian; Kachrilas, Stefanos; Zaman, Faruquz; Junaid, Islam; Buchholz, Noor; Masood, Junaid

    2011-01-01

    Uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture is a potentially serious late complication after ileal conduit formation, with a reported incidence of 3–9%. The standard management technique is open surgical revision of the anastomosis with reimplantation of the affected ureter. This is technically challenging and has potential significant morbidity for the patient. Advances in endourological techniques now offer a variety of less-invasive treatment options, like balloon dilatation or laser ureterotomy followed by stent insertion. What happens when such open and minimally invasive techniques fail? Recently, using a combined antegrade and retrograde approach, we inserted a novel, semi-permanent, dual-expansion thermo-expandable metallic alloy stent across a recurrent ileal-ureteric stricture. We describe the technique and potential advantages of this minimally invasive method. This minimally invasive treatment option is of interest, as in contrast to other stents, it does not require routine change, and is resistant to corrosion and urothelial ingrowth, hence ensuring ease of exchange or removal if required.

  17. Urothelial Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The urothelium, which lines the inner surface of the renal pelvis, the ureters, and the urinary bladder, not only forms a high-resistance barrier to ion, solute and water flux, and pathogens, but also functions as an integral part of a sensory web which receives, amplifies, and transmits information about its external milieu. Urothelial cells have the ability to sense changes in their extracellular environment, and respond to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing various factors such as ATP, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine. They express a variety of receptors and ion channels, including P2X3 purinergic receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and TRP channels, which all have been implicated in urothelial-neuronal interactions, and involved in signals that via components in the underlying lamina propria, such as interstitial cells, can be amplified and conveyed to nerves, detrusor muscle cells, and ultimately the central nervous system. The specialized anatomy of the urothelium and underlying structures, and the possible communication mechanisms from urothelial cells to various cell types within the bladder wall are described. Changes in the urothelium/lamina propria (“mucosa”) produced by different bladder disorders are discussed, as well as the mucosa as a target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23589830

  18. Small bowel obstruction secondary to strangulation through a defect in the falciform ligament after blunt abdominal trauma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Joseph A; Norton, Karen I; Bhattacharya, Nishith; Stombaugh, Lauretta

    2010-06-01

    Obstruction caused by strangulation internal hernia secondary to incarceration within the falciform ligament, although rare, has been previously reported in the literature. These cases, however, were unrelated to trauma. We report on the first case in the pediatric literature of a strangulated internal hernia secondary to incarceration in the falciform ligament precipitated by blunt abdominal trauma. A 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency room less than 24 hours after sustaining a kick to the right upper quadrant. She described sharp, nonradiating, right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, which was associated with nausea and vomiting. A KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) view showed a paucity of bowel in the right upper quadrant with distended adjacent bowel. An ultrasound showed a small amount of abdominal ascites and a prominent liver. Computed tomography scan revealed a linear hypodensity at the tip of the right lobe of the liver, suggestive of a laceration. Moderate abdominal and pelvic ascites and multiple collapsed small-bowel loops with diffuse wall thickening and poor enhancement were seen in the right upper quadrant. Significantly, pneumatosis was noted, raising the question of obstruction/volvulus and/or bowel ischemia. An exploratory laparotomy revealed incarcerated small bowel herniated into a defect in the falciform ligament, which was resected. The defect was repaired. Seemingly trivial trauma may play a precipitating role in strangulation in a patient who already has a defect in the falciform ligament. PMID:20531130

  19. Percutaneous Nephroscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    With the development of techniques for percutaneous access and equipment to disintegrate calculi, percutaneous nephroscopic surgery is currently used by many urologists and is the procedure of choice for the removal of large renal calculi and the management of diverticula, intrarenal strictures, and urothelial cancer. Although it is more invasive than shock wave lithotripsy and retrograde ureteroscopic surgery, percutaneous nephroscopic surgery has been successfully performed with high efficiency and low morbidity in difficult renal anatomies and patient conditions. These advantages of minimal invasiveness were rapidly perceived and applied to the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, calyceal diverticulum, infundibular stenosis, and urothelial cancer. The basic principle of endopyelotomy is a full-thickness incision of the narrow segment followed by prolonged stenting and drainage to allow regeneration of an adequate caliber ureter. The preferred technique for a calyceal diverticulum continues to be debated. Excellent long-term success has been reported with percutaneous, ureteroscopic, and laparoscopic techniques. Each approach is based on the location and size of the diverticulum. So far, percutaneous ablation of the calyceal diverticulum is the most established minimally invasive technique. Infundibular stenosis is an acquired condition usually associated with inflammation or stones. Reported series of percutaneously treated infundibular stenosis are few. In contrast with a calyceal diverticulum, infundibular stenosis is a more difficult entity to treat with only a 50-76% success rate by percutaneous techniques. Currently, percutaneous nephroscopic resection of transitional cell carcinoma in the renal calyx can be applied in indicated cases. PMID:20495691

  20. Endoscopic surgery and telemedicine in microgravity: developing contingency procedures for exploratory class spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Campbell, M.; Miles, B.; Billica, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of a urinary calculus during an extended duration mission into the reduced gravity environment of space is significant. For medical operations to develop a comprehensive strategy for the spaceflight stone risk, both preventive countermeasures and contingency management (CM) plans must be included. METHODS: A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the potential CM technique of endoscopic ureteral stenting with ultrasound guidance for the possible in-flight urinary calculus contingency. The procedure employed the International Space Station/Human Research Facility ultrasound unit for guide wire and stent localization, a flexible cystoscope for visual guidance, and banded, biocompatible soft ureteral stents to successfully stent porcine ureters bilaterally in zero gravity (0g). RESULTS: The study demonstrated that downlinked endoscopic surgical and ultrasound images obtained in 0g are comparable in quality to 1g images, and therefore are useful for diagnostic clinical utility via telemedicine transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In order to be successful, surgical procedures in 0g require excellent positional stability of the operating surgeon, assistant, and patient, relative to one another. The technological development of medical procedures for long-duration spaceflight contingencies may lead to improved terrestrial patient care methodology and subsequently reduced morbidity.

  1. Mechanism of Accumulation of the Antitumor Protein Antibiotic Neocarzinostatin in Bladder Tissue: Intravenous Administration, Urinary Excretion, and Absorption into Bladder Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Ogata, Jiro

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the absorption, distribution, and excretion of neocarzinostatin (NCS), a proteinous antitumor antibiotic, were studied in rabbits. NCS was given intravenously (i.v.) via the auricular vein, or [14C]NCS was instilled directly into the cavity of the bladder by tubing. In both groups, ureterostomy was performed, so that the drug excreted in the urine did not pass through the bladder. The results showed extremely rapid renal clearance; namely, two-thirds of the total recovered was excreted in the first 5 min. It was also shown that drug infused into the bladder cavity could be recovered in urine from the ureterostomized ureter. Also, the level of biological activity of NCS in bladder tissues after i.v. administration is significantly lower when ureterostomy is performed. Thus, evidence is presented for the absorption of NCS into bladder tissue from the lumen of the bladder. The high levels of NCS in bladder tissue are due to this effect as well as to accumulation via the iliac artery. These data should encourage further trials of NCS in bladder cancer. A study of urine containing NCS derived from i.v. administration showed an increase in antibacterial activity upon incubation, followed by a decrease. These effects are probably due to proteolysis, as shown by the appearance of a low-molecular-weight fragment and by the absence of such an increase in the presence of inhibitors of proteolysis. PMID:141906

  2. Nephroureterectomy for emphysematous pyelonephritis: An aggressive approach is sometimes necessary. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Nana, Gael R.; Brodie, Andrew; Akhter, Waseem; Karim, Omer; Motiwala, Hanif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a life-threatening urological emergency. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis as such patients may present to physicians with typical features of pyelonephritis. Presentation of case A 67 year old lady presented atypically to the Emergency Department with symptoms of renal colic. The diagnosis of emphysematous pyelonephritis was established on prompt CT scanning. She did not respond to conservative management. Due to acute, critical deterioration, she underwent a radical right nephroureterectomy. The resected kidney involved a long segment of necrotic, gangrenous ureter. The patient had a smooth post-operative recovery and was successfully discharged. She remains well on follow-up after one year. Discussion Early radiological diagnosis is imperative for risk stratification of EPN. Current evidence recommends percutaneous catheter drainage with interval nephrectomy as the gold standard treatment. We review the literature for pathophysiology and clinical prognostic factors. This case adds onto the limited evidence base on ureteric involvement in EPN, suggesting a revision of EPN classification. Conclusion Further research on ureteric involvement and treatment outcomes in EPN is required. Even in the current era of minimally invasive surgery and renal preservation therapies, early open nephrectomy still has a role in the management of EPN. PMID:25863990

  3. Ureteral Metastasis: Uncommon Manifestation in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schallier, Denis; Rappe, Bernard; Carprieaux, Marilyn; Vandenbroucke, Frederik

    2015-11-01

    Ureteral metastasis from a primary prostate cancer is a rare event in the initial diagnosis and progression of prostate cancer. We report here the case of a 72- year-old patient who was treated for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer involving bone, intra-abdominal lymph nodes, bilateral adrenal glands, and a small distal ureteral lesion with left hydronephrosis considered in remission, with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog plus abiraterone acetate (AA) and prednisone after initial docetaxel plus prednisone chemotherapy. After an episode of acute left flank pain, the previous left distal intraluminal ureteral mass appeared increased in volume on computed tomographic scan and was compatible with either a metastasis from prostate cancer, transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter, or a collision tumor. After left nephroureterectomy (NU), the mass was confirmed to be of prostatic origin on histopathological examination and the only site of metastatic progression of prostate cancer. Abdominal CT-scan and the operative specimen of the NU showed no direct extension of the abdominal lymph nodes into the ureteral lesion. We speculate that this unique ureteral prostate cancer metastasis was the result of hematogenic spread of prostate cancer, although microscopic spread through the lymphatic system could not be excluded. The transient anti-tumor effect of AA plus prednisone at the level of ureteral metastasis, as far as we are aware of, has never been documented before. PMID:26504069

  4. Urinary Tract Effects After Multifocal Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation of the Kidney: Acute and Chronic Monitoring by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Intravenous Urography and Urinary Cytology

    SciTech Connect

    Wendler, Johann Jakob; Pech, Maciej; Porsch, Markus; Janitzky, Andreas; Fischbach, Frank; Buhtz, Peter; Vogler, Klaus; Huehne, Sarah; Borucki, Katrin; Strang, Christof; Mahnkopf, Dirk; Ricke, Jens; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The nonthermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a novel potential ablation modality for renal masses. The aim of this study was the first evaluation of NTIRE's effects on the renal urine-collecting system using intravenous urography (IVU) and urinary cytology in addition to histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Eight percutaneous NTIRE ablations of the renal parenchyma, including the calyxes or pelvis, were performed in three male swine. MRI, IVU, histology, and urinary cytology follow-ups were performed within the first 28 days after treatment. Results: MRI and histological analysis demonstrated a localized necrosis 7 days and a localized scarification of the renal parenchyma with complete destruction 28 days after NTIRE. The urine-collecting system was preserved and showed urothelial regeneration. IVU and MRI showed an unaltered normal morphology of the renal calyxes, pelvis, and ureter. A new urinary cytology phenomenon featured a temporary degeneration by individual vacuolization of detached transitional epithelium cells within the first 3 days after NTIRE. Conclusions: This first urographical, urine-cytological, and MRI evaluation after porcine kidney NTIRE shows multifocal parenchyma destruction while protecting the involved urine-collecting system with regenerated urothelial tissue. NTIRE could be used as a targeted ablation method of centrally located renal masses.

  5. [TRANSURETHRAL URETEROLITHOTRIPSY FOR UPPER URINARY TRACT STONE IN SMALL CHILDREN WEIGHNING AROUND 10KG].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoko; Moriya, Kimihiko; Mitsui, Takahiko; Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Kon, Masafumi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    Management strategy for upper urinary tract calculi in small children is still a matter controversial. We report successful management of ureteral stone with transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) in 2 boys weighing around 10 kg. Case 1: A 2-year-old boy (78 cm in height, 9.6 kg in weight), who received hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone for the treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, was referred to our hospital with a right 9-mm lower ureteral stone. For TUL, a 7.5 Fr rigid cystoscope was introduced into the ureter directly after dilation of the ureteral orifice. By using Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy, complete stone evacuation was achieved. Stone analysis showed the composition of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate. Case 2: A 1-year-old boy (80 cm in height, 10.5 kg in weight) with neurofibromatosis type 1 was referred to our hospital with a left 7.5-mm ureteral stone at the ureteropelvic junction. TUL was performed using a 4.5 F rigid ureteroscope and Holmium:YAG laser. No residual stone was identified. Stone analysis showed the composition of calcium oxalate. TUL is a safe and feasible option for small children, even in boys weighing approximately 10 kg. PMID:26717789

  6. A Biomechanical Model of Artery Buckling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    The stability of arteries under blood pressure load is essential to the maintenance of normal arterial function and the loss of stability can lead to tortuosity and kinking that are associated with significant clinical complications. However, mechanical analysis of arterial bent buckling is lacking. To address this issue, this paper presents a biomechanical model of arterial buckling. Using a linear elastic cylindrical arterial model, the mechanical equations for arterial buckling were developed and the critical buckling pressure was found to be a function of the wall stiffness (Young’s modulus), arterial radius, length, wall thickness, and the axial strain. Both the model equations and experimental results demonstrated that the critical pressure is related to the axial strain. Arteries may buckle and become tortuous due to reduced (sub-physiological) axial strain, hypertensive pressure, and a weakened wall. These results are in accordance with, and provide a possible explanation to the clinical observations that these changes are the risk factors for arterial tortuosity and kinking. The current model is also applicable to veins and ureters. PMID:17689541

  7. [Blunt trauma in kidney transplant with preservation of renal function].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mier, Gustavo; García-Almazán, Eduardo; Esselente-Zetina, Noemí; Tlatelpa-Mastranso, Miguel Angel; Méndez-López, Marco Tulio; Estrada-Oros, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    A 35-year-old male received a living related kidney transplant. At 184 months posttransplantation he suffered a direct right iliac fossa blunt trauma while working on a machine in a steel factory. Graft pain, dysuria and gross hematuria were observed and CT showed a periallograft hematoma. Because of his anemia and graft function deterioration, surgical exploration was warranted. A 500-cc perigraft hematoma was compressing the kidney and ureter, a 5-cm long, 5-mm in depth linear laceration in the lateral aspect of the superior pole of the graft and a 15-mm long, 2-mm in depth linear laceration in the medial aspect of the superior pole were actively bleeding. Major renal arteries and veins were not injured. Both lacerations were closed by suturing the renal parenchyma over gelfoam pledgets with absorbable suture in a buttress fashion. The kidney was salvaged. Serum creatinine was maintained at 1.5 mg/dl during follow-up. A review of the literature showed that few cases of traumatic renal graft rupture with kidney salvage have been reported. Our case is one of them. PMID:16875522

  8. Microfilaruria in onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Alfred A.; Anderson, Robert I.; Colston, John A. C.; Wallace, Craig K.; Connor, Daniel H.; Harman, Louis E.; Donner, Martin W.; Ganley, James P.

    1971-01-01

    Microfilariae of O. volvulus were recovered from the urine of 11% of the residents of a village in the Republic of Chad where onchocerciasis was holoendemic. A follow-up study of the same population 3 years after the original investigation revealed that microfilaruria was still present and that living microfilariae of O. volvulus could be recovered from small urine samples obtained by high catherization of the ureters. Radiological changes consistent with chronic pyelitis were found in 4 out of 14 persons with microfilaruria who were examined by retrograde pyelography. The recovery of microfilariae in the urine was associated with the intensity of the infection, as determined by counts of microfilariae in skin snips and the number of onchocercomata. A systematic comparison for differences between onchocerciasis patients with and without microfilaruria revealed that the microfilaruria patients had a low weight: height ratio, deficient antibody responses in indirect haemagglutination tests with O. volvulus antigen, elevated serum aminotransferase levels, and reduced systolic blood pressure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 8 PMID:5316914

  9. Urinary candidate biomarker discovery in a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Fanshuang; Wu, Jianqiang; Shao, Chen; Gao, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Urine has the potential to become a better source of biomarkers. Urinary proteins are affected by many factors; therefore, differentiating between the variables associated with any particular pathophysiological condition in clinical samples is challenging. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, should be used to establish a direct relationship between disease progression and urine changes. In this study, a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model was used to observe tubular injury and the eventual development of renal fibrosis, as well as to identify differential urinary proteins in this process. Urine samples were collected from the residuary ureter linked to the kidney at 1 and 3 weeks after UUO. Five hundred proteins were identified and quantified by LC-MS/MS, out of which 7 and 19 significantly changed in the UUO 1- and 3-week groups, respectively, compared with the sham-operation group. Validation by western blot showed increased levels of Alpha-actinin-1 and Moesin in the UUO 1-week group, indicating that they may serve as candidate biomarkers of renal tubular injury, and significantly increased levels of Vimentin, Annexin A1 and Clusterin in the UUO 3-week group, indicating that they may serve as candidate biomarkers of interstitial fibrosis. PMID:25791774

  10. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, Săo Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  11. Cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract: embryologic and anatomic considerations and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shebel, Haytham M; Farg, Hashim M; Kolokythas, Orpheus; El-Diasty, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract are uncommon and usually benign. These cysts have different anatomic origins and may be associated with a variety of genitourinary abnormalities and symptoms. Various complications may be associated with these cysts, such as urinary tract infection, pain, postvoiding incontinence, recurrent epididymitis, prostatitis, and hematospermia, and they may cause infertility. Understanding the embryologic development and normal anatomy of the lower male genitourinary tract can be helpful in evaluating these cysts and in tailoring an approach for developing a differential diagnosis. There are two main groups of cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract: intraprostatic cysts and extraprostatic cysts. Intraprostatic cysts can be further classified into median cysts (prostatic utricle cysts, müllerian duct cysts), paramedian cysts (ejaculatory duct cysts), and lateral cysts (prostatic retention cysts, cystic degeneration of benign prostatic hypertrophy, cysts associated with tumors, prostatic abscess). Extraprostatic cysts include cysts of the seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and Cowper duct. A variety of pathologic conditions can mimic these types of cysts, including ureterocele, defect resulting from transurethral resection of the prostate gland, bladder diverticulum, and hydroureter and ectopic insertion of ureter. Accurate diagnosis depends mainly on the anatomic location of the cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasonography (US) are excellent for detecting and characterizing the nature and exact anatomic origin of these cysts. In addition, transrectal US can play an important therapeutic role in the management of cyst drainage and aspiration, as in cases of prostatic abscess. PMID:23842975

  12. In vivo irreversible electroporation kidney ablation: experimentally correlated numerical models.

    PubMed

    Neal, Robert E; Garcia, Paulo A; Kavnoudias, Helen; Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Mclean, Catriona A; Earl, Victoria; Bergman, Joanne; Davalos, Rafael V; Thomson, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses brief electric pulses to kill a volume of tissue without damaging the structures contraindicated for surgical resection or thermal ablation, including blood vessels and ureters. IRE offers a targeted nephron-sparing approach for treating kidney tumors, but the relevant organ-specific electrical properties and cellular susceptibility to IRE electric pulses remain to be characterized. Here, a pulse protocol of 100 electric pulses, each 100 ?s long, is delivered at 1 pulse/s to canine kidneys at three different voltage-to-distance ratios while measuring intrapulse current, completed 6 h before humane euthanasia. Numerical models were correlated with lesions and electrical measurements to determine electrical conductivity behavior and lethal electric field threshold. Three methods for modeling tissue response to the pulses were investigated (static, linear dynamic, and asymmetrical sigmoid dynamic), where the asymmetrical sigmoid dynamic conductivity function most accurately and precisely matched lesion dimensions, with a lethal electric field threshold of 575 ± 67 V/cm for the protocols used. The linear dynamic model also attains accurate predictions with a simpler function. These findings can aid renal IRE treatment planning under varying electrode geometries and pulse strengths. Histology showed a wholly necrotic core lesion at the highest electric fields, surrounded by a transitional perimeter of differential tissue viability dependent on renal structure. PMID:25265626

  13. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  14. Low-dose unenhanced computed tomography for diagnosing stone disease in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed E.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.; Refaie, Huda F.; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the detectability, size, location and density of urinary stones with unenhanced computed tomography (CT), using the half-radiation (low) dose (LDCT) technique, compared with the standard-dose CT (SDCT), in obese patients. Patients and methods The study included 50 patients with a body mass index of >30 kg/m2 and bilateral renal stones diagnosed with SDCT, and managed on one side. All the patients had LDCT during the follow-up and SDCT was used as a reference for comparison. Results Of the 50 patients, the right side was affected in 27 and the left side in 23. In all, 35 patients had a single stone while the remaining 15 had multiple stones. With SDCT, 95 stones were detected; there were 45 of ?5 mm, 46 of 6–15 mm and only four of >15 mm. LDCT barely detected three stones of <3 mm, compared with SDCT, while larger stones had the same appearance at both scans. The site of stone in the kidney or the ureter did not affect its detection on LDCT vs. SDCT. The mean stone diameter was identical in both techniques. At LDCT, all stones were detected with no difference in their number, location or density vs. SDCT. However, the tube current and radiation dose were significantly lower with LDCT. Conclusions In obese patients with stone disease, LDCT is as accurate as SDCT, while avoiding exposure of the patient to high-dose radiation. PMID:26558037

  15. Scrotal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Studniarek, Micha?; Modzelewska, Elza

    2015-01-01

    Pathological lesions within the scrotum are relatively rare in imaging except for ultrasonography. The diseases presented in the paper are usually found in men at the age of 15–45, i.e. men of reproductive age, and therefore they are worth attention. Scrotal ultrasound in infertile individuals should be conducted on a routine basis owing to the fact that pathological scrotal lesions are frequently detected in this population. Malignant testicular cancers are the most common neoplasms in men at the age of 20–40. Ultrasound imaging is the method of choice characterized by the sensitivity of nearly 100% in the differentiation between intratesticular and extratesticular lesions. In the case of doubtful lesions that are not classified for intra-operative verification, nuclear magnetic resonance is applied. Computed tomography, however, is performed to monitor the progression of a neoplastic disease, in pelvic trauma with scrotal injury as well as in rare cases of scrotal hernias involving the ureters or a fragment of the urinary bladder. PMID:26674847

  16. Cutting laser systems for ureteral strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durek, C.; Knipper, Ansgar; Brinkmann, Ralf; Miller, Ado; Gromoll, Bernd; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Acquired ureteral strictures are still treated either with a stent, balloon dilatation, by open surgery or by endoscopic therapy with a `cold knife' or high current density as intubated ureterotomy. The success rates described in the literature range between 50% and 90%. Using the experimental CTH:YAG laser (wavelength 2120 nm) and CT:YAG laser (wavelength 1950 nm), the reduction of invasiveness and of morbidity was evaluated. First, the CTH:YAG laser was investigated on 540 fresh porcine ureters varying the parameters. With a computerized morphometry system, defect depth, defect width, coagulation depth and coagulation width were measured. Then 21 female pigs underwent 7.5 F - 12 F ureteroscopy with CTH:YAG laser, CT:YAG laser, high current density and `cold knife' ureterotomy. An IVP and sacrification with explanation of the whole urinary tract was done on day 6 and around day 60. In practice, laser application via the endoscope was easy to handle and exact cutting was always seen. The CT:YAG laser seems to have the best success results with low ureteral stricture recurrence rates. However, its clinical use remains to be proven.

  17. Early detection of metachronous bile duct cancer in Lynch syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Tanakaya, Kohji; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Aoki, Hideki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishikawa, Hideki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Goel, Ajay; Takeuchi, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a high incidence of colorectal, endometrial, stomach, ovarian, pancreatic, ureter and renal pelvis, bile duct and brain tumors. The syndrome can also include sebaceous gland adenomas and keratoacanthomas, and carcinoma of the small bowel. The lifetime risk for bile duct cancer in patients with Lynch syndrome is approximately 2 %. The present report describes a case of Lynch syndrome with metachronous bile duct cancer diagnosed at an early stage. The patient was a 73-year-old Japanese male who underwent a successful left lobectomy of the liver, and there was no sign of recurrence for 2 years postoperative. However, this patient harbored a germline mutation in MLH1, which prompted diagnostic examinations for noncolorectal tumors when a periodic surveillance blood examination showed abnormal values of hepatobiliary enzymes. Although most patients with bile duct cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage, the bile duct cancer was diagnosed at an early stage in the present patient due to the observation of the gene mutation and the preceding liver tumor. This case illustrates the importance of continuous surveillance for extracolonic tumors, including bile duct cancer, in patients with Lynch syndrome. PMID:23896635

  18. Urinary candidate biomarker discovery in a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Fanshuang; Wu, Jianqiang; Shao, Chen; Gao, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Urine has the potential to become a better source of biomarkers. Urinary proteins are affected by many factors; therefore, differentiating between the variables associated with any particular pathophysiological condition in clinical samples is challenging. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, should be used to establish a direct relationship between disease progression and urine changes. In this study, a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model was used to observe tubular injury and the eventual development of renal fibrosis, as well as to identify differential urinary proteins in this process. Urine samples were collected from the residuary ureter linked to the kidney at 1 and 3 weeks after UUO. Five hundred proteins were identified and quantified by LC-MS/MS, out of which 7 and 19 significantly changed in the UUO 1- and 3-week groups, respectively, compared with the sham-operation group. Validation by western blot showed increased levels of Alpha-actinin-1 and Moesin in the UUO 1-week group, indicating that they may serve as candidate biomarkers of renal tubular injury, and significantly increased levels of Vimentin, Annexin A1 and Clusterin in the UUO 3-week group, indicating that they may serve as candidate biomarkers of interstitial fibrosis. PMID:25791774

  19. Manual Replacement of Double J Stent Without Fluoroscopy (Double j stent replacement).

    PubMed

    Kose, Osman; Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Ozbir, Sait; Yenigurbuz, Sekan; Kara, Cengiz

    2015-02-01

    It is not always possible to replace a ureteric stent with a new one due to the fact that tumoral effect increases in ureter with time. We present our experience of manual replacement of double J stent without fluoroscopy. The data from 23 female patients who underwent double J stent replacement with a total of 110 times was retrospectively analyzed. The steps of technique are as follows: take out distal end of the double J stent through urethra to external urethral meatus cystoscopically, insert a 0.035-inch guide wire through double J stent to the renal pelvis or intra pelvicaliceal system, take out old double J stent over guide wire, slide new stent over guide wire and at external meatus level take out guide wire while gently sliding distal end of double J stent over guide wire into urethra. The mean age was 58.39 ± 9.21 years. Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer were diagnosed in 16, 4, and 3 patients respectively. The mean follow-up and indwelling period were 13.8 ± 5.2, 3.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively. Increased pelvicaliceal dilatation, serum creatinine level, or renal parenchymal loss was not observed. Replacement of double J stents with this technique is easy and can be used successfully in distal ureteral obstructions. PMID:25692446

  20. Retroperitoneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, E F H

    2002-07-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is an uncommon collagen vascular disease of unclear aetiology. It is characterised by a chronic non-specific inflammation of the retroperitoneum, which can entrap and obstruct retroperitoneal structures, notably the ureters. Because of the protean manifestations of RPF, awareness of the disease is important. It is still not uncommon to detect RPF only after severe renal failure is present. This comprehensive review deals with the various aspects of RPF and tries to provide a framework for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this intriguing condition. Although it may have various causes, chronic periaortitis appears to be an increasingly encountered form of secondary RPF in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Irrespective of its cause, most cases of non-malignant RPF - if in the active 'cellular' stage - will respond to treatment with corticosteroids, thereby obviating the need for surgical treatment. The clinical and radiographic improvement seen after starting steroid therapy is often impressive and reassuring as to the diagnosis. Treatment with corticosteroids may also make aneurysmectomy, if indicated, feasible in the patient who presents with perianeurysmal fibrosis and renal failure. Accumulating data suggest alternative treatment strategies for steroid-resistant cases (i.e. intensive immunosuppression) or when steroids are not feasible (i.e. other forms of immunosuppression or hormonal treatment, particularly tamoxifen). Although early diagnosis and treatment provide excellent renal and patient outcome, long-term follow-up is mandatory in all cases. PMID:12365466

  1. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy versus Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy for Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Matched Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Che-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Hung, Shun-Fa; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the perioperative and oncological outcomes of hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (HANU) and robotic-assisted nephroureterectomy (RANU). Methods. Patients who underwent RANU were matched by sex, age (±5 years), and tumor location to those who underwent HANU; 18 matched pairs were included. Results. Each group consisted of five men and 13 women. The mean age was 70.4 years in RANU group and 69.6 years in HANU group (p = 0.646). Each group contained 10 patients with tumor location in the renal pelvis, five in the ureter, and three in both sites. The median follow-up time was 6.1 months for the RANU group and 47.8 months for the HANU group. The demographic and pathological data did not differ significantly. The RANU group had significantly less blood loss (p < 0.001), resumed oral intake earlier (p = 0.043), and had shorter hospital stays (p = 0.014) but higher pain scores associated with their wounds (p = 0.043). The oncological outcomes were comparable with those of the HANU group. Conclusions. Our results show that the RANU and HANU groups have comparable operative, early postoperative, and functional outcomes. A longer follow-up period would be needed for final comparison of oncological outcome. PMID:26539538

  2. Multidetector CT urography of renal fusion anomalies.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-06-01

    Renal fusion anomalies, in which both kidneys are fused togeher in early embyronic life, are rarely encountered. Once a fused kidney is diagnosed or suspected, further laboratory and imaging evaluation should be performed to assess the status of the kidneys and to look for treatable causes of renal pathology. The early dignosis of potential complications that can accompany this anomaly must be made in order to prevent permanent renal damage. The advantage of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) urography is its ability to depict the normal urinary tract anatomy, including both the renal parenchyma, and collecting structures and ureters. MDCT urography is helpful to screen for the presence of stones, hydronephrosis or masses. Additionally, it provides information about the vascular supply of the fused kidneys. Therefore, MDCT urography enables a comprehensive evaluation of patients with renal fusion anomalies in a single examination. Especially three-dimensional reformatted images can provide good delineation of congenital fusion anomalies of the kidney. In this study we report our experience with MDCT urography for the anatomic demonstration of renal fusion anomalies. PMID:19517383

  3. A Nanostructured Degradable Ureteral Stent Fabricated by Electrospinning for Upper Urinary Tract Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Long; Chen, Qihui; Hou, Yuchuan; Hao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chunxi; Shan, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    A degradable polycaprolactone(PCL)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, LA:GA = 80:20) (PLGA) ureter tubular stent was fabricated by electrospinning. The structure and properties of the stents were investigated by the mechanical property testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degradability test in vitro and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The stent was transplanted to the dorsal muscle of rabbit to evaluate its tissue compatibility. It was shown that the stent has the nano-structure. The mechanical test showed that with the increase in PCL concentration, the mechanical properties of the stent gradually increased, and it could meet the demands of a urethral stent. The collapse time of different concentration of PCL/PLGA (5%, 15%, and 25%) was 28, 42, and 56 days, respectively. These results provide strong evidence that the degradation time can be increased with the increase in PCL concentration. The results of the MTT assay show that the PCL/PLGA stent had no cytotoxicity. In muscle implantation tests, acute tissue reactions due to operation trauma were seen in all specimens at 1 week. After four weeks, the number of inflammatory cells had decreased significantly. Only a few inflammatory cells were seen in the PCL/PLGA stent group after 12 weeks, and the foreign body reaction was more severe in the control group. Animal orthotopic transplantation experiments of these ureteral stents will be done to evaluate its degradable model and tissue compatibility. PMID:26682432

  4. Percutaneous ureteral stent placement for the treatment of a benign ureteral obstruction in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Palm, Carrie A; Zwingenberger, Allison; Glaiberman, Craig B; Ferguson, Kenneth H; Culp, William T N

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old, 113?kg intact male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for weight loss, polydipsia, and intermittent hematuria. The tiger was immobilized for diagnostic testing including blood work, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound. Laboratory testing demonstrated macro- and microhematuria, azotemia, and an increased urine protein:creatinine ratio. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral ureterolithiasis as well as hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Ultrasonography performed 5 months later revealed worsening of the right-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter and a decrease in the severity of dilation on the left side presumably from passage of the left-sided ureteral calculi. Nephroureteral decompression via the placement of a stent was elected. A pigtail ureteral catheter (8.2 French diameter) was placed in the right ureter via an antegrade percutaneous approach utilizing ultrasound and fluoroscopic-guidance. Following stent placement, macrohematuria resolved although microhematuria was noted in opportunistic urine samples. Five months after stent placement, the azotemia had mildly progressed, the urine protein:creatinine ratio was improved, the right hydronephrosis and hydroureter had completely resolved, and the ureteral stent remained in the appropriate position. The tiger had clinically improved with a substantial increase in appetite, weight, and activity level. Ureteral stenting allowed for nephroureteral decompression in the captive large felid of this report, and no complications were encountered. Ureteral stenting provided a minimally invasive method of managing ureteral obstruction in this patient and could be considered in future cases due to the clinical improvement and low morbidity. PMID:25653150

  5. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the appendix presenting as bilateral ureteric obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamran; Hoque, Robiol; El-Tawil, Sherif; Khan, Mohammad S; George, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Background Adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation mimics acute appendicitis, but right iliac fossa mass and intestinal obstruction have also been reported. These presentations reflect various stages of a locally expanding tumour causing luminal obstruction of appendix. The investigation and subsequent management with a review of the literature is presented. Case presentation We report a case of appendicular adenocarcinoma found unexpectedly in a 43 year old male who presented with urinary symptoms. Cystoscopy and uretero-renoscopy showed normal bladder but external compression of the ureters and therefore bilateral stents were inserted. CT scan showed a caecal mass. After colonoscopy, that showed external compression, and diagnostic laparoscopy the patient underwent right hemicolectomy. Histopathology revealed well differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring morphology with multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was referred for chemotherapy where he received infusional 5 fluorouracil but died 7 months after surgery. Conclusion Patients with atypical manifestations related to right lower abdominal quadrant should be thoroughly investigated with an open mind. Every attempt should be made to make a precise diagnosis through all the available means to direct the treatment along correct lines. PMID:18291037

  7. [Can selective alpha-blockers help the spontaneous passage of the stones located in the uretero-bladder junction?].

    PubMed

    Pricop, C; Novac, C; Negru, D; Ilie, Cristina; Pricop, Adriana; T?nase, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    The majority of ureteral stones at presentation in hospital are located within the distal ureter. Knowing that only half of the stones 4 to 5.9 mm will pass spontaneously, we tried to see: if we can facilitate this elimination for the stones smaller than 8 mm by selectve alpha-blockers (alfuzosin and tamsulosin) which induce relaxation of the smooth muscle of uretrotrigonal area and if there is any difference between these two drugs, concerning efficiency and tolerance. The inclusion criteria for each group were: stone size between 4 and 8 mm--even patients with steinstrasse--and previous, at least 2 weeks of expulsion treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory and antispasmodic agents and Rowatinex. The results were encouraging: almost all the patients eliminated the stones without any pain in the first 5-10 days of treatment (only two patients from alfuzosin group did not tolerate this drug). We believe that both alfuzosin and tamsulosin have a crucial impact in spontaneous painless elimination of the stones smaller than 8 mm located in the uretero-bladder junction. PMID:15688769

  8. Artificial blood vessel: the Holy Grail of peripheral vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Kakisis, John D; Liapis, Christos D; Breuer, Christopher; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2005-02-01

    Artificial blood vessels composed of viable tissue represent the ideal vascular graft. Compliance, lack of thrombogenicity, and resistance to infections as well as the ability to heal, remodel, contract, and secrete normal blood vessel products are theoretical advantages of such grafts. Three basic elements are generally required for the construction of an artificial vessel: a structural scaffold, made either of collagen or a biodegradable polymer; vascular cells, and a nurturing environment. Mechanical properties of the artificial vessels are enhanced by bioreactors that mimic the in vivo environment of the vascular cells by producing pulsatile flow. Alternative approaches include the production of fibrocollagenous tubes within the recipient's own body (subcutaneous tissue or peritoneal cavity) and the construction of an artificial vessel from acellular native tissues, such as decellularized small intestine submucosa, ureter, and allogeneic or xenogeneic arteries. This review details the most recent developments on vascular tissue engineering, summarizes the results of initial experiments on animals and humans, and outlines the current status and the challenges for the future. PMID:15768021

  9. [Loss of renal function due to deep infiltrating endometriosis; a complicated consideration in women who wish to have children].

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Aisha A; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Beets, Geerard L; van de Beek, C Kees; Dunselman, Gerard A J

    2009-01-01

    Three nulliparous women, aged 39, 34 and 26 years, who were treated for fertility problems and who were affected by endometriosis, presented with ureteral obstruction caused by deep infiltrating endometriosis. The first two patients had complete unilateral loss of kidney function at the time of diagnosis. They chose to have fertility treatment first and both became pregnant. The third patient still had 24% renal function in the affected left kidney. She was treated by complete surgical resection of the endometriosis and reimplantation of the ureter. Ureteral obstruction is a rare, but serious, complication of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Timely recognition is important, since delay results in unnoticed loss of renal function. Clinical investigation for endometriosis of the posterior vaginal fornix is recommended for all patients with chronic abdominal pain, severe dysmenorrhoea or deep dyspareunia. On diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis, further examination is necessary to detect possible ureteral obstruction and consequent hydronephrosis, which can be demonstrated by ultrasound. MRI is of value to map the extent of disease, which is usually multi-focal. Surgery to relieve ureteral obstruction and remove all endometriotic lesions is the treatment of choice if the kidney is still functional. PMID:19857296

  10. The life cycle and molecular phylogeny of a gorgoderid trematode recorded from the mussel Nodularia douglasiae in the Yodo River, Japan.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Misako; Ishibashi, Ryo; Uehara, Kazuhiko

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, a novel larval trematode of the family Gorgoderidae was found in the gonads of Nodularia douglasiae (Unionidae) from the lower reaches of the Yodo River, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. This is the first collection of trematodes in a unionid mussel in Japan. We investigated the morphology and life cycle of the trematode, and conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis with other gorgoderid species, both those collected in the Yodo River water system and those reported in the literature. Immature adult worms were obtained from the ureters of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, the first known instance of a gorgoderid from these fish in Japan. Morphological characteristics and molecular data show that it belongs to the subfamily Gorgoderinae (genus Phyllodistomum sensu lato). Regarding the morphology, first intermediate host, and the infection site of adult worms, it resembles Phyllodistomum elongatum Nybelin, 1926 from Europe, but no comparable molecular data exist for Ph. elongatum. Three cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes were detected in the specimens analyzed, suggesting that the present species is indigenous to the Yodo River water system. The 28S ribosomal DNA data showed that this species is a member of the clade consisting of Ph. cf. symmetorchis, Ph. folium, Pseudophyllodistomum and Xystretrum. However, its phylogenetic position within the clade differs between the maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony trees, and the sister species of the present species remain unclear. PMID:25220581

  11. Functional and morphological evaluation of radiation nephropathy and ureteral injury in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Cloran, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) may provide a therapeutic advantage in the treatment of certain intraabdominal malignancies. However, before the therapeutic potential of innovative modalities can be assessed adequately, the in vivo radiobiological effects and responses of normal tissues to clinical doses of irradiation must be determined. In this study, the reactions of normal canine kidneys, ureters, and major vessels wee assessed following IORT, fractionated x-irradiation, or a combination of these modalities. Radiographically derived morphological endpoints, including kidney size and cortical width, were monitored for one year following irradiation. The renal parenchymal atrophy, vascular alterations and functional impairment that developed was directly related to the IORT dose, whether delivered alone or in combination with fractionated x-irradiation. The incidence of ureteral injury and secondary hydronephrosis increased with both the IORT dose and post-irradiation time. No ureteral changes were detected in dogs that received only fractionated x-irradiation (60-80 Gy). No significant arteriographic abnormalities could be detected in the caudal aorta during the one year follow-up period.

  12. Usefulness of echocystography in the study of vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Escape, I; Martínez, J; Bastart, F; Solduga, C; Sala, P

    2001-02-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in detecting and staging vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric patients. Forty-nine children between birth and 5 years of age were studied for vesicoureteral reflux. Echocystography with the use of an endovesical signal enhancer was performed first, followed immediately by conventional voiding cystourethrography. The findings obtained by echocystography and voiding cystourethrography were consistent in 89 (90.8%) of 98 ureterorenal units (a ureterorenal unit is 1 kidney with its own ureter). Reflux was demonstrated by voiding cystourethrography in 13 cases; in 9 of these cases diagnosis had also been made by echocystography. Five cases of reflux detected by echocystography were not identified by voiding cystourethrography. With voiding cystourethrography as the standard of reference, sensitivity was 69%; specificity, 94%; positive predictive value, 64%; and negative predictive value, 95%. In conclusion, echocystography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Its ability to detect reflux is similar to that of cystography in cases of high-grade reflux, and it may be an appropriate complementary technique to voiding cystourethrography, because it avoids exposure to radiation. PMID:11211135

  13. Center of excellence for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M; Fox, Karin A; Barton, John R; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Simhan, Hyagriv; Huls, C Kevin; Belfort, Michael A; Wright, Jason D

    2015-05-01

    Placenta accreta spectrum is one of the most morbid conditions obstetricians will encounter. The incidence has dramatically increased in the last 20 years. The major contributing factor to this is believed to be the increase in the rate of cesarean delivery. Despite the increased incidence of placenta accreta, most obstetricians have personally managed only a small number of women with placenta accreta. The condition poses dramatic risk for massive hemorrhage and associated complication such as consumption coagulopathy, multisystem organ failure, and death. In addition, there is an increased risk for surgical complications such as injury to bladder, ureters, and bowel and the need for reoperation. Most women require blood transfusion, often in large quantities, and many require admission to an intensive care unit. As a result of indicated, often emergent preterm delivery, many babies require admission to a neonatal care intensive care unit. Outcomes are improved when delivery is accomplished in centers with multidisciplinary expertise and experience in the care of placenta accreta. Such expertise may include maternal-fetal medicine, gynecologic surgery, gynecologic oncology, vascular, trauma and urologic surgery, transfusion medicine, intensivists, neonatologists, interventional radiologists, anesthesiologists, specialized nursing staff, and ancillary personnel. This article highlights the desired features for a center of excellence in placenta accreta, and which patients should be referred for evaluation and/or delivery in such centers. PMID:25460838

  14. Cystic lesion around the hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Goto, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuichi; Shimaoka, Yasunori; Yamanaka, Issei; Sairyo, Koichi; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a narrative review of cystic lesions around the hip and primarily consists of 5 sections: Radiological examination, prevalence, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment. Cystic lesions around the hip are usually asymptomatic but may be observed incidentally on imaging examinations, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Some cysts may enlarge because of various pathological factors, such as trauma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or total hip arthroplasty (THA), and may become symptomatic because of compression of surrounding structures, including the femoral, obturator, or sciatic nerves, external iliac or common femoral artery, femoral or external iliac vein, sigmoid colon, cecum, small bowel, ureters, and bladder. Treatment for symptomatic cystic lesions around the hip joint includes rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, needle aspiration, and surgical excision. Furthermore, when these cysts are associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and THA, primary or revision THA surgery will be necessary concurrent with cyst excision. Knowledge of the characteristic clinical appearance of cystic masses around the hip will be useful for determining specific diagnoses and treatments. PMID:26495246

  15. The Effects of Local Administration of Aminophylline on Transureteral Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Barzegarnezhad, Ayyoub; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Emadi, Seyed Abdollah; Mousanejad, Nadali; Bakhshali, Roksana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Urinary stone is a common cause of urinary tract disease. Stone excretion using ureteroscope is effective in inferior ureter. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aminophylline on ureteral spasm during ureteroscopy in acute phase of renal colic. Methods. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The bladder was drained and then received a 150?mL irrigation solution. Irrigation solution was saline and saline plus 10?mL aminophylline at 250?mg dose for control and case groups, respectively. Ureteroscopy and transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) were performed five minutes after irrigation. Results. The mean duration of TUL was 4.2 ± 2.61?min and 8.4 ± 2.9?min for control and case groups, respectively. The successful rate was 95% and 76.1% in case and control groups, respectively. Further extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was performed in 5% and 30% for patients in case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion. Aminophylline facilitated ureteroscopy and increased the success rate in the treatment of renal colic using TUL. No significant complications from post-TUL were observed. Using aminophylline carries several advantages such as reducing procedure duration, decreasing the need for ureteral and double-J catheter, and reducing stone migration to the kidney and use of SWL. PMID:23082076

  16. The Radiological Diagnosis of Neoplasms of the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rohan

    1939-01-01

    The responsibilities of the radiologist in the diagnosis of urinary tract neoplasms are discussed: a strong plea is made for the routine use of pyelography in all cases in which renal tumour is suspected, and it is suggested that too much reliance is placed on the excretion method alone. From the radiological viewpoint, renal tumours may be considered in the following three groups: (1) Parencymal tumours. (2) Tumours of renal pelvis. (3) Extrarenal tumours resembling renal tumours on clinical examination. The radiological signs which may be found in each group are described in detail, including the signs from plain radiography, instrumental pyelography, and excretion urography. The significance of non-excretion in small renal tumours receives attention. It is suggested that this is a sign of renal vein neoplastic thrombosis. The characteristics of osseous metastases from carcinoma of the kidney are considered with illustrative examples. Neoplasms of the ureter and their differential diagnosis are considered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Figs. 8 and 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:19992131

  17. A Tissue-Specific Scaffold for Tissue Engineering-Based Ureteral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongde; Fu, Weijun; Wang, Zhongxin; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Terminally differentiated somatic cells can rapidly change phenotypes when they are isolated from their native tissue and cultured in vitro. This problem may become a barrier to tissue engineering-based organ reconstruction, which utilizes somatic cells. The present study was designed to validate the feasibility of maintaining the urothelial cell phenotype in a tissue-specific ureteral scaffold. The tissue-specific scaffold was fabricated by blending poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and ureteral extracellular matrix (UECM) using electrostatic spinning technology. PLLA was used to enhance the mechanical properties, and UECM was used to mimic the natural components of the ureter. Primary urothelial cells (UCs), derived from ureteral mucosa, were seeded onto the tissue-specific scaffold to assess cell adhesion, proliferation and phenotypes at designated time points. The results showed that UCs in the tissue-specific scaffold exhibited better proliferation compared to cells in pure PLLA or a PLLA-small intestinal submucosa (PLLA-SIS) scaffold (p<0.05). At different time points, the expression of a UC-specific marker (Uroplakin?) in the tissue-specific scaffold was significantly higher than its expression in pure PLLA or a PLLA-SIS scaffold (p<0.05). Therefore, the tissue-specific scaffold appears to be an ideal substrate for promoting UC survival and phenotype maintenance. PMID:25775033

  18. Optimal Shock Wave Rate for Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Urolithiasis Treatment: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Keun Bai; Lim, Go San; Hwang, Jae Seung; Lim, Chae Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Son, Jeong Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to compare the effects of a fast shock wave rate (120 shocks per minute) and a slow shock wave rate (60 shocks per minute) on the shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) success rate, patient's pain tolerance, and complications. Materials and Methods A total of 165 patients with radiopaque renal pelvis or upper ureter stones were included in the study. Patients were classified by use of a random numbers table. Group I (81 patients) received 60 shock waves per minute and group II (84 patients) received 120 shock waves per minute. For each session, the success rate, pain measurement, and complication rate were recorded. Results No statistically significant differences were observed in the patients according to age, sex, body mass index, stone size, side, location, total energy level, or number of shocks. The success rate of the first session was greater in group I than in group II (p=0.002). The visual analogue pain scale was lower in group I than in group II (p=0.001). The total number of sessions to success and the complication rate were significantly lower in group I than in group II (p=0.001). Conclusions The success rate of SWL is dependent on the interval between the shock waves. If the time between the shock waves is short, the rate of lithotripsy success decreases, and the pain measurement score and complications increase. We conclude slow SWL is the optimal shock wave rate. PMID:23185672

  19. Fluorofenidone attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis in the rat model of obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Xin; Tang, Yi-Ting; Wang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Yun; Wang, Na-Sui; Yuan, Qiong-Jing; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Peng, Zhang-Zhe; Hu, Gao-Yun; Tao, Li-Jian

    2011-08-01

    Fluorofenidone (FD) is a novel pyridone agent with significant antifibrotic effects in vitro. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of FD on renal interstitial fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy caused by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). With pirfenidone (PD, 500 mg/kg/day) and enalapril (10 mg/kg/day) as the positive treatment controls, the rats in different experimental groups were administered with FD (500 mg/kg/day) from day 4 to day 14 after UUO. The tubulointerstitial injury, interstitial collagen deposition, and expression of type I and type III collagen, transforming growth factor-?(1) (TGF-?(1)), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were assessed. FD treatment significantly attenuated the prominently increased scores of tubulointerstitial injury, interstitial collagen deposition, and protein expression of type I and type III collagen in ureter-obstructed kidneys, respectively. As compared with untreated rats, FD also significantly reduced the expression of ?-SMA, TGF-?(1), CTGF, PDGF, and inhibitor of TIMP-1 in the obstructed kidneys. Fluorofenidone attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis in the rat model of obstructive nephropathy through its regulation on fibrogenic growth factors, tubular cell transdifferentiation, and extracellular matrix. PMID:21594754

  20. The cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I? suppresses kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Schinner, Elisabeth; Schramm, Andrea; Kees, Frieder; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is synthesized by nitric oxide or natriuretic peptide-stimulated guanylyl cyclases and exhibits pleiotropic regulatory functions in the kidney. Hence, integration of cGMP signaling by cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) might play a critical role in renal physiology; however, detailed renal localization of cGKs is still lacking. Here, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of cGKI? and cGKI? isozymes in the mouse kidney and found both in arterioles, the mesangium, and within the cortical interstitium. In contrast to cGKI?, the ?-isoform was not detected in the juxtaglomerular apparatus or medullary fibroblasts. Since interstitial fibroblasts play a prominent role in interstitial fibrosis, we focused our study on cGKI function in the interstitium, emphasizing a functional differentiation of both isoforms, and determined whether cGKIs influence renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureter obstruction. Treatment with the guanylyl cyclase activators YC1 or isosorbide dinitrate showed stronger antifibrotic effects in wild-type than in cGKI-knockout or in smooth muscle-cGKI?-rescue mice, which are cGKI deficient in the kidney except in the renal vasculature. Moreover, fibrosis influenced the mRNA and protein expression levels of cGKI? more strongly than cGKI?. Thus, our results indicate that cGMP, acting primarily through cGKI?, is an important suppressor of kidney fibrosis. PMID:23760283

  1. Electromyography of the external anal sphincter muscle during urodynamic testing in children with meningomyelocele.

    PubMed

    Lissens, M; Van de Walle, J P; Vereecken, R; Bruyninckx, F; Rosselle, N

    1990-01-01

    In this study the correlation between the electromyographic examination of the external sphincter muscle and the urodynamic findings in patients with meningomyelocele was evaluated. Urodynamic testing, consisting of cystometry with bladder, urethral and abdominal pressure monitoring was performed with simultaneous electromyography of the external and sphincter muscle in 61 children, 29 boys and 32 girls, divided in groups according to age and to the level of lesion. Normal urodynamic studies were always correlated with normal external sphincter electromyography. In all patients with a high lesion and in 79% of all others detrusor hyperactivity was correlated with pathological sphincter electromyography. The clinical neurological level of the lesion was not correlated with the function of the detrusor-sphincter mechanism. In 29% of the patients examined with needle electromyography detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia was found, which is less than in most other published studies. And although dyssynergia is a risk factor for renal deterioration, the authors conclude that its effect on the ureter is less important than in subjects with normal perineal musculature, since 80% of the examined patients with meningomyelocele showed pathological sphincter electromyography. These findings thus show a significant correlation between electromyography of the external sphincter muscle and the urodynamic findings in meningomyelocele patients, and clearly demonstrate the importance of urodynamic testing with simultaneous external sphincter electromyography, in order to improve both diagnostic accuracy and reliability of follow-up and treatment. PMID:2097857

  2. A case of IgG4-related mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Erika; Kamisawa, Terumi; Tabata, Taku; Shibata, Satomi; Chiba, Kazuro; Kuruma, Sawako; Kuwata, Go; Onishi, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Fujiwara, Junko; Arakawa, Takeo; Momma, Kumiko; Koizumi, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory condition characterized by tumefaction consisting of fibrosis with dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells; affecting various organs. A case of IgG4-related sclerosing mesenteritis is reported. A 64-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a suspected tumor of the small intestine. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a 6-cm soft tissue mass in the right lower mesentery compressing the jejunum, which also showed accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. With a preoperative diagnosis of suspected malignant lymphoma with lymphadenopathy in the mesentery, partial small bowel resection was performed. Macroscopically, a hard mass, including several swollen lymph nodes, was detected in the mesentery. Microscopically, marked fibrosis showing partially storiform pattern, obstructive phlebitis, follicular hyperplasia, and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected. IgG4-related mesenteritis was diagnosed histopathologically, but the serum IgG4 level was 81 mg/dl postoperatively. Five months after the surgery, an 11-cm soft tissue mass involving the left ureter appeared. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen from the retroperitoneal mass showed fibrosis with inflammatory infiltration. Although IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis could not be confirmed histologically, the tumor responded well to steroid therapy. PMID:26581887

  3. Therapeutic role of template-based lymphadenectomy in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tsunenori; Takagi, Toshio; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Lymphadenectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract has attracted the attention of physicians. The mapping study of lymphatic spread has shown that a relatively wide area should comprise the regional nodes for tumors of the right renal pelvis or the right upper two-thirds of the ureter. A prospective study showed that an anatomical template-based lymphadenectomy significantly improved patient survival in tumors of the renal pelvis. This benefit was more evident for patients with pT2 stage tumors or higher. The risk of regional node recurrence is significant reduced by template-based lymphadenectomy, which is likely to be associated with improved patient survival. The removal of lymph node micrometastases is assumed to be the reason for therapeutic benefit following lymphadenectomy. The number of resected lymph nodes can be used to assess the quality of lymphadenectomy, but not to determine the extent of lymphadenectomy. The guidelines currently recommend lymphadenectomy for patients with muscle-invasive disease, even though the current recommendation grades are still low. The present limitation of lymphadenectomy is the lack of standardization of the extent of lymphadenectomy and the randomized trials. Further studies are warranted to collect the evidence to support lymphadenectomy. PMID:26677437

  4. Organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer: Brachytherapy, an alternative to cystectomy and combined modality treatment?

    SciTech Connect

    Pos, Floris

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our long-term results of bladder preservation with brachytherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. Methods and materials: Between 1987 and 2000, 108 patients with T1-G3 and T2-T3a stages of bladder cancer were treated with a transurethral resection (TUR) and a course of external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions) followed by brachytherapy (40 Gy). All tumors were solitary lesions with a diameter {<=}5 cm. Median follow-up was 54 months (range, 1-178 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 62% and 50%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 73% and 67%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate was 73% at 5 and 73% at 10 years, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival rates for patients with a preserved bladder were 68% and 59%, respectively. Of all long-term surviving patients, 90% preserved their native bladders. The treatment was well tolerated. Acute toxicity was mild. Two patients experienced serious late toxicity: 1 patient developed a persisting vesicocutaneous fistula and the other a stricture of the urethra and ureters. Conclusion: For patients with solitary, organ confined invasive bladder cancer {<=}5 cm, bladder preservation with brachytherapy is an excellent alternative to radical cystectomy and combined modality treatment.

  5. Pulmonary Embolism with Abdominal Pain and ST Elevation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Mohammad Javad; Masoompour, Seyed Masoom; Mirzaee, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is considered as a great masquerader due to its frequent nonspecific signs and symptoms. Typically pulmonary embolism is under-diagnosed or over-diagnosed. In this study a patient with pulmonary embolism is reported in which the patient exhibited two unusual manifestations namely; right upper quadrant abdominal pain and ST-T elevation in anterior precordial leads. Due to the fact that the patient did not display typical pulmonary embolism symptoms and its major risk factors, extensive workup to discern the cause was carried out. The examination included abdominal sonography, kidney ureter and bladder Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan) and coronary angiography. Eventually after a six-day delay, pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by spiral chest CT scan. This case and several other similar reports underlines the fact that while various other common causes may exist for right upper abdominal pain, one should always consider pulmonary embolism as a possible cause especially when backed up with ECG finding. PMID:25031494

  6. Renal interstitial fibrosis and urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi).

    PubMed

    Nortier, J L; Vanherweghem, J L

    2002-12-27

    A new renal disease called 'Chinese-herb nephropathy' (CHN) has been reported to occur in women who have ingested slimming pills containing powdered extracts of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra (ST). Moderate to end-stage renal disease developed, requiring renal replacement therapy by dialysis or transplantation. Phytochemical analyses of the pills revealed the presence of aristolochic acids (AA) instead of tetrandrine, suggesting the substitution of ST (Han fang ji) by Aristolochia fangchi containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic AA. A typical histological feature of CHN is a progressive interstitial fibrosis leading to a severe atrophy of the proximal tubules, as documented by the urinary excretion rates of markers of tubular integrity (reduction of neutral endopeptidase enzymuria and high levels of microproteinurias). Removal of the native kidneys and ureters in end-stage CHN patients provided a high prevalence of urothelial carcinoma (46%). Tissue samples contained AA-related DNA adducts, which are not only specific markers of prior exposure to AA but are also directly involved in tumorigenesis. Exposure to Aristolochia species (spp.) is associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (CHN) and urothelial cancer in humans. Health professionals should be aware that in traditional Chinese medicine, Aristolochia spp. are considered interchangeable with certain other herbal ingredients and are also sometimes mistaken for ST, Akebia, Asarum, Clematis spp. and Cocculus spp. in herbal remedies. PMID:12505369

  7. [Surgery of abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Lotina, S L; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Velimirovi?, D V; Petrovi?, P Lj; Perisi?-Savi?, M V; Kovacevi?N S

    1997-01-01

    Seventy one surgical procedures on abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney have been reported in literature until 1980. Bergan reviewed 30 operations of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in these patients until 1974. Of them 3 AAA were ruptured. Gutowitz noticed 57 surgically treated AAA in patients with horseshoe kidney until 1984. Over the period from 1991 to 1996 thirty nine new cases were reported , including 2 ruptured AAA. The surgery of the abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney is associated with the following major problems: -reservation of anomalous (aberrant) renal arteries; reservation of the kidney excretory system; approach to the abdominal aorta (especially in patients with AAA) and graft placement The aim of the paper is the presentation of 5 new patients operated for abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney. Over the last 12 years (January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1996) at the Centre of Vascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 5 patients with horseshoe kidney underwent surgery of the abdominal aorta. There were 4 male and one female patients whose average age was 57.8 years (50-70). Patient 1. A 50-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for disabling claudication discomforts (Fontan stadium IlI) and with significantly decreased Ankle-Brachial indexes (ABI). The translumbal aortography showed aorto-iliac occlusive disease and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from infrarenal aorta (Crawford type II). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. The aorto-bifemoral (AFF) bypass with Dacron graft was done with end-to-end (TT) proximal anastomosis just under the anomalous renal artery. The graft was placed behind the isthmus. During a 12-year follow-up renal failure, renovascular hypertension and graft occlusion were not observed. Patient 2. A 53-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for symptomatic AAA. Two years before admission the patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The Duplex scan ultrasonography and translumbal aortography showed an infrarenal AAA, aneurysm of the right iliac artery and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from the left iliac artery (Crawford type III). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. After partial aneurysmectomy, the flow was restaured using bifurcated Dacron graft placed behind the isthmus. The right limb of the bifurcated graft was anastomosed with the common femoral artery and the left limb with left iliac artery just above the origin of the anomalous renal artery. The first day after operation thrombosis of the left common femoral artery with leg ischaemia was observed. (That artery was cannulated for ECC during coronary artery bypass grafting 2 years ago). The revascularisation of the left leg was done with femoro-femoral cross over bypass. During a 11-year follow-up period, the graft was patent and renal failure or revascular hypertension were not observed. Patient 3. A 66-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for rest pain (Fontan stadium III) and significantly decreased ABI. The patient had diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction two months before admission. Translumbar aortography showed an aorto-iliac occlusive disease associated with horseshoe kidney with 5 anomalous renal arteries. (Crawford type III). Due to high risk, the axillo-bifemoral (AxFF) extra-anatomic bypass graft was performed. Five years after the operation the patient died due to new myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period the graft was patent and there were no signs of renal failure and renovascular hypertension. Patient 4. A 50-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital for high asymptomatic AAA. The diagnosis was established by Duplex scan and translumbal aortography. The large infrarenal AAA (transverse diameter 7 cm) associated with horseshoe kidney with two normal renal arteries (Crawford type I) were

  8. Interleukin-12 and Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Cancer That Has High Levels of HER2/Neu

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Bone Metastases; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Distal Urethral Cancer; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Liver Metastases; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Malignant Pericardial Effusion; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Newly Diagnosed Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Occult Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Skin Metastases; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Anal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Anal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar

  9. Reconstructive bladder surgery in genitourinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Sachit

    2008-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) occurs in 15-20% cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with a prevalence of 400 per 100,000 population. Reconstructive surgery for GUTB is required for cases with grossly distorted and dysfunctional anatomy that are unlikely to regress with chemotherapy alone. In the recent past, there has been a tremendous increase in the variety of reconstructive procedures for the urinary bladder, used in the management of GUTB. Augmentation cystoplasty includes the goals of increasing bladder capacity, while retaining as much of bladder as possible. Various bowel segments (from the stomach to the sigmoid colon) have been used for bladder reconstruction. The choice of material for reconstruction is purely the surgeon's prerogative--his skill, the ease, the mobility and length of mesentery (allowing bowel to reach the bladder neck without tension and maintaining an adequate blood supply). The presence or absence of concomitant reflux is of considerable importance. In the former, an ileocystoplasty with implantation of ureter to the proximal end of the isolated ileal loop and anastomosis of the distal end of the ileal loop to the bladder neck and trigone is advocated. In the latter case, the ureterovesical valve is preserved and colocystoplasty is preferred, wherein the sigmoid colon on being opened along its antimesentric border is joined to the trigone and bladder neck and then to itself to form a capacious pouch. Gastrocystoplasty reduces the risk of acidosis but is associated with complications like hypochloremic alkalosis and ‘hematuria-dysuria’ syndrome. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction is a feasible option, suitable in cases of tubercular thimble bladder with a markedly reduced capacity (as little as 15 ml), where an augmentation alone may be associated with anastomatic narrowing or poor relief of symptoms. In this article, we review the various bladder reconstruction options used for the surgical management of GUTB, along with their indications and complications. PMID:19468473

  10. Effect of movement and developmental factors in growth and evolution in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafiei, Mohammad; Nouri-Kopaei, Simin; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Pakniyat, Abdolghader; Naziri, Mahdyieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a backward flow of urine from bladder to ureter or kidney. Potential reflux is harmful because of kidney being faced with the hemodynamic high-pressure during urination. This project was carried out for high prevalence of VUR and delay in growth of children with chronic diseases. In case of growth disorder in children with this disease and its difference with healthy person, treatment can be tried by treating the growth disorder. Objectives: The purpose of this study is survey of children with VUR about growth and developmental impairment. Patients and Methods: All patients who performed voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)because of UTI, divided into 2 groups, healthy and sick. History and checklist filled, patients’ height and weight measured in a standard way and ASQ questionnaires adjusted to age, used for the studying development effect. The height and weight of children measured by standard meter and scale and used the curves adjusted to age and sex. Control group entered the study with the same characteristics of case group without VUR, however, their height and weight were recorded. The way of evolution studied according to Nelsons evolution table and ASQ questionnaire. Results: The both groups (total of 150 studied children) in the area of development of fine motor, gross motor and indicators of mean and percentile of height and weight and parents’ literacy, had a significant difference (P< 0.05). It is can be due to better assessment and follow, higher education levels and better socioeconomic situation. Conclusion: Children with VUR, in terms of height and weight growth and index of gross and fine movements and communicate were better than normal children. PMID:26468482

  11. The superiority of indium ratio over blood pool subtraction in analysis of indium-111 platelet deposition on thoraco-abdominal prosthetic grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, S.; Wakefield, T.; Spaulding, S.; Petry, N.

    1985-05-01

    In this investigation platelet deposition in polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) thoracoabdominal grafts (TAC's) was evaluated using two different semi-quantitative techniques. Ten PTFE TAG's 6 mm in diameter and 30 cm in length were inserted into 10 mongrel dogs. One, 4 and 6 weeks after graft implantation the animals were injected with autologous In-111 platelets labelled by a modified Thakur technique. Platelet imaging in grafts was performed 48 hrs after injection. Blood pool was determined by Tc99m labelled RBC's (in vivo/in vitro technique). Semi-quantitative analysis was performed by subdividing the imaged graft into three major regions and selecting a reference region from either the native aorta or common iliac artery. Excess platelet deposition was determined by two methods: 1) the ratio of In-111 counts in the graft ROI''s to the reference region and 2) the percent In-111 excess using the Tc99m blood pool subtraction technique (TBPST). Animals were sacrificed 7 weeks after implantation and radioactivity in the excised grafts was determined using a well counter. A positive correlation was found to exist between the In-111 ratio percent analysis (IRPA) and the direct gamma counting (DCC) for all three segments of the prosthetic graft. Correlation coefficients for the thorax, midsegment and abdominal segments were 0.80, 0.73 and 0.48 respectivly. There was no correlation between TBPST and DGC. Using the IRPA technique the thrombogenicity of TAG's can be routinely assessed and is clinically applicable for patient use. TBPST should probably be limited to the extremities to avoid error due to free Tc99m counts from kidneys and ureters.

  12. Transport characteristics of urea transporter-B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    UT-B represents the major urea transporter in erythrocytes, in addition to being expressed in kidney descending vasa recta, brain, spleen, ureter, bladder, and testis. Expression of urea transporter UT-B confers high urea permeability to mammalian erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membranes are also permeable to various urea analogues, suggesting common transport pathways for urea and structurally similar solutes. UT-B is highly permeable to urea and the chemical analogues formamide, acetamide, methylurea, methylformamide, ammonium carbamate, and acrylamide, each with a Ps > 5.0 × 10(-6) cm/s at 10 °C. The amides formamide, acetamide, acrylamide, and butyramide efficiently diffuse across lipid bilayers. The urea analogues dimethylurea, acryalmide, methylurea, thiourea, and methylformamide inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport by >60 % by a pore-blocking mechanism. UT-B is also a water channel in erythrocytes and has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to aquaporin-1. Whether UT-B is an NH3 channel still needs further study. Urea permeability (Purea) in erythrocytes differs between different mammals. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibit high Purea. In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) show much lower Purea. Erythrocyte Purea in human and pig (omnivores) was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) have Purea intermediate between carnivores and omnivores. Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes have very low values. In contrast to Purea, water permeability is relatively similar in all mammals studied. This chapter will provide information about the transporter characteristics of UT-B. PMID:25298342

  13. [Cancer mortality of male workers exposed to benzidine and/or beta-naphthylamine].

    PubMed

    Morinaga, K; Yutani, S; Hara, I

    1990-10-01

    The risk of cancer was analysed in a cohort of 604 male workers who had been engaged in manufacturing and/or handling benzidine and/or beta-naphthylamine during the period 1945-71 at two factories located in the city of Osaka. The cohort was followed up from 1 January 1970 to the date of death or 31 December 1986. The mean follow-up time was 16.1 years. A total of 84 deaths was found compared with 112.66 expected based on the mortality of the Osaka population. Thirty-six were found to be dead of malignant neoplasms; 9 stomach, 2 colon, 1 rectum, 3 liver, 1 bile duct, 1 pancreas, 1 maxillary sinus, 6 lung, 8 bladder, and 2 ureter neoplasms as well as 1 case of myeloid leukemia. Seven cases were ascertained on death certificates as neoplasms of uncertain behaviour, all of which were tumors of genitourinary organs except for one case of brain tumor. Cancers of genitourinary organs and tumors of uncertain behaviour showed statistically significant increased standardized ratios (SMR = 12.20, 4.89). The mean age of death of those having genitourinary organs including cancer was 59 years old, and the latent period between the first exposure and the occurrence of the disease was 19.7 years on average. Non-significant increased risks of cancers of the colon, rectum, liver and lung were observed among the workers exposed to benzidine. Among the 7 histologically confirmed cases of these cancers, there were 2 adenocarcinomas of the lung, 1 adenocarcinoma of the rectum, 2 hepatocellular carcinoma and 1 adenocarcinoma of the bile duct. Seven patients with genitourinary tumors were found to have died of other primary cancers. PMID:2089166

  14. Acute reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent effects of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 on the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sverrisson, Kristinn; Axelsson, Josefin; Rippe, Anna; Asgeirsson, Daniel; Rippe, Bengt

    2015-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate the immediate actions of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 on the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) in rats and to test whether these actions are dependent upon the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In anesthetized rats, blood access was achieved and the left ureter was cannulated for urine collection. Rats were continuously infused intravenously with either IL-1? (0.4 and 2 ?g·kg(-1)·h(-1)), TNF-? (0.4 and 2 ?g·kg(-1)·h(-1)), or IL-6 (4 and 8 ?g·kg(-1)·h(-1)), together with polydisperse FITC-Ficoll-70/400 and inulin for 1 h. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) for determination of glomerular sieving coefficients (?). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was also assessed ((51)Cr-EDTA). In separate experiments, the superoxide scavenger tempol (30 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)) was given before and during cytokine infusions. IL-1? and TNF-? caused rapid, partly reversible increases in glomerular permeability to large molecules (Ficoll50-80Ĺ), peaking at 5-30 min, while IL-6 caused a more gradual increase in permeability, leveling off at 60 min. Tempol almost completely abrogated the glomerular permeability effects of the cytokines infused. In conclusion IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6, when infused systemically, caused immediate and partly reversible increases in glomerular permeability, which could be inhibited by the superoxide scavenger tempol, suggesting an important role of ROS in acute cytokine-induced permeability changes in the GFB. PMID:26290366

  15. Requirement for novel surgical and clinical protocols for the treatment of desmoplastic small round cell tumor: A report of two cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    DA SILVA PECHUTTI, DIEGO CEZAR; DE ARRUDA LOURENÇAO, PEDRO LUIZ; TAKEGAWA, BONIFACIO KATSUNORI; OLIVEIRA, CRISTIANO CLAUDINO; NETO, ALEXANDRE

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm that was initially described in 1989. DSRCT predominantly affects young men and typically occurs in the intra-abdominal area. The present study describes the cases of two patients with DSRCT. The first patient was a 23-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain in the right flank, coupled with difficulty urinating and bowel dysfunction. The second patient was 12-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain, emesis and loss of appetite. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed the presence of an extensive pelvic mass in each patient, however, a visceral origin was not clearly identifiable in the first patient. In the second patient, a large soft-tissue tumor was located posterior to the pancreatic tail and the stomach, with no anatomical line visible between the stomach and splenic vein. Ultrasound-guided biopsy in the first patient and videolaparoscopy in the second patient followed by immunohistochemical analysis clarified the presence of a malignant neoplasm composed of small, blue, round cells. Due to right ureter involvement and hydronephrosis in the first patient, a treatment strategy of surgical debulking of the tumor was selected. The surgical procedure involved en bloc resection of the lesion associated with a pelvic peritonectomy, followed by post-operative radiotherapy. However, the second patient exhibited extensive disease, therefore, a chemotherapeutic protocol of vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, as well as radiation therapy, was scheduled. Disease relapse was observed in the abdominal cavity of the first patient after one year, while the second patient remains asymptomatic. Following analysis of present two cases, it was concluded that aggressive treatment regimens may induce tumor regression. However, relapse of the disease is frequent and long-term survival is rare with the currently available therapeutic strategies. PMID:26622633

  16. NFIA Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with a CNS Malformation Syndrome and Urinary Tract Defects

    PubMed Central

    Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Donovan, Diana J; Xi, Qiongchao; Turbe-Doan, Annick; Li, Qing-Gang; Campbell, Craig G; Shanske, Alan L; Sherr, Elliott H; Ahmad, Ayesha; Peters, Roxana; Rilliet, Benedict; Parvex, Paloma; Bassuk, Alexander G; Harris, David J; Ferguson, Heather; Kelly, Chantal; Walsh, Christopher A; Gronostajski, Richard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Higgins, Anne; Ligon, Azra H; Quade, Bradley J; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Maas, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Complex central nervous system (CNS) malformations frequently coexist with other developmental abnormalities, but whether the associated defects share a common genetic basis is often unclear. We describe five individuals who share phenotypically related CNS malformations and in some cases urinary tract defects, and also haploinsufficiency for the NFIA transcription factor gene due to chromosomal translocation or deletion. Two individuals have balanced translocations that disrupt NFIA. A third individual and two half-siblings in an unrelated family have interstitial microdeletions that include NFIA. All five individuals exhibit similar CNS malformations consisting of a thin, hypoplastic, or absent corpus callosum, and hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly. The majority of these individuals also exhibit Chiari type I malformation, tethered spinal cord, and urinary tract defects that include vesicoureteral reflux. Other genes are also broken or deleted in all five individuals, and may contribute to the phenotype. However, the only common genetic defect is NFIA haploinsufficiency. In addition, previous analyses of Nfia?/? knockout mice indicate that Nfia deficiency also results in hydrocephalus and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Further investigation of the mouse Nfia+/? and Nfia?/? phenotypes now reveals that, at reduced penetrance, Nfia is also required in a dosage-sensitive manner for ureteral and renal development. Nfia is expressed in the developing ureter and metanephric mesenchyme, and Nfia+/? and Nfia?/? mice exhibit abnormalities of the ureteropelvic and ureterovesical junctions, as well as bifid and megaureter. Collectively, the mouse Nfia mutant phenotype and the common features among these five human cases indicate that NFIA haploinsufficiency contributes to a novel human CNS malformation syndrome that can also include ureteral and renal defects. PMID:17530927

  17. Targeted microbubbles: a novel application for the treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Marx, Vanessa; Laser, Daniel; Kenny, Thomas; Chi, Thomas; Bailey, Michael; Sorensen, Mathew D; Grubbs, Robert H; Stoller, Marshall L

    2015-07-01

    Kidney stone disease is endemic. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was the first major technological breakthrough where focused shockwaves were used to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter. The shockwaves induced the formation of cavitation bubbles, whose collapse released energy at the stone, and the energy fragmented the kidney stones into pieces small enough to be passed spontaneously. Can the concept of microbubbles be used without the bulky machine? The logical progression was to manufacture these powerful microbubbles ex vivo and inject these bubbles directly into the collecting system. An external source can be used to induce cavitation once the microbubbles are at their target; the key is targeting these microbubbles to specifically bind to kidney stones. Two important observations have been established: (i) bisphosphonates attach to hydroxyapatite crystals with high affinity; and (ii) there is substantial hydroxyapatite in most kidney stones. The microbubbles can be equipped with bisphosphonate tags to specifically target kidney stones. These bubbles will preferentially bind to the stone and not surrounding tissue, reducing collateral damage. Ultrasound or another suitable form of energy is then applied causing the microbubbles to induce cavitation and fragment the stones. This can be used as an adjunct to ureteroscopy or percutaneous lithotripsy to aid in fragmentation. Randall's plaques, which also contain hydroxyapatite crystals, can also be targeted to pre-emptively destroy these stone precursors. Additionally, targeted microbubbles can aid in kidney stone diagnostics by virtue of being used as an adjunct to traditional imaging methods, especially useful in high-risk patient populations. This novel application of targeted microbubble technology not only represents the next frontier in minimally invasive stone surgery, but a platform technology for other areas of medicine. PMID:25402588

  18. [FEATURES OF PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTRIPSY IN PATIENTS WITH UROLITHIASIS OF SOLITARY KIDNEY].

    PubMed

    Dutov, V V; Urenkov, S B; Parshenkova, I G; Rumjancev, A A; Mamedov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in 49 urolithiasis patients with a solitary kidney. In 44 (89.8%) patients the calculi were located in the kidney, in 5 (10.2%) patients - in the upper third of the ureter. The calculi were single (18; 36.7%), multiple (14; 28.6%) or stag-horn (17; 34.7%). Efficiency of PCNL estimated immediately after surgery and at the end of the third month of observation was 75.5 and 93.9%, respectively. Stone size (p=0.594), the baseline state of urodynamics of the upper urinary tract (p=0.205) did not affect the renal clearance at PCNL. Enlargement of initial calculus size positively correlated with the number of required treatment sessions (p=0.013), duration of surgery (p<0.0001), and the length of postoperative hospital stay (p<0.0001). Complications were common (44.9%), but the auxiliary manipulations were performed infrequently (26.5%). No associations were found between the size of calculus, the number of complications and secondary manipulations (p=0.361). No correlations were found between the clinical form of a solitary kidneywith urolithiasis and the occurrence of complications during the treatment course (p=0.121), as well as between the presence of complications and the cause of the "loss" of the contralateral kidney (p> 0.05). Thus, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is a highly effective method modality of treatment of solitary kidney urolithiasis. Appropriate selection of indications and contraindications for PCNL, preoperative preparation, surgical technique, postoperative patient management are of great importance. PMID:26237807

  19. Safety and efficacy of using the stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Waleed; Teleb, Mohamed; Dawod, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of using a stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device (N-Trap®, Cook Urological, Bloomington, IN, USA) to avoid stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones. Patients and methods This retrospective comparative study included 436 patients treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy for a single ureteric stone from February 2011 to January 2014. The diagnosis of a stone was confirmed by plain spiral computed tomography in all cases. Patients were divided according to the ureteric occlusion device applied to avoid stone retropulsion during pneumatic lithotripsy into three groups; group 1 (156) had no instruments used, group 2 (140) in whom the stone cone was applied, and group 3 (140) in whom the N-Trap was used. Patient demographics, stone criteria, operative duration and complications, and success rates (complete stone disintegration with no upward migration) were reported and analysed statistically. Results The stone was in the lower ureter in >55% of patients in all groups. The mean (SD) of maximum stone length was 9.8 (2.5), 10.4 (2.8) and 9.7 (2.9) in groups 1–3, respectively. The use of the stone cone or N-Trap did not significantly increase the operative duration (P = 0.13) or complication rates (P = 0.67). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) favouring groups 2 and 3 for retropulsion and success rates, being 83.3% in group 1, 97.1% in group 2 and 95.7% in group 3. Conclusion The stone cone and N-Trap gave high success rates in preventing stone retropulsion during ureteric pneumatic lithotripsy. Both devices caused no increase in operative duration or complications when used cautiously. PMID:26413324

  20. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis – a complication of bone marrow transplantation in pediatric oncology patients

    PubMed Central

    Biel, Anna; Soko?owska-D?bek, D?brówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; ?asecki, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis following bone marrow transplantation in children. Material and methods The study involved an analysis of clinical material and the results of imaging tests performed in 334 patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation. Ultrasonographic findings in 42 patients with hemorrhagic cystitis were analyzed in detail. The ultrasound images served to assess the severity of hemorrhagic cystitis and the results were compared with the clinical assessment of the disease on the Droller scale, as well as the laboratory and endoscopic tests. Results In the studied group of patients hemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic transplantation was diagnosed in 12.5% cases. 73.8% patients received transplants from unrelated donors, 26.2% – from compatible siblings. The study revealed a higher incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis in children above 10 years of age. Grade 3 according to the Droller was diagnosed in 42.9%, grade 2 – in 30.9%, grade 4 – in 14.3%, and grade 1 – in 11.9% patients. The number of ultrasound examinations depended on the clinical symptoms, severity, duration and co-occurrence of other complications following the transplantation and was within the 1–15 range (average: 4.6). Grades 3 and 4 were related to the poor clinical condition of the patients and to their longer hospitalization. During this period there was an increased risk of renal malfunction and acute renal failure, post-inflammatory narrowing of the ureters, hydronephrosis, and in grade 4 the fibrosis of the bladder with reduced bladder capacity. Analyses demonstrated a significant correlation between the ultrasound image of the bladder wall and the clinical severity. Conclusions Ultrasound with Doppler options remains the primary diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hemorrhagic cystitis, and is useful in terms of its diagnosis, determination of the severity, and monitoring of the treatment.

  1. Risk of Second Primary Cancer among Prostate Cancer Patients in Korea: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Young; Lim, Jiwon; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Cho, Hyunsoon; Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Won, Young-Joo

    2015-01-01

    As patients with prostate cancer have a long life expectancy, there is increasing interest in predicting the risk of development of a second primary cancer (SPC), and we therefore designed this study to estimate the overall risk of developing SPCs among Korean prostate cancer patients. We used a population-based cohort from the Korean Central Cancer Registry composed of 55,378 men diagnosed with a first primary prostate cancer between 1993 and 2011. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPCs were analyzed by age at diagnosis, latency period, period of diagnosis, and type of initial treatment. Survival analysis was stratified by development of SPC. Men with primary prostate cancer had an overall lower risk of developing an SPC [SIR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72?0.78], which was significant for SPCs of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, larynx, lung, and bronchus. In contrast, there were significant increases in the risk of bladder and thyroid cancers, which tended to decrease after longer follow-up. Patients who received initial radiation therapy had an increased risk of subsequent rectal cancer, although this was still lower than that of the general male population. Other urinary tract cancers including those of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter tended to be associated with a higher risk of developing an SPC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The patients with prostate cancer and SPC had lower overall survival rates than those with one primary prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that men with prostate cancer have a 25% lower risk of developing an SPC in Korea, but a higher risk of developing subsequent bladder and thyroid cancers, which suggests the need for continued cancer surveillance among prostate cancer survivors. PMID:26469085

  2. Ionized alkaline water: new strategy for management of metabolic acidosis in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Abol-Enein, Hassan; Gheith, Osama A; Barakat, Nashwa; Nour, Eman; Sharaf, Abd-Elhameed

    2009-06-01

    Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney, which represent common causes of metabolic acidosis. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis has been very controversial. Ionized alkaline water was not evaluated in such groups of patients in spite of its safety and reported benefits. So, we aimed to assess its efficacy in the management of metabolic acidosis in animal models. Two models of metabolic acidosis were created in dogs and rats. The first model of renal failure was induced by ligation of both ureters; and the second model was induced by urinary diversion to gut (gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss model). Both models were subjected to ionized alkaline water (orally and by hemodialysis). Dogs with renal failure were assigned to two groups according to the type of dialysate utilized during hemodialysis sessions, the first was utilizing alkaline water and the second was utilizing conventional water. Another two groups of animals with urinary diversion were arranged to receive oral alkaline water and tap water. In renal failure animal models, acid-base parameters improved significantly after hemodialysis with ionized alkaline water compared with the conventional water treated with reverse osmosis (RO). Similar results were observed in urinary diversion models as there was significant improvement of both the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and serum bicarbonate (P = 0.007 and 0.001 respectively) after utilizing alkaline water orally. Alkaline ionized water can be considered as a major safe strategy in the management of metabolic acidosis secondary to renal failure or dialysis or urinary diversion. Human studies are indicated in the near future to confirm this issue in humans. PMID:19527469

  3. Uterine Artery Embolization for Ureteric Obstruction Secondary to Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Tuite, David; Nicholson, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms, loin pain, postobstructive atrophy, and mild renal impairment. All had posterior intramural dominant fibroids >11 cm in maximum sagittal diameter and uterine volumes between 3776 and 15,625 ml. Outcome measures at between 12 and 36 months included procedural success, repeat intervention, relief of symptoms, resolution of hydronephrosis, stable renal function and size, and avoidance of hysterectomy. In all cases the cause of renal obstruction was confirmed to be a giant fibroid compressing the ureter at the pelvic brim. In all cases UAE was technically successful, though two patients required a repeat procedure. In eight patients hydronephrosis resolved and the obstruction was relieved, though two still had some bulk symptoms not requiring further treatment. Renal function improved or was stable in all cases. Renal size was stable in all cases. Where menorrhagia was part of the symptom complex it was relieved in all cases. Two patients diagnosed as having postobstructive atrophy of one kidney underwent retrograde ureteric stenting on the nonatrophied side prior to UAE. This was unsuccessful in one of the cases due to the distortion caused by the fibroid. Despite improvement in hydronephrosis this patient underwent hysterectomy at 7 months after a renogram demonstrated persistent obstruction at the pelvic brim. In the second patient a double pigtail stent was inserted with difficulty and eventually removed at 8 months. This patient has had stable renal function and size for 3 years post-UAE. We conclude that UAE is safe and effective in treating patients with obstructive hydronephrosis caused by large fibroids.

  4. Tuberculosis in wild birds: implications for captive birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, K. A.; Dein, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of avian tuberculosis is widespread but the lack of visible epizootics makes assessment of its impact on wild birds difficult. Generally a low prevalence, widely-scattered, individual animal disease, avian tuberculosis is caused by the same agent in wild and domestic birds. Thus there exists the potential for disease transfer between these two groups in situations that result in direct contact such as wild animals newly captured or transferred from rehabilitation centers, and wild and captive animals intermingling in exhibit areas. During the past 7 yr, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium, was diagnosed in 64 birds submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 16 states; avian tuberculosis was the primary diagnosis in 52 of the 64 birds, while the remaining 12 isolates were incidental findings. Twenty-eight of these birds were picked up during epizootics caused by other disease agents including avian cholera, botulism type C, and lead, organophosphorus compound, and cyanide poisoning. Twelve birds were found incidental to birds collected during disease monitoring programs and research projects, and 10 birds were collected by hunters or found sick and euthanatized. Tuberculosis lesions occurred (in order of decreasing frequency) in the liver, intestine, spleen, lung, and air sacs. Several unusual morphological presentations were observed in the gizzard, shoulder joint, jugular vein, face, nares and bill, ureter and bone marrow. Infected birds were collected during all 12 mo of the yr from a variety of species in the Anseriformes, Podicipediformes, Gruiformes, and Falconiformes. Nine of the 46 known age birds were immature indicating that lesions can develop during the first year.

  5. Differentiation of tissue and kidney stones for laser lithotripsy using different spectroscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Birgit; Cordes, Jens; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Holmium lasers are nowadays the gold standard for endoscopic laser lithotripsy. However, there is a risk of damaging or perforating the ureter or kidney tissue when the vision is poor. An automatic tissue/stone differentiation would improve the handling and safety of the procedure. To achieve this objective, an easy and robust real-time discrimination method has to be found which can be used to realize a feedback loop to control the laser system. Two possible approaches have been evaluated: White light reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In both cases, we use the treatment fiber for detection and evaluate the possibility to decide whether the fiber is placed in front of tissue or calculus by the signal that is delivered by the surface in front of it. White light reflectance spectroscopy uses the standard light source for endourologic surgeries: Radiation of a Xenon light source is coupled to the ureteroscope via a liquid light guide. The part of the white light that is reflected back into the fiber is spectroscopically analyzed. In a clinical proof of concept study reflection signals were measured in vivo in 8 patients. For differentiation of stone and tissue via autofluorescence, excitation as well as detection was done via the treatment fiber. A suitable excitation wavelength was chosen with in vitro measurements (UV / visible) on several human renal calculi and porcine tissues. For verification of the positive results with green excitation in a clinical proof of concept study, a measurement set-up was realized which allows the recording of fluorescence signals during an endourological intervention.

  6. Granulomatous nephritis in psittacines associated with parasitism by the trematode Paratanaisia spp.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marcela M; de Melo, Alan L; Motta, Rafael O C; Malta, Marcelo C C; Gardiner, C H; Santos, Renato L

    2007-05-31

    Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae are parasites of the kidney and ureter, and affect several bird species. However, psittacines have not been identified as hosts of these parasites. Three birds, an adult female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna), an adult female blue-winged macaw (Propyrrhura maracana) and an adult male white-eared parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis) were admitted at the Veterinary Hospital of the Fundaçăo Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte, Brazil (FZB/BH). All three birds had severe dehydration and cachexia. The blue and gold macaw presented with dyspnea, apathy, and incoordination. Blood cell counts indicated discrete anemia and leucopenia. Blood biochemistry revealed significant increase in levels of uric acid (61 mg/dl) and blood urea nitrogen (22 mg/dl). The bird died within 24 h after admission. The other two birds were admitted with similar clinical signs, but died prior to a complete clinical examination. At the necropsy, in all the three birds, the kidneys were enlarged with brown-yellowish discoloration and irregular cortical surface. On the cut surface, there was a brown-yellowish material with few visible parasites flowing out of the parenchyma. When fragments of the kidneys were placed in 10% formalin, a large number of trematodes came out of the renal parenchyma. The parasites were identified as Paratanaisia robusta infecting all three birds, and P. bragai infecting the blue-winged macaw and the white-eared parakeet. Histologically, there was an interstitial, multifocal to coalescent, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with some epithelioid macrophages, and a few heterophils, characterizing a granulomatous nephritis. Adult worms and eggs were observed within dilated tubules and in the renal pelvis. In the blue and gold macaw, some parasite eggs were located interstitially associated with an intense adjacent granulomatous reaction. PMID:17418949

  7. Stenting for malignant ureteral obstruction: Tandem, metal or metal-mesh stents.

    PubMed

    Elsamra, Sammy E; Leavitt, David A; Motato, Hector A; Friedlander, Justin I; Siev, Michael; Keheila, Mohamed; Hoenig, David M; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2015-07-01

    Extrinsic malignant compression of the ureter is not uncommon, often refractory to decompression with conventional polymeric ureteral stents, and frequently associated with limited survival. Alternative options for decompression include tandem ureteral stents, metallic stents and metal-mesh stents, though the preferred method remains controversial. We reviewed and updated our outcomes with tandem ureteral stents for malignant ureteral obstruction, and carried out a PubMed search using the terms "malignant ureteral obstruction," "tandem ureteral stents," "ipsilateral ureteral stents," "metal ureteral stent," "resonance stent," "silhouette stent" and "metal mesh stent." A comprehensive review of the literature and summary of outcomes is provided. The majority of studies encountered were retrospective with small sample sizes. The evidence is most robust for metal stents, whereas only limited data exists for tandem or metal-mesh stents. Metal and metal-mesh stents are considerably more expensive than tandem stenting, but the potential for less frequent stent exchanges makes them possibly cost-effective over time. Urinary tract infections have been associated with all stent types. A wide range of failure rates has been published for all types of stents, limiting direct comparison. Metal and metal-mesh stents show a high incidence of stent colic, migration and encrustation, whereas tandem stents appear to produce symptoms equivalent to single stents. Comparison is difficult given the limited evidence and heterogeneity of patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. It is clear that prospective, randomized studies are necessary to effectively scrutinize conventional, tandem, metallic ureteral and metal-mesh stents for their use in malignant ureteral obstruction. PMID:25950837

  8. Sonography of tumors and tumor-like lesions that mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Szopi?ski, Tomasz; Go??bek, Tomasz; Ostasz, Oksana; Bojko, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic abdominal organs that is assessed during transabdominal ultrasound examination for urological reasons is the urinary bladder. The bladder must be filled with urine. This is a prerequisite for a reliable assessment and, at the same time, an acoustic window in examining adjacent structures and organs, for instance the prostate gland. In some cases, doubts occur with respect to the nature of lesions detected. The paper presents anatomic lesions, defects and pathologies which might be erroneously interpreted as tumors of the urinary bladder, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The following lesions are discussed: 1) anatomic defects (including urachus remnants, ligaments that stabilize the bladder or cyst in the opening of the ureter into the bladder – ureterocele); 2) tumor- like lesions in the lumen of the urinary bladder (such as blood clots, fungus balls, stones or foreign bodies); 3) bladder wall pathologies (i.e. cystitis or endometriosis), focal decidual transformation of stromal cells or inflammatory pseudotumor; 4) lesions impressing on the bladder from the outside (the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, the bowel, pathological lesions in organs adjacent to the urinary bladder, inflammatory infiltration, vasogenic compression of the bladder, pelvic lipomatosis, pathological lesions of the pubic symphysis); 5) postoperative lesions. All these lesions may mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in sonography. Bearing this fact in mind is significant in establishing a diagnosis. Due to the malignant character of carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the need for aggressive surgical treatment, a correct diagnosis of this disease is essential for patients, particularly because the lack of adequate treatment and delayed treatment considerably affect prognosis. PMID:26672732

  9. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ?22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11-51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND. PMID:25038184

  10. In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Bia?czak-Kokot, Magdalena; Ró?alski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation. PMID:24803200

  11. Visual enhancement of fascial tissue in endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehle, Thomas; Behrens, Alexander; Bolz, Matthias; Aach, Til

    2008-03-01

    A colon resection, necessary in case of colon cancer, can be performed minimally invasively by laparoscopy. Before the affected part of the colon can be removed, however, the colon must be mobilized. A good technique for mobilizing the colon is to use Gerota's fascia as a guiding structure, i. e. to dissect along this fascia, without harming it. The challenge of this technique is that Gerota's fascia is usually difficult to distinguish from other tissue. In this paper, we present an approach to enhance the visual contrast between fatty tissue covered by Gerota's fascia and uncovered fatty tissue, and the contrast of both structures to the remaining soft tissue in real time (50 fields per second). As fasciae are whitish transparent tissues, they cannot be identified by means of their color itself. Instead, we found that their most prominent feature to distinguish is the color saturation. To enhance their visible contrast, we applied a non-linear transformation to the saturation. An off-line evaluation was carried out consulting two specialists in laparoscopic colon resection. We presented them four scenes from two different interventions in which our enhancement was applied together with the original scenes. These scenes did not only contain situations where Gerota's fascia had to be found, but also situations where aerosol from ultrasonically activated scissors inhibited the clear vision, or situations where critical structures such as the ureter or nerves had to be identified under fascial tissue. The surgeons stated that our algorithm clearly offered an information gain in all of the presented scenes, and that it did not impair the clear vision in case of aerosol or the visibility of critical structures. So the colon mobilization could be carried out easier, faster, and safer. In the subsequent clinical on-line evaluation, the specialists confirmed the positive effect of the proposed algorithm on the visibility of Gerota's fascia.

  12. Analyses of DNA adducts formed by ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in patients with Chinese herbs nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Arlt, V M; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Cosyns, J; Schmeiser, H H

    2001-07-25

    Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), a unique type of nephropathy has been associated with the intake of weight-reducing pills containing the Chinese herb Aristolochia fangchi. Moreover, an association between the use of A. fangchi and urothelial cancer in CHN patients has been reported indicating that aristolochic acid (AA) the major alkaloid of A. fangchi might be the causal agent. Similarities of CHN to the Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) have led to the hypothesis of a common etiological agent for both diseases. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally-induced disease strongly associated with the fungal mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Both, AA and OTA are nephrotoxic and carcinogenic and induce the formation of DNA adducts. As OTA has been suspected as fungal contaminant in the herbal batches used for the preparation of the weight-reducing pills we analysed tissues from CHN patients by the 32P-postlabeling procedure for the presence of DNA adducts related to both OTA and AA exposure. Whereas, AA-specific DNA adducts were detected in all five urinary tract tissues from five patients (total RAL: 32-251 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides), OTA-related DNA adducts were detectable in two kidneys and one ureter only (total RAL: 1.5-3.7 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides). Thus, OTA-related DNA adduct levels were about 50 times lower than AA-DNA adduct levels. In female and male rats that were treated with the slimming regimen in the same way like the CHN patients except that the amount of Chinese herbs was 10 times higher, AA-DNA adducts were found in kidney tissues (total RAL ranging from 51 to 83 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides) but adducts derived from OTA were not observed. These results demonstrate that OTA-related DNA adducts do not play a key role in CHN or CHN-associated urothelial cancer. PMID:11423353

  13. Kidney stone ablation times and peak saline temperatures during Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy, in vitro, in a ureteral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    Using a validated in vitro ureter model for laser lithotripsy, the performance of an experimental Thulium fiber laser (TFL) was studied and compared to clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. The Holmium laser (? = 2120 nm) was operated with standard parameters of 600 mJ, 350 ?s, 6 Hz, and 270-?m-core optical fiber. TFL (? = 1908 nm) was operated with 35 mJ, 500 ?s, 150-500 Hz, and 100-?m-core fiber. Urinary stones (60% calcium oxalate monohydrate / 40% calcium phosphate), of uniform mass and diameter (4-5 mm) were laser ablated with fibers through a flexible video-ureteroscope under saline irrigation with flow rates of 22.7 ml/min and 13.7 ml/min for the TFL and Holmium laser, respectively. The temperature 3 mm from tube's center and 1 mm above mesh sieve was measured by a thermocouple and recorded during experiments. Total laser and operation times were recorded once all stone fragments passed through a 1.5-mm sieve. Holmium laser time measured 167 +/- 41 s (n = 12). TFL times measured 111 +/- 49 s, 39 +/- 11 s, and 23 +/- 4 s, for pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz (n = 12 each). Mean peak saline irrigation temperatures reached 24 +/- 1 °C for Holmium, and 33 +/- 3 °C, 33 +/- 7 °C, and 39 +/- 6 °C, for TFL at pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz. To avoid thermal buildup and provide a sufficient safety margin, TFL lithotripsy should be performed with pulse rates below 500 Hz and/or increased saline irrigation rates. The TFL rapidly fragmented kidney stones due in part to its high pulse rate, high power density, high average power, and reduced stone retropulsion, and may provide a clinical alternative to the conventional Holmium laser for lithotripsy.

  14. Optimal Management of Lower Polar Calyceal Stone 15 to 20 mm

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Naveed; Nazim, Syed M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the stone clearance rate, efficiency quotient (EQ), and early complications of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for solitary lower-pole renal stones measuring 15 to 20 mm. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective matched-pair analysis of 142 patients (78 in the SWL and 64 in the PCNL group). Preoperative imaging was done by use of noncontrast computed tomography (CT kidney, ureter, and bladder [KUB]), intravenous urogram, or plain X-ray and ultrasound KUB to assess the largest dimension of the stones. Only patients with radiopaque stones were included. The stone-free rates were assessed with plain X-ray and ultrasound at 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by use of SPSS ver. 19. Results The patients' demographic profiles (age, body mass index) and the stone sizes were comparable in the two groups. The mean stone size was 17.4±2.12 in the PCNL group compared with 17.67±2.04 in the SWL group (p=0.45). At 4 weeks, 83% of patients undergoing PCNL were stone-free compared with 51% in the SWL group (p<0.001). The EQ for the PCNL group was 76% compared with 44% for the SWL group (p<0.001). Ancillary procedures were required by 9% of patients in the PCNL group compared with 15% in the SWL group. The complication rate was 19% in both groups. The SWL complications were minor. Conclusions Stone clearance from the lower pole of solitary stones sized 15 to 20 mm at the greatest diameter following SWL is poorer. These calculi can be better managed with percutaneous surgery owing to its higher efficacy and acceptably low morbidity. PMID:23614064

  15. Utility and Limitation of Cumulative Stone Diameter in Predicting Urinary Stone Burden at Flexible Ureteroscopy with Holmium Laser Lithotripsy: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroki; Kawahara, Takashi; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively assess the clinical utility in ureteroscopy (URS) planning of cumulative stone diameter (CSD), which does not account for stone width or depth, as a predictor of URS outcome and compare it with stone volume. Materials and Methods Patients with renal stones treated at a single institute by flexible URS were retrospectively evaluated. To assess the clinical utility of CSD, relationships between stone-free (SF) status and stone burden (CSD and volume) were analyzed using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve. To identify stone number impact on CSD, the AUROC of CSD divided by stone number was evaluated. Correlation coefficients of CSD and stone volume were also calculated for groups by stone number. Results In cases with CSD <20.0 mm, CSD and stone volume revealed equal ability to predict SF status. In cases with CSD ?20.0 mm, stone volume showed higher predictive ability. The ROC curves for cases with ?4 stones showed that CSD was less predictive of SF status than stone volume. The correlation coefficients of CSD and stone volume by stone number were 0.922 for 1 stone, 0.900 for 2–3 stones, and 0.661 for ?4 stones. Conclusions In cases with CSD ?20.0 mm or ?4 stones, we should evaluate stone volume for a more predictive stone burden, and pretreatment non-contrast CT seems sufficient. In cases with CSD <20.0 mm or 1–3 stones, CSD was as valid a predictor of preoperative stone burden as stone volume, so preoperative kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) films may be sufficient. PMID:23750229

  16. Epithelial Cell Repopulation and Preparation of Rodent Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Renal Tissue Development.

    PubMed

    Uzarski, Joseph S; Su, Jimmy; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Zheng J; Ward, Heather H; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Miller, William M; Wertheim, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    This protocol details the generation of acellular, yet biofunctional, renal extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds that are useful as small-scale model substrates for organ-scale tissue development. Sprague Dawley rat kidneys are cannulated by inserting a catheter into the renal artery and perfused with a series of low-concentration detergents (Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) over 26 hr to derive intact, whole-kidney scaffolds with intact perfusable vasculature, glomeruli, and renal tubules. Following decellularization, the renal scaffold is placed inside a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor vessel, and the catheterized renal artery is connected to a perfusion circuit consisting of: a peristaltic pump; tubing; and optional probes for pH, dissolved oxygen, and pressure. After sterilizing the scaffold with peracetic acid and ethanol, and balancing the pH (7.4), the kidney scaffold is prepared for seeding via perfusion of culture medium within a large-capacity incubator maintained at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Forty million renal cortical tubular epithelial (RCTE) cells are injected through the renal artery, and rapidly perfused through the scaffold under high flow (25 ml/min) and pressure (~230 mmHg) for 15 min before reducing the flow to a physiological rate (4 ml/min). RCTE cells primarily populate the tubular ECM niche within the renal cortex, proliferate, and form tubular epithelial structures over seven days of perfusion culture. A 44 µM resazurin solution in culture medium is perfused through the kidney for 1 hr during medium exchanges to provide a fluorometric, redox-based metabolic assessment of cell viability and proliferation during tubulogenesis. The kidney perfusion bioreactor permits non-invasive sampling of medium for biochemical assessment, and multiple inlet ports allow alternative retrograde seeding through the renal vein or ureter. These protocols can be used to recellularize kidney scaffolds with a variety of cell types, including vascular endothelial, tubular epithelial, and stromal fibroblasts, for rapid evaluation within this system. PMID:26327609

  17. Reporting ureteroscopy complications using the modified clavien classification system

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perioperative complications are one of the surrogate indicators of surgical outcomes. However, reporting these complications need a precise grading system. Our aim is to report and grade the complications of semirigid ureteroscopy in ureteral stone management according to the modified Clavien classification system. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted From January 2012 to June 2013. All patients with ureteral stones who were indicated for semirigid URS were evaluated. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The data recorded including patient demographics, clinical indication, stone size and location, operative time and complications were classified according to the modified Clavien classification system. The patients were followed for 8 weeks postoperatively. Results: 148 patients included, Stone distribution was: 89 (60.1%) lower ureteral, 26 (17.6%) mid ureteral, and 33 (22.3%) upper ureteral. the mean stone size was 8.6 mm. Urgent URS done in 23% of patient. The overall stone free rate was 88.5%, the individual stone free rate for the upper, middle and lower ureter were 87.9%, 84.6%, and 89.9%, respectively. The mean operative time was 31.9 min (20-50 min.). Complications occurred in 26.35% of patients. Grade I complications occurred in 32 patients (26.1%), grade II in 9 (6.1%), grade IIIa in 7 (4.7%), grade IIIb in 8 (5.4%), grade IVa in two patient (1.35%), and grade IVb in one patient (0.7%). No grade V complication was encountered. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy becomes the vanguard interventional therapy for ureteral stones with well-established efficacy and safety. It is of paramount importance to adopt a precise structured classification system for reporting surgical complications, that should be flexible and comprehensive in order to accommodate the various and rapidly expanding surgical fields. PMID:25657545

  18. Urine cytology to evaluate urinary urothelial damage of shock-wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mahmoud; Pancaroglu, Kuddusi

    2011-06-01

    Our aim is to study the prospective trial where urine cytology was used to detect the acute urothelial mucosal damage in patients who undergo extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (SWL). The study included 48 consecutive patients (28 male, 20 female) with mean age of 49.02 years (range 18-66) who were treated with SWL due to renal stones (30 patients) or upper ureter stones (18 patients). The mean calculi diameter was 12.44 mm (range 5-20). Urinary cytologic examinations were done for all patients immediately before and after SWL therapy and 10 days latter. The average numbers of transitional cells, red blood cells and myocytes were counted under 40 × magnification. In overall patients the average numbers of transitional cells at the cytologic examinations done immediately before and after SWL therapy were 1.6 and 7.53 cell/field, respectively (p = 0.001). The increment in transitional cells at cytologic examination after SWL was significantly influenced only by number of shock waves applied (p = 0.003). No muscle cell was detected in all cytologic examinations. The cytologic examinations which were done after 10 days of SWL therapy showed recovery from all cytologic abnormalities. The acute increment in number of transitional cells after the SWL is not clinically important and it is a temporary change. Urothelial lesion is limited to mucosal layer and there is no evidence of damage to basal membrane or deeper muscle layer. SWL safety on urothelial and muscular layer was demonstrated. However, evaluation of larger series with use of other lithotripters is necessary before reaching any definitive conclusions. PMID:21063696

  19. Genitourinary tuberculosis in North America: A rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Michael W.; Brimo, Fadi; Horn, Ruth; Andonian, Sero

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of mortality from infectious diseases worldwide, genitourinary TB in North America is rare. We review 3 cases of genitourinary TB diagnosed within the last 5 years. Cases: The first case is that of a 76-year-old African-Canadian woman who was referred for percutaneous nephrolithotomy of right lower pole renal stones. Although renal TB was suspected, her initial urinary TB culture was negative. On follow-up imaging, she developed bilateral ureteral thickening and ureteroscopic biopsy confirmed necrotizing granulomata. Repeat urine cultures were positive for M. tuberculosis. The second case is a 73-year-old Italian-Canadian woman who was referred for ureteroscopic biopsy of left thickened ureter to rule out urothelial carcinoma. Initial urine TB cultures were negative, despite biopsies confirming granulomatous inflammation. She was closely followed with urine cytologies and TB cultures. Repeat urine culture was positive for M. tuberculosis. Both patients were treated with a course of anti-tuberculous agents and indwelling ureteral stents to relieve ureteral obstruction. The third case is a 70-year-old Cree woman who was referred for percutaneous nephrolithotomy of a left “staghorn stone” in an atrophic left kidney. Thirty years earlier she had been treated for pulmonary TB in addition to ileocystoplasty for a “thimble” bladder. A computed tomography scan showed autonephrectomized left kidney. Her urine TB cultures were negative. She was placed on prophylactic antibiotics for her recurrent bacterial urinary tract infections. Conclusion: Genitourinary TB may present in various subtle ways, and the astute clinician must have a high index of suspicion for this disease in patients with atypical clinical and radiologic findings. In addition, TB urine cultures should be repeated when there is high index of suspicion. PMID:26279721

  20. The relative contribution of urine extravasation to elevate plasma creatinine levels in acute unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Barak; Pinthus, Jehonathan H.; Kleinmann, Nir; Joffe, Erel; Erlich, Tomer; Fridman, Eddie; Winkler, Harry; Mor, Yoram; Ramon, Jacob; Dotan, Zohar A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rising levels of plasma creatinine in the setting of acute unilateral ureteral obstruction (AUUO) often reflects acute renal failure, mandating kidney drainage. We hypothesize that re-absorption of peri-renal urine extravasation (PUE), a common result of UUO, contributes significantly to the elevation in plasma creatinine, rendering the latter an inaccurate benchmark for renal function. We explored this hypothesis in a rat model of AUUO and PUE. Methods: In total, 20 rats were equally divided into 4 groups. Groups 1 and 2 underwent unilateral ligation of the ureter with infiltration of rat’s urine (index group) or saline (control) into the peri-renal space. Two additional control groups underwent peri-renal injection of either urine or saline without AUUO. Plasma creatinine levels were determined immediately prior to the procedure (T0), and hourly for 3 hours (T1, T2 and T3). Renal histology was investigated after 3 hours. Results: Rats in the index group had a significantly greater increase in plasma creatinine levels over 3 hours compared to all other groups (p < 0.05). At T3, average plasma creatinine levels for the index group increased by 96% (0.49 ± 0.18 mg/dL) compared to 46% (0.23 ± 0.06 mg/dL increase) in the AUUO and saline group, and less than 15% rise in both the non-obstructed control groups. Our study limitations includes lack of spontaneous PUE and intraperitoneal surgical approach. Conclusions: Absorption of peri-renal urine in the presence of AUUO is a significant contributor to rising plasma creatinine levels, beyond those attributable to the obstruction alone, and may overestimate the extent of the true renal functional impairment. PMID:26279711

  1. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors in Croatian children with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Miloševi?, Danko; Batini?, Danica; Turudi?, Daniel; Batini?, Danko; Topalovi?-Grkovi?, Marija; Gradiški, Ivan Pavao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess demographic data, clinical presentation, metabolic features, and treatment in 76 children with urolithiasis presented from 2002 to 2011. Urolithiasis is responsible for 2.5/1,000 pediatric hospitalizations, with new cases diagnosed in 1.1/1,000 admissions. From the observed period, two-fold rise of incidence rate was observed. Compiling the data from other pediatric institutions in our country, we estimated present overall incidence rate in Croatia as 6.5/100,000 children under 18 years. There were 41 boys and 35 girls (ratio 1.17:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range 0.8-16) years and follow-up duration was 5.3 (range 1.8-10) years. Renal colic (75.0 %) and hematuria (57.89 %) were the main symptoms. In 65.78 % of children, stones were unilateral. Stones were located in kidney in 52.63 %, in the ureter in 26.32 %, and in bladder in 6.58 % cases. Stone analysis showed calcium oxalate in 75.0 % of the cases. Associated urinary tract abnormalities were found in 19.73 % children. Most common metabolic disturbances were hypercalciuria (47.37 %) and idiopathic or mild hyperoxaluria (18.42 %). Urine saturation (EQUIL2) was elevated in 61.84 % cases. Spontaneous stone evacuation occurred in 51.21 % children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, surgical evacuation, and endoscopic removal of calculi were performed in 21.0, 6.58, and 5.26 % of cases, respectively. Follow-up conservative therapy, consisting of fluid/diet recommendations and additional potassium citrate and/or chlorothiazide in children with increased risk, was sufficient for stone recurrence prevention in 92.1 % of children. In conclusion, the study gave insight in epidemiology and metabolic disturbances of urinary stone disease in Croatian children. PMID:24096520

  2. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  3. Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty in the Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Elashry, Osama M.; Clayman, Ralph V.; Humphrey, Peter A.; Rayah, Heidi J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Laparoscopic pyeloplasty has been associated with long operative times. This study proposed to evaluate the feasibility of two different laparoscopic techniques for the performance of pyeloplasty repair of secondary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female Yucatan mini-pigs underwent general anesthesia for cystoscopy, retrograde pyelography, urine culture and a baseline renal scan. Unilateral UPJ obstruction was created by ligating the UPJ over a 5F catheter. Six weeks later a laparoscopic pyeloplasty was performed utilizing an intracorporeal suturing technique and the Lapra-Ty suture clip or the Endostitch device with intracorporeal knot tying. Four control animals underwent only cystoscopy and in/out ureteral catheterization. In the study animals the ureteral stent was maintained for six weeks and at six weeks, three months and six months post-pyeloplasty the animals underwent the previously mentioned studies. At six months post-pyeloplasty the animals were euthanized and the UPJ was calibrated. Histopathology was obtained on the ureter below the anastomosis, at the anastomosis, above the anastomosis and on a renal biopsy. Results: All planned laparoscopic pyeloplasties were completed. However, the stricture model was too severe in that most animals developed 40-45% decrease in renal function in the kidney following ipsilateral UPJ ligation. There was no significant difference between the two pyeloplasty techniques with respect to operative time to perform the pyeloplasty (mean of 40 minutes), post-pyeloplasty ureteral caliber (7.5-8.0 F), serum creatinine or healing scores at, above or below the anastomosis. Conclusion: Laparoscopic pyeloplasty can be performed equally successfully with the Endostitch device and intracorporeal knot tying or with the intracorporeal suturing technique and Lapra-Ty clips. The resultant pyeloplasty is also equivalent for the two techniques. PMID:9876657

  4. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Pinzauti, Serena; Santulli, Pietro; Chapron, Charles; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. Ovarian endometrioma (OMA), superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are, till now, recognized as major phenotypes. The discussion is to know whether they share the same pathogenetic mechanisms. Till today, DIE is recognized as the most severe clinical form of endometriosis and has a complex clinical management. The DIE lesions have been considered in the present article, without distinguishing between the anterior (bladder) or the posterior (vagina, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, and ureter) compartment. The present knowledge indicates that hormonal function (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and immunological factors, such as peritoneal macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, are critically altered in DIE. The aggressive behavior of DIE may be explained by the highly decreased apoptosis (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kB], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Blc-2], and anti-Mullerian hormone) and by the increased proliferation activity related to oxidative stress (NF-kB, reactive oxygen species, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), advanced oxidation protein product). Invasive mechanisms are more expressed (matrix metalloproteinases and activins) in DIE in comparison to the OMA and SPE. Correlated with the increased invasiveness are the data on very high expression of neuroangiogenesis (nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule) genes in DIE. Therefore, at the present time, several of the DIE pathogenetic features result specific in comparison to other endometriosis phenotypes, pleading for the existence of a specific entity. These evidence of specific pathogenetic features of DIE may explain the more severe symptomatology related to this form of endometriosis and suggest possible future target medical treatments. PMID:26169038

  5. Modifications to Facilitate Extraperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Post Kidney Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Erturk, Erdal; Joseph, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal failure. With advances in immunosuppression, the short-term and long-term outcome has improved significantly. Subsequently, urologists are encountering more transplant recipients with genitourinary malignancies, and therefore urologists are becoming increasingly compelled to offer curative treatment options. Materials and Methods: We present modifications to facilitate E-RARP in these patients that include modified trocar arrangement, delayed bladder neck transection, utilizing the robotic Hem-o-lok applier, and posterior reconstruction of the anastomosis using a barbed V-loc suture. A 68-year-old male with a history of polycystic kidney disease, end-stage renal failure, and an allograft renal transplantation in the right iliac fossa, presented with T1c, Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer. He had a preoperative PSA of 6.93ng/mL, ASA score of 3, and a BMI of 26kg/m2. Follow-up for metastasis (MRI and bone scan) was negative. E-RARP was performed via the extraperitoneal approach using a 5-port 2-arm approach at an insufflation pressure of 10mm Hg. Results: The radical prostatectomy was successfully performed. Ureterovesical anastomosis was completed, and total console time was 130 minutes, with an estimated blood loss of 125mL. Final pathology was T2bNx, Gleason 3+4 with negative surgical margins. The patient was discharged with no change in serum creatinine or GFR. The catheter was removed on POD 10 with no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Conclusion: E-RARP in the carefully selected renal allograft recipient is feasible and accomplished safely with technical modifications to avoid injuring the renal allograft, transplanted ureter, and ureteroneocystostomy. PMID:23477187

  6. The use of a biological model for comparing two techniques of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous puncture: A randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Shady M.; Badreldin, Mohamed R.; Gamaleldin, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To develop a new and inexpensive model for training in fluoroscopic puncture into the pelvicalyceal system, and to use this model to compare the learning curve of two fluoroscopic techniques, the ‘eye of the needle’ (EN) and triangulation techniques. Materials and methods For the trial we used a commercial plastic model (a shop-window mannequin) in which a bovine kidney, embedded in sponge with a spatial orientation similar to the human, was inserted into the model. The ureter of the animal kidney was connected to contrast fluid. Ten residents and interns were randomised into two groups; group A started the puncture using the EN technique, each member making five attempts, and then five attempts using the triangulation technique, and group B started with triangulation and then used the EN technique. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the techniques for the mean (SD) number of trials to make a correct puncture, at 2.68 (1.00) in the EN technique and 2.86 (1.05) in the triangulation technique, or for the duration of each trial, at 523 (189) s for the EN technique and 578 (175) s for the triangulation technique. The fluoroscopy time was less in the EN technique, at 113.9 (48.9) s than for the triangulation method, at 135.8 (42.4) (P < 0.005). Conclusions The model was easy to construct and feasible for training. Both techniques had a similar learning curve, with higher fluoroscopy exposure for the triangulation technique.

  7. Microsatellite instability in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, A.L.; Wick, M.J.; Persons, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been documented in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as in sporadic forms of human cancers. Two of the genes which appear to be responsible for this particular tumor phenotype, hMSH2 and hMLH1, have now been identified. To determine the potential role of these mutator genes in prostate cancer, we have examined 95 prostate adenocarcinomas (40 paraffin embedded and 55 fresh frozen) for the presence of genetic instability at four microsatellite markers. The markers are localized to chromosome arms 5q(APC-CA1), 8p(Mfd 210Z), 15q(635/636), and 17q(p53-CA). Patients from whom paraffin embedded material was obtained were divided into short term (<3 years, n=18), and long term (>3 years, n=22) survivors. Of the 95 tumors examined, only four tumors (4%) demonstrated MIN: two tumors demonstrated MIN at 3 loci (p53-CA, APC-CA1, 635/636), one tumor demonstrated MIN at 2 loci (APC-CA1 and 635/636), and one tumor demonstrated instability at 635/636 only. All tumors exhibiting MIN had Gleason scores of {ge} 4+4. A correlation between MIN and survival was not observed. Information on family history was limited. However, of the two patients demonstrating MIN at three loci, one patient was diagnosed with a second malignancy (TCC of the ureter), but otherwise had a negative family history, while the second patient had one first degree relative with esophageal cancer. The patient demonstrating MIN at two loci had a negative family history, while the remaining patient had two first degree relatives with cancer (prostate and stomach). These results suggest that hMSH2 and hMLH1 (as reflected by the small percentage of tumors displaying MIN) do not play a prominent role in the process of prostate tumorigenesis.

  8. Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: causes of failure of initial bladder closure.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Kouame Dibi; Serge, Kouame Yapo Guy; Moufidath, Sounkere; Maxime, Koffi; Hervé, Odehouri Koudou Thierry; Baptiste, Yaokreh Jean; Samba, Tembely; Gaudens, Dieth Atafi; Ossenou, Ouattara; Ruffin, Dick

    2014-01-01

    The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0), concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0). The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin) used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation. PMID:25323185

  9. Simultaneous bilateral robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedures in children.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Victor; Elder, Jack S

    2015-12-01

    Our main objective is to report the feasibility of performing simultaneous robotic-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) heminephrectomy with contralateral ureteroureterostomy in children with bilateral duplicated systems. Three female children with bilateral congenital renal/ureteral anomalies underwent concurrent RAL simultaneous unilateral partial nephrectomy with ureterectomy and contralateral ureteroureterostomy with redundant ureterectomy using a four/five-port approach. Mean age at repair was 32.9 months (range 7-46 months) and mean weight was 13.7 kg (range 10.4-13.6 kg). The RAL heminephroureterectomy and contralateral ureteroureterostomy were performed via a four-port approach (five ports in one patient), and the patients were repositioned and draped when moving to the other side. Mean operative time was 446 min (range 356-503 min). Mean estimated blood loss was 23.3 cc (range 10-50 cc). Postoperative length of stay for two patients was 2 days and 1 day for one patient (mean = 1.7 days). Mean length of follow-up was 18.3 months (range 7-36 months). No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred for any of the three patients. Two children had no hydronephrosis on postoperative imaging in follow-up, and one child had a small stable, residual pararenal fluid collection on the side of heminephrectomy. Two patients underwent postoperative ureteral stent removal under general anesthesia. In children with bilateral duplicated urinary tract with ureterocele, ectopic ureter, and/or vesicoureteral reflux, laparoscopic repair with robotic assistance can be accomplished safely in a single operative procedure with a short hospital stay. PMID:26530838

  10. Targeted microbubbles: a novel application for the treatment of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Marx, Vanessa; Laser, Daniel; Kenny, Thomas; Chi, Thomas; Bailey, Michael; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stone disease is endemic. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was the first major technological breakthrough where focused shockwaves were used to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter. The shockwaves induced the formation of cavitation bubbles, whose collapse released energy at the stone, and the energy fragmented the kidney stones into pieces small enough to be passed spontaneously. Can the concept of microbubbles be used without the bulky machine? The logical progression was to manufacture these powerful microbubbles ex vivo and inject these bubbles directly into the collecting system. An external source can be used to induce cavitation once the microbubbles are at their target; the key is targeting these microbubbles to specifically bind to kidney stones. Two important observations have been established: (i) bisphosphonates attach to hydroxyapatite crystals with high affinity; and (ii) there is substantial hydroxyapatite in most kidney stones. The microbubbles can be equipped with bisphosphonate tags to specifically target kidney stones. These bubbles will preferentially bind to the stone and not surrounding tissue, reducing collateral damage. Ultrasound or another suitable form of energy is then applied causing the microbubbles to induce cavitation and fragment the stones. This can be used as an adjunct to ureteroscopy or percutaneous lithotripsy to aid in fragmentation. Randall’s plaques, which also contain hydroxyapatite crystals, can also be targeted to pre-emptively destroy these stone precursors. Additionally, targeted microbubbles can aid in kidney stone diagnostics by virtue of being used as an adjunct to traditional imaging methods, especially useful in high-risk patient populations. This novel application of targeted microbubble technology not only represents the next frontier in minimally invasive stone surgery, but a platform technology for other areas of medicine. PMID:25402588

  11. A Secreted BMP Antagonist, Cer1, Fine Tunes the Spatial Organization of the Ureteric Bud Tree during Mouse Kidney Development

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Lijun; Saarela, Ulla; Railo, Antti; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Skovorodkin, Ilya; Anthony, Shelagh; Katsu, Kenjiro; Liu, Yu; Shan, Jingdong; Salgueiro, Ana Marisa; Belo, José António; Davies, Jamie; Yokouchi, Yuji; Vainio, Seppo J.

    2011-01-01

    The epithelial ureteric bud is critical for mammalian kidney development as it generates the ureter and the collecting duct system that induces nephrogenesis in dicrete locations in the kidney mesenchyme during its emergence. We show that a secreted Bmp antagonist Cerberus homologue (Cer1) fine tunes the organization of the ureteric tree during organogenesis in the mouse embryo. Both enhanced ureteric expression of Cer1 and Cer1 knock out enlarge kidney size, and these changes are associated with an altered three-dimensional structure of the ureteric tree as revealed by optical projection tomography. Enhanced Cer1 expression changes the ureteric bud branching programme so that more trifid and lateral branches rather than bifid ones develop, as seen in time-lapse organ culture. These changes may be the reasons for the modified spatial arrangement of the ureteric tree in the kidneys of Cer1+ embryos. Cer1 gain of function is associated with moderately elevated expression of Gdnf and Wnt11, which is also induced in the case of Cer1 deficiency, where Bmp4 expression is reduced, indicating the dependence of Bmp expression on Cer1. Cer1 binds at least Bmp2/4 and antagonizes Bmp signalling in cell culture. In line with this, supplementation of Bmp4 restored the ureteric bud tip number, which was reduced by Cer1+ to bring it closer to the normal, consistent with models suggesting that Bmp signalling inhibits ureteric bud development. Genetic reduction of Wnt11 inhibited the Cer1-stimulated kidney development, but Cer1 did not influence Wnt11 signalling in cell culture, although it did inhibit the Wnt3a-induced canonical Top Flash reporter to some extent. We conclude that Cer1 fine tunes the spatial organization of the ureteric tree by coordinating the activities of the growth-promoting ureteric bud signals Gndf and Wnt11 via Bmp-mediated antagonism and to some degree via the canonical Wnt signalling involved in branching. PMID:22114682

  12. Relationship Between Spontaneous Passage Rates of Ureteral Stones Less Than 8 mm and Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels and Neutrophil Percentages

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang Hyun; Ha, Ji Yong; Park, Choal Hee; Kim, Chun Il; Kim, Kwang Se

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A ureter obstruction caused by a ureteral stone results in inflammatory changes in the proximal submucosal layer and prevents the spontaneous passage of the ureteral stone. Accordingly, we analyzed the relationship between the spontaneous passage rates of ureteral stones less than 8 mm in size and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and neutrophil percentages. Materials and Methods A total of 187 patients who were diagnosed with ureteral stones less than 8 mm in size and were managed consecutively at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from January 2001 to January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Ureteral stone removal was defined as no ureteral stone shown in an imaging test without any treatment for 8 weeks after diagnosis. The patients were divided into three groups according to the levels of serum CRP and into two groups according to neutrophil percentage. The associations between these factors and ureteral stone passage rates were then examined. Results The ureteral stone passage rates of the low serum CRP level group, the medium serum CRP level group, and the high serum CRP level group were 94.1% (159/169), 70% (7/10), and 50.0% (4/8), respectively. The passage rates of ureteral stones in the group with a normal neutrophil percentage and in the group with a higher neutrophil percentage were 94.5% (121/128) and 83.1% (49/59), respectively (p=0.011). Conclusions Measuring serum CRP levels and neutrophil percentages in patients with small ureteral stones of less than 8 mm is useful in predicting whether the stone will be spontaneously passed. When the serum CRP level and neutrophil percentage of a patient are high, aggressive treatment such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy should be considered. PMID:24044096

  13. The History of Kidney Stone Dissolution Therapy: 50 Years of Optimism and Frustration With Renacidin

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.; Whiting, Bryant M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Over the last 50 years, chemolysis as a primary or adjuvant treatment for urinary stones has fallen in and out of favor. We review the literature for a historical perspective on the origins and chronology of Renacidin therapy, focusing on landmark studies and impracticalities that have seemingly condemned it to history. Materials and Methods A MEDLINE search was performed on the topic of chemolysis of urinary calculi. Historical literature was reviewed with regard to stone composition, treatment modalities, outcomes, and complications. Results A total of 61 articles were reviewed, 40 of which were case series, representing a total of 817 patients studied. Mulvaney first introduced Renacidin in 1959 as a modification of Suby and Albright's 1943 solution. Because of an overabundance of nonstandardized irrigation protocols, six deaths were reported in the early 1960s resulting in a Food and Drug Administration ban on the practice of upper urinary tract stone dissolution. Over time, Renacidin returned to the urologist's arsenal, appearing first as an adjunct to dissolve catheter and bladder calculi and later (1990) as an approved agent for renal pelvis and ureter use. This feat was almost single-handedly the result of a successful hemiacidrin case series published in 1971 by Nemoy and Stamey. By using daily urine cultures, prophylactic antibiotics, and meticulous intrarenal pressure monitoring, Nemoy and Stamey virtually eliminated all major irrigation complications, paving the way for a flurry of studies. More importantly, they established the link between residual struvite stones, persistent infection, and recurrent staghorn stone formation. Conclusions Dissolution of urinary calculi by chemolysis has been shown to be safe and effective if performed with sterile urine cultures, prophylactic antibiotics, and low intrapelvic pressures. The pioneers of this therapy are remembered for their attempts to develop an alternative to open surgery, and, in the process, solidified the “stone-free” concept for infection-based stones. PMID:21999455

  14. Pilot Study of Low-Dose Nonenhanced Computed Tomography With Iterative Reconstruction for Diagnosis of Urinary Stones

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Ho; Moon, Young Tae; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Chang, In Ho; Kwon, Jong Kyou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for detecting urinary stones with the use of an iterative reconstruction technique for reducing radiation dose and image noise. Materials and Methods A total of 101 stones from 69 patients who underwent both conventional nonenhanced computed tomography (CCT) and LDCT were analyzed. Interpretations were made of the two scans according to stone characteristics (size, volume, location, Hounsfield unit [HU], and skin-to-stone distance [SSD]) and radiation dose by dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (ED), and image noise. Diagnostic performance for detecting urinary stones was assessed by statistical evaluation. Results No statistical differences were found in stone characteristics between the two scans. The average DLP and ED were 384.60±132.15 mGy and 5.77±1.98 mSv in CCT and 90.08±31.80 mGy and 1.34±0.48 mSv in LDCT, respectively. The dose reduction rate of LDCT was nearly 77% for both DLP and ED (p<0.01). The mean objective noise (standard deviation) from three different areas was 23.0±2.5 in CCT and 29.2±3.1 in LDCT with a significant difference (p<0.05); the slight increase was 21.2%. For stones located throughout the kidney and ureter, the sensitivity and specificity of LDCT remained 96.0% and 100%, with positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 96.2%, respectively. Conclusions LDCT showed significant radiation reduction while maintaining high image quality. It is an attractive option in the diagnosis of urinary stones. PMID:25237459

  15. Correlation between MRI and double-balloon urethrography findings in the diagnosis of female periurethral lesions.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Orith; Kitrey, Noam; Eshed, Iris; Apter, Sara; Amitai, Marianne M; Golomb, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the correlation of MRI findings with double-balloon urethrography (DBU) in diagnosing female urethral diverticula and other periurethral lesions. In this retrospective study, females with clinically suspected periurethral lesions who underwent both MRI and DBU between 2008 and 2012 were evaluated. MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla unit using a pelvic phased array coil. Protocol included small FOV pelvic images, multiplanar T2-w, T1-w with and without contrast injection. DBU was performed by a dedicated catheter. Images were evaluated in consensus by two readers. Diverticula were evaluated by, size, number, complexity, location and connection to urethra, and other periurethral lesions were evaluated by size, location and connection. Supplement clinical and surgical data were retrieved from medical records and telephone interviews. Seventeen females (mean age 44 years, range 20-69) were included in the study. Diverticula were diagnosed by both modalities (9 cases), by neither (6 cases, 88% correlation) by MRI alone (1 case) and by DBU alone (1 case). Among diverticula, correlation of number, complexity, location and demonstration of connection to urethra was 89%, 67%, 67%, and 56%, respectively. Alternative diagnosis solely by MRI included vaginal wall cysts (3 cases), endometriosis (1 case) and ectopic ureter (1 case). No periurethral lesion was found by either modality in 2 cases. The correlation between MRI and DBU in diagnosing female periurethral lesions is very good for anatomical delineation of diverticula. MRI, which does not involve radiation, may also indicate alternative diagnoses that can contribute to proper patient management. PMID:24016825

  16. Congenital anomalies of kidney and upper urinary tract in children with congenital hypothyroidism; a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Safi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may be significantly associated with congenital malformations. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between renal and urinary tract anomalies and CH. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the renal and upper urinary tract anomalies in children with and without primary CH (PCH). Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 200 children aged 3 months to 1 year, referring to Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak, Iran. One hundred children with PCH, as the case group, and 100 children without CH, as the control group, were selected. For all children, ultrasonography and other diagnostic measures (if necessary) were performed to evaluate renal and upper urinary tract anomalies (ureter and bladder). Results: The frequency of renal and upper urinary tract anomalies among 43 children with primary CH, with 83 cases (72.8%), was significantly higher than the frequency of anomalies among the 19 children in the control group, with 31 cases (27.1%) (OR = 3; CI 95%: 1.6-5.4; P = 0.001). Among the anomalies studied, only the differences in frequency of uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) (OR = 6; CI 95%: 1.3-28; P = 0.018) and hydronephrosis (OR = 22; CI 95%: 5-95; P = 0.001) was significant between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that PCH is significantly associated with the frequency of congenital anomalies of the kidneys and upper urinary tracts. However, further studies are recommended to determine the necessity of conducting screening programs for anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract in children with CH at birth. PMID:26693499

  17. Urothelial cancer and chronic arsenicism

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.S.; Su, I.J.

    1986-09-01

    A high prevalence of chronic arsenic poisoning (skin cancer and peripheral vascular disease) has been well documented in a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been consumed for more than 45 years. Recently, a high risk of urothelial cancer has also been found among residents of this endemic area. An analysis of cancer mortality data from 1968 to 1982 demonstrated that residents of the endemic area had more than a tenfold risk of dying from bladder or kidney cancer than the general population in Taiwan. A retrospective study of hospital admission records and pathologic reports between 1980 and 1984 from a referred medical center also revealed a relative risk higher than 50 for residents of the endemic area, as compared with residents of a nonendemic area, to develop transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. The age at diagnosis was significantly younger among patients from the endemic area than among patients from the nonendemic area; the former tended to cluster around the sixth decade while the latter had a wide age distribution and peak at late ages. In addition, the equal male to female ratio (1.09) for urothelial cancer in residents of the endemic area, in contrast to a ratio of 4.27 in the general population seems to imply that a common environmental risk factor was shared by both sexes in the endemic area. These findings strongly suggest that chronic arsenicism may be an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of urothelial cancer.

  18. Diagnostic Ureterorenoscopy Is Associated with Increased Intravesical Recurrence following Radical Nephroureterectomy in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Han, Deok Hyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han-Yong; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic ureterorenoscopy is powerful tool to confirm upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). However, URS and associated manipulation may be related to the risk of intravesical recurrence (IVR) following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). We aimed to investigate whether preoperative ureterorenoscopy would increase IVR after RNU in patients with UTUC. We performed a retrospective analysis of 630 patients who had RNU with bladder cuff excision due to UTUC. Diagnostic URS was performed in 282 patients (44.7%). Patients were divided into two groups according to the URS. Survival analysis and multivariate Cox regression model were performed to address risk factors for the IVR. The interval from URS to RNU was measured. During URS, manipulation such as biopsy and resection was determined. The median age was 64 (IQR 56–72) years with follow-up duration of 34.3 (15.7–64.9) months. Median time from URS to RNU was 16 (0–38) days. The IVR developed in 42.5% (n = 268) patients at 8.2 (4.9–14.7) months. The five-year IVR-free survival rate was 42.6 ± 8.0% and 63.6 ± 6.9% in patients with and without preoperative URS, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, previous history of bladder tumour, extravesical excision of distal ureter, multifocal tumour, and URS (HR, 95% CI; 1.558, 1.204–2.016, P = 0.001) were independent predictors for higher IVR. The IVR rate in patients without manipulation during URS was not different to those with manipulation (P = 0.658). The duration from URS to RNU was not associated with IVR (P = 0.799). Diagnostic URS for UTUC increased IVR rate after RNU. However, the lessening of interval from URS to radical surgery or URS without any manipulation could not reduce the IVR rate. PMID:26556239

  19. [Intermittent chyluria in a young man].

    PubMed

    Stanzial, A M; Menini, C; Casaril, M; Baggio, E; Corrocher, R

    1996-02-01

    Chyluria is the passage of chylus into urine resulting in fistulization through the lymphatic system and the urinary system. This rare condition is usually caused by filaria infestation or malformations, neoplasia or trauma. We report a case of a 18-year-old man. The patient presented milky urine which had appeared after angiography following minor leg trauma. Physical examination revealed asymmetry of the face and cutaneous dyschromia. Blood tests revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and altered CD4/CD8 ratio (0.6). Urine tests showed proteinuria (30 mg/dl), lipiduria (triglycerides 750 mg/dl) and density of 1025. Renal function was normal. Abdomen computed tomography and urography were normal. Cystoscopy revealed the presence of milky urine in the bladder and selective catheterization revealed that the origin was the right ureter alone. Ascendent pyelography did not reveal any malformation of the urinary tract; but after this the chyluria spontaneously disappeared. The patient was rehospitalized 3 months later for recurrence. Lymphography was then performed and revealed a dilated lymphatic network with minute lacunar images projecting into the right kidney. Chyluria again disappeared spontaneously and recurred sporadically over the next two years in a patient who remained in good physical condition. The etiology of chyluria in a patient without filaria infestation is problematic, particularly when the most common causes (tuberculosis, neoplasia, trauma) are excluded as in our case. The asymmetry of the face, together with cutaneous dyschromia and the presence of a subarachnoidea cyst in the right temporal region suggested our patient had multiple congenital malformations. PMID:8728901

  20. Functional expression of purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential channels by the human urothelium.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Saqib; Cross, William; Kirkwood, Lisa A; Pearson, Joanna F; Appleby, Peter A; Walker, Dawn; Eardley, Ian; Southgate, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    In addition to its role as a physical barrier, the urothelium is considered to play an active role in mechanosensation. A key mechanism is the release of transient mediators that activate purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to effect changes in intracellular Ca˛?. Despite the implied importance of these receptors and channels in urothelial tissue homeostasis and dysfunctional bladder disease, little is known about their functional expression by the human urothelium. To evaluate the expression and function of P2X and P2Y receptors and TRP channels, the human ureter and bladder were used to separate urothelial and stromal tissues for RNA isolation and cell culture. RT-PCR using stringently designed primer sets was used to establish which P2 and TRP species were expressed at the transcript level, and selective agonists/antagonists were used to confirm functional expression by monitoring changes in intracellular Ca˛? and in a scratch repair assay. The results confirmed the functional expression of P2Y? receptors and excluded nonexpressed receptors/channels (P2X?, P2X?, P2X?, P2Y?, P2Y??, TRPV5, and TRPM8), while a dearth of specific agonists confounded the functional validation of expressed P2X?, P2X?, P2Y?, P2Y?, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV6 and TRPM7 receptors/channels. Although a conventional response was elicited in control stromal-derived cells, the urothelial cell response to well-characterized TRPV1 and TRPV4 agonists/antagonists revealed unexpected anomalies. In addition, agonists that invoked an increase in intracellular Ca˛? promoted urothelial scratch repair, presumably through the release of ATP. The study raises important questions about the ligand selectivity of receptor/channel targets expressed by the urothelium. These pathways are important in urothelial tissue homeostasis, and this opens the possibility of selective drug targeting. PMID:23720349

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas: 10-year clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qingsong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report our 10-year diagnosis and treatment experience of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas and outline the management of the traumatic injury. Methods: We reviewed the diagnoses and treatments of 208 cases of acute kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, or male genitalia injuries in our department between March 2002 and March 2012. The patient data including general information, injury position and mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, the follow-up information was analyzed and summarized. Results: Of 62 patients with renal injury examined by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination, 45 were treated conservatively, 9 with superselective arterial embolization, and 8 with nephrectomy. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) was conducted in two patients with ureteral injury, one was treated with cystoscopic ureteral catheterization and the other with ureteric reimplantation. Bladder injury (6 patients) confirmed with a waterflood susceptibility test combined with CT scans underwent laparotomy and the bladder suturing was done. Of 92 patients with urethral injury, 6 were treated with a nonoperative approach (indwelling catheter), 18 with urethral realignment, 35 with cystoscopic urethral realignment, 29 with end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty, and 4 with urethral repairmen. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. During the follow-up period, 62 patients with renal injury had normal renal function. Neither of the two patients with ureteral injury developed hydronephrosis. Twenty-nine patients with urethral injury suffered from urethral structure. All patients with vesical or genital injury recovered. Conclusions: Urethra and kidney injuries are the most common acute urogenital system traumas. Superselective arterial embolization can effectively cease bleeding and maximally protect renal function and ureterorenoscopic realignment is an easily operative and minimally invasive technique in the treatment of urethral injuries. As diagnosis and treatment techniques continue to evolve, minimally invasive procedures should be widely used in acute urogenital trauma. PMID:26430431

  2. [Postoperative complications of self-catheterizable continent urinary diversions (Kock, Indiana, and appendiceal Mainz pouch) and patient care].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Hamaguchi, A; Kageyama, S; Tomoyoshi, T; Kawakita, M; Terai, A; Yoshida, O

    1995-11-01

    A self-catheterizable continent urinary reservoir has become one of the major options for urinary diversion in patients with invasive bladder cancer or other pelvic malignancies. We performed the Kock pouch, the Indiana pouch and the appendiceal Mainz pouch in 124, 51 and 4 patients with the mean followup periods of 50, 33, and 10 months, respectively. In the Kock pouch, the efferent and afferent nipple valve malfunction was seen in 16.7 and 21.3 percent each, requiring repair surgery, such as fixation of the efferent nipple to the pouch wall, reconstruction of an isoperistaltic nipple valve in the former, and removal of the Dacron fabric collar or re-anastomosis of the ureter to the pouch using LeDuc technique in the latter. In the Indiana pouch, stomal stenosis, an hourglass-like pouch deformity, difficult catheterization occurred in 3, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Among the 4 patients with the appendiceal Mainz pouch, there were no major late postoperative complications except for mild stenosis of the conduit, handled with bougienage. As a whole, surgical revisions, related to urinary diversion, was done in 20.3, 10.6, 0 percent in the Kock, Indiana, Mainz pouch patients, respectively. Stone formation, mostly multiple and recurrent, occurred in 27.8, 6.4, 0 percent in the Kock, Indiana, Mainz pouch, respectively. Most of the stones were removed endoscopically via a stoma or by percutaneous approach. Acidosis was seen in 3 patients in both the Kock and Indiana pouch, and 3 patients with the Kock pouch suffered from symptomatic choleithiasis. At the time of the latest observation, continence was achieved in 90.2, 93.0, and 100 percent, whereas excretory urograms showed normal collecting systems in 64.5, 90.4, and 100 percent in the Kock, Indiana, and Mainz pouch, respectively. In conclusion, the Kock pouch, performed by an original method using unabsorbable polyester fabric collars and metallic staples, has an intolerably high rate of late complications, and either the modified Indiana pouch with ileal patch or the appendiceal Mainz pouch using the umbilicus as a stoma is recommended for a self-catheterization continent urinary diversion. PMID:8533703

  3. Evaluation of clinical usefulness of a medical monitor equipped with an organic electroluminescence panel in comparison with liquid crystal display monitors.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Fumio; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Nogami, Yuya; Arima, Hirokazu; Sawano, Yoshiko; Banno, Kouji; Fujii, Takuma; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The medical liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor is a conventionally used imaging device for diagnosis and during endoscopic surgery. Recently, a medical organic electroluminescence panel, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitor, was made available commercially. The advantages of the OLED monitor include good color reproducibility, high contrast, and high video responsiveness. In this nonclinical study, we compared the clinical usefulness and image quality of the OLED monitor and those of the LCD monitor using videos of gynecologic endoscopic surgeries. Monitors were set for blind evaluation. Five evaluators with varying experience in endoscopic surgery evaluated 21 surgery videos played simultaneously on an OLED monitor and two LCD monitors for 2 to 3 minutes twice. Evaluators judged 13 clinical usefulness indices and 11 image quality indices using a 5-point scale (1, very good; 5, very poor) for each video. The mean scores of clinical usefulness indices of the OLED monitor and the LCD monitors 1 and 2 were 2.2 to 2.7, 2.1 to 3.3, and 3.0 to 3.2, respectively. Of seven indices measured, five including motion response, the ability to differentiate organs, recognize lesions, and reproduce actual images, and the general impression of picture quality were statistically superior with use of the OLED monitor compared with the LCD monitor 1, and two including ability to distinguish blood vessels and the ureters were statistically superior with use of the LCD monitor 1 compared with the OLED monitor. The mean scores of image quality indices of the OLED monitor and the LCD monitors 1 and 2 were 1.8 to 3.2, 2.6 to 3.6, and 2.8 to 4.0, respectively. Each index of the OLED monitor was superior to or comparable with those of the LCD monitors. We conclude that the OLED monitor is superior to the LCD monitors insofar as several video presentation characteristics required in gynecologic endoscopic surgery. These findings suggest that the OLED monitor is expected to contribute detailed assessment of organs and the operative field. PMID:23870242

  4. The biological complexity of urothelial carcinoma: Insights into carcinogenesis, targets and biomarkers of response to therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Petros D; Melas, Marilena; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2015-12-01

    Bladder cancer is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and health-related costs. Urothelial carcinoma is by far the most common histologic type of bladder cancer and may also arise from the upper urinary tract, e.g. renal pelvis and ureter, as well as from the proximal urethra. There have been no major advances in the development of new systemic therapies for urothelial carcinoma for over two decades, which may be related to prior lack of profound comprehension of biological pathogenetic mechanisms. However, in the last few years there has been a major shift in the development of new promising therapies that stem from improved molecular profiling of this malignancy. Developments in molecular biology, genomics, bioinformatics and immunology provide a solid foundation for therapeutic advances. A plethora of novel treatment targets and biomarkers are being evaluated, but there has been no molecular biomarker with established clinical utility so far. Genomic characterization of each patient's tumor has not been implemented due to the high cost, lack of validated standardized techniques that could be available in different laboratories, as well as absence of validated biomarkers and available therapeutic agents with clinically proven benefit. However, genomic characterization before treatment has now started to be implemented in novel clinical trial designs in order to contribute to proper patient selection based on biomarker-based enrichment strategies. Several "umbrella" or "basket" type, molecular biomarkers-based trials, in which patient eligibility and/or stratification is based on the presence of specific genetic alterations regardless of tissue of origin and/or histology, are being launched. Mathematical models and bioinformatics platforms that perform high level computational integrated pathway analysis may reveal clinical relevant signaling pathways amenable for targeting in individual patient tumors. Moreover, the high mutational burden of urothelial carcinoma may create numerous neo-antigens that may explain the very promising results with immune checkpoint inhibitors in early phase clinical trials. A combination of several, e.g. DNA, mRNA, miRNA, protein, and other molecular biomarkers merit further investigation, but this process has to be based on stringent criteria that test and prove clinical utility. PMID:26304731

  5. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Guo, X Y

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high risk for peripartum hemorrhage. Early removal of the endovascular catheter and close postoperative surveillance of the vascular system are required with this procedure to minimize the risk of vascular complications. However, further studies are needed to determine whether the potential benefits of temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon outweigh the potential risks. PMID:26679671

  6. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie; Martin, Greg; Gilger, Brian; Soldatow, Valerie; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig; Thomas, Russell S.

    2013-10-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expression of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 ?g/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ? 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in vascular development are observed in AHR-KO mouse, but not rat. • Renal pathology is observed in AHR-KO rat, but not mouse.

  7. Anatomical Variations of Upper Segmental Renal Artery and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Shobha; Singh, Brijendra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Classically each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery. In its course renal artery divides into anterior and posterior division, both of these division further divide into segmental arteries that are apical, upper, middle, lower and posterior. Segmental arteries are representing an end artery and they form independent renal segments. In their course they are closely related with collecting system. So, a thorough in depth knowledge of the variations in segmental arteries is a basic requirement for surgeons. Aim To observe and investigate the anatomical variations in arterial pattern of upper segmental renal artery and its relations with collecting system of ducts in human kidneys. Materials and Methods Fifty human kidneys of both sexes were observed and studied by corrosion cast method. Different colour coded cast material (butyl butyrate) like red for artery and black for collecting ducts were used. 20% solution of butyl butyrate in acetone was injected into renal artery and ureter of the kidneys. After polymerization (24 hours) these kidneys were kept immersed in a bath of concentrated KOH solution at 500C for 24-48 hours for corrosion to obtain the endocasts. These endocasts were cleaned and washed under running tap water and photographed. Results In present study upper segmental artery was found in 49 (98%) kidneys. It was absent in 1 (2%) kidney. We observed four types of variations in arterial pattern of upper segmental artery namely Upper Segmental Artery Type-1 (USAT1), Upper Segmental Artery Type-2 (USAT2), Upper Segmental Artery Type-3 (USAT3), Upper Segmental Artery Type-4 (USAT4) and they were found in 20 (40%), 14 (28%), 10 (20%), 5 (10%) kidneys respectively. We also observed two different variations in the anatomical relations between upper segmental artery and collecting system namely Upper Segmental Artery Group -1 (USAG1) and Upper Segmental Artery Group-2 (USAG2). USAG1 was found in 40 (80%) kidneys and USAG2 in 9 (18%) kidneys respectively. Conclusion Anatomical knowledge of these variations is very important and useful for the uro-surgeons for best outcome and minimal complications in and during nephrectomies, removal of calculi, surgery of renal tumors or other various intrarenal surgeries. PMID:26435932

  8. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of use of naftopidil and/or celecoxib for medical treatment of distal ureteral stones.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jian Lin; Tang, Qing Lai

    2014-12-01

    We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess the possible role of combined a1D-receptor antagonist naftopidil and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory hormones celecoxib for the spontaneous expulsion of distal ureteral stones. Patients were randomized to one of the three treatment groups. Treatment group 1 patients received naftopidil 50 mg/day, group 2 patients received naftopidil 50 mg/day plus celecoxib 200 mg (Take two capsules (400 mg) by mouth immediately, then take one capsule (200 mg) by mouth every 12 h), and group 3 patients received celecoxib 200 mg (Take two capsules (400 mg) by mouth immediately, then take one capsule (200 mg) by mouth every 12 h). All patients were instructed to drink at least 2 L of fluids daily. Pain descriptions were recorded by the patients using the visual analog scale. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks. A total of 105 patients provided consent and 103 patients completed the study. Stone expulsion was observed in 29 patients in group 1 (29 of 35, 82.86 %), 33 patients in group 2 (33 of 35, 94.29 %) and 20 patients in group 3 (20 of 33, 60.61 %). A statistically significant difference was noted with Chi-square testing for stone expulsion rate between groups 1 and 3, and groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.000, respectively). Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to access the expulsion rate of each group over time. A significant difference was shown for the expulsion rate between the group 3 and the other two groups. (P < 0.001 by log-rank test).Average time to expulsion for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 8.00 ± 2.07, 7.70 ± 2.34 and 10.65 ± 2.92 days, respectively (P = 0.000). Treatment with naftopidil and celecoxib appears to be beneficial in distal ureter stone clearance, shortened the expulsion time, and could be used reliably and successfully to reduce the frequency and intensity of the pain episodes particularly. PMID:25139150

  9. A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

  10. Post-operative urothelial recurrence in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma managed by radical nephroureterectomy with an ipsilateral bladder cuff: Minimal prognostic impact in comparison with non-urothelial recurrence and other clinical indicators.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Watsuji, Toshikazu; Azuma, Haruhito

    2013-10-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare disease, and novel prognostic factors for patients who have undergone a radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for UTUC have been studied intensely. To the best of our knowledge, the prognostic value of urothelial recurrence in patients with UTUC has not been previously described in studies. The present study compared the prognostic value of urothelial and non-urothelial recurrence in patients with UTUC of the kidney and ureter managed by surgery. The inclusion criteria consisted of a diagnosis of non-metastatic UTUC (any T stage, N0-1 and M0) and receipt of an RNU with an ipsilateral bladder cuff as the primary treatment. Of the 153 patients that were screened for the study, comprehensive clinical and pathological data was available for 103 patients, who were consequently included in the analysis. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) times were estimated. A multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression model. The median follow-up period was 29 months (interquartile range, 14-63 months). The patient population was comprised of 71 males (68.9%) and 32 females (31.1%). A total of 32 patients (31.1%) showed non-urothelial recurrence, while 38 patients (36.9%) exhibited urothelial recurrence and 33 patients (32.0%) exhibited no recurrence. When comparing the risk parameters between the non-urothelial recurrence categories, the factors of pathological grade, microvascular invasion, lymphatic invasion and pT classification showed significant differences. However, there were no significant differences between the urothelial recurrence categories. No significant difference was observed between the OS and CSS times within the urothelial recurrence categories (P=0.3955 and P=0.05891, respectively), but significant differences were identified in the non-urothelial recurrence categories (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Among the other relevant descriptive pre-operative characteristics in the multivariate analysis, only non-urothelial recurrence remained associated with a worse CSS [P=0.002; hazard ratio (HR) 9.512]. The results show that urothelial recurrence has a minimal prognostic value in patients with UTUC managed by RNU with an ipsilateral bladder cuff. PMID:24137456

  11. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Kills Cultured Human Uroepithelial 5637 Cells by an Apoptotic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Melody; Meysick, Karen C.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in otherwise healthy individuals frequently produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a member of the family of bacterial toxins that target the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins. To gain insight into the function of CNF1 in the development of E. coli-mediated UTIs, we examined the effects of CNF1 intoxication on a panel of human cell lines derived from physiologically relevant sites (bladder, ureters, and kidneys). We identified one uroepithelial cell line that exhibited a distinctly different CNF1 intoxication phenotype from the prototypic one of multinucleation without cell death that is seen when HEp-2 or other epithelial cells are treated with CNF1. The 5637 bladder cell line detached from the growth surface within 72 h of CNF1 intoxication, a finding that suggested frank cytotoxicity. To determine the basis for the unexpected toxic effect of CNF1 on 5637 cells, we compared the degree of toxin binding, actin fiber formation, and Rho modification with those CNF1-induced events in HEp-2 cells. We found no apparent difference in the amount of CNF1 bound to 5637 cells and HEp-2 cells. Moreover, CNF1 modified Rho, in vivo and in vitro, in both cell types. In contrast, one of the classic responses to CNF1 in HEp-2 and other epithelial cell lines, the formation of actin stress fibers, was markedly absent in 5637 cells. Indeed, actin stress fiber induction by CNF1 did not occur in any of the other human bladder cell lines that we tested (J82, SV-HUC-1, or T24). Furthermore, the appearance of lamellipodia and filopodia in 5637 cells suggested that CNF1 activated the Cdc42 and Rac proteins. Finally, apoptosis was observed in CNF1-intoxicated 5637 cells. If our results with 5637 cells reflect the interaction of CNF1 with the transitional uroepithelium in the human bladder, then CNF1 may be involved in the exfoliative process that occurs in that organ after infection with uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:10992497

  12. Cell cycle dependence of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced tumour development in the proliferating, partially resected rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, E.; Graewe, T.; Scherber, S.; Weber, J.; Gellhar, P.

    1989-01-01

    In the present experiments the dependence of tumour induction upon the different phases of the cell cycle in the proliferating urinary bladder was examined. For stimulation of urothelial proliferation, a one-third resection of the bladder was performed in female Wistar rats. To synchronize the proliferating urothelial cells, hydroxyurea (HU) was given in 23 fractionated, consecutive intraperitoneal doses (0.1 mg/g body weight each) at hourly intervals shortly prior to and during maximal proliferation (between 33 and 55 h following partial cystectomy). The direct-acting urothelial carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) was administered as a single, intravesicular pulse dose (5 mg/kg body weight) during the different cell cycle phases and to control animals with a non-resected, quiescent bladder (G0-phase). The incidence of urothelial bladder tumours was 32.6% in the controls. By comparison, the tumour incidences were 18.9, 9.3, 21.7, 26.3, 25.0 and 30.0%, respectively, when MNU was instilled during the late G1-, early and late S-, G2 + M-, and the early and late postmitotic phase. The results obtained from a total of 283 rats thus clearly document a cell-cycle-specific inhibition of MNU-induced tumour development in the proliferating urinary bladder, particularly when the carcinogen was administered during the early S-phase (P less than 0.016). There were no differences in the histology and extension of the urothelial bladder tumours found in the different experimental groups. MNU has also been shown to produce urothelial tumours in the renal pelvis (overall tumour incidence: 3.2%) and ureters (1.4%) as well as mesenchymal tumours in the bladder (4.9%) and kidneys (1.4%). Conclusions are tentatively drawn about the mechanisms underlying the observed cell-cycle-specific inhibition of urothelial carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2730838

  13. Comparison of different pulsed and Q-switched solid state laser systems for endoscopic laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy: performance and laser/stone interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, Erwin

    1990-06-01

    At present the laser induced shock wave lithotripsy (LISL) of urinary and biliary stones via fiber optic beam delivery is governed by two competing' laser systems: The flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The pulsed radiation of the dye system with pulse durations in the 1-2 .tsec region can be easily transmitted through extremely flexible fused silica fibers with core diameters of only 200 im whilst the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with pulselengths of 5-25 nsec needs fibers with more than 400 tm core diameter. The dye laser releases acoustic shock waves for fragmentation simply by stone contact, the Q-switched Nd:YAG produces these waves in the surrounding aqueous medium by laser induced optical breakdown (LIB) when refocused by optical means or through additional metal absorbers, i.e. opto - mechanical couplers. We report on the system performances and laser/stone interactions of two alternative solid-state laser systems with variable pulselengths in the range of 1.7 - 30 sec and 30 - 1000 nsec, respectively: The pulsed psec-Nd:YAG laser and the Q-switched alexandrite laser. Regarding the endoscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary and biliary stones in the ureter or common bile duct, respectively, the laser energy delivery system, i.e. the optical fiber; is the most stressed part. Therefore we used long-pulse solid-state laser systems like the pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a pulse-slicing unit and a pulselength-tunable Q-switched alexandrite laser and studied fragmentation of synthetic plaster samples as well as urinary and biliary stones. The radiation of both laser systems can be effectively transmitted via standard 200 im core diameter optical quartz fibers what is absolutely necessary when used in conjunction with small caliber rigid or flexible endoscopes. As a compact and reliable solid-state system the alexandrite laser lithotripter is much less expensive than an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter with the same fragmentation results and may become the laser of choice for LISL.

  14. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL)

    PubMed Central

    Licheng, Jiang; Yidong, Fan; Ping, Wang; Keqiang, Yan; Xueting, Wang; Yingchen, Zhang; Lei, Gao; Jiyang, Ding; Zhonghua, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs) and standard-dose CT (100 mAs). Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation), and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth) used in the MPCNL procedure. Results: In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (P<0.05). The indices of puncture depth, puncture angulation, and maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface showed no significant difference between the two doses of CT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that unenhanced low-dose CT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface, percutaneous puncture depth, and angulation in patients, with a significant lower radiation exposure, who are to be treated by MPCNL, and can be used as an alternative localization method. PMID:24820832

  15. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna; Lubi?ski, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Ga?dy?ska, Maria; Bernatowicz, El?bieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digital apparatus with linear transducers (7–12 MHz) and sometimes convex type conducers (3–5 MHz). The location, size and intestine stratified wall structure were evaluated. In each case the integument thickness was measured in millimeters in the site of the greatest atrophy and it was compared with the integument thickness from the side that had not been operated which enabled the calculation of the percentage reduction of integument in the area of the scar. Results In 3 patients who underwent several laparotomies there was a total reduction of muscular mass in the operated area. In these cases we stated only skin and slightly echogenic subcutaneous strand; probably corresponding to fibrous tissue – the thickness of integument in this area was in the range from 3 to 8 mm. In the remaining 26 patients the integument atrophy on the scar level included muscles in a greater extent and covered an extensive area after classical urological procedures on the upper urinary tract: after nephrectomy and even ureter stone evacuation or kidney cyst excision by means of classical anterolateral approach with the integument incision on the length of almost 20 cm. Reduction in the integument thickness was observed on the smaller area after classical cholecystectomies, appendectomies and other surgical procedures with the incision across the integument. The integument atrophy in the operated sites expressed in absolute numbers was in the range of 7–20 mm (average 14 mm). These values are markedly lower than the comparative integument thickness on the not operated side: 17–52 mm (average 25.4 mm). The percentage value of the integument thickness reduction oscillated in the range of 32–67% (average 44.2%). In most cases the atrophy involved all layers of the abdominal wall, what demonstrated as regional prominence of the integument, mimicking the presence of hernia. Conclusions Ultrasonography allows precise evaluation of the size and extent of atrophy as well as depiction of other lesions simulating that effect. Establishing the correct diagnosis should prevent the unnecessary reconstructions of the abdominal integument. PMID:26675040

  16. Life cycle of Renylaima capensis, a brachylaimid trematode of shrews and slugs in South Africa: two-host and three-host transmission modalities suggested by epizootiology and DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The life cycle of the brachylaimid trematode species Renylaima capensis, infecting the urinary system of the shrew Myosorex varius (Mammalia: Soricidae: Crocidosoricinae) in the Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve, South Africa, has been elucidated by a study of its larval stages, epizootiological data in local snails and mammals during a 34-year period, and its verification with mtDNA sequencing. Methods Parasites obtained from dissected animals were mounted in microscope slides for the parasitological study and measured according to standardized methods. The mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene was sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results The slugs Ariostralis nebulosa and Ariopelta capensis (Gastropoda: Arionidae) act as specific first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. Branched sporocysts massively develop in A. nebulosa. Intrasporocystic mature cercariae show differentiated gonads, male terminal duct, ventral genital pore, and usually no tail, opposite to Brachylaimidae in which mature cercariae show a germinal primordium and small tail. Unencysted metacercariae, usually brevicaudate, infect the kidney of A. capensis and differ from mature cercariae by only a slightly greater size. The final microhabitats are the kidneys and ureters of the shrews, kidney pelvis and calyces in light infections and also kidney medulla and cortex in heavy infections. Sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae and adults proved to belong to R. capensis by analysis of a 437-bp-long cox1 fragment, which was identical except for three mutations in metacercariae, of which only one silent. Epizootiological studies showed usual sporocyst infection in A. nebulosa and very rare metacercarial infection in A. capensis, which does not agree with high prevalences and intensities in the shrews. Conclusions The presence of monotesticular adult forms and larval prevalences and intensities observed suggest that R. capensis may use two transmission strategies, a two-host life cycle by predation of A. nebulosa harbouring intrasporocystic cercariae may be the normal pattern, whereas a second mollusc host is just starting to be introduced. In shrews, a tissue-traversing, intraorganic migration followed by an interorganic migration to reach and penetrate the outer surface of either of both kidneys should occur. For first slug infection, the fluke takes advantage of the phenomenon that M. varius always urinate during defaecation. Consequently, in Brachylaimidae, the second intermediate mollusc host should evolutionarily be seen as a last addition to the cycle and their present adult stage microhabitat restricted to digestive tract and related organs as a loss of the tissue-traversing capacity of the metacercaria. PMID:22889081

  17. Impact of Complications and Bladder Cancer Stage on Quality of Life in Patients with Different Types of Urinary Diversions

    PubMed Central

    Prcic, Alden; Aganovic, Damir; Hadziosmanovic, Osman

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: Determine correlation between complications and stage of the disease and their impact on quality of life in patients with different types of ileal urinary derivation after radical cystectomy, and upon estimation of acquired results, to suggest the most acceptable type of urinary diversion. Patients and methods: In five year period a prospective clinical study was performed on 106 patients, to whom a radical cystectomy was performed due to bladder cancer. Patients were divided into two groups, 66 patients with ileal conduit derivation and 40 patients with orthotopic derivation, whereby in each group a comparison between reflux and anti-reflux technique of orthotopic bladder was made. All patients from both groups filled the Sickness Impact Profile score six months after the operation. All patients had CT urography or Intravenous urography performed, as well as standard laboratory, vitamin B12 blood values, in order to evaluate early (ileus or subileus, wound dehiscence, bladder fistula, rupture of orthotopic bladder, urine extravazation) and late complications (VUR, urethral stricture, ureter stenosis, metabolic acidosis, mineral dis-balance, hypovitaminosis of vitamin B12, increased resorption of bone calcium, urinary infection, kidney damage, relapse of primary disease), so as disease stage and it’s impact on quality of life. Results: From gained results we observe that each category of SIP score correlates with different rate of correlation with the type of operation, group, T, N, and R grade, except work category. Average value of SIP score rises depending on the type of operation and T stage. It is notable that there is no difference in T1 stage, no matter the type of operation. So the average value of SIP score in T1 stage for conduit was 20.3, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 17.25 and Hautmann 18.75 respectively. Average value of SIP score in T2 stage for conduit was 31, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 19.1 and Hautmann 17.8. Average value of SIP score in T3 stage for conduit was 38.03, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 18.75 and Hautmann 19.5. SIP score for T4 was present only in patients with conduit performed and average value od SIP score was 40.42. There is a high level of correlation of late complications and psychosocial and physical dimension with their parameters, while for an independent dimension of correlation is not significant. Early complications have insignificant correlation in all categories of SIP score. Conclusion: Upon analyzing quality of life and morbidity, significant advantage is given to orthotopic derivations, especially Hautmann derivation with Chimney modification, unless there are no absolute contraindications for performing this type of operation. Factors which mostly influence quality of life are cancer stage, type of derivation, late complications and patient age. SIP score, as a well validated questionnaire, are applicable in this kind of research. PMID:25568512

  18. Low Dose Studies with Focused X-Rays in cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kathy Held; Kevin Prise; Barry Michael; Melvyn Folkard

    2002-12-14

    The management of the risks of exposure of people to ionizing radiation is important in relation to its uses in industry and medicine, also to natural and man-made radiation in the environment. The vase majority of exposures are at a very low level of radiation dose. The risks are of inducing cancer in the exposed individuals and a smaller risk of inducing genetic damage that can be indicate that they are low. As a result, the risks are impossible to detect in population studies with any accuracy above the normal levels of cancer and genetic defects unless the dose levels are high. In practice, this means that our knowledge depends very largely on the information gained from the follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japanese cities. The risks calculated from these high-dose short-duration exposures then have to be projected down to the low-dose long-term exposures that apply generally. Recent research using cells in culture has revealed that the relationship between high- and low-dose biological damage may be much more complex than had previously been thought. The aims of this and other projects in the DOE's Low-Dose Program are to gain an understanding of the biological actions of low-dose radiation, ultimately to provide information that will lead to more accurate quantification of low-dose risk. Our project is based on the concept that the processes by which radiation induces cancer start where the individual tracks of radiation impact on cells and tissues. At the dose levels of most low-dose exposures, these events are rare and any individual cells only ''sees'' radiation tracks at intervals averaging from weeks to years apart. This contrasts with the atomic bomb exposures where, on average, each cell was hit by hundreds of tracks instantaneously. We have therefore developed microbeam techniques that enable us to target cells in culture with any numbers of tracks, from one upwards. This approach enables us to study the biological ha sis of the relationship between high- and low-dose exposures. The targeting approach also allows us to study very clearly a newly recognized effect of radiation, the ''bystander effect'', which appears to dominate some low-dose responses and therefore may have a significant role in low-dose risk mechanisms. Our project also addresses the concept that the background of naturally occurring oxidative damage that takes place continually in cells due to byproducts of metabolism may play a role in low-dose radiation risk. This project therefore also examines how cells are damaged by treatments that modify the levels of oxidative damage, either alone or in combination with low-dose irradiation. In this project, we have used human and rodent cell lines and each set of experiments has been carried out on a single cell type. However, low-dose research has to extend into tissues because signaling between cells of different types is likely to influence the responses. Our studies have therefore also included microbeam experiments using a model tissue system that consists of an explant of a small piece of pig ureter grown in culture. The structure of this tissue is similar to that of epithelium and therefore it relates to the tissues in which carcinoma arises. Our studies have been able to measure bystander-induced changes in the cells growing out from the tissue fragment after it has been targeted with a few radiation tracks to mimic a low-dose exposure.

  19. Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Barry D. Michael; Kathryn Held; Kevin Prise

    2002-12-19

    The management of the risks of exposure of people to ionizing radiation is important in relation to its uses in industry and medicine, also to natural and man-made radiation in the environment. The vase majority of exposures are at a very low level of radiation dose. The risks are of inducing cancer in the exposed individuals and a smaller risk of inducing genetic damage that can be transmitted to children conceived after exposure. Studies of these risks in exposed population studies with any accuracy above the normal levels of cancer and genetic defects unless the dose levels are high. In practice, this means that our knowledge depends very largely on the information gained from the follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japanese cities. The risks calculated from these high-dose short-duration exposures then have to be projected down to the low-dose long-term exposures that apply generally. Recent research using cells in culture has revealed that the relations hi between high- and low-dose biological damage may be much more complex than had previously been thought. The aims of this and other projects in the DOE's Low-Dose Program are to gain an understanding of the biological actions of low-dose radiation, ultimately to provide information that will lead to more accurate quantification of low-dose risk. Our project is based on the concept that the processes by which radiation induces cancer start where the individual tracks of radiation impact on cells and tissues. At the dose levels of most low-dose exposures, these events are rare and any individual cells only ''sees'' radiation tracks at intervals averaging from weeks to years apart. This contracts with the atomic bomb exposures where, on average, each cell was hit by hundreds of tracks instantaneously. We have therefore developed microbeam techniques that enable us to target cells in culture with any number of tracks, from one upwards. This approach enables us to study the biological basis of the relationship between high- and low-dose exposures. The targeting approach also allows us to study very clearly a newly recognized effect of radiation, the ''bystander effect'', which appears to dominate some low-dose responses and therefore may have a significant role in low-dose risk mechanisms. Our project also addresses the concept that the background of naturally occurring oxidative damage that takes place continually in cells due to byproducts of metabolism may play a role in treatments that modify the levels of oxidative damage, either alone or in combination with low-dose irradiation. In this project, we have used human and rodent cell lines and each set of experiments has been carried out on a single cell type. However, low-dose research has to extend into tissues because signaling between cells of different types is likely to influence the responses. Our studies have therefore also included microbeam experiments using a model tissue system that consists of an explant of a small piece of pig ureter grown in culture. The structure of this tissue is similar to that of epithelium and there it relates to the tissues in which carcinoma arises. Our studies have been able to measure bystander-induced changes in the cells growing out from the tissue fragment after it has been targeted with a few radiation tracks to mimic a low-dose exposure.

  20. Surgical management for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Shelley, Mike; Coles, Bernadette; Somani, Bhaskar; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-11-01

    Surgical management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) has significantly changed over the past two decades. Data for several new surgical techniques, including nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), is emerging. The study systematically reviewed the literature comparing (randomised and observational studies) surgical and oncological outcomes for various surgical techniques MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, AMED, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus, Biosis, TRIP, Biomed Central, Dissertation Abstracts, ISI proceedings, and PubMed were searched to identify suitable studies. Data were extracted from each identified paper independently by two reviewers (B.R. and B.S.) and cross checked by a senior member of the team. The data analysis was performed using the Cochrane software Review manager version 5. Comparable data from each study was combined in a meta-analysis where possible. For dichotomous data, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on the fixed-effects model and according to an intention-to-treat analysis. If the data available were deemed not suitable for a meta-analysis it was described in a narrative fashion. One randomised control trial (RCT) and 19 observational studies comparing open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic NU (LNU) were identified. The RCT reported the LNU group to have statistically significantly less blood loss (104 vs 430 mL, P < 0.001) and mean time to discharge (2.30 vs 3.65 days, P < 0.001) than the ONU group. At a median follow-up of 44 months, the overall 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS; 89.9 vs 79.8%) and 5-year metastasis-free survival rates (77.4 vs 72.5%) for the ONU were better than for LNU, respectively, although not statistically significant. A meta-analysis of the observational studies favoured LNU group for lower urinary recurrence (P < 0.001) and distant metastasis. The meta-analyses for local recurrence for the two groups were comparable. One retrospective study comparing ONU with a percutaneous approach for grade 2 disease reported no significant differences in CSS rates (53.8 vs 53.3 months). Three retrospective studies compared NSS and radical NU, and reported no significant differences in overall CSS and recurrence-free survival between the two approaches. Five retrospective studies compared various techniques of en bloc excision of the lower ureter. No technique was reported to be better (operative and oncological) than any other. This review concludes that there is a paucity of good quality evidence for the various surgical approaches for UUT-TCC. The techniques have been assessed and reported in many retrospective single-centre studies favouring LNU for better perioperative outcomes and comparable oncological safety. The reported observational studies data is further supported by one RCT. PMID:22759317

  1. [Ultrasonography in acute pelvic pain].

    PubMed

    Kupesi?, Sanja; Aksamija, Alenka; Vuci?, Niksa; Tripalo, Ana; Kurjak, Asim

    2002-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain may be the manifestation of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic disorders from less alarming rupture of the follicular cyst to life threatening conditions such as rupture of ectopic pregnancy or perforation of inflamed appendix. In order to construct an algorithm for differential diagnosis we divide acute pelvic pain into gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiology, which is than subdivided into gastrointestinal and urinary causes. Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and should always be considered in differential diagnosis if appendix has not been removed. Apart of clinical examination and laboratory tests, an ultrasound examination is sensitive up to 90% and specific up to 95% if graded compression technique is used. Still it is user-depended and requires considerable experience in order to perform it reliably. Meckel's diverticulitis, acute terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and functional bowel disease are conditions that should be differentiated from other causes of low abdominal pain by clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging tests. Dilatation of renal pelvis and ureter are typical signs of obstructive uropathy and may be efficiently detected by ultrasound. Additional thinning of renal parenchyma suggests long-term obstructive uropathy. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are three most commonly diagnosed gynecologic conditions presenting as an acute abdomen. Degenerating leiomyomas and adnexal torsion occur less frequently. For better systematization, gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain could be divided into conditions with negative pregnancy test and conditions with positive pregnancy test. Pelvic inflammatory disease may be ultrasonically presented with numerous signs such as thickening of the tubal wall, incomplete septa within the dilated tube, demonstration of hyperechoic mural nodules, free fluid in the "cul-de-sac" etc. Color Doppler ultrasound contributes to more accurate diagnosis of this entity since it enables differentiation between acute and chronic stages based on analysis of the vascular resistance. Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts may be presented by variety of ultrasound findings since intracystic echoes depend upon the quality and quantity of the blood clots. Color Doppler investigation demonstrates moderate to low vascular resistance typical of luteal flow. Leiomyomas undergoing degenerative changes are another cause of acute pelvic pain commonly present in patients of reproductive age. Color flow detects regularly separated vessels at the periphery of the leiomyoma, which exhibit moderate vascular resistance. Although the classic symptom of endometriosis is chronic pelvic pain, in some patients acute pelvic pain does occur. Most of these patients demonstrate an endometrioma or "chocolate" cyst containing diffuse carpet-like echoes. Sometimes, solid components may indicate even ovarian malignancy, but if color Doppler ultrasound is applied it is less likely to obtain false positive results. One should be aware that pericystic and/or hillar type of ovarian endometrioma vascularization facilitate correct recognition of this entity. Pelvic congestion syndrome is another condition that can cause an attack of acute pelvic pain. It is usually consequence of dilatation of venous plexuses, arteries or both systems. By switching color Doppler gynecologist can differentiate pelvic congestion syndrome from multilocular cysts, pelvic inflammatory disease or adenomyosis. Ovarian vein thrombosis is a potentially fatal disorder occurring most often in the early postpartal period. Hypercoagulability, infection and stasis are main etiologic factors, and transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound is an excellent diagnostic tool to diagnose it. Acute pelvic pain may occur even in normal intrauterine pregnancy. This may be explained by hormonal changes, rapid growth of the uterus and increased blood flow. Ultrasound is mandatory for distinguishing normal intrauterine pregnancy from threatened or spontaneous abortion, ectop

  2. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Micha?; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Miros?aw

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This results in much less fatigue and therefore increases precision and potentially may decrease the number of medical errors. The eyes of the surgeon are directed at where the hands should be, which is more natural, allows for a more natural body position and mimics open surgery Robot also enables better teaching, especially when two consoles are used. The surgeon and the student may be either sharing the instruments with two consoles or switching between one another. In a situation where the student operates, the surgeon can use the telestation to teach. Robotic simulator attached to one of the consoles allows students to practice after hours. In summary surgical robot is a great tool, especially in gynecology but also in urology cardiac surgery general surgery and laryngology The device will evolve and most likely with time will eliminate laparoscopy PMID:23488297