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Sample records for urine arsenic concentrations

  1. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ≥6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ≥2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  2. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  3. Associations between Blood and Urine Arsenic Concentrations and Global Levels of Post-Translational Histone Modifications in Bangladeshi Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Caitlin G.; Liu, Xinhua; Hall, Megan N.; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B.; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N.; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H.; Costa, Max; Gamble, Mary V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, with susceptibility differing by sex. Although evidence from in vitro studies suggests that arsenic alters post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), evidence in humans is limited. Objectives: The objectives were to determine: a) if arsenic exposure is associated with global (percent) levels of PTHMs H3K36me2, H3K36me3, and H3K79me2 in a sex-dependent manner, and b) if %PTHMs are stable when arsenic exposure is reduced. Methods: We examined associations between arsenic, measured in blood and urine, and %PTHMs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 317 participants enrolled in the Bangladesh Folic Acid and Creatine Trial (FACT). We also examined the stability of %PTHMs after the use of arsenic-removal water filters (n = 60). Results: Associations between natural log–transformed (ln) urinary arsenic, adjusted for creatinine (uAsCr), and %H3K36me2 differed significantly between men and women (p = 0.01). ln(uAsCr) was positively associated with %H3K36me2 in men [β = 0.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.23, p = 0.03] but was negatively associated with %H3K36me2 in women (β = –0.05; 95% CI: –0.12, 0.02, p = 0.19). The patterns of associations with blood arsenic were similar. On average, water filter use was also associated with reductions in %H3K36me2 (p < 0.01), but this did not differ significantly by sex. Arsenic was not significantly associated with %H3K36me3 or %H3K79me2 in men or women. Conclusions: Arsenic exposure was associated with %H3K36me2 in a sex-specific manner but was not associated with %H3K36me3 or %H3K79me2. Additional studies are needed to assess changes in %H3K36me2 after arsenic removal. Citation: Howe CG, Liu X, Hall MN, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Parvez F, Siddique AB, Shahriar H, Uddin MN, Islam T, Graziano JH, Costa M, Gamble MV. 2016. Associations between blood and urine arsenic concentrations and global levels of post

  4. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  5. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  6. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  7. Measurements of Arsenic in the Urine and Nails of Individuals Exposed to Low Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water From Private Wells in a Rural Region of Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Fabien; Lampron-Goulet, Eric; Normandin, Louise; Langlois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to an increased risk of cancer. A biological measurement was conducted in 153 private well owners and their families consuming water contaminated by inorganic arsenic at concentrations that straddle 10 μg/L. The relationship between the external dose indicators (concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake) and the internal doses (urinary arsenic--sum of As(III), DMA, and MMA, adjusted for creatinine--and total arsenic in toenails) was evaluated using multiple linear regressions, controlling for age, gender, dietary sources of arsenic, and number of cigarettes smoked. It showed that urinary arsenic was associated with concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells (p < .001) and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p < .001) in adults, and with daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p = .017) and rice consumption (p = .022) in children (n = 43). The authors' study reinforces the drinking-water quality guidelines for inorganic arsenic. PMID:26867295

  8. Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelghani, A.A.; Anderson, A.C.; Jaghabir, M.; Mather, F.

    1986-05-01

    Uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) in workers who applied the herbicide was followed during the spraying season. Urine, blood, and hair samples were collected and air samples were taken from the workers' breathing zone. Arsenic concentrations in air samples ranged from 0.001-1.086 micrograms/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0-0.2 mg/L and 0.002-1.725 mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean arsenic concentration in urine increased during the week but returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02-358.0 mg/kg, increased during the spraying season, and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Three workers had higher than normal pre-exposure hair values. However, only one of the three workers had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.

  9. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... or osmolality, your provider will send your urine sample to a lab. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.

  10. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  11. Heritability and Preliminary Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis of Arsenic Metabolites in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Gribble, Matthew O.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Umans, Jason G.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo; Franceschini, Nora; Kao, Wen H.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Cole, Shelley A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic (III) methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been related to urine arsenic metabolites in association studies. Other genes might also play roles in arsenic metabolism and excretion. Objective: We evaluated genetic determinants of urine arsenic metabolites in American Indian adults from the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods: We evaluated heritability of urine arsenic metabolites [percent inorganic arsenic (%iAs), percent monomethylarsonate (%MMA), and percent dimethylarsinate (%DMA)] in 2,907 SHS participants with urine arsenic measurements and at least one relative within the cohort. We conducted a preliminary linkage analysis in a subset of 487 participants with available genotypes on approximately 400 short tandem repeat markers using a general pedigree variance component approach for localizing quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results: The medians (interquartile ranges) for %iAs, %MMA, and %DMA were 7.7% (5.4–10.7%), 13.6% (10.5–17.1%), and 78.4% (72.5–83.1%), respectively. The estimated heritability was 53% for %iAs, 50% for %MMA, and 59% for %DMA. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, region, and total urine arsenic concentrations, LOD [logarithm (to the base of 10) of the odds] scores indicated suggestive evidence for genetic linkage with QTLs influencing urine arsenic metabolites on chromosomes 5 (LOD = 2.03 for %iAs), 9 (LOD = 2.05 for %iAs and 2.10 for %MMA), and 11 (LOD = 1.94 for %iAs). A peak for %DMA on chromosome 10 within 2 Mb of AS3MT had an LOD of 1.80. Conclusions: This population-based family study in American Indian communities supports a genetic contribution to variation in the distribution of arsenic metabolites in urine and, potentially, the involvement of genes other than AS3MT. PMID:23322787

  12. Determination of monomethylarsonous acid, a key arsenic methylation intermediate, in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Le, X C; Ma, M; Cullen, W R; Aposhian, H V; Lu, X; Zheng, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study we report on the finding of monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] in human urine. This newly identified arsenic species is a key intermediate in the metabolic pathway of arsenic biomethylation, which involves stepwise reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic species followed by oxidative addition of a methyl group. Arsenic speciation was carried out using ion-pair chromatographic separation of arsenic compounds with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Speciation of the inorganic arsenite [As(III)], inorganic arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], and MMA(III) in a urine sample was complete in 5 min. Urine samples collected from humans before and after a single oral administration of 300 mg sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) were analyzed for arsenic species. MMA(III) was found in 51 out of 123 urine samples collected from 41 people in inner Mongolia 0-6 hr after the administration of DMPS. MMA(III )in urine samples did not arise from the reduction of MMA(V) by DMPS. DMPS probably assisted the release of MMA(III) that was formed in the body. Along with the presence of MMA(III), there was an increase in the relative concentration of MMA(V) and a decrease in DMA(V) in the urine samples collected after the DMPS ingestion. PMID:11102289

  13. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic based on urinary concentrations and speciation of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J G; Johnson, L R

    1990-05-01

    An analytical speciation method, capable of separating inorganic arsenic (As (V), As (III] and its methylated metabolites (MMAA, DMAA) from common, inert, dietary organoarsenicals, was applied to the determination of arsenic in urine from a variety of workers occupationally exposed to inorganic arsenic compounds. Mean urinary arsenic (As (V) + As (III) + MMAA + DMAA) concentrations ranged from 4.4 micrograms/g creatinine for controls to less than 10 micrograms/g for those in the electronics industry, 47.9 micrograms/g for timber treatment workers applying arsenical wood preservatives, 79.4 micrograms/g for a group of glassworkers using arsenic trioxide, and 245 micrograms/g for chemical workers engaged in manufacturing and handling inorganic arsenicals. The maximum recorded concentration was 956 micrograms/g. For the most exposed groups, the ranges in the average urinary arsenic speciation pattern were 1-6% As (V), 11-14% As (III), 14-18% MMAA, and 63-70% DMAA. The highly raised urinary arsenic concentrations for the chemical workers, in particular, and some glassworkers are shown to correspond to possible atmospheric concentrations in the workplace and intakes in excess of, or close to, recommended and statutory limits and those associated with inorganic arsenic related diseases. PMID:2357455

  15. Assessment of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic based on urinary concentrations and speciation of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J G; Johnson, L R

    1990-01-01

    An analytical speciation method, capable of separating inorganic arsenic (As (V), As (III] and its methylated metabolites (MMAA, DMAA) from common, inert, dietary organoarsenicals, was applied to the determination of arsenic in urine from a variety of workers occupationally exposed to inorganic arsenic compounds. Mean urinary arsenic (As (V) + As (III) + MMAA + DMAA) concentrations ranged from 4.4 micrograms/g creatinine for controls to less than 10 micrograms/g for those in the electronics industry, 47.9 micrograms/g for timber treatment workers applying arsenical wood preservatives, 79.4 micrograms/g for a group of glassworkers using arsenic trioxide, and 245 micrograms/g for chemical workers engaged in manufacturing and handling inorganic arsenicals. The maximum recorded concentration was 956 micrograms/g. For the most exposed groups, the ranges in the average urinary arsenic speciation pattern were 1-6% As (V), 11-14% As (III), 14-18% MMAA, and 63-70% DMAA. The highly raised urinary arsenic concentrations for the chemical workers, in particular, and some glassworkers are shown to correspond to possible atmospheric concentrations in the workplace and intakes in excess of, or close to, recommended and statutory limits and those associated with inorganic arsenic related diseases. PMID:2357455

  16. Thio-dimethylarsinate is a common metabolite in urine samples from arsenic-exposed women in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Raml, Reingard; Rumpler, Alice; Goessler, Walter; Vahter, Marie; Li Li; Ochi, Takafumi; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2007-08-01

    Over the last 6 years, much work on arsenic species in urine samples has been directed toward the determination of the reduced dimethylated arsenic species, DMA(III), because of its high toxicity and perceived key role in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Recent work, however, has suggested that DMA(III) may at times have been misidentified because its chromatographic properties can be similar to those of thio-dimethylarsinate (thio-DMA). We analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) urine samples from 75 arsenic-exposed women from Bangladesh with total arsenic concentrations ranging from 8 to 1034 {mu}g As/L and found that thio-DMA was present in 44% of the samples at concentrations ranging mostly from trace amounts to 24 {mu}g As/L (one sample contained 123 {mu}g As/L). Cytotoxicity testing with HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocarcinoma indicated that thio-DMA was about 10-fold more cytotoxic than dimethylarsinate (DMA). The widespread occurrence of thio-DMA in urine from these arsenic-exposed women suggests that this arsenical may also be present in other urine samples and has so far escaped detection. The work highlights the need for analytical methods providing specific determinations of arsenic compounds in future studies on arsenic metabolism and toxicology.

  17. The Association of Urine Arsenic with Prevalent and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: Evidence from the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Laura Y.; Umans, Jason G.; Yeh, Fawn; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated associations between low to moderate arsenic levels and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective was to evaluate the associations of inorganic arsenic exposure with prevalent and incident CKD in American Indian adults. Methods We evaluated the associations of inorganic arsenic exposure with CKD in American Indians who participated in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) in 3,851 adults aged 45–74 years in a cross-sectional analysis, and 3,119 adults with follow-up data in a prospective analysis. Inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate were measured in urine at baseline. CKD was defined as eGFR≤60 mL/min/1.73m2, kidney transplant or dialysis. Results CKD prevalence was 10.3%. The median (IQR) concentration of inorganic plus methylated arsenic species (total arsenic) in urine was 9.7 (5.8, 15.7) μg/L. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of prevalent CKD for an interquartile range in total arsenic was 0.7 (0.6, 0.8), mostly due to an inverse association with inorganic arsenic (OR 0.4 (0.3, 0.4)). Monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate were positively associated with prevalent CKD after adjustment for inorganic arsenic (OR 3.8 and 1.8). The adjusted HR of incident CKD for an IQR in ΣAs was 1.2 (1.03, 1.41). The corresponding HR for inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate were 1.0 (0.9, 1.2), 1.2 (1.00, 1.3) and 1.2 (1.0, 1.4). Conclusions The inverse association of urine inorganic arsenic with prevalent CKD suggests that kidney disease affects excretion of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic species were positively associated with incident CKD. Studies with repeated measures are needed to further characterize the relationship between arsenic and kidney disease development. PMID:25929811

  18. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  19. Arsenic speciation in the urine and hair of individuals exposed to airborne arsenic through coal-burning in Guizhou, PR China.

    PubMed

    Shraim, Amjad; Cui, Xing; Li, Song; Ng, Jack C; Wang, Jianping; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Yingchun; Guo, Lei; Li, Dasheng; Wang, Shuquan; Zhang, Ruizhi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2003-01-31

    The extent of exposure of residents of Changqing (Guizhou, PR China) to arsenic through coal-burning was investigated. Despite the low coal-arsenic content (56.3+/-42.5 mg As kg(-1)) when compared with coals collected at different location and times from the same province, more than 30% of the study subjects have shown symptoms of arsenicosis. Coal, urine, hair, and water samples were collected in mid-September 2001 and analysed for arsenic. The average urinary and hair-arsenic concentrations in the exposed subjects were 71.4+/-37.1 microg As g(-1) creatinine (control 41.6+/-12.1) and 7.99+/-8.16 mg kg(-1), respectively. A positive correlation between the hair and urinary-arsenic concentration (R(2)=0.601) was found. There was no significant difference between females and males for both urinary and hair-arsenic concentrations. Females were found to have a higher dimethylarsinic acid but lower percentages of inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonic acid in their urine than males. PMID:12505431

  20. Determination of arsenic metabolic complex excreted in human urine after administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhilong; Jiang, Guifeng; Cullen, William R; Aposhian, H Vasken; Le, X Chris

    2002-10-01

    Sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) has been used to treat acute arsenic poisoning. Presumably DMPS functions by chelating some arsenic species to increase the excretion of arsenic from the body. However, the excreted complex of DMPS with arsenic has not been detected. Here we describe a DMPS complex with monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a key trivalent arsenic in the arsenic methylation process, and show the presence of the DMPS-MMA(III) complex in human urine after the administration of DMPS. The DMPS-MMA(III) complex was characterized using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and determined by using HPLC separation with hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection (HGAFD). The DMPS-MMA(III) complex did not form a volatile hydride with borohydride treatment. On-line digestion with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide following HPLC separation decomposed the DMPS-MMA(III) complex and allowed for the subsequent quantification by hydride generation atomic fluorescence. Arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), MMA(III), and DMPS-MMA(III) complex were analyzed in urine samples from human subjects collected after the ingestion of 300 mg of DMPS. The administration of DMPS resulted in a decrease of the DMA(V) concentration and an increase of the MMA(V) concentration excreted in the urine, confirming the previous results. The finding of the DMPS-MMA(III) complex in human urine after DMPS treatment provides an explanation for the inhibition of arsenic methylation by DMPS. Because MMA(III) is the substrate for the biomethylation of arsenic from MMA(V) to DMA(V), the formation of DMPS-MMA(III) complex would reduce the availability of MMA(III) for the subsequent biomethylation. PMID:12387631

  1. EXCRETION OF ARSENIC IN URINE AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first mornin...

  2. Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed

  3. SEPARATION OF TOXICOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS IN URINE USING A NEW SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals are critically influenced by the oxidation state of As. In human urine, inorganic and methylated arsenicals contain both As(III) and As(V). Because As(III) is easily oxidized, a method is needed to preserve the native oxidation sta...

  4. Placental arsenic concentrations in relation to both maternal and infant biomarkers of exposure in a US cohort

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy; Davis, Matthew A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Theiler, Shaleen K.; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson Brian, P.; Conway, David C.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic crosses the placenta and may have adverse consequences in utero and later in life. At present, little is known about arsenic concentrations in placenta and their relation to maternal and infant exposures particularly at common levels of exposure. We measured placenta arsenic in a US cohort potentially exposed via drinking water from private wells, and evaluated the relationships between placenta and maternal and infant biomarker arsenic concentrations. We measured total arsenic concentrations in placental samples from women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (N=766). We compared these data to maternal urinary arsenic (total arsenic and individual species) collected at approximately 24–28 week gestation, along with maternal post-partum toenails and infant toenails using non-parametric multivariate analysis of log10-transformed data. We also examined the association between placental arsenic and household drinking water arsenic. Placenta arsenic concentrations were related to arsenic concentrations in maternal urine (β 0.55, P value <0.0001), maternal (β 0.30, P value 0.0196) and infant toenails (β 0.40, P value 0.0293) and household drinking water (β 0.09, P value <0.0001). Thus, our data suggest that placenta arsenic concentrations reflect both maternal and infant exposures. PMID:25805251

  5. Placental arsenic concentrations in relation to both maternal and infant biomarkers of exposure in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Punshon, Tracy; Davis, Matthew A; Marsit, Carmen J; Theiler, Shaleen K; Baker, Emily R; Jackson, Brian P; Conway, David C; Karagas, Margaret R

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic crosses the placenta and may have adverse consequences in utero and later in life. At present, little is known about arsenic concentrations in placenta and their relation to maternal and infant exposures particularly at common levels of exposure. We measured placenta arsenic in a US cohort potentially exposed via drinking water from private wells, and evaluated the relationships between placenta and maternal and infant biomarker arsenic concentrations. We measured total arsenic concentrations in placental samples from women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (N=766). We compared these data to maternal urinary arsenic (total arsenic and individual species) collected at approximately 24-28 week gestation, along with maternal post-partum toenails and infant toenails using non-parametric multivariate analysis of log10-transformed data. We also examined the association between placental arsenic and household drinking water arsenic. Placenta arsenic concentrations were related to arsenic concentrations in maternal urine (β 0.55, P value <0.0001), maternal (β 0.30, P value 0.0196) and infant toenails (β 0.40, P value 0.0293) and household drinking water (β 0.09, P value <0.0001). Thus, our data suggest that placenta arsenic concentrations reflect both maternal and infant exposures. PMID:25805251

  6. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  7. Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2–12.6 ng g−1, n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3–22 ng g−1. Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

  8. Diet and toenail arsenic concentrations in a New Hampshire population with arsenic-containing water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data exist on the contribution of dietary sources of arsenic to an individual’s total exposure, particularly in populations with exposure via drinking water. Here, the association between diet and toenail arsenic concentrations (a long-term biomarker of exposure) was evaluated for individuals with measured household tap water arsenic. Foods known to be high in arsenic, including rice and seafood, were of particular interest. Methods Associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of 120 individual diet items were quantified using general linear models that also accounted for household tap water arsenic and potentially confounding factors (e.g., age, caloric intake, sex, smoking) (n = 852). As part of the analysis, we assessed whether associations between log-transformed toenail arsenic and each diet item differed between subjects with household drinking water arsenic concentrations <1 μg/L versus ≥1 μg/L. Results As expected, toenail arsenic concentrations increased with household water arsenic concentrations. Among the foods known to be high in arsenic, no clear relationship between toenail arsenic and rice consumption was detected, but there was a positive association with consumption of dark meat fish, a category that includes tuna steaks, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish. Positive associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of white wine, beer, and Brussels sprouts were also observed; these and most other associations were not modified by exposure via water. However, consumption of two foods cooked in water, beans/lentils and cooked oatmeal, was more strongly related to toenail arsenic among those with arsenic-containing drinking water (≥1 μg/L). Conclusions This study suggests that diet can be an important contributor to total arsenic exposure in U.S. populations regardless of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Thus, dietary exposure to arsenic in the US warrants consideration as a potential

  9. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Brima, Eid I.; Haris, Parvez I. . E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk; Jenkins, Richard O.; Polya, Dave A.; Gault, Andrew G.; Harrington, Chris F.

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

  10. Linkage Analysis of Urine Arsenic Species Patterns in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Laston, Sandra L; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Umans, Jason G; Thomas, Duncan C; Gilliland, Frank; North, Kari E; Franceschini, Nora; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic toxicokinetics are important for disease risks in exposed populations, but genetic determinants are not fully understood. We examined urine arsenic species patterns measured by HPLC-ICPMS among 2189 Strong Heart Study participants 18 years of age and older with data on ~400 genome-wide microsatellite markers spaced ~10 cM and arsenic speciation (683 participants from Arizona, 684 from Oklahoma, and 822 from North and South Dakota). We logit-transformed % arsenic species (% inorganic arsenic, %MMA, and %DMA) and also conducted principal component analyses of the logit % arsenic species. We used inverse-normalized residuals from multivariable-adjusted polygenic heritability analysis for multipoint variance components linkage analysis. We also examined the contribution of polymorphisms in the arsenic metabolism gene AS3MT via conditional linkage analysis. We localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 10 (LOD 4.12 for %MMA, 4.65 for %DMA, and 4.84 for the first principal component of logit % arsenic species). This peak was partially but not fully explained by measured AS3MT variants. We also localized a QTL for the second principal component of logit % arsenic species on chromosome 5 (LOD 4.21) that was not evident from considering % arsenic species individually. Some other loci were suggestive or significant for 1 geographical area but not overall across all areas, indicating possible locus heterogeneity. This genome-wide linkage scan suggests genetic determinants of arsenic toxicokinetics to be identified by future fine-mapping, and illustrates the utility of principal component analysis as a novel approach that considers % arsenic species jointly. PMID:26209557

  11. Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulidou, M.; Charalambous, C.; Aletrari, M.; Nicolaidou Kanari, P.; Petronda, A.; Ward, N. I.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryCyprus being a Mediterranean island with long dry summers and mild winters suffers from water deficiency and over exploitation of its water resources. Groundwater in Cyprus is a valuable natural resource as approximately 50% of the total water needs come from underground water supplies. According to the Directive 118/2006/EC, groundwater should be protected from deterioration and chemical pollution, this is particularly important for groundwater dependent ecosystems and for the use of groundwater as a water supply for human consumption. During 2007 to 2009, as part of a national monitoring programme, 84 boreholes were sampled in Cyprus and subsequently analysed for total arsenic by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The groundwater concentrations ranged from <0.3 to 41 μg/L As. Several boreholes located in a rural farming district near Nicosia had concentrations above the World Health Organisation (WHO) Drinking Water Guideline limit of 10 μg/L As. Evaluation of the groundwater sampling procedure for boreholes provided data recommending that water samples should be collected after an initial borehole washout for 5 min. Further sampling of these boreholes in 2010, revealed total arsenic concentrations of <0.3-64.2 μg/L As, with the predominant arsenic species (determined using a novel field-based methodology) being arsenate (AsV). The maximum total arsenic concentration is 6-fold higher than the WHO Drinking Water Guideline limit (10 μg/L As) and approximately half of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN-FAO) irrigational limit of 100 μg/L As.

  12. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M. . E-mail: adair.blakely@epa.gov; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-06-15

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P<0.0001) positive regressions were seen between the TAs concentration in toenails and in drinking water (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine.

  13. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs{sup III}, MAs{sup V}, DMAs{sup III}, DMAs{sup V}). This study examines the relationship between TGF-{alpha} concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-{alpha} in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-{alpha} levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-{alpha} than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-{alpha} in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas.

  14. SLCO1B1 Variants and Urine Arsenic Metabolites in the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic species patterns in urine are associated with risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The organic anion transporter coded by the gene SLCO1B1 may transport arsenic species, but its association with arsenic metabolites in human urine has not yet been studied. The objective of this study is to evaluate associations of urine arsenic metabolites with variants in the candidate gene SLCO1B1 in adults from the Strong Heart Family Study. We estimated associations between % arsenic species biomarker traits and 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLCO1B1 gene in 157 participants, assuming additive genetics. Linear regression models for each SNP accounted for kinships and were adjusted for sex, body mass index, and study center. The minor allele of rs1564370 was associated with lower %MMA (p = .0003) and higher %DMA (p = .0002), accounting for 8% of the variance for %MMA and 9% for %DMA. The rs1564370 minor allele homozygote frequency was 17% and the heterozygote frequency was 43%. The minor allele of rs2291075 was associated with lower %MMA (p = .0006) and higher %DMA (p = .0014), accounting for 7% of the variance for %MMA and 5% for %DMA. The frequency of rs2291075 minor allele homozygotes was 1% and of heterozygotes was 15%. Common variants in SLCO1B1 were associated with differences in arsenic metabolites in a preliminary candidate gene study. Replication of this finding in other populations and analyses with respect to disease outcomes are needed to determine whether this novel candidate gene is important for arsenic-associated disease risks. PMID:23970802

  15. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Klimecki, Walter T.; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  16. Association of Children's Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Klimecki, Walter T; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A; Martinez, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = -0.43, p = 0.001, R² = 0.08), water (b = -0.22, p = 0.07, R² = 0.03), house dust (b = -0.37, p = 0.07, R² = 0.04), and dust loading (b = -0.21, p = 0.04, R² = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = -0.42, p = 0.02, R² = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  17. The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matilda O.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Awofolu, Omotayo R.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. PMID:20623005

  18. Nondestructive determination of arsenic in urine by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Swift, G; Neuhoff, J

    1990-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis, in conjunction with Compton suppression, has been employed to determine arsenic levels in artificially doped urine samples. Typical detection limits were of the order of 10 ng/g. Replicate determinations gave precision values between 2 and 12%, whereas accuracy measurements were between +/- 1 and +/- 20%. Biological and geological reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were also analyzed for arsenic content. Typically, the precision achieved again was between 2 and 12%, whereas the accuracy measurements were in excellent agreement with the certified values. PMID:1704729

  19. Arsenic Exposure within the Korean Community (United States) Based on Dietary Behavior and Arsenic Levels in Hair, Urine, Air, and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Bill; Tsuchiya, Ami; Kalman, David A.; Dills, Russell; Burbacher, Thomas M.; White, Jim W.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Mariën, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Background Determining arsenic exposure in groups based on geographic location, dietary behaviors, or lifestyles is important, as even moderate exposures may lead to health concerns. Objectives/Methods The Korean community in Washington State, represents a group warranting investigation, as they consume foods (e.g., shellfish, rice, finfish, and seaweed) known to contain arsenic. As part of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study, we examined the arsenic levels in hair and urine along with the diets of 108 women of childbearing age from within this community. Arsenic levels in indoor air and drinking water were also investigated, and shellfish commonly consumed were collected and analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. Results The six shellfish species analyzed (n = 667) contain total arsenic (range, 1–5 μg/g) but are a small source of inorganic arsenic (range, 0.01–0.12 μg/g). Six percent of the individuals may have elevated urinary inorganic arsenic levels (> 10 μg/L) due to diet. Seaweed, rice, shellfish, and finfish are principal sources for total arsenic intake/excretion based on mass balance estimates. Rice consumption (163 g/person/day) may be a significant source of inorganic arsenic. Air and water are not significant sources of exposure. Hair is a poor biometric for examining arsenic levels at low to moderate exposures. Conclusions We conclude that a portion of this community may have dietary inorganic arsenic exposure resulting in urine levels exceeding 10 μg/L. Although their exposure is below that associated with populations exposed to high levels of arsenic from drinking water (> 100 μg/L), their exposure may be among the highest in the United States. PMID:19440504

  20. Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemöller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively. PMID:12782488

  1. Total grain-arsenic and arsenic-species concentrations in diverse rice cultivars under flooded conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic is not an essential element and can be toxic to both plants and animals in high concentration. Decreasing arsenic concentrations in all foodstuffs, including rice grain, is a desirable goal because of the potential detrimental impacts of As on plant growth and yield and its potential toxici...

  2. Speciation of arsenic in urine following intravenous administration of arsthinol in mice.

    PubMed

    Ajana, Imane; Astier, Alain; Gibaud, Stéphane

    2010-09-01

    Recent investigations have shown that arsthinol, a trivalent organoarsenic compound (dithiarsolane), has been active in vitro on leukemia cell lines and offers a better therapeutic index than arsenic trioxide, as estimated by the ratio LD50/IC50. To complete our understanding of its urinary excretion, a sensitive method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used. Mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of arsthinol at 0.2 mmol/kg of body weight. The amount of total arsenic in tissues and body fluids was determined by a colorimetric method and urine metabolites were analyzed on a C18 Acclaim PepMap 100 A column by LC-MS. Our results showed that only three arsenic species (acetarsol, acetarsol oxide and arsthinol) were detected in the first 24-h urine. Overall, this study confirms that the hydrolysis of dithiarsolanes to arsenoxides (i.e. acetarsol oxide) can be followed by an oxidation in arsonic acids (i.e. acetarsol). All these compounds are excreted in the urine. PMID:21495268

  3. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L. Comparison of arsenic concentrations in Pennsylvania groundwater by physiographic province indicates that the Central Lowland physiographic province had the highest median arsenic concentration (4.5 µg/L) and the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L (59 percent) and greater than or equal to 10.0 µg/L (43 percent). Evaluation of four major aquifer types (carbonate, crystalline, siliciclastic, and surficial) in Pennsylvania showed that all types had median arsenic concentrations less than 4.0 µg/L, and the highest arsenic concentration (490.0 µg/L) was in a siliciclastic aquifer. The siliciclastic and surficial aquifers had the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L and 10.0 µg/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with low pH (less than or equal to 4.0), high pH (greater than or equal to 8.0), or reducing conditions. For waters classified as anoxic (405 samples), 20 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated concentrations of arsenic; for waters classified as oxic (1,530 samples) only 10 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated arsenic concentrations. Nevertheless, regardless of the reduction

  4. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  5. Geostatistical modelling of arsenic in drinking water wells and related toenail arsenic concentrations across Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dummer, T J B; Yu, Z M; Nauta, L; Murimboh, J D; Parker, L

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring class 1 human carcinogen that is widespread in private drinking water wells throughout the province of Nova Scotia in Canada. In this paper we explore the spatial variation in toenail arsenic concentrations (arsenic body burden) in Nova Scotia. We describe the regional distribution of arsenic concentrations in private well water supplies in the province, and evaluate the geological and environmental features associated with higher levels of arsenic in well water. We develop geostatistical process models to predict high toenail arsenic concentrations and high well water arsenic concentrations, which have utility for studies where no direct measurements of arsenic body burden or arsenic exposure are available. 892 men and women who participated in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health Project provided both drinking water and toenail clipping samples. Information on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors was obtained with a set of standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric indices and arsenic concentrations in drinking water and toenails were measured. In addition, data on arsenic concentrations in 10,498 private wells were provided by the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. We utilised stepwise multivariable logistic regression modelling to develop separate statistical models to: a) predict high toenail arsenic concentrations (defined as toenail arsenic levels ≥0.12 μg g(-1)) and b) predict high well water arsenic concentrations (defined as well water arsenic levels ≥5.0 μg L(-1)). We found that the geological and environmental information that predicted well water arsenic concentrations can also be used to accurately predict toenail arsenic concentrations. We conclude that geological and environmental factors contributing to arsenic contamination in well water are the major contributing influences on arsenic body burden among Nova Scotia residents. Further studies are warranted to assess appropriate

  6. On concentration dependence of arsenic diffusivity in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, O. I.

    2016-05-01

    An analysis of the equations used for modeling thermal arsenic diffusion in silicon has been carried out. It was shown that for arsenic diffusion governed by the vacancy-impurity pairs and the pairs formed due to interaction of impurity atoms with silicon self-interstitials in a neutral charge state, the doping process can be described by the Fick’s second law equation with a single effective diffusion coefficient which takes into account two impurity flows arising due to interaction of arsenic atoms with vacancies and silicon self-interstitials, respectively. Arsenic concentration profiles calculated with the use of the effective diffusivity agree well with experimental data if the maximal impurity concentration is near the intrinsic carrier concentration. On the other hand, for higher impurity concentrations a certain deviation in the local regions of arsenic distribution is observed. The difference from the experiment can occur due to the incorrect use of effective diffusivity for the description of two different impurity flows or due to the formation of nonuniform distributions of neutral vacancies and neutral self-interstitials in heavily doped silicon layers. We also suppose that the migration of nonequilibrium arsenic interstitial atoms makes a significant contribution to the formation of a low concentration region on thermal arsenic diffusion.

  7. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic☆

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, José; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAsIII, MAsV, DMAsIII, DMAsV). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p<0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p=0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas. PMID:17267001

  8. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts

  9. Anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Rebecca B.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ashraf Ali, M.; Shoemaker, Julie K.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of dissolved arsenic in the Ganges Delta has puzzled researchers ever since the report of widespread arsenic poisoning two decades ago. Today, microbially mediated oxidation of organic carbon is thought to drive the geochemical transformations that release arsenic from sediments, but the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. At a typical site in Bangladesh, where groundwater-irrigated rice fields and constructed ponds are the main sources of groundwater recharge, we combine hydrologic and biogeochemical analyses to trace the origin of contaminated groundwater. Incubation experiments indicate that recharge from ponds contains biologically degradable organic carbon, whereas recharge from rice fields contains mainly recalcitrant organic carbon. Chemical and isotopic indicators as well as groundwater simulations suggest that recharge from ponds carries this degradable organic carbon into the shallow aquifer, and that groundwater flow, drawn by irrigation pumping, transports pond water to the depth where dissolved arsenic concentrations are greatest. Results also indicate that arsenic concentrations are low in groundwater originating from rice fields. Furthermore, solute composition in arsenic-contaminated water is consistent with that predicted using geochemical models of pond-water-aquifer-sediment interactions. We therefore suggest that the construction of ponds has influenced aquifer biogeochemistry, and that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer result from variations in the source of water, and the complex three-dimensional patterns of groundwater flow.

  10. Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0 µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0 µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60 µg/L, range 5-200 µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70 µg/L, 10-1700 µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200 µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

  11. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  12. Advances in understanding the urine-concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M; Layton, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    The renal medulla produces concentrated urine through the generation of an osmotic gradient that progressively increases from the cortico-medullary boundary to the inner medullary tip. In the outer medulla, the osmolality gradient arises principally from vigorous active transport of NaCl, without accompanying water, from the thick ascending limbs of short- and long-looped nephrons. In the inner medulla, the source of the osmotic gradient has not been identified. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of key components of the urine-concentrating mechanism, including (a) better understanding of the regulation of water, urea, and sodium transport proteins; (b) better resolution of the anatomical relationships in the medulla; and (c) improvements in mathematical modeling of the urine-concentrating mechanism. Continued experimental investigation of signaling pathways regulating transepithelial transport, both in normal animals and in knockout mice, and incorporation of the resulting information into mathematical simulations may help to more fully elucidate the mechanism for concentrating urine in the inner medulla. PMID:24245944

  13. Fractionation of inorganic arsenic by adjusting hydrogen ion concentration.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andrea; Gonzalez, Mario Henrique; Queiroz, Helena Müller; Cadore, Solange

    2016-12-15

    The inorganic fraction of arsenic species, iAs=∑[As(III)+As(V)] present in fish samples can be quantified in the presence of other arsenic species also found in fishes, such as: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB). The toxic arsenic fraction was selected taking into account the dissociation constants of these arsenic species in different hydrogen ions concentration leading to the arsine formation from iAs compounds detected as As(III) by HG AAS. For thus, a microwave assisted extraction was carried out using HCl 1molL(-1) in order to maintain the integrity of the arsenic species in this mild extraction media. Recovery experiments were done for iAs fraction, in the presence of other arsenic species. The recovery values obtained for iAs fraction added were quantitative about 87-107% (for N=3, RSD⩽3%). The limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ), were 5μgkg(-1) and 16μgkg(-1) respectively. PMID:27451157

  14. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  15. [Micelle-mediated extraction for concentrating conjugated bilirubin in urine].

    PubMed

    Matsudo, T; Saitoh, T; Matsubara, C

    2001-02-01

    An extraction method based on the phase separation of aqueous micellar solutions of n-octyl-beta-D-thioglucoside (OTG) was applied to the concentrating conjugated bilirubin in urine. The analyte in sample solutions could be efficiently concentrated into a small volume of surfactant-rich phase, while hydrophilic matrix components including urinary protein, ascorbic acid, and saccharide remained in the aqueous phase. The concentrated OTG negligibly affected the diazo reaction and the subsequent spectrophotometric detection. Conjugated bilirubin was successfully determined in the concentration range from 0.05 microgram/ml to 5 micrograms/ml with a 96-well microplate reader absorption spectrophotometer. PMID:11218735

  16. Evaluation of two new arsenic field test kits capable of detecting arsenic water concentrations close to 10 microg/L.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig M; George, Christine M; Kalman, David A; Smith, Allan H

    2006-05-15

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Arsenic field test kits may offer a cost-effective approach for measuring these exposures in the field, although the accuracy of some kits used in the past has been poor. In this study, arsenic concentrations were measured in 136 water sources in western Nevada using two relatively new arsenic test kits and compared to laboratory measurements using atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the Quick Arsenic and Hach EZ kits to laboratory measurements were 0.96 (p < 0.001) and 0.95 (p < 0.001), respectively. When analyzed in seven exposure categories (0-9, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499, and > or = 500 microg/L), test kit and AFS measurements were in the same category in 71% (Quick Arsenic) and 62% (Hach EZ) of samples, and within one category of each other in 99% (Quick Arsenic) and 97% (Hach EZ) of samples. Both kits identified all water samples with high arsenic concentrations (> 15 microg/L) as being above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard and the World Health Organization's guideline value for arsenic of 10 microg/L. These results suggestthatthese easily portable kits can be used to identify water sources with high arsenic concentrations and may provide an important tool for arsenic surveillance and remediation programs. PMID:16749706

  17. Screening of rice cultivars for grain arsenic concentration and speciation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the concentration and speciation of arsenic in rice grain because of concerns with food quality and interest in minimizing any potential risk from dietary exposure. Our objective was to screen a range of rice varieties from the USDA world collection for ...

  18. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration. PMID:25736163

  19. Metformin improves urine concentration in rodents with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Orhan; Klein, Janet D.; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Ren, Huiwen; Sands, Jeff M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine concentration is regulated by vasopressin. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) mutations. We studied whether metformin could improve urine concentration in rodent models of congenital NDI by stimulating AMPK. To block the V2R in rats, tolvaptan (10 mg/kg/d) was given by oral gavage with or without metformin (800 mg/ kg/d). Control rats received vehicle with or without metformin. Tamoxifen-induced V2R KO mice were given metformin (600 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily. Urine osmolality in tolvaptan-treated rats (1,303 ± 126 mOsM) was restored to control levels by metformin (2,335 ± 273 mOsM) within 3 days and was sustained for up to 10 days. Metformin increased protein abundance of inner medullary urea transporter UT-A1 by 61% and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) by 44% in tolvaptan-treated rats, and immunohistochemistry showed increased membrane accumulation of AQP2 with acute and chronic AMPK stimulation. Outer medullary Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) abundance increased (117%) with AMPK stimulation in control rats but not in V2R-blocked rats. Metformin increased V2R KO mouse urine osmolality within 3 hours, and the increase persisted for up to 12 hours. Metformin increased AQP2 in the V2R KO mice similar to the tolvaptan-treated rats. These results indicate that AMPK activators, such as metformin, might provide a promising treatment for congenital NDI. PMID:27478876

  20. Determinants of Arsenic Metabolism: Blood Arsenic Metabolites, Plasma Folate, Cobalamin, and Homocysteine Concentrations in Maternal–Newborn Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marni; Gamble, Mary; Slavkovich, Vesna; Liu, Xinhua; Levy, Diane; Cheng, Zhongqi; van Geen, Alexander; Yunus, Mahammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Pilsner, J. Richard; Graziano, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, tens of millions of people have been consuming waterborne arsenic for decades. The extent to which As is transported to the fetus during pregnancy has not been well characterized. Objectives We therefore conducted a study of 101 pregnant women who gave birth in Matlab, Bangladesh. Methods Maternal and cord blood pairs were collected and concentrations of total As were analyzed for 101 pairs, and As metabolites for 30 pairs. Maternal urinary As metabolites and plasma folate, cobalamin, and homocysteine levels in maternal cord pairs were also measured. Household tube well–water As concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 10 μg/L in 38% of the cases. Results We observed strong associations between maternal and cord blood concentrations of total As (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Maternal and cord blood arsenic metabolites (n = 30) were also strongly correlated: in dimethylarsinate (DMA) (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001), monomethylarsonate (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), arsenite (As+3) (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), and arsenate (As+5) (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001). Maternal homocysteine was a strong predictor of %DMA in maternal urine, maternal blood, and cord blood (β = −6.2, p < 0.02; β = −10.9, p < 0.04; and β = −13.7, p < 0.04, respectively). Maternal folate was inversely associated with maternal blood As5+ (β = 0.56, p < 0.05), and maternal cobalamin was inversely associated with cord blood As5+ (β = −1.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that exposure to all metabolites of inorganic As occurs in the prenatal period. PMID:17938743

  1. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Logistic regression models were created to predict and map the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater statewide in Pennsylvania and in three intrastate regions to further improve predictions for those three regions (glacial aquifer system, Gettysburg Basin, Newark Basin). Although the Pennsylvania and regional predictive models retained some different variables, they have common characteristics that can be grouped by (1) geologic and soils variables describing arsenic sources and mobilizers, (2) geochemical variables describing the geochemical environment of the groundwater, and (3) locally specific variables that are unique to each of the three regions studied and not applicable to statewide analysis. Maps of Pennsylvania and the three intrastate regions were produced that illustrate that areas most at risk are those with geology and soils capable of functioning as an arsenic source or mobilizer and geochemical groundwater conditions able to facilitate redox reactions. The models have limitations because they may not characterize areas that have localized controls on arsenic mobility. The probability maps associated with this report are intended for regional-scale use and may not be accurate for use at the field scale or when considering individual wells.

  2. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Mori, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    Rice consumption is a major source of cadmium and arsenic for the population of Asia. We investigated the effects of water management in rice paddy on levels of cadmium and arsenic in Japanese rice grains. Flooding increased arsenic concentrations in rice grains, whereas aerobic treatment increased the concentration of cadmium. Flooding for 3 weeks before and after heading was most effective in reducing grain cadmium concentrations, but this treatment increased the arsenic concentration considerably, whereas aerobic treatment during the same period was effective in reducing arsenic concentrations but increased the cadmium concentration markedly. Flooding treatment after heading was found to be more effective than flooding treatment before heading in reducing rice grain cadmium without a concomitant increase in total arsenic levels, although it increased inorganic arsenic levels. Concentrations of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain were very low under aerobic conditions but increased under flooded conditions. DMA accounted for 3-52% of the total arsenic concentration in grain grown in soil with a lower arsenic concentration and 10-80% in soil with a higher arsenic concentration. A possible explanation for the accumulation of DMA in rice grains is that DMA translocates from shoots/roots to the grains more readily than does inorganic arsenic. PMID:20000530

  3. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day⁻¹) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL⁻¹. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  4. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  5. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  6. The effects of urine concentration, and cushion centrifugation to remove urine, on the quality of cool-stored stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Voge, Jared; Varner, Dickson D; Blanchard, Terry L; Meschini, Marika; Turner, Carly; Teague, Sheila R; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C

    2016-09-15

    Urine-contaminated stallion semen is a clinical problem due to a variety of causes. The effect of the level of urine contamination on the longevity of sperm quality has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urine concentration level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, on measures of sperm quality, immediately after semen collection (T0), after 1 hour of storage at room temperature (T1), and after 24 hours of cooled storage (T24). In general, most sperm quality measures declined with increasing urine concentration starting at T0. Cushioned centrifugation (CC), but not simple dilution, generally maintained sperm quality at T24 as compared with T1. At T24, total sperm motility was higher in all urine-contaminated CC samples compared with uncentrifuged samples (P < 0.05); sperm viability was lower in CC than uncentrifuged at a urine concentration of 20%, but higher at 30% and 40% (P < 0.05); and DNA quality was decreased (higher % cells outside the main population) in all urine concentrations (P < 0.05). Immediate extension in semen extender, followed by cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, provided the best option for preserving sperm quality of urospermic semen. PMID:27349135

  7. Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds To avoid potential harm, experts ... rice-based foods may have significantly higher "inorganic" arsenic concentrations in their urine than babies who never ...

  8. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  9. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the early placentas of arsenate-dosed hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors determined the concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the placentas of hamsters following continuous exposure via the osmotic minipump to minimally and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate. Close to 70% of the placental arsenic is bound to macromolecules, two-thirds of which is dialyzable. The remaining 30% of arsenic consists of low molecular weight species, predominantly inorganic arsenic. This mix is the same for minimally teratogenic and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate.

  10. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    Arsenic is a natural element found in soil and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can get into air, water, and the ground from wind- ...

  11. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  12. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  13. Arsenic concentrations in Baltic Sea sediments close to chemical munitions dumpsites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Szubska, Marta; Emelyanov, Emelyan; Garnaga, Galina; Drzewińska, Anna; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Vanninen, Paula; Östin, Anders; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    In addition to natural sources and land-originated pollution, the Baltic Sea has another anthropogenic source of arsenic in bottom sediments-arsenic-based Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA). To examine the potential usage of arsenic contents results for monitoring the leakage from chemical weapons, sediment samples were collected from officially reported and potential chemical weapon dumpsites located in the Baltic Sea, and total and inorganic arsenic concentrations were analyzed. Results showed an elevated arsenic content in dumpsite areas compared to reference areas. Correlations of arsenic with other metals and organic matter were studied to elucidate any unusual behavior of arsenic in the dumpsites. In the area of the Bornholm Deep, such behavior was observed for inorganic arsenic. It appears that in close vicinity of dumped munitions, the inorganic arsenic concentration of sediments is not correlated with either organic matter content or authigenic minerals formation, as is commonly observed elsewhere. Investigations on CWA concentrations, performed within the CHEMSEA (Chemical Munition Search and Assesment) project, allowed us to compare the results of arsenic concentrations with the occurrence of arsenic-containing CWA.

  14. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Megan N.; Niedzwiecki, Megan; Liu, Xinhua; Harper, Kristin N.; Alam, Shafiul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu B.; Parvez, Faruque; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine. Citation: Hall MN, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper KN, Alam S, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Levy

  15. Can sample treatments based on advanced oxidation processes assisted by high-intensity focused ultrasound be used for toxic arsenic determination in human urine by flow-injection hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry?

    PubMed

    Correia, A; Galesio, M; Santos, H; Rial-Otero, R; Lodeiro, C; Oehmen, A; Conceição, Antonio C L; Capelo, J L

    2007-05-15

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), based on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), namely, KMnO(4)/HCl/HIFU and H(2)O(2)/HCl/HIFU are studied and compared for the determination of toxic arsenic in human urine [As(III)+As(V)+MMA+DMA] by flow-injection hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). The KMnO(4)/HCl/HIFU procedure was found to be adequate for organic matter degradation in human urine. l-cysteine (letra minuscula) was used for As reduction to the trivalent state. The new procedure was assessed with seven urines certified in different As species. Results revealed that with KMnO(4)/HCl/HIFU plus l-cysteine the toxic arsenic can be accurately measured in human urine whilst the H(2)O(2)/HCl/HIFU procedure underestimates toxic As. DMA and MMA degradation in urine were observed, due to the effects of the ultrasonic field. Recoveries for As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA were within the certified ranges. Arsenobetaine was not degraded by the AOPs. The new procedure adheres well to the principles of analytical minimalism: (i) low reagent consumption, (ii) low reagent concentration, (iii) low waste production and (iv) low amount of time required for sample preparation and analysis. PMID:19071711

  16. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  17. Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632 μg/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51 μg/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ≥50 μg/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1 μg/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435 μg/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam. PMID:24262873

  18. Effect of chromated copper arsenate structures on adjacent soil arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Patch, Steven C; Scheip, Katherine; Brooks, Billy

    2011-06-01

    Structures made of chromated copper arsenic (CCA) have been shown to leach arsenic into the surrounding soil. Soil cores were taken adjacent to six CCA decks at 0, 15, 60 and 300 cm from the deck at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm, and were analyzed for soil arsenic concentrations. Median soil arsenic concentrations ranged from 1.8 μg/g at a depth of 10-20 cm and a distance of 300 cm to 34.5 μg/g at a depth of 0-10 cm and a distance of 30 cm. Soil arsenic concentrations taken at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm decreased as distance from the deck increased. Soil arsenic concentrations close to the deck were higher at lower soil depths and at homes with greater deck wipe arsenic concentrations. Age of deck and slope of land had significant effects on the differences in arsenic concentrations between samples taken at different distances when evaluated in models by themselves, but not in models adjusting for deck wipe concentrations. Size of deck and bulk density of soil did not have significant effects on soil arsenic concentrations. PMID:21505794

  19. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  20. Total grain-arsenic and arsenic-species concentrations in rice as impacted by genotype and water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have indicated that high soil arsenic (As) concentrations can result in decreased rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yields and increased grain-As concentrations. Low As-concentration in rice grain is especially desirable for populations that rely upon rice as a staple food and live where ...

  1. Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De

    Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

  2. Distribution of Microbial Arsenic Reduction, Oxidation and Extrusion Genes along a Wide Range of Environmental Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Lorena V.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx)-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations. PMID:24205341

  3. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  4. Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meliker, J.R.; Slotnick, M.J.; Avruskin, G.A.; Haack, S.K.; Nriagu, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 ??g/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization and subsequent transport in groundwater are equivocal. Recent evidence has begun to suggest that groundwater recharge and characteristics of well construction may affect arsenic mobilization and transport. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between dissolved arsenic concentrations, reported groundwater recharge rates, well construction characteristics, and geology in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is more prevalent in bedrock wells that are cased in proximity to the bedrock-unconsolidated interface; no other factors were associated with arsenic contamination in water drawn from bedrock or unconsolidated aquifers. Conditions appropriate for arsenic mobilization may be found along the bedrock-unconsolidated interface, including changes in reduction/oxidation potential and enhanced biogeochemical activity because of differences between geologic strata. These results are valuable for understanding arsenic mobilization and guiding well construction practices in southeastern Michigan, and may also provide insights for other regions faced with groundwater arsenic contamination. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  5. Dietary Sources of Methylated Arsenic Species in Urine of the United States Population, NHANES 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Pan, Yi; Ward, Cynthia; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic is an ubiquitous element linked to carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, as well as adverse respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and dermal health effects. Objective Identify dietary sources of speciated arsenic: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Methods Age-stratified, sample-weighted regression of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2003–2010 data (∼8,300 participants ≥6 years old) characterized the association between urinary arsenic species and the additional mass consumed of USDA-standardized food groups (24-hour dietary recall data), controlling for potential confounders. Results For all arsenic species, the rank-order of age strata for median urinary molar concentration was children 6–11 years > adults 20–84 years > adolescents 12–19 years, and for all age strata, the rank-order was DMA > MMA. Median urinary molar concentrations of methylated arsenic species ranged from 0.56 to 3.52 µmol/mol creatinine. Statistically significant increases in urinary arsenic species were associated with increased consumption of: fish (DMA); fruits (DMA, MMA); grain products (DMA, MMA); legumes, nuts, seeds (DMA); meat, poultry (DMA); rice (DMA, MMA); rice cakes/crackers (DMA, MMA); and sugars, sweets, beverages (MMA). And, for adults, rice beverage/milk (DMA, MMA). In addition, based on US (United States) median and 90th percentile consumption rates of each food group, exposure from the following food groups was highlighted: fish; fruits; grain products; legumes, nuts, seeds; meat, poultry; and sugars, sweets, beverages. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population, fish (adults), rice (children), and rice cakes/crackers (adolescents) had the largest associations with urinary DMA. For MMA, rice beverage/milk (adults) and rice cakes/crackers (children, adolescents) had the largest associations. PMID:25251890

  6. Certification of Total Arsenic in Blood and Urine Standard Reference Materials by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rick L.; Davis, W. Clay; Yu, Lee; Murphy, Karen E.; Guthrie, William F.; Leber, Dennis D.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Vetter, Thomas W.; Shakirova, Gulchekhra; Mitchell, Graylin; Kyle, David J.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Eckdahl, Steven; Wermers, Michelle; Maras, Melissa; Palmer, C. D.; Verostek, M.F.; Geraghty, C. M.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed procedure for determination of arsenic by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in SRM 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 1×1014cm−2s−1. After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform, and 76As quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a 77As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) values from NIST and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of (10.81 ± 0.54) μg/kg and (213.1 ± 0.73) μg/kg for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of (21.66 ± 0.73) μg/kg, (52.7 ± 1.1) μg/kg, and (78.8 ± 4.9) μg/kg for SRM 955c Levels 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level 1, an information value of < 5 μg/kg was assigned for this material. PMID:26300575

  7. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  8. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 μg g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 μg g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  9. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

  10. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Mayzel, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic–magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:25762993

  11. The void in using urine concentration to assess population fluid intake adequacy or hydration status.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kenefick, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Urine concentration can be used to assess fluid intake adequacy or to diagnose dehydration. However, too often urine concentration is used inappropriately to draw dubious conclusions that could have harmful health and economic consequences. Inappropriate uses of urine concentration relate primarily to convenience sampling (timing) and problems related to convenience sampling (misapplication of thresholds), but a conceptual problem also exists with using urine concentration in isolation. The purpose of this Perspective article is to briefly explain the problematic nature of current practices and to offer a possible solution to improve practice with minimal added complication. When urine is used exclusively to assess fluid intake adequacy and hydration status in adults, we propose that only when urine concentration is high (>850 mmol/kg) and urine excretion rate is low (<850 mL/24 h) should suspicion of inadequate drinking or impending dehydration be considered. Prospective tests of the 850 × 850 thresholds will provide supporting evidence and/or help refine the best thresholds for men and women, young and old. PMID:27465376

  12. Urinary concentrations and urine ex-vivo effect of mecillinam and sulphamethizole.

    PubMed

    Kerrn, M B; Frimodt-Møller, N; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adult volunteers received 1 g of sulphamethizole orally (n = 10) and later 400 mg of pivmecillinam (274 mg of mecillinam) (n = 9). All urine was collected in defined periods over 24 h, and the drug concentrations in urine were determined. For sulphamethizole, the maximum urine concentration for seven subjects was reached in 0-3 h, and for the remaining three in 3-6 h. For mecillinam, eight of the nine subjects attained a maximum urine concentration in 0-3 h, after which the concentration declined rapidly for six subjects in 3-6 h. Strains of Escherichia coli with different MICs for sulphamethizole and mecillinam were exposed to collected urine for 2.5 h and 5 h. The results indicated that a sensitive E. coli population should be suppressed by sulphamethizole in urine for two-thirds of the time (with 1 g twice-daily) and by mecillinam in urine throughout the 24-h period (with 400 mg three times a day). There was a slight but significant correlation between the ex-vivo effect (Delta log10 CFU/mL) and the log10 concentration/MIC ratio after exposure to sulphamethizole for 5 h (r2 = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation between the variables with mecillinam (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.0001). PMID:14706087

  13. Comparison of Arsenic Concentrations in Carcass and Viscera of Swim-up Rainbow Trout Exposed to Dietary and Waterborne Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout fry were exposed to arsenic in water only, diet only, or both diet and water in 28-d studies evaluating survival and growth. Diets consisted of Lumbriculus variegatus that were exposed to multiple concentrations of waterborne arsenate for 7d and then fed to test fi...

  14. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  15. Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on “urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization” and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 μg/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 μg/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells. PMID:24899804

  16. Evaluation of Postmortem Drug Concentrations in Bile Compared with Blood and Urine in Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    For drug screening and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis, bile as a major drug excretion route in addition to urine may be used in forensic autopsy cases; however, there are limited published data on correlations between bile and blood or urine drug concentrations. The present study retrospectively investigated drug concentrations in bile, compared with blood and urine concentrations, reviewing forensic autopsy cases during 6 years (January 2009-December 2014). Drugs were analyzed using automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-liquid phase extraction. Compared with peripheral blood concentrations, bile concentrations were higher for most drugs; however, caffeine concentrations were similar. Bile concentrations were mostly lower than urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine and methylephedrine, but were usually similar to or higher for other drugs. Significant correlations were detected between bile and peripheral blood concentrations for amphetamines, several cold remedies, phenobarbital, phenothiazine derivatives and diazepam, as well as between bile and urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine, diphenhydramine, phenobarbital and promethazine derivatives. These findings suggest that bile can provide supplemental data useful in routine forensic toxicology, for the spectrum of drugs mentioned above, as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistribution when analyzed in combination with drug concentrations at other sites. PMID:27185819

  17. Uranium and thorium in urine of United States residents: Reference range concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, B.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Jarrett, J.M.; Pirkle, J.L.; Jackson, R.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Miller, D.T.; Caudill, S.P. )

    1999-07-01

    The authors measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 US residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). They found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concentration for uranium was 34.5 ng/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged up to 4,080 ng/L. Thorium had a 95th percentile concentration of 3.09 ng/L; concentrations ranged up to 7.7 ng/L.

  18. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    SciTech Connect

    Faengstroem, Britta; Hamadani, Jena; Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  19. Assessment of arsenic concentration in stream water using neuro fuzzy networks with factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Chung, Chang-Han; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2014-10-01

    We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang Creek in northern Taiwan is used as a study case. Results indicate that rainfall, nitrite nitrogen and temperature are important factors and the proposed estimation model (ANFIS(GT)) is superior to the two comparative models, in which 50% and 52% improvements in RMSE are made over ANFIS(CC) and ANFIS(all), respectively. Results reveal that arsenic concentration reaches the highest in an environment of lower temperature, higher nitrite nitrogen concentration and larger one-month antecedent rainfall; while it reaches the lowest in an environment of higher temperature, lower nitrite nitrogen concentration and smaller one-month antecedent rainfall. It is noted that these three selected factors are easy-to-collect. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a useful and effective methodology, which can be adapted to other similar settings to reliably model water quality based on parameters of interest and/or study areas of interest for universal usage. The proposed methodology gives a quick and reliable way to estimate arsenic concentration, which makes good contribution to water environment management. PMID:25046611

  20. Elevated formic acid concentrations in putrefied post-mortem blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-20

    Formic acid (FA) concentration was measured in post-mortem blood and urine samples as methyl formate using a headspace in-tube extraction gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry method. A total of 113 cases were analyzed, each including a blood and urine sample fortified with 1% sodium fluoride. The cases were divided into three groups: regular (n=59), putrefied (n=30), and methanol-positive (n=22) cases. There was no evidence of ante-mortem methanol consumption in the regular and putrefied cases. In regular cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.04 g/l (0.04 g/l) and 0.06 g/l (0.04 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In putrefied cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were substantially higher, 0.24 g/l (0.22 g/l) and 0.25 g/l (0.15 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In three putrefied cases, FA concentration in blood exceeded 0.5 g/l, a level associated with fatal methanol poisoning. Ten putrefied cases were reanalyzed after 3-4 months storage, and no significant changes in FA concentrations were seen. These observations suggest that FA was formed by putrefaction during the post-mortem period, not during sample storage when sodium fluoride was added as a preservative. In methanol-positive cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.80 g/l (0.88 g/l) and 3.4 g/l (3.3 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 1.0 g/l in blood and from 1.7 to 5.6 g/l in urine. The mean (and median) methanol concentrations in methanol-positive cases were 3.0 g/l (3.0 g/l) and 4.4 g/l (4.7 g/l) in blood and in urine, respectively. The highest methanol concentrations were 6.0 g/l and 8.7 g/l in blood and urine, respectively. No ethyl alcohol was found in the methanol-positive blood samples. Poor correlation was shown between blood and urine concentrations of FA. Poor correlations were also shown, in both blood and urine, between methanol and FA concentrations. PMID:21112705

  1. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5 ± 7.5 μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4 ± 1.4 μg/L for B+As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150 μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5 μg As/L. PMID:26657392

  2. Assessing the Groundwater Concentrations and Geographical Distribution of Arsenic in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic 33As, one of the major groundwater contaminants, occurs in both natural and anthropogenic forms. Arsenic inhibits cellular respiration and the production of ATP in human body. Prolonged intake of non-lethal quantities of arsenic can cause cancer and diseases in vital organs such as the heart, liver, skin, and kidney. Each year, millions of people in the rural areas of Bangladesh, India, and other developing countries in South Asia are exposed to arsenic-poisoned groundwater. According to the World Health Organization, arsenic levels in drinking water should not exceed 10 parts per billion; however, the levels of arsenic found in groundwater in the heavily contaminated regions are often more than ten times of the recommended limit. Nepal is one of these regions. In most of the rural areas in Nepal, there is no infrastructure to produce clean filtered water, and wells thus became the major source. However, most of these wells were dug without testing for groundwater safety, because the test commands resources that the rural communities do not have access to. This is also limited data published on Nepal's groundwater contaminant levels. The scarcity of information prohibits the international community from recognizing the severity of arsenic poisoning in Nepal and coming up with the most efficient measures to help. With this project, we will present a method to determine groundwater safety by analyzing geologic data and using remote sensing. The original source of arsenic is the arsenic-bearing minerals in the sediments. Some geological formations have higher arsenic levels than others due to their depositional environments. Therefore, by using existing geologic data from Nepal and countries with similar types of arsenic contamination, we hope to determine correlations between areas where there are reports of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater to the environmental factors that may cause a particular concentration of arsenic. Furthermore, with deeper

  3. Effect of arsenic concentration on microbial iron reduction and arsenic speciation in an iron-rich freshwater sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Stephanie S.; Taillefert, Martial

    2009-10-01

    Depth profiles in the sediment porewaters of the Chattahoochee River (Georgia, USA) show that iron oxides scavenge arsenate in the water column and settle to the sediment-water interface (SWI) where they are reduced by iron-reducing bacteria. During their reduction, these particles seem to release arsenic to the porewaters in the form of arsenate only. Sediment slurry incubations were conducted to determine the effect of low concentrations of arsenic (⩽10 μM) on biogeochemical processes in these sediments. Experiments confirm that any arsenate (As(V)) added to these sediments is immediately adsorbed in oxic conditions and released in anoxic conditions during the microbial reduction of authigenic iron oxides. Incubations in the presence of ⩽1 μM As(V) reveal that arsenate is released but not concomitantly reduced during this process. Simultaneously, microbial iron reduction is enhanced significantly, spurring the simultaneous release of arsenate into porewaters and secondary formation of crystalline iron oxides. Above 1 μM As(V), however, the microbial reductive dissolution of iron oxides appears inhibited by arsenate, and arsenite is produced in excess in the porewaters. These incubations show that even low inputs of arsenic to riverine sediments may affect microbial processes, the stability of iron oxides and, indirectly, the cycling of arsenic. Possible mechanisms for such effects on iron reduction are proposed.

  4. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... mainly found in its less toxic organic form. Industrial processes Arsenic is used industrially as an alloying ... are also required to reduce occupational exposure from industrial processes. Education and community engagement are key factors ...

  5. Arsenic concentrations and bacterial contamination in a pilot shallow dugwell program in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hira-Smith, Meera M; Yuan, Yan; Savarimuthu, Xavier; Liaw, Jane; Hira, Alpana; Green, Cynthia; Hore, Timir; Chakraborty, Protap; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Smith, Allan H

    2007-01-01

    Project Well has developed a pilot self-supporting community-based mitigation program to provide arsenic-safe water to the villagers of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Shallow concrete dugwells, less than 25 feet deep, that tap into an unconfined aquifer are constructed following stipulated guidelines. The design differs from the traditional dugwell in two major ways: (i) there is a layer of coarse sand in the annular space enveloping the outer wall of the concrete cylinder; and (ii) handpumps are used for water extraction to reduce the potential for bacterial contamination. Monitoring programs for arsenic and coliform bacteria in selected dugwells have been completed. In summer, when the water levels were low, the arsenic concentrations were measured. In 11 wells, measured over three years, the average water arsenic concentration was 29 micro gL-1. Two dugwells had high concentrations of arsenic (average 152 micro gL-1 and 61 micro gL-1), but the remaining nine dugwells had an overall average of 11 micro gL-1. Seasonal variation was assessed in five wells with monthly measurements and there was a direct relationship between increases in arsenic concentrations and decreases in the volume of water in the dugwells in the dry summer season. To control bacterial contamination, sodium hypochlorite solution containing 5% chlorine was applied once a month. In 2005, fecal coliform was undetected in 65% (n = 13) of the dugwells but detected at high levels in 35% (n = 7) of the dugwells. The program clearly reduced exposure to arsenic, but we conclude that further study of increases in arsenic concentrations in the dry season are warranted, as well as assessment of ways to more effectively control bacterial contamination such as more frequent chlorination, perhaps with lower doses on each occasion. PMID:17129953

  6. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  7. Peat formation concentrates arsenic within sediment deposits of the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckey, Jason W.; Schaefer, Michael V.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Dittmar, Jessica; Pacheco, Juan Lezama; Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Mekong River Delta sediment bears arsenic that has been released to groundwater under anaerobic conditions over the past several thousand years. The oxidation state, speciation, and distribution of arsenic and the associated iron bearing phases are crucial determinants of As reactivity in sediments. Peat from buried mangrove swamps in particular may be an important host, source, or sink of arsenic in the Mekong Delta. The total concentration, speciation, and reactivity of arsenic and iron were examined in sediments in a Mekong Delta wetland by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and selective chemical extractions. Total solid-phase arsenic concentrations in a peat layer at a depth of 6 m below ground increased 10-fold relative to the overlying sediment. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that arsenic in the peat was predominantly in the form of arsenian pyrite. Arsenic speciation in the peat was examined further at the micron-scale using μXRF and μX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis. The multiple energy μXRF mapping and μXANES routine was repeated for both iron and sulfur phase analyses. Our μXRF/μXANES analyses confirm arsenic association with pyrite - a less reactive host phase than iron (hydr)oxides under anaerobic conditions. The arsenian pyrite likely formed upon deposition/formation of the peat in a past estuarine environment (∼5.5 ka BP), a process that is not expected under current geochemical conditions. Presently, arsenian pyrite is neither a detectable source nor a sink for aqueous arsenic in our sediment profile, and under present geochemical conditions represents a stable host of As under the reducing aquifer conditions of the Mekong Delta. Furthermore, organic carbon within the peat is unable to fuel Fe(III) reduction, as noted by the persistence of goethite which can be reduced microbially with the

  8. Arsenic Species in Drinking Water Wells in the USA with High Arsenic Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) arsenic treatment demonstration program, 65 five well waters scattered across the US were speciated for As(III) and As(V). The speciation test data showed that most (60) well waters had one dominant species, but...

  9. Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ≥ 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk. PMID:19165392

  10. Arsenic Species in Chicken Breast: Temporal Variations of Metabolites, Elimination Kinetics, and Residual Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Zuidhof, Martin J.; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. Methods: We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. Results: Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4–1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 μg/kg), Rox (0.4 μg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 μg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. Conclusion: Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels. Citation: Liu Q, Peng H, Lu X, Zuidhof MJ, Li XF, Le XC. 2016. Arsenic species in chicken breast: temporal variations of metabolites, elimination kinetics, and residual concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 124:1174–1181; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  11. Elevated Lung Cancer in Younger Adults and Low Concentrations of Arsenic in Water

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig; Ferreccio, Catterina; Yuan, Yan; Acevedo, Johanna; González, Francisca; Perez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Balmes, John R.; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L in drinking water are a known cause of cancer, but the risks associated with lower concentrations are less well understood. The unusual geology and good information on past exposure found in northern Chile are key advantages for investigating the potential long-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas of northern Chile that had a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Previously, we reported evidence of elevated cancer risks at arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. In the present study, we restricted analyses to the 92 cases and 288 population-based controls who were exposed to concentrations less than 100 µg/L. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking behavior, these exposures from 40 or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.52), and 2.01 (90% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.52) for increasing tertiles of arsenic exposure, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Mean arsenic water concentrations in these tertiles were 6.5, 23.0, and 58.6 µg/L. For subjects younger than 65 years of age, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 1.62 (90% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.90), and 3.41 (90% confidence interval: 1.51, 7.70). Adjustments for occupation, fruit and vegetable intake, and socioeconomic status had little impact on the results. These findings provide new evidence that arsenic water concentrations less than 100 µg/L are associated with higher risks of lung cancer. PMID:25371173

  12. Elevated lung cancer in younger adults and low concentrations of arsenic in water.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig; Ferreccio, Catterina; Yuan, Yan; Acevedo, Johanna; González, Francisca; Perez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Balmes, John R; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L in drinking water are a known cause of cancer, but the risks associated with lower concentrations are less well understood. The unusual geology and good information on past exposure found in northern Chile are key advantages for investigating the potential long-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas of northern Chile that had a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Previously, we reported evidence of elevated cancer risks at arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. In the present study, we restricted analyses to the 92 cases and 288 population-based controls who were exposed to concentrations less than 100 µg/L. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking behavior, these exposures from 40 or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.52), and 2.01 (90% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.52) for increasing tertiles of arsenic exposure, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Mean arsenic water concentrations in these tertiles were 6.5, 23.0, and 58.6 µg/L. For subjects younger than 65 years of age, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 1.62 (90% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.90), and 3.41 (90% confidence interval: 1.51, 7.70). Adjustments for occupation, fruit and vegetable intake, and socioeconomic status had little impact on the results. These findings provide new evidence that arsenic water concentrations less than 100 µg/L are associated with higher risks of lung cancer. PMID:25371173

  13. Effects of arsenic species and concentrations on arsenic accumulation by different fern species in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Ma, L Q; Santos, Jorge; Rathinasabapathi, B; Stamps, B; Littell, R C

    2005-01-01

    Two hydroponic experiments were conducted to evaluate factors affecting plant arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation. In the first experiment; two As hyperaccumulators (Pteris vittata and P. cretica mayii) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg L(-1) arsenite (AsIII) and monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA) for 4 wk. Total As concentrations in plants (fronds and roots) and solution were determined In the second experiment P. vittata and Nephrolepis exaltata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) were exposed to 5 mgL(-1) arsenate (AsV) and 20 mgL(-1) AsIIIfor 1 and 15 d. Total As and AsIII concentrations in plants were determined Compared to P. cretica mayii, P. vittata was more efficient in arsenic accumulation (1075-1666 vs. 249-627mg kg(-1) As in the fronds) partially because it is more efficient in As translocation. As translocation factor (As concentration ratio in fronds to roots) was 3.0-5.6 for P. vittata compared to 0.1 to 4.8 for P. cretica. Compared to N. exaltata, P. vittata was significantly more efficient in arsenic accumulation (38-542 vs. 4.8-71 mg kg(-1) As in thefronds) as well asAs translocation (1.3-5.6 vs. 0.2-0.5). In addition, P. vittata was much more efficient in As reduction from AsV to AsIII (83-84 vs. 13-24% AsIII in the fronds). Little As reduction occurred after 1-d exposure to AsV in both species indicates that As reduction was not instantaneous even in an As hyperaccumulator. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that both As translocation and As reduction are important for plant As hyperaccumulation. PMID:16285413

  14. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  15. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  16. Urine vanadium concentrations in workers overhauling an oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Ryan, P B; Christiani, D C

    1998-01-01

    Since fuel oil ash contains vanadium (V), the measurement of urinary levels of V may provide a biological marker in workers exposed to fuel oil ash. The usefulness of urine V samples as a biological monitoring tool ultimately depends on determining the appropriate time of sampling relative to when exposure occurs. Twenty boilermakers were studied during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler. A total of 117 urine samples were collected, 65 start-of-shift (S-O-S) and 52 end-of-shift (E-O-S) samples. Air V exposures were estimated with personal sampling devices and work history diaries. Air V concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 32.19 micrograms V/m3, with a mean +/- SD of 19.1 +/- 10.7, and a median of 18.5. On the first day of work on the overhaul, the V urine levels at the E-O-S (mean +/- SD were 1.53 +/- 0.53, median was 1.52 mg V/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those at the S-O-S (0.87 +/- 0.32, median was 0.83), P = 0.004. However, the V concentrations of the S-O-S urine samples on the last Monday of the study were not significantly different from the S-O-S urine levels on the previous Saturday, a time interval of about 38 hr between the end of exposure and sample collection. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the S-O-S urine V and the workplace concentration of V dust during the previous day was r = 0.35. In summary, the results suggest a rapid initial clearance of V (elevating the E-O-S V concentration on the first day of work relative to the S-O-S concentration), followed by a slow clearance that is not complete 38 hr after the end of exposure, as evidenced by the Monday morning urine V concentrations. The Spearman correlations suggest that the S-O-S urine is preferred to the E-O-S urine for across-shift biological monitoring of V exposure. PMID:9408529

  17. Reduction of arsenic content in a complex galena concentrate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Mario; Esperón, Margarita; Pereyra, Benito; López, Alejandro; Orrantia, Erasmo

    2004-01-01

    Background Bioleaching is a process that has been used in the past in mineral pretreatment of refractory sulfides, mainly in the gold, copper and uranium benefit. This technology has been proved to be cheaper, more efficient and environmentally friendly than roasting and high pressure moisture heating processes. So far the most studied microorganism in bioleaching is Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. There are a few studies about the benefit of metals of low value through bioleaching. From all of these, there are almost no studies dealing with complex minerals containing arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Reduction and/or elimination of arsenic in these ores increase their value and allows the exploitation of a vast variety of minerals that today are being underexploited. Results Arsenopyrite was totally oxidized. The sum of arsenic remaining in solution and removed by sampling represents from 22 to 33% in weight (yield) of the original content in the mineral. The rest of the biooxidized arsenic form amorphous compounds that precipitate. Galena (PbS) was totally oxidized too, anglesite (PbSO4) formed is virtually insoluble and remains in the solids. The influence of seven factors in a batch process was studied. The maximum rate of arsenic dissolution in the concentrate was found using the following levels of factors: small surface area of particle exposure, low pulp density, injecting air and adding 9 K medium to the system. It was also found that ferric chloride and carbon dioxide decreased the arsenic dissolution rate. Bioleaching kinetic data of arsenic solubilization were used to estimate the dilution rate for a continuous culture. Calculated dilution rates were relatively small (0.088–0.103 day-1). Conclusion Proper conditions of solubilization of arsenic during bioleaching are key features to improve the percentage (22 to 33% in weight) of arsenic removal. Further studies are needed to determine other factors that influence specifically the solubilization of arsenic in

  18. Seasonal variation of arsenic concentration in well water in Lane County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Nadakavukaren, J.J.; Ingermann, R.L.; Jeddeloh, G.; Falkowski, S.J.

    1984-09-01

    The United State Public Health Service has set a maximum limit for arsenic in public water supplies of 0.05 ppM (mg/l), and advises that continuous consumption of water exceeding this level is potentially hazardous. However, well and spring water exceeding this limit occurs in the U.S.S.R., Taiwan, Romania, New Zealand, and in areas of California, Nevada, Alaska and Oregon. One such area of Oregon, in Lane and Douglas Counties, overlies the Fisher formation, which consists predominantly of tuffaceous siltstone and volcaniclastic sediments. Apparently groundwater leaches arsenic from this material, and in this area, arsenic levels in well water range up to 2 p.p.m. The authors monitored the arsenic concentration in 14 Lane County wells over a 13 month period spanning 1975 and 1976. To the best of our knowledge, no studies of this type have been reported. This paper presents the results and recommendations from this study.

  19. The Role of Nitric Oxide in the Dysregulation of the Urine Concentration Mechanism in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Penelope; Kim, Sunhye L.; Klein, Janet D.; Sim, Jae H.; von Bergen, Tobias N.; Blount, Mitsi A.

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus results in osmotic diuresis. Diabetic patients have lowered nitric oxide (NO) which may exacerbate polyuria. We examined how lack of NO affects the transporters involved in urine concentration in diabetic animals. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin. Control and diabetic rats were given L-NAME for 3 weeks. Urine osmolality, urine output, and expression of urea and water transporters and the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter were examined. Predictably, diabetic rats presented with polyuria (increased urine volume and decreased urine osmolality). Although metabolic parameters of control rats were unaffected by L-NAME, treated diabetic rats produced 30% less urine and osmolality was restored. UT-A1 and UT-A3 were significantly increased in diabetic rat inner medulla. While L-NAME treatment alone did not alter UT-A1 or UT-A3 abundance, absence of NO prevented the upregulation of both transporters in diabetic rats. Similarly, AQP2 and NKCC2 abundance was increased in diabetic animals however, expression of these transporters were unchanged by L-NAME treatment of diabetes. Increased expression of the concentrating transporters observed in diabetic rats provides a compensatory mechanism to decrease solute loss despite persistent glycosuria. Our studies found that although diabetic-induced glycosylation remained increased, total protein expression was decreased to control levels in diabetic rats treated with L-NAME. While the role of NO in urine concentration remains unclear, lowered NO associated with diabetes may be deleterious to the transporters’ response to the subsequent osmotic diuresis. PMID:22685437

  20. Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah

    2012-01-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

  1. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  2. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  3. Validity of Spatial Models of Arsenic Concentrations in Private Well Water

    PubMed Central

    Meliker, Jaymie R.; AvRuskin, Gillian A.; Slotnick, Melissa J.; Goovaerts, Pierre; Schottenfeld, David; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Nriagu, Jerome O.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Arsenic is a pervasive contaminant in underground aquifers worldwide, yet documentation of health effects associated with low-to-moderate concentrations (<100 μg/L) has been stymied by uncertainties in assessing long-term exposure. A critical component of assessing exposure to arsenic in drinking water is the development of models for predicting arsenic concentrations in private well water in the past; however, these models are seldom validated. The objective of this paper is to validate alternative spatial models of arsenic concentrations in private well water in southeastern Michigan. Methods From 1993−2002 the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality analyzed arsenic concentrations in water from 6,050 private wells. This dataset was used to develop several spatial models of arsenic concentrations in well water: proxy wells based on nearest neighbor relationships, averages across geographic regions, and geostatistically-derived estimates based on spatial correlation and geologic factors. Output from these models was validated using arsenic concentrations measured in 371 private wells from 2003−2006. Results The geostatisical model and nearest neighbor approach outperformed the models based on geographic averages. The geostatistical model produced the highest degree of correlation using continuous data (Pearson's r=0.61; Spearman's rank ρ=0.46) while the nearest neighbor approach produced the strongest correlation (κweighted=0.58) using an a priori categorization of arsenic concentrations (<5, 5−9.99, 10−19.99, ≥20 μg/L). When the maximum contaminant level was used as a cut-off in a two-category classification (<10, ≥10 μg/L), the nearest neighbor approach and geostatistical model had similar values for sensitivity (0.62−0.63), specificity (0.80), negative predictive value (0.85), positive predictive value (0.53), and percent agreement (75%). Discussion This validation study reveals that geostatistical modeling and nearest neighbor

  4. Arsenic concentrations and associated health risks in Laccaria mushrooms from Yunnan (SW China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Yang, Ya-Li; Liu, Hong-Gao; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Some species of Laccaria have been known to contain relatively high levels of arsenic in Europe and are used as edible mushrooms in the southwest China. One population of Laccaria proxima and one population of L. vinaceoavellanea as well as topsoil (0-10 cm) they grew on were collected from natural habitats of Yunnan (SW China), while other samples such as Laccaria mushroom samples without soil were purchased from four different local markets in Yunnan. Concentrations of arsenic were determined in fruit bodies of the mushrooms and in the soils by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to assess potential health risks of these species. The mean arsenic concentrations in caps were 135, 14.1-143, 5.5 and 130-163 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) for Laccaria amethystina, Laccaria laccata, L. proxima and L. vinaceoavellanea, respectively. The mean value for bioconcentration factor of arsenic in caps of L. vinaceoavellanea was 29.1 for soil with arsenic content at 5.6 mg kg(-1) dw, which indicate that L. vinaceoavellanea is an accumulator for arsenic. Caps of L. amethystina, L. laccata and L. vinaceoavellanea consumed at a volume of 300 g fresh weight for a single meal in a week can yield an exposure amount of arsenic at 4.1, 0.42-4.3 and 3.9-4.9 mg, respectively. These values are higher than the limit dose for the intake of inorganic arsenic recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:25534292

  5. A population study of urine glycerol concentrations in elite athletes competing in North America.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian N; Madsen, Myke; Sharpe, Ken; Nair, Vinod; Eichner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an endogenous substance that is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited threshold substances due to its potential use as a plasma volume expansion agent. The WADA has set the threshold for urine glycerol, including measurement uncertainty, at 1.3 mg/mL. Glycerol in circulation largely comes from metabolism of triglycerides in order to meet energy requirements and when the renal threshold is eclipsed, glycerol is excreted into urine. In part due to ethnic differences in postprandial triglyceride concentrations, we investigated urine glycerol concentrations in a population of elite athletes competing in North America and compared the results to those of athletes competing in Europe. 959 urine samples from elite athletes competing in North America collected for anti-doping purposes were analyzed for urine glycerol concentrations by a gas chromatography mass-spectrometry method. Samples were divided into groups according to: Timing (in- or out-of-competition), Class (strength, game, or endurance sports) and Gender. 333 (34.7%) samples had undetectable amounts of glycerol (<1 μg/mL). 861 (89.8%) of the samples had glycerol concentrations ≤20 μg/mL. The highest glycerol concentration observed was 652 μg/mL. Analysis of the data finds the effects of each category to be statistically significant. The largest estimate of the 99.9(th) percentile, from the in-competition, female, strength athlete samples, was 1813 μg/mL with a 95% confidence range from 774 to 4251 μg/mL. This suggests a conservative threshold of 4.3 mg/mL, which would result in a reasonable detection window for urine samples collected in-competition for all genders and sport classes. PMID:24353191

  6. Using DET and DGT probes (ferrihydrite and titanium dioxide) to investigate arsenic concentrations in soil porewater of an arsenic-contaminated paddy field in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Jean-Marie; Garnier, Jérémie; Jézéquel, Didier; Angeletti, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic concentration in the pore water of paddy fields (Csoln) irrigated with arsenic-rich groundwater is a key parameter in arsenic uptake by rice. Pore water extracts from cores and in situ deployment of DET and DGT probes were used to measure the arsenic concentration in the pore water. Ferrihydrite (Fe) and titanium dioxide (Ti) were used as DGT binding agents. Six sampling events during different growing stages of the rice, inducing different biogeochemical conditions, were performed in one rice field. A time series of DGT experiments allow the determination of an in situ arsenic diffusion coefficient in the diffusive gel (3.34×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1)) needed to calculate the so-called CDGT(Fe) and CDGT(Ti) concentrations. Over 3 days of a given sampling event and for cores sampled at intervals smaller than 50 cm, great variability in arsenic Csoln concentrations between vertical profiles was observed, with maxima of concentrations varying from 690 to 2800 μg L(-1). Comparisons between arsenic measured Csol and CDET and calculated CDGT(Fe) and CDGT(Ti) concentrations show either, in a few cases, roughly similar vertical profiles, or in other cases, significantly different profiles. An established iron oxyhydroxide precipitation in the DET gel may explain why measured arsenic CDET concentrations occasionally exceeded Csoln. The large spread in results suggests limitations to the use of DET and type of DGT probes used here for similarly representing the spatio-temporal variations of arsenic content in soil pore water in specific environmental such as paddy soils. PMID:26225738

  7. Caffeine renal clearance and urine caffeine concentrations during steady state dosing. Implications for monitoring caffeine intake during sports events.

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, D J; Miners, J O

    1991-01-01

    1. Relationships between the plasma and urine concentrations and clearances of caffeine over successive dosage intervals at steady-state were investigated in six healthy volunteers administered caffeine, 150 mg 8 hourly for 6 days. 2. There was marked inter-individual variability in the urine (15.9-fold range) and steady-state plasma (8.1-fold range) concentrations of caffeine. 3. Urine caffeine concentrations were similar to those in plasma, with mean ratios (plasma:urine) ranging from 1.10 to 1.74. There was a good correlation (r = 0.93, P less than 0.01) between caffeine urine and plasma concentrations. 4. There was a good correlation between caffeine renal clearance and urine flow rate (r = 0.89, P less than 0.01). Caffeine renal clearance was not significantly different from the product of fu and urine flow rate, where fu is the fraction of caffeine unbound in plasma. Urine caffeine concentration and urine flow rate were not correlated (r = 0.14, P greater than 0.05). 5. The results indicate that caffeine is reabsorbed from the renal tubule to equilibrium with unbound caffeine in plasma. 6. A regulatory urine caffeine concentration limit of 12 mg 1(-1) may be exceeded by some individuals with coffee intake in the range 3 to 6 cups per day. PMID:2049248

  8. Correlations between cadmium concentration in urine and exposure variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Elmar; Chutsch, Martina; Krause, Christian M.; Schulz, Christine; Thefeld, Wolfgang

    1993-03-01

    As part of the study 'UMWELT und GESUNDHEIT 1985/86', a representative samples of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany was examined for urinary Cd. A log-linear prediction model based on 2109 cases led to an explained variance portion of R2 equals .32. Strong associations were revealed between urinary cadmium and the smoking history and age of the subjects. This is evidence of the function urinary cadmium has as an indicator of the Cd body burden. However, there are also clear connections with physiological parameters (urinary creatinine and serum urea), which are taken to be a modification of Cd excretion by renal function. The association between urinary Cd and serum urea can also be interpreted as a cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd concentrations tend to be lower in regions with low industrial nitrogen oxide emissions and high economic dynamics, as well as in non- urban residential structures.

  9. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence and associations with air concentrations of lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Aisha S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A; Harrington, Rebecca A; Pettygrove, Sydney; Kirby, Russell S; Durkin, Maureen S; Han, Inkyu; Moyé, Lemuel A; Pearson, Deborah A; Wingate, Martha Slay; Zahorodny, Walter M

    2016-07-01

    Lead, mercury, and arsenic are neurotoxicants with known effects on neurodevelopment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder apparent by early childhood. Using data on 4486 children with ASD residing in 2489 census tracts in five sites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, we used multi-level negative binomial models to investigate if ambient lead, mercury, and arsenic concentrations, as measured by the US Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (EPA-NATA), were associated with ASD prevalence. In unadjusted analyses, ambient metal concentrations were negatively associated with ASD prevalence. After adjusting for confounding factors, tracts with air concentrations of lead in the highest quartile had significantly higher ASD prevalence than tracts with lead concentrations in the lowest quartile (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.36; 95 '% CI: 1.18, 1.57). In addition, tracts with mercury concentrations above the 75th percentile (>1.7 ng/m(3)) and arsenic concentrations below the 75th percentile (≤0.13 ng/m(3)) had a significantly higher ASD prevalence (adjusted RR = 1.20; 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.40) compared to tracts with arsenic, lead, and mercury concentrations below the 75th percentile. Our results suggest a possible association between ambient lead concentrations and ASD prevalence and demonstrate that exposure to multiple metals may have synergistic effects on ASD prevalence. PMID:27301968

  10. Environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Littau, Sally R.; Roberge, Jason; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Harris, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In a cross-sectional study of residents of Arizona, USA (n=215) and Sonora, Mexico (n=163), drinking water was assayed for total arsenic, and daily drinking water arsenic intake estimated. Urine was speciated for arsenic and concentrations were adjusted for specific gravity. Serum was analyzed for MMP-9 using ELISA. Mixed model linear regression was used to assess the relation among drinking water arsenic concentration, drinking water arsenic intake, urinary arsenic sum of species (the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid), and MMP-9, controlling for autocorrelation within households. Drinking water arsenic concentration and intake were positively associated with MMP-9, both in crude analysis and after adjustment for gender, country/ethnicity, age, body mass index, current smoking and diabetes. Urinary arsenic sum of species was positively associated with MMP-9 in multivariable analysis only. Using Akaike’s Information Criterion, arsenic concentration in drinking water provided a better fitting model of MMP-9, than either urinary arsenic or drinking water arsenic intake. In conclusion, arsenic exposure was positively associated with MMP-9 using all three exposure metrics evaluated. PMID:23232971

  11. Arsenic methylation capacity, body retention, and null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 among current arsenic-exposed residents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiou, H Y; Hsueh, Y M; Hsieh, L L; Hsu, L I; Hsu, Y H; Hsieh, F I; Wei, M L; Chen, H C; Yang, H T; Leu, L C; Chu, T H; Chen-Wu, C; Yang, M H; Chen, C J

    1997-06-01

    In order to elucidate the relationships among arsenic methylation capacity, body retention, and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1, a total of 115 study subjects were recruited from Lanyang Basin located on the northeast coast of Taiwan. Specimens of drinking water, blood, urine, hair and toenail were collected from each study subject. Urinary inorganic and methylated arsenic were speciated by high performance liquid chromatography combined with hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentration in hair and toenail were quantitated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The polymerase chain reaction was used to determine genetic polymorphisms of GST M1 and T1. Arsenic concentrations in urine, hair, and toenail of study subjects were positively correlated with arsenic levels in their drinking water. Percentages of various arsenic species in urine (mean +/- standard error (SE) were 11.8 +/- 1.0, 26.9 +/- 1.2 and 61.3 +/- 1.4, respectively, for inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Men and women had similar arsenic methylation capability. No associations were observed between arsenic methylation capability and arsenic content in either drinking water or urine. Ratios of arsenic contents in hair and toenail to urinary arsenic content (mean +/- standard error) were 6.2 +/- 0.7 and 16.5 +/- 1.7, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms of GST M1 and T1 were significantly associated with arsenic methylation. Subjects having the null genotype of GST M1 had an increased percentage of inorganic arsenic in urine, while those with null genotype of GST T1 had an elevated percentage of DMA in urine. Arsenic contents in hair and toenail were significantly correlated with the increase in arsenic concentrations of drinking water and urine, while no significant associations were observed between arsenic contents in hair and toenail and polymorphisms of GST M1 and T1. The relationship between

  12. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha(-1) in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha(-1), with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  13. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha−1 in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha−1, with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  14. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. The data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.

  15. [Analysis of factors resulting in anomalous arsenic concentration in groundwaters of Shanyin, Shanxi province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Huaming; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yongmin

    2003-07-01

    The chemical characteristics of groundwaters containing anomalous arsenic were summarized and the factors influencing arsenic enrichment in groundwater were discussed in this paper, based on chemical data of general compositions, trace elements and organic matters of sixty-six groundwaters and mineral analysis of thirty aquifer matrix. The main factors inducing anomalous arsenic in groundwaters included high pH (8.09), high concentrations of phosphate (0.71 mg/L) and organic matters (5.14 mg/L), and anoxic environment. High pH, high phosphate content and anoxic environment made against adsorption of As into aquifer which contains clay minerals. And high concentration of organic matters promoted the activity of As in groundwater system. These factors contribute to desorption and transportation of As in aquifers. PMID:14551958

  16. A cultural practice of drinking realgar wine leading to elevated urinary arsenic and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Huang, Qing; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-07-01

    Toasting friends and family with realgar wines and painting children's foreheads and limbs with the leftover realgar/alcohol slurries is an important customary ritual during the Dragon Boat Festival (DBF); a Chinese national holiday and ancient feast day celebrated throughout Asia. Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral, and source of highly toxic inorganic arsenic. Despite the long history of realgar use during the DBF, associated risk to human health by arsenic ingestion or percutaneous adsorption is unknown. To address this urine samples were collected from a cohort of volunteers who were partaking in the DBF festivities. The total concentration of arsenic in the wine consumed was 70 mg L⁻¹ with all the arsenic found to be inorganic. Total arsenic concentrations in adult urine reached a maximum of ca. 550 μg L⁻¹ (mean 220.2 μg L⁻¹) after 16 h post-ingestion of realgar wine, while face painting caused arsenic levels in children's urine to soar to 100 μg L⁻¹ (mean 85.3 μg L⁻¹) 40 h after the initial paint application. The average concentration of inorganic arsenic in the urine of realgar wine drinkers on average doubled 16 h after drinking, although this was not permanent and levels subsided after 28 h. As would be expected in young children, the proportions of organic arsenic in the urine remained high throughout the 88-h monitoring period. However, even when arsenic concentrations in the urine peaked at 40 h after paint application, concentrations in the urine only declined slightly thereafter, suggesting pronounced longer term dermal accumulation and penetration of arsenic. Drinking wines blended with realgar or using realgar based paints on children does result in the significant absorption of arsenic and therefore presents a potentially serious and currently unquantified health risk. PMID:21450346

  17. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Guan, Youfei

    2014-02-11

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

  18. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:25344454

  19. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID

  20. HIGH ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND ENRICHED SULFUR AND OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN A FRACTURED-BEDROCK GROUND-WATER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated arsenic concentrations are coincident with enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in bedrock ground water within Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the lack of correlations between sulfate concentrations an...

  1. Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061

  2. Application of granular ferric hydroxides for removal elevated concentrations of arsenic from mine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlachta, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Paweł; Wójtowicz, Patryk

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic is naturally occurring element in the environment. Over three hundred minerals are known to contain some form of arsenic and among them arsenopyrite is the most common one. Arsenic-bearing minerals are frequently associated with ores containing mined metals such as copper, tin, nickel, lead, uranium, zinc, cobalt, platinum and gold. In the aquatic environment arsenic is typically present in inorganic forms, mainly in two oxidation states (+5, +3). As(III) is dominant in more reduced conditions, whereas As(V) is mostly present in an oxidizing environment. However, due to certain human activities the elevated arsenic levels in aquatic ecosystems are arising to a serious environmental problem. High arsenic concentrations found in surface and groundwaters, in some regions originate from mining activities and ore processing. Therefore, the major concern of mining industry is to maintain a good quality of effluents discharged in large volumes. This requires constant monitoring of effluents quality that guarantee the efficient protection of the receiving waters and reacting to possible negative impact of contamination on local communities. A number of proven technologies are available for arsenic removal from waters and wastewaters. In the presented work special attention is given to the adsorption method as a technically feasible, commonly applied and effective technique for the treatment of arsenic rich mine effluents. It is know that arsenic has a strong affinity towards iron rich materials. Thus, in this study the granular ferric hydroxides (CFH 12, provided by Kemira Oyj, Finland) was applied to remove As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficiency of the tested Fe-based material under various operating parameters, including composition of treated water, solution pH and temperature. The results obtained from the fixed bed adsorption tests demonstrated the benefits of applying granular

  3. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  4. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236±0.677 kBq/L and 1.704±0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 μSv/year and 0.532 μSv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 μSv/year.

  5. Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    exceeding 10, 50, 100, and 500 ug/L were calculated for the 174 towns with 20 or more sampled wells, and statewide maps were prepared for each of these categories. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 towns exceeded 10 ug/L. Many fewer towns had wells with samples that exceeded the 50, 100, or 500 ug/L categories. For 19 towns, more than 10 percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 ug/L, and in 45 towns, 1 percent or more exceeded 100 ug/L. Of these, Surry in Hancock County had 120 wells tested, and 23 percent of those wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 100 ug/L, which is a much higher rate than for other towns. In only four towns (Danforth in Washington County, Surry and Blue Hill in Hancock County, and Woolwich in Sagadahoc County), 1 percent or more of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 500 ug/L during 2005-09. The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally geologically controlled. There are clusters or belts of towns with high arsenic concentrations (> 50 ug/L), such as in southern coastal areas, the Kennebec County area, and towns along the central coastal part of Maine. In contrast, there are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such as the northernmost towns, as well as towns in the western and west-central areas. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater-one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. Earlier testing has identified other clusters of very high arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the towns of Northport, Buxton/Hollis, and Waldoboro, but those samples were collected before 2005 and did not factor in this analysis.

  6. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-09-15

    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 μg/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density. PMID:23892312

  7. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to calcium silicate containing different arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    MINOTTI, Paloma Gagliardi; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue in implanted polyethylene tubes that were filled with GMTA Angelus and Portland cements containing different arsenic concentrations. Material and Methods Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized to obtain the values of the arsenic concentration in the materials. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 animals for each experimental period. Each animal received two implants of polyethylene tubes filled with different test cements and the lateral of the tubes was used as a control group. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and the specimens were prepared for descriptive and morphometric analysis considering: inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, blood vessels and other components. The results were analyzed utilizing the Kuskal-Wallis test and the Dunn´s Multiple test for comparison (p<0.05). Results The materials showed, according to atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the following doses of arsenic: GMTA Angelus: 5.01 mg/kg, WPC Irajazinho: 0.69 mg/kg, GPC Minetti: 18.46 mg/kg and GPC Votoran: 10.76 mg/kg. In a 60-day periods, all specimens displayed a neoformation of connective tissue with a structure of fibrocellular aspect (capsule). Control groups and MTA Angelus produced the lower amount of inflammatory reaction and GPC Minetti, the highest reaction. Conclusions There was no direct relationship between the concentration of arsenic present in the composition of the materials and the intensity of the inflammatory reactions. Higher values, as 18.46 mg/kg of arsenic in the cement, produce characteristics of severe inflammation reaction at the 60-day period. The best results were found in MTA angelus. PMID:25075671

  8. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

  9. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets. PMID:26585898

  10. Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤ 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

  11. Positive association between concentration of phthalate metabolites in urine and microparticles in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Chen, Pau-Chung; Torng, Pao-Ling; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been used worldwide in various products for many years. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to DEHP and its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces endothelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, exposure to DEHP had been linked to cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiological studies. Circulating microparticles have been known to be indicators of vascular injury. However, whether DEHP or its metabolites are independently associated with microparticles in humans remains unknown. From 2006 to 2008, we recruited 793 subjects (12-30years) from a population-based sample to participate in this cardiovascular disease prevention examination. Each participant was subjected to interviews and biological sample collection to determine the relationship between concentrations of DEHP metabolites MEHP, mono(ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethly-5-oxoheyl) phthalate in urine and concentrations of endothelial microparticles (CD62E and CD31+/CD42a-), platelet microparticles (CD62P and CD31+/CD42a+), and CD14 in serum. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in MEHP concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in serum microparticle counts/μL of 0.132 (±0.016) in CD31+/CD42a- (endothelial apoptosis marker), 0.117 (±0.023) in CD31+/CD42a+ (platelet apoptosis marker), and 0.026 (±0.007) in CD14 (monocyte, macrophage, and neutrophil activation marker). There was no association between DEHP metabolite concentration and CD62E or CD62P. In conclusion, a higher MEHP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in endothelial and platelet microparticles in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to DEHP and atherosclerosis. PMID:27104673

  12. A Cross-sectional Study of the Impact of Blood Selenium on Blood and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic can naturally occur in the groundwater without an anthropogenic source of contamination. In Bangladesh over 50 million people are exposed to naturally occurring arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization’s guideline of 10 μg/L. Selenium and arsenic have been shown to facilitate the excretion of each other in bile. Recent evidence suggests that selenium may play a role in arsenic elimination by forming a selenium-arsenic conjugate in the liver before excretion into the bile. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1601 adults and 287 children was conducted to assess the relationship between blood selenium and urinary and blood arsenic in a study population residing in a moderately arsenic-contaminated rural area in Bangladesh. Results The results of this study indicate a statistically significant inverse relationship between blood selenium and urinary arsenic concentrations in both adult and pediatric populations in rural Bangladesh after adjustment for age, sex, Body Mass Index, plasma folate and B12 (in children), and ever smoking and current betel nut use (in adults). In addition, there appears to be a statistically significant inverse relationship between blood selenium and blood arsenic in children. Conclusions Our results suggest that selenium is inversely associated with biomarkers of arsenic burden in both adults and children. These findings support the hypothesis that Se facilitates the biliary elimination of As, possibly via the putative formation of a Se-As conjugate using a glutathione complex. However, laboratory based studies are needed to provide further evidence to elucidate the presence of Se-As conjugate and its role in arsenic elimination in humans. PMID:23816141

  13. Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F.

    2008-10-15

    In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

  14. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies

  15. Modeling spatial patterns in soil arsenic to estimate natural baseline concentrations.

    PubMed

    Venteris, Erik R; Basta, Nicholas T; Bigham, Jerry M; Rea, Ron

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic in soil is an important public health concern, but risk-based toxicity regulatory standards derived from laboratory studies should also consider concentrations measured away from obvious contamination (i.e., baseline concentrations that approximate natural background) to avoid unnecessary remediation burdens on society. We used soil and stream sediment samples from the USGS National Geochemical Survey to assess the spatial distribution of As over a 1.16 × 10 km area corresponding to the state of Ohio. Samples were collected at 348 soil and 144 stream sites at locations selected to minimize anthropogenic inputs. Total As was measured by sodium peroxide fusion with subsequent dissolution using concentrated HCl and analysis using hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic in the soil and streambed samples ranged from 2.0 to 45.6 mg kg. Sequential Gaussian simulation was used to map the expected concentration of As and its uncertainty. Five areas of elevated concentration, greater than the median of 10 mg kg, were identified, and relationships to geologic parent materials, glacial sedimentation, and soil conditions interpreted. Arsenic concentrations <4 mg kg were rare, >10 mg kg common, and >20 mg kg not unusual for the central and west central portions of Ohio. Concentrations typically exceeded the soil As human generic screening level of 0.39 mg kg, a value corresponding to an increase in cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 for soil ingestion. Such results call into question the utility of the USEPA and similarly low soil screening levels. The contrast between laboratory screens and concentrations occurring in nature argue for risk assessment on the basis of baseline concentrations. PMID:25602822

  16. [Environmental tobacco smoke--assessment of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of exposed medicine students].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is ranked as one of the factors of confirmed carcinogenicity to human. It consists of the mixture of smoke exhaled by the smoker as well as the sidestream smoke and contains many times higher concentrations of some toxic substances in comparison to the amount of toxic compounds inhaled by a smoker. From many years the issue of passive smoking has been the subject of many research and still not all of its aspects of affecting human health have been explored. Apart from the tobacco varieties, also diverse additives added during the process of tobacco manufacturing, including particularly carbohydrates, influence the composition of the environmental tobacco smoke. During smoking they can undergo many complex transformations, as a result of which toxic components of the environmental tobacco smoke are formed, carbonyl compounds in particular, like aldehydes. They are marked by a significant chemical reactivity which enables them to modify amino groups of proteins leading to the changes in their structure, biological functions and often antigenicity. Therefore their influence to the human body is the cause of numerous adverse health effects caused by the increase in free radical processes which can constitute to the source of these compounds. Well known representative of this group of xenobiotics is formaldehyde as a compound that reflects well the environmental exposure to carbonyl compounds. The considerable source of this compound is tobacco smoke. Therefore analysis of formaldehyde in body fluids is a valuable biomonitoring tool of exposure to it. The aim of this study was the evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of medicine students exposed to ETS. The study material consisted of 149 urine samples of students from School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia. The concentration of formaldehyde in urine samples was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the

  17. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  18. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Arsenic Exposure via Drinking-water in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Gabriela; Nermell, Barbro

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the spatial, temporal and inter-individual variations in exposure to arsenic via drinking-water in Northern Argentina, based on measurements of arsenic in water, urine, and hair. Arsenic concentrations in drinking-water varied markedly among locations, from <1 to about 200 μg/L. Over a 10-year period, water from the same source in San Antonio de los Cobres fluctuated within 140 and 220 μg/L, with no trend of decreasing concentration. Arsenic concentrations in women's urine (3–900 μg/L, specific weight 1.018 g/mL) highly correlated with concentrations in water on a group level, but showed marked variations between individuals. Arsenic concentrations in hair (range 20–1,500 μg/kg) rather poorly correlated with urinary arsenic, possibly due to external contamination. Thus, arsenic concentration in urine seems to be a better marker of individual arsenic exposure than concentrations in drinking-water and hair. PMID:17366773

  20. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic to serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) at different threshold concentrations of tap water arsenic.

    PubMed

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Harris, Robin B; Hartz, Vern; Roberge, Jason; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure is associated with cancer, lung and cardiovascular disease, yet the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels are also associated with these diseases, as well as with exposure to water As. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary components of inorganic As (iAs) intake on serum MMP-9 concentration at differing levels of tap water As. In a cross-sectional study of 214 adults, dietary iAs intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recall interviews using published iAs residue data; drinking and cooking water As intake from water samples and consumption data. Aggregate iAs intake (food plus water) was associated with elevated serum MMP-9 in mixed model regression, with and without adjustment for covariates. In models stratified by tap water As, aggregate intake was a significant positive predictor of serum MMP-9 in subjects exposed to water As≤10 μg/l. Inorganic As from food alone was associated with serum MMP-9 in subjects exposed to tap water As≤3 μg/l. Exposure to iAs from food and water combined, in areas where tap water As concentration is ≤10 μg/l, may contribute to As-induced changes in a biomarker associated with toxicity. PMID:25605447

  1. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic to serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) at different threshold concentrations of tap water arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Harris, Robin B.; Hartz, Vern; Roberge, Jason; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure is associated with cancer, lung and cardiovascular disease, yet the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels are also associated with these diseases, as well as with exposure to water As. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary components of inorganic As (iAs) intake on serum MMP-9 concentration at differing levels of tap water As. In a cross-sectional study of 214 adults, dietary iAs intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recall interviews using published iAs residue data; drinking and cooking water As intake from water samples and consumption data. Aggregate iAs intake (food plus water) was associated with elevated serum MMP-9 in mixed model regression, with and without adjustment for covariates. In models stratified by tap water As, aggregate intake was a significant positive predictor of serum MMP-9 in subjects exposed to water As ≤10 μg/l. Inorganic As from food alone was associated with serum MMP-9 in subjects exposed to tap water As ≤3 μg/l. Exposure to iAs from food and water combined, in areas where tap water As concentration is ≤10 μg/l, may contribute to As-induced changes in a biomarker associated with toxicity. PMID:25605447

  2. Dietary and sociodemographic determinants of bisphenol A urine concentrations in pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Casas, Maribel; Valvi, Damaskini; Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gomez, Ana; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernandez, Marieta F; Koch, Holger M; Mendez, Michelle A; Sunyer, Jordi; Rubio, Soledad; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may have endocrine-disrupting effects, but the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy and childhood remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between, and sociodemographic and dietary predictors of, serial urinary BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy and childhood in a Spanish birth cohort study. BPA was measured in two spot urine samples collected from 479 women during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and in one urine sample from their 4-year old children (n=130). Average dietary intakes were reported in food frequency questionnaires during the first and third pregnancy trimester and at age 4years. Multivariate mixed models and linear regression models were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and dietary factors and BPA concentrations. A small, but statistically significant correlation was found between serial maternal BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy (r=0.17). Pregnant women who were younger, less-educated, smoked, and who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) had higher BPA concentrations than others. BPA concentrations were also higher in children exposed to SHS. High consumption of canned fish during pregnancy was associated with 21% [GM ratio=1.21; 95%CI 1.02, 1.44] and 25% [GM ratio=1.25; 95%CI 1.05, 1.49] higher urinary BPA concentrations in the first and third pregnancy trimester, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. This study suggests that canned fish may be a major source of BPA during pregnancy in Spain, a country of high canned fish consumption. Further evaluation of specific BPA exposure sources in the sociodemographic group of younger women who smoke, are exposed to SHS, and have a low educational level is needed. Studies identifying sources of exposure would benefit from repeat BPA measurements and questionnaires specifically focused on dietary and packaging sources. PMID

  3. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  4. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to <1 As μg L(-1) in drinking water. These findings have important implications regarding the interpretation of toenail and hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations. PMID:27120003

  5. Excretion of arsenic (As) in urine of children, 7--11 years, exposed to elevated levels of As in the city water supply in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, C.J.; Quiroga, V.L.; Acosta, R.T.O.; Mendez, R.O.

    1998-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is a common element in the environment with many industrial uses, but it also can be a contaminant in drinking water and present serious health concerns. Earlier studies on the quality of drinking water in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, showed high levels of As in water from wells located in the northern part of the city. Additionally a high positive correlation between the levels of Fluoride (F) and As in the same wells was found. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the excretion of As in children, 7--11 years of age, that had been exposed to elevated levels of As in their drinking water. Twenty-four-hour urine samples and a water sample taken directly in the home were collected from school age children living in two different areas with known high levels of As in their drinking water. A control group with normal levels of As in their water was also included.

  6. Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic in fresh fish, mollusks, and crustaceans from the Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangwises, Suthep; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic were determined in 120 samples of eight marine animals collected from the Gulf of Thailand between March and May 2008. Two species with the highest annual catch from each of four marine animal groups were analyzed: fish (Indo-Pacific mackerel and goldstripe sardine), bivalves (green mussel and blood cockle), cephalopods (pharaoh cuttlefish and Indian squid), and crustaceans (banana prawn and swimming crab). Concentrations of inorganic arsenic based on wet weight ranged from 0.012 μg/g in Indian squids to 0.603 μg/g in blood cockles. Average percentages of inorganic arsenic with respect to total arsenic ranged from 1.2% in banana prawns to 7.3% in blood cockles. Blood cockles also exhibited the highest levels of total arsenic (5.26 ± 2.01 μg/g) and inorganic arsenic (0.352 ± 0.148 μg/g). The levels of inorganic arsenic in the study samples were much lower than the Thai regulatory limit of 2 μg/g (wet wt) and hence are safe for human consumption. PMID:21375883

  7. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. PMID:25841211

  8. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  9. Resveratrol protects against arsenic trioxide-induced nephrotoxicity by facilitating arsenic metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meiling; Xue, Jiangdong; Li, Yijing; Zhang, Weiqian; Ma, Dexing; Liu, Lian; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an environmental toxicant and a potent antineoplastic agent. Exposure to arsenic causes renal cancer. Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenolic compound that is reported to reduce As(2)O(3)-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on As(2)O(3)-induced nephrotoxicity and arsenic metabolism. Chinese Dragon-Li cats were injected with 1 mg/kg As(2)O(3) on alternate days; resveratrol (3 mg/kg) was administered via the forearm vein 1 h before the As(2)O(3) treatment. On the sixth day, the cats were killed to determine the histological renal damage, renal function, the accumulation of arsenic, and antioxidant activities in the kidney. Urine samples were taken for arsenic speciation. In the resveratrol + As(2)O(3)-treated group, activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, the total arsenic concentrations, and the percentage of methylated arsenic in urine were significantly increased. The concentrations of renal malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and renal arsenic accumulation were significantly decreased and reduced renal morphologic injury was observed compared with the As(2)O(3)-treated group. These results demonstrate that resveratrol could significantly scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibit As(2)O(3)-induced oxidative damage, and significantly attenuate the accumulation of arsenic in renal tissues by facilitating As(2)O(3) metabolism. These data suggest that use of resveratrol as postremission therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia as well as adjunctive therapy in patients with exposure to arsenic may decrease arsenic nephrotoxicity. PMID:23471352

  10. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

  11. Bacterial community succession during the enrichment of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria at high arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen, Ai; Sato, Akiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-01-01

    To generate cost-effective technologies for the removal of arsenic from water, we developed an enrichment culture of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria (CAOs) that could effectively oxidize widely ranging concentrations of As(III) to As(V). In addition, we attempted to elucidate the enrichment process and characterize the microbial composition of the enrichment culture. A CAOs enrichment culture capable of stably oxidizing As(lII) to As(V) was successfully constructed through repeated batch cultivation for more than 700 days, during which time the initial As(III) concentrations were increased in a stepwise manner from 1 to 10-12 mmol/L. As(III) oxidation activity of the enrichment culture gradually improved, and 10-12 mmol/L As(III) was almost completely oxidized within four days. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the enrichment culture varied drastically during the enrichment process depending on the As(III) concentration. Isolation and characterization of bacteria in the enrichment culture revealed that the presence of multiple CAOs with various As(III) oxidation abilities enabled the culture to adapt to a wide range of As(III) concentrations. The CAOs enrichment culture constructed here may be useful for pretreatment of water from which arsenic is being removed. PMID:23534210

  12. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Blackwaters of the Great Dismal Swamp, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, F.; Cutter, G. A.; Cutter, L. S.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2001-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations and speciation were measured in surface water samples collected from the Great Dismal Swamp in southeastern Virginia, USA using, selective hydride generation and atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Phosphate concentrations were also determined in these surface waters using the molybdate blue spectrophotometric method. Great Dismal Swamp waters are characterized as blackwaters, having high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations that range from 445 iM to 6304 iM, with a mean (n = 12) of 3282+/-2165 iM. pH ranged from 4.30 to 6.42, with a mean (n = 12) of 5.14+/-1.04. The inflow waters (Cypress and Pocosin Swamps) have higher pH's (mean of 6.32+/- 0.10 for n = 5) than waters from Lake Drummond and its immediate inflow and outflow ditches, where the mean pH (n = 7) is 4.30+/-0.04. Total arsenic concentrations in Great Dismal Swamp waters range from 2.18 nM up to 21.42 nM. Phosphate concentrations range from 0.18 iM to 1.42 iM, but are not correlated with arsenate concentrations (r 2 = 0.004). Arsenate typically predominates in oxic, surface waters. However, As(III) was detected at higher concentrations (1 - 17.72 nM, mean value of 8.00+/-5.80 nM for all samples, n = 10) in half of the samples from the lower part of the watershed (i.e., mainly in Lake Drummond and its outflow, the Feeder Ditch; mean of 12.89+/-2.89 nM, n = 5). No methylated species were detected in the selected samples analyzed for organoarsenical forms (monomethyl and dimethyl arsenicals) A strong correlation exists between dissolved As(III) concentrations and dissolved organic carbon concentrations (r2 = 0.88), and this correlation is significant at greater than the 99% confidence level. The high abundance of As(III) in comparison to both thermodynamic predictions, and other surface waters, suggests that either there is a strong anoxic source of this form, or that the high DOC concentrations stabilize it via complexation and slower rate of oxidation.

  13. Urinary arsenic speciation profile in ethnic group of the Atacama desert (Chile) exposed to variable arsenic levels in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Jorge; Mansilla, Héctor D; Santander, I Paola; Fierro, Vladimir; Cornejo, Lorena; Barnes, Ramón M; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic groups from the Atacama Desert (known as Atacameños) have been exposed to natural arsenic pollution for over 5000 years. This work presents an integral study that characterizes arsenic species in water used for human consumption. It also describes the metabolism and arsenic elimination through urine in a chronically exposed population in northern Chile. In this region, water contained total arsenic concentrations up to 1250 μg L(-1), which was almost exclusively As(V). It is also important that this water was ingested directly from natural water sources without any treatment. The ingested arsenic was extensively methylated. In urine 93% of the arsenic was found as methylated arsenic species, such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. The original ingested inorganic species [As(V)], represent less than 1% of the total urinary arsenic. Methylation activity among individuals can be assessed by measuring primary [inorganic As/methylated As] and secondary methylation [MMA/DMA] indexes. Both methylation indexes were 0.06, indicating a high biological converting capability of As(V) into MMA and then MMA into DMA, compared with the control population and other arsenic exposed populations previously reported. PMID:25438126

  14. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670 ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306 ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  15. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Shrestha, Prakash S; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E; Dhansay, Muhammad A; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135-377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  16. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  17. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E.; Dhansay, Muhammad A.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135–377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  18. Concentrations of nandrolone metabolites in urine after the therapeutic administration of an ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Avois, Lidia; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2007-05-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, is used for the treatment of several diseases and is available in various pharmaceutical formulations. The most widely used pharmaceutical formulation is Deca-Durabolin, but other products, such as Keratyl eye drops solution, are also currently administered. Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroid in sports. Analyses for this anabolic steroid according to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) protocol are based on the identification of the nandrolone two main urinary metabolites which, in humans, are glucuronides of 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone. A positive cut off limit of 2 ng/mL has been set by the anti-doping code for the first metabolite, 19-norandrosterone. In this preliminary study, an eye drops solution (Keratyl) containing a therapeutic dose of a nandrolone sodium sulphate was administered to several male volunteers during 3 days and urines were collected during 3 weeks. Surprisingly, contrary to all expectations, the urinary concentrations measured in urines reached 450 ng/mL and 70 ng/mL for norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone, respectively. Moreover, concentration levels near to 2 ng/mL were found, more than 2 weeks after the last administration, depending on individual metabolism. Inter-variability as well as intra-variability of nandrolone excretion kinetic, regarding this particular administration mode, were also evaluated. Quantification of nandrolone metabolites was performed by GC-MS. The method was previously validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ, robustness, accuracy and the expanded uncertainty was also evaluated. PMID:17391892

  19. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    PubMed

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity. PMID:26458903

  20. Use of a pre-analysis osmolality normalisation method to correct for variable urine concentrations and for improved metabolomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chetwynd, Andrew J; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Holt, Stephen G; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-29

    Metabolomics analyses of urine have the potential to provide new information on the detection and progression of many disease processes. However, urine samples can vary significantly in total solute concentration and this presents a challenge to achieve high quality metabolomic datasets and the detection of biomarkers of disease or environmental exposures. This study investigated the efficacy of pre- and post-analysis normalisation methods to analyse metabolomic datasets obtained from neat and diluted urine samples from five individuals. Urine samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to metabolomic analyses using a sensitive nanoflow/nanospray LC-MS technique and the data analysed by principal component analyses (PCA). Post-analysis normalisation of the datasets to either creatinine or osmolality concentration, or to mass spectrum total signal (MSTS), revealed that sample discrimination was driven by the dilution factor of urine rather than the individual providing the sample. Normalisation of urine samples to equal osmolality concentration prior to LC-MS analysis resulted in clustering of the PCA scores plot according to sample source and significant improvements in the number of peaks common to samples of all three dilutions from each individual. In addition, the ability to identify discriminating markers, using orthogonal partial least squared-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), was greatly improved when pre-analysis normalisation to osmolality was compared with post-analysis normalisation to osmolality and non-normalised datasets. Further improvements for peak area repeatability were observed in some samples when the pre-analysis normalisation to osmolality was combined with a post-analysis mass spectrum total useful signal (MSTUS) or MSTS normalisation. Future adoption of such normalisation methods may reduce the variability in metabolomics analyses due to differing urine concentrations and improve the discovery of discriminating metabolites

  1. Transference factors as a tool for the estimation of arsenic milk concentration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Alvarez-Gonçalvez, Cristina V; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina represents one of the largest regions with high levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater. The aim of this study was the assessment of a biotransference factor (BTF) as a tool for the estimation of As concentration in cow's milk from As drinking water concentration. Total As content in livestock drinking water, soil, forage, and milk was determined in farms located in an area of high As groundwater, in order to analyze the relation between As uptake and its transfer to milk. The concentrations of As in milk ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/L. From the results obtained, drinking water may be considered the main source of exposure to As, and the biotransference factor for milk ranges from 1.5 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4). Therefore, BTF provides a simple tool for the estimation of arsenic levels in milk through the As livestock drinking water content. PMID:27155835

  2. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10 μg/L to 640 μg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40 μg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure

  3. Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dahu; Berger, Andrew J.

    2007-04-01

    We report measurements of chemical concentrations in clinical blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) Raman spectroscopy to increase the collected signal strength. Both Raman and absorption spectra were acquired in the near-infrared region using the LCOF geometry. Spectra of 71 blood serum and 61 urine samples were regressed via partial least squares against reference analyzer values. Significant correlation was found between predicted and reference concentrations for 13 chemicals. Using absorption data to normalize the LCOF enhancement made the results more accurate. The experimental geometry is well suited for high-volume and automated chemical analysis of clear biofluids.

  4. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

  5. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  6. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  7. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives.

    PubMed

    Cocker, J; Morton, J; Warren, N; Wheeler, J P; Garrod, A N I

    2006-07-01

    This study reports a survey of occupational exposure to copper chrome arsenic (CCA) based wood preservatives during vacuum pressure timber impregnation. The survey involved biological monitoring based on analysis of chromium and arsenic in urine samples collected from UK workers. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of occupational exposure to arsenic and chromium in the UK timber treatment industry. The objectives were to collect and analyse urine samples from as many workers as possible, where CCA wood preservatives might be used, at 6 monthly intervals for 2 years. In addition, to investigate day-to-day variations in urinary excretion of chrome and arsenic by collecting and analysing three samples a week for 3 weeks in subsets of workers and controls (people not occupationally exposed). All urine samples were analysed for chromium and inorganic arsenic. To investigate any residual interference every sample was accompanied by a short questionnaire about recent consumption of seafood and smoking. The analytical methods for arsenic used a hydride generation technique to reduce interference from dietary sources of arsenic and also a technique that would measure total arsenic concentration in urine. The main findings show that workers exposed to CCA wood preservatives have concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium in urine that are significantly higher than those from non-occupationally exposed people but below biological monitoring guidance values that would indicate inhalation exposure at UK occupational exposure limits for chromium and arsenic. The effects of consumption of seafood on urinary arsenic were not significant using the hydride generation method for inorganic arsenic but were significant if 'total' arsenic was measured. The 'total' arsenic method could not distinguish CCA workers from controls and is clearly unsuitable for assessment of occupational exposure to arsenic. There was a significant increase in the urinary concentration of

  8. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio; Razo, Luz Maria del; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge . E-mail: jorgeep@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  9. High soil and groundwater arsenic levels induce high body arsenic loads, health risk and potential anemia for inhabitants of northeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Masumeh; Mehrzad, Jalil; Mahmudy Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein; Afshari, Reza; Dadsetan, Ahmad; Hami, Shakiba

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic bioavailability in rock, soil and water resources is notoriously hazardous. Geogenic arsenic enters the body and adversely affects many biochemical processes in animals and humans, posing risk to public health. Chelpu is located in NE Iran, where realgar, orpiment and pyrite mineralization is the source of arsenic in the macroenvironment. Using cluster random sampling strategy eight rocks, 23 soils, 12 drinking water resources, 36 human urine and hair samples and 15 adult sheep urine and wool samples in several large-scale herds in the area were randomly taken for quantification of arsenic in rock/soil/water, wool/hair/urine. Arsenic levels in rock/soil/water and wool/hair/urine were measured using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. While arsenic levels in rocks, soils and water resources hazardously ranged 9.40-25,873.3 mg kg(-1), 7.10-1448.80 mg kg(-1) and 12-606 μg L(-1), respectively, arsenic concentrations in humans' hair and urine and sheep's wool and urine varied from 0.37-1.37 μg g(-1) and 9-271.4 μg L(-1) and 0.3-3.11 μg g(-1) and 29.1-1015 μg L(-1), respectively. Local sheep and human were widely sick and slightly anemic. Hematological examination of the inhabitants revealed that geogenic arsenic could harm blood cells, potentially resulting in many other hematoimmunological disorders including cancer. The findings warn widespread exposure of animals and human in this agroecologically and geopolitically important region (i.e., its proximity with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan) and give a clue on how arsenic could induce infectious and non-infectious diseases in highly exposed human/animals. PMID:26100324

  10. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

  11. Evaluation of Urine Aquaporin 1 and Perilipin 2 Concentrations as Biomarkers to Screen for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Jeremiah J.; Mellnick, Vincent M.; Luo, Jinquin; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Figenshau, R. Sherburne; Bhayani, Sam; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Early detection of small asymptomatic kidney tumors presages better patient outcome. Incidental discovery of asymptomatic renal tumors by abdominal imaging is expensive and cannot reliably distinguish benign from malignant tumors. OBJECTIVE This investigation evaluated the clinical utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin-2 (PLIN2) concentrations as unique noninvasive biomarkers to diagnose malignant clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a screening paradigm. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Urine samples were obtained from 720 patients undergoing routine abdominal CT (screening population), 80 healthy controls and 19 patients with pathologically confirmed RCC. Urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations were measured by sensitive and specific ELISA and Western blot procedures, respectively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES AQP1 and PLIN2 were measured prospectively in a screening paradigm in an otherwise asymptomatic population. The absence or presence of a renal mass and of RCC, were verified by abdominal computed tomography (CT) and by post-nephrectomy pathologic diagnosis, respectively. RESULTS Median urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations in patients with known RCC were more than 12-fold higher (P<0.0001 each) than controls and the screening population. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations individually or in combination was ≥0.92, with ≥85% sensitivity and ≥87% specificity compared with control or screening patients. Three of the 720 screening patients had biomarker concentrations suggestive of RCC and were found to have an imaged renal mass by CT. Two patients, evaluated further, had RCC. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results demonstrate the clinical utility, specificity and sensitivity of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 to diagnose RCC. These novel tumor-specific proteins have high clinical validity and substantial potential as specific diagnostic and

  12. Intervention trial to assess arsenic exposure from food crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Milton, Abul H; Smith, Wayne T; Ng, Jack C; Sim, Malcolm; Dear, Keith; Caldwell, Bruce K

    2004-04-01

    The authors assessed the contribution of food irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water to human exposure to arsenic in Bangladesh. An intervention trial was conducted in a village in the Jessore District of Bangladesh, where irrigation water had been field-tested in March 2000 and was found to contain arsenic with concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 microg/l. In May 2000, a random sample of 63 households was selected from the village, and 1 eligible person from each household was recruited to the study and randomized to an intervention or control group. The intervention group received food purchased from a village where irrigation water was found to contain < 10 microg/l arsenic. The control group received food purchased from markets in the study village, where irrigation water was found to contain > 100 microg/l arsenic. Pre- and postintervention urine samples were collected for urinary arsenic speciation assays. Preintervention, the mean urinary total arsenic concentrations were 139.25 microg/l and 129.15 microg/l for the intervention and control groups, respectively. These concentrations did not change significantly following intervention. Arsenic concentrations in samples of selected raw and cooked foods from the low-contamination area did not contain less arsenic than samples from the high-contamination area. Further studies to investigate the arsenic content of food grown in areas with high and low arsenic contamination of irrigation water are recommended. PMID:16189994

  13. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  14. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  15. Anomalously high arsenic concentration in a West Antarctic ice core and its relationship to copper mining in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanck, Franciele; Simões, Jefferson C.; Handley, Michael; Mayewski, Paul A.; Bernardo, Ronaldo T.; Aquino, Francisco E.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic variability records are preserved in snow and ice cores and can be utilized to reconstruct air pollution history. The Mount Johns ice core (79°55‧S; 94°23‧W and 91.2 m depth) was collected from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 2008/09 austral summer. Here, we report the As concentration variability as determined by 2137 samples from the upper 45 m of this core using ICP-SFMS (CCI, University of Maine, USA). The record covers approximately 125 years (1883-2008) showing a mean concentration of 4.32 pg g-1. The arsenic concentration in the core follows global copper mining evolution, particularly in Chile (the largest producer of Cu). From 1940 to 1990, copper-mining production increased along with arsenic concentrations in the MJ core, from 1.92 pg g-1 (before 1900) to 7.94 pg g-1 (1950). In the last two decades, environmental regulations for As emissions have been implemented, forcing smelters to treat their gases to conform to national and international environmental standards. In Chile, decontamination plants required by the government started operating from 1993 to 2000. Thereafter, Chilean copper production more than doubled while As emission levels declined, and the same reduction was observed in the Mount Johns ice core. After 1999, arsenic concentrations in our samples decreased to levels comparable to the period before 1900.

  16. ARSENIC URINARY METABOLITES: BIOMARKER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population of adults and children with ranges of 10 to 300 g/l of arsenic in their drinking water will have their urine analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. A sample of 30 families will be selected based on tap water analyses for arsenic. This sample will comprise 50% adul...

  17. Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Williams, P N; Price, A H; Raab, A; Hossain, S A; Feldmann, J; Meharg, A A

    2005-08-01

    Ingestion of drinking water is not the only elevated source of arsenic to the diet in the Bengal Delta. Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets. We set out to survey As speciation in different rice varieties from different parts of the globe to understand the contribution of rice to arsenic exposure. Pot experiments were utilized to ascertain whether growing rice on As contaminated soil affected speciation and whether genetic variation accounted for uptake and speciation. USA long grain rice had the highest mean arsenic level in the grain at 0.26 microg As g(-1) (n = 7), and the highest grain arsenic value of the survey at 0.40 microg As g(-1). The mean arsenic level of Bangladeshi rice was 0.13 microg As g(-1) (n = 15). The main As species detected in the rice extract were AsIII, DMAV, and AsV. In European, Bangladeshi, and Indian rice 64 +/- 1% (n = 7), 80 +/- 3% (n = 11), and 81 +/- 4% (n = 15), respectively, of the recovered arsenic was found to be inorganic. In contrast, DMAV was the predominant species in rice from the USA, with only 42 +/- 5% (n = 12) of the arsenic being inorganic. Pot experiments show that the proportions of DMAV in the grain are significantly dependent on rice cultivar (p = 0.026) and that plant nutrient status is effected by arsenic exposure. PMID:16124284

  18. Respiratory effect related to exposure of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Mukherjee, A K; Gangopadhyay, P K; Alam, J; Roychowdhury, A

    2010-04-01

    Arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic contaminated water has been one of the worst environmental health hazards. High levels of arsenic have been reported in different natural water sources from West Bengal for more than two decades. Groundwater contamination by arsenic and its adverse effects on the health of a big population in nine districts of West Bengal have been reported. The problems found were mainly related to skin and respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. The respiratory effects are largely confined to those who had the skin lesion. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the respiratory effects of exposure to different levels of arsenic in drinking water. The water samples were collected from different tube wells and wells in the study area. Analysis of arsenic was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with hydride generation system. Based on the consumption of arsenic concentrations in drinking water the populations were divided into three categories, i.e., <=50 microg/L, >50 - <= 150 microg/L and >150 microg/L. Standard techniques of medical examination were applied to elicit signs and recorded in the pre-designed proforma. A written consent was taken from each subject for their voluntary participation in the study. 112 subjects were investigated. The respiratory effect was evaluated by measuring the pulmonary function test (PFT). Vital Capacity (VC) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) were measured by Spirovit-SP-10 (Schiller Health Care Pvt Ltd., Switzerland) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate by Wrights Peak Flow Meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). The PFT values showed gradual decrement among the males following skin pigmentation, keratosis and arsenicosis. The respiratory function impairment among the male subjects found as restrictive type (26.41%), obstructive type (3.77%) and combined type (7.54%), whereas in females only the restrictive type of impairment (10.16%) was found. Restrictive type of impairments among the

  19. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  20. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  1. Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...

  2. Arsenic is cytotoxic at micromolar concentration, but does not inhibit purified human DNA repair enzymes at less than millimolar concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Lin; Hu, Yu; Dunlop, B.

    1997-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen, but not a mutagen. However it can act as a co-mutagen with UV and alkylating agents, and has been shown to inhibit DNA repair. The activities of several purified human enzymes involved in DNA repair have been tested in the presence of inorganic arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. We have not found that both As(III) and As(V) stimulated the activity of DNA polymerase {beta} (pol {beta}), O{sup 6}methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and DNA ligase III. The activity of pol {beta} was increased up to 3.5-fold in the presence of 50 mM As (III), and 2-fold in the presence of 20 mM As(V). Inhibition of enzyme activity was only observed with concentrations of As(III) and As(V) higher than 100 mM. Terminal deoxynucleotidal transferase (TdT), an enzyme with homology to pol {beta}, is also stimulated 3-fold by 50 mM As(III). Unlike pol {beta} and TdT, MGMT was preferentially activated by millimolar As(V), rather than As(III). Similar concentrations of inorganic phosphate also increased the activity of MGMT. The activity of DNA ligase I was inhibited by 1 to 5 mM As(III). However, both DNA ligase I and DNA ligase III were significantly activated by As(V). In contrast to these results, human keratinocyte cells exhibit significant cytotoxicity when exposed to 10 {mu}M As(III) and 200 {mu}M AS(V). Cell survival was decreased by over 50% at these concentrations, as measured by neutral red uptake, LDH release, and MTT uptake. Interestingly, both As(III) and As(V) produced increased cell proliferation at submicromolar concentrations. These results suggest that arsenic compounds do not exert their toxic effects by direct inhibition of DNA repair enzymes, but by other mechanisms.

  3. Determination of inorganic arsenic species by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with variable sodium tetrahydroborate concentrations*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Mirna E.; Beldoménico, Horacio R.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes a study on the determination of inorganic arsenic species in ground water and synthetic experimental matrices, using a flow injection system with on-line hydride generation device coupled to an atomic absorption spectrometer with flame-heated quartz atomizer (FI HG AAS). Specific trivalent arsenic determination is based on the slow kinetics of As(V) on the hydride generation reaction using sufficiently low concentrations of sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH 4) as reductant in highly acidic conditions (pH<0). Under these conditions, the efficiency of hydride generation from As(V) is much lower than that from As(III). The pentavalent form is determined by the difference between total inorganic arsenic and As(III). As(V) interferences were studied using As(III) solutions ranging from 0% to 50% of total inorganic As. The optimized NaBH 4 concentration was 0.035% (w/v). The detection limit was 1.4 μg l -1 As(III). As(V) interferences were 6% in the case of water samples with 6 μg l -1 As(III) in the presence of 54 μg l -1 As(V) (i.e. 10% As(III)). Interferences of methylated arsenic species (MMA and DMA) were evaluated. Speciation method was satisfactorily applied to 20 field arsenical water samples from Santa Fe, Argentina, with values ranging from 30 to 308 μg l -1 total As. We found from 0% to 36% As(III) in the 20 field samples. The developed methodology constitutes an economic, simple and reliable way to evaluate inorganic arsenic distribution in underground waters or similar systems with negligible or no content of organoarsenicals.

  4. Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

  5. GLUTATHIONE MODULATES RECOMBINANT RAT ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE-CATALYZED FORMATION OF TRIMETHYLARSINE OXIDE AND TRIMETHYLARSINE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Humans and other species enzymatically convert inorganic arsenic into methylated metabolites. Although the major metabolites are mono- and dimethylated arsenicals, trimethylated arsenicals have been detected in urine following exposure to inorganic arsenic. The AS3MT gene e...

  6. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  7. Identifying new cannabis use with urine creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentrations and time intervals between specimen collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2009-05-01

    A previously recommended method for detecting new cannabis use with creatinine-normalized 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) urine concentrations in periodically collected specimens for treatment, workplace and judicial drug testing applications is refined by considering the time interval between urine collections. All urine specimens were collected from six less-than-daily cannabis users who smoked placebo, 1.75%, and 3.55% THC cigarettes in randomized order, each separated by one week. Ratios (n = 24,322) were calculated by dividing each creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentration (U2) by that of a previously collected specimen (U1). Maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios with 15 and 6 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentrations, with and without new use between specimens, were calculated for each 24-h interval after smoking up to 168 h and are included in tables. These ratios decreased with increasing interval between collections providing improved decision values for determining new cannabis use. For example, with a 15 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentration and no new use between specimens, the maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios were 3.05, 1.59, and 0.686, respectively, when the collection interval was

  8. CONTAINMENT OF HIGHLY CONCENTRATED ARSENIC-LADEN SPENT REGENERANT ON THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Phase II EPA P3 project encompasses the following two activities in the Indian subcontinent: Continued installation of arsenic removal units in rural villages and extension of sustainable arsenic-laden waste disposal practices. For ten years, Lehigh University and Benga...

  9. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenic

    speciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no single

    technique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complex

    e...

  10. Oxidation of the arsenic-rich concentrate at the Prebuz abandoned mine (Erzgebirge Mts., CZ): mineralogical evolution.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Michal

    2004-04-25

    Ore concentrate with up to 65 wt.% of arsenic (by-product of cassiterite extraction) exposed to climatic conditions was studied from the mineralogical point of view. Detailed sampling, X-ray diffraction analyses, energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDAX) and especially scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the arsenopyrite-löllingite-concentrate weathering. The studied concentrate contains very small proportion (<5 vol.%) of gangue minerals such as quartz and feldspars; the oxidation of arsenopyrite and löllingite (and accessory pyrite) is thus practically not complicated by interference with additional minerals and elements. Arsenolite, scorodite, kaatialaite and native sulphur were found to be the main secondary phases originating by dissolution of arsenopyrite and löllingite. New secondary phases precipitate on the surface of the ore-concentrate body but also form cement among the grains of finely milled material. The following succession of secondary minerals was determined: arsenolite, scorodite+native sulphur and kaatialaite. Significant arsenic migration into the proximal environment was revealed: 2580 and 13,622 mgkg(-1) were the highest arsenic concentrations in two sections excavated at distances of 0.5 and 1.5 m from the concentrate body. PMID:15081754

  11. When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

  12. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:26865228

  13. Drying methods effects on nitrogen and energy concentrations in pig feces and urine, and poultry excreta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of digestibility coefficients are critical in nutrient balance and feed evaluation studies as errors that occur are often additive. However, there is no standard universal method for drying feces, urine, or excreta prior to laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to ...

  14. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  15. Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.

    2012-12-01

    Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

  16. Factors affecting paddy soil arsenic concentration in Bangladesh: prediction and uncertainty of geostatistical risk mapping.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zia U; Panaullah, Golam M; DeGloria, Stephen D; Duxbury, John M

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the spatial correlation of soil arsenic (As) concentrations with environmental variables is needed to assess the nature and extent of the risk of As contamination from irrigation water in Bangladesh. We analyzed 263 paired groundwater and paddy soil samples covering highland (HL) and medium highland-1 (MHL-1) land types for geostatistical mapping of soil As and delineation of As contaminated areas in Tala Upazilla, Satkhira district. We also collected 74 non-rice soil samples to assess the baseline concentration of soil As for this area. The mean soil As concentrations (mg/kg) for different land types under rice and non-rice crops were: rice-MHL-1 (21.2)>rice-HL (14.1)>non-rice-MHL-1 (11.9)>non-rice-HL (7.2). Multiple regression analyses showed that irrigation water As, Fe, land elevation and years of tubewell operation are the important factors affecting the concentrations of As in HL paddy soils. Only years of tubewell operation affected As concentration in the MHL-1 paddy soils. Quantitatively similar increases in soil As above the estimated baseline-As concentration were observed for rice soils on HL and MHL-1 after 6-8 years of groundwater irrigation, implying strong retention of As added in irrigation water in both land types. Application of single geostatistical methods with secondary variables such as regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (OCK) gave little improvement in prediction of soil As over ordinary kriging (OK). Comparing single prediction methods, kriging within strata (KWS), the combination of RK for HL and OCK for MHL-1, gave more accurate soil As predictions and showed the lowest misclassification of declaring a location "contaminated" with respect to 14.8 mg As/kg, the highest value obtained for the baseline soil As concentration. Prediction of soil As buildup over time indicated that 75% or the soils cropped to rice would contain at least 30 mg/L As by the year 2020. PMID:22055452

  17. Modeling spatial patterns in soil arsenic to estimate natural baseline concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Basta, Nicolas T.; Bigham, Jerry M.; Rea, Ron

    2014-05-09

    ABSTRACT Arsenic in soil is an important public health concern. Toxicity guidelines and models based on laboratory studies (i.e., U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System) should consider natural soil As concentrations to avoid unnecessary remediation burdens on society. We used soil and stream sediment samples from the USGS National Geochemical Survey database to assess the spatial distribution of natural As in a 1.16E+5 km2 area. Samples were collected at 348 soil and 144 stream locations, providing approximately one sample for every 290 km2. Sample sites were selected to minimize the potential influence of anthropogenic inputs. Samples were processed using acid digestion of whole samples (concentrated HCl and ascorbic acid) and concentrations were measured using hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Soil As ranged from 2.0 to 45.6 mg kg-1. Geostatistical techniques were used to model and map the spatial variability of As. The mean and variance at unsampled locations were estimated using sequential Gaussian simulation. Five areas of elevated concentration (> the median of 10 mg kg-1) were identified and the relationships to geologic parent materials, glacial sedimentation patterns, and soil conditions interpreted. Our results showed As concentrations >10 mg kg-1 were common, and >20 mg kg-1 were not unusual for the central and west central portions of Ohio (USA). In contrast, concentrations <4 mg kg-1 were rare. Measured concentrations typically exceeded the soil As human generic screening levels of 0.39 mg/kg (1); the calculated value that corresponds to a cancer risk level of 1 in 1,000,000 for soil ingestion. Because the As content of Ohio soils is similar to many world soils, the USEPA generic soil screening level of 0.39 mg/kg is of little utility. A more useful and practical approach would be the uses of natural background levels. Regional soil As patterns based on geology and biogeochemistry and not political boundaries should be used

  18. Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic in Milled Rice from China and Associated Dietary Exposure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yatao; Wang, Min; Mao, Xuefei; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-23

    Total arsenic (As) and inorganic As (Asi) in milled rice (n = 1653) collected from China were studied to evaluate the contamination level, distribution, and health risks. The mean concentrations of the total As and Asi were 116.5 and 90.9 μg/kg, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 11 provinces, and 1.1% of samples exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by Chinese legislation. According to the exposure assessment method of probabilistic simulation, all values of the target hazard quotients (THQs) for chronic noncarcinogenic risks (skin lesions as the point of departure) were below 1, suggesting that the Chinese population will not encounter a significant noncarcinogenic risk. However, the mean values of margin of exposure (MOE) for lung cancer risks ranging from 3.86 to 8.54 were under 100 for all age groups and genders of the Chinese population; moreover, MOE values for some major rice-producing and -consuming countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and the United States, were all also below 100. More attention should be paid to carcinogenic risks from rice Asi intake, and some control measures to reduce rice Asi intake should be taken. PMID:26641731

  19. A Direct Aqueous Derivatization GSMS Method for Determining Benzoylecgonine Concentrations in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Da Valle, Ylenia; Giusiani, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for extraction and quantification of benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (COC) in urine is presented. Propyl-chloroformate was used as derivatizing agent, and it was directly added to the urine sample: the propyl derivative and COC were then recovered by liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode. The method proved to be precise for BZE and COC both in term of intraday and interday analysis, with a coefficient of variation (CV)<6%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2.7 ng/mL for BZE and 1.4 ng/mL for COC. The calibration curve showed a linear relationship for BZE and COC (r2>0.999 and >0.997, respectively) within the range investigated. The method, applied to thirty authentic samples, showed to be very simple, fast, and reliable, so it can be easily applied in routine analysis for the quantification of BZE and COC in urine samples. PMID:26300490

  20. Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale vector spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  1. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  2. Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2014-08-15

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

  3. [Concentrations of cadmium in blood and urine and their contents in the hair of children from Katowice Murcki].

    PubMed

    Błach-Legawiec, Izabela; Emich-Widera, Ewa; Bibrzycka, Aleksandra; Marszał, Elzbieta; Woś, Halina

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading positions on the world's list of harmful substances is taken by cadmium, which is a heavy metal. Cadmium (Cd) gets into the human body through either respiratory tract (cigarette smoke) or alimentary canal. The aim of the study was to 1) determine whether the concentrations of cadmium in blood and urine of children from Katowice Murcki--one of the cleanest districts of the town - as well as its contents in the hair of the children exceeds acceptable values and 2) to analyse the effect of chosen environmental factors (exposition to smoke, parents' education) on the amount of cadmium in these materials. The study comprised 48 children at the age from 9-11 years from Katowice Murcki, attending the same primary school. The findings were statistically analysed using Shapiro-Wilk and Wilcoxon test. Concentration of cadmium in the blood was 0.479 microg/l, in urine 0.840 microg/g creatinine and the average concentration in the hair constituted 0.23 microg/g drymass. Concentration of cadmium in the blood of 13 children (30.95%) exceeded acceptable 0.5 microg/l value, while in 10 children (23.25%) value in the urine was exceeded. It was lug/g creatinine. It has been shown that children who lived nearby motorway presented higher content of cadmium in the hair. Environmental factors such as: location of the road and intensity of traffic influence the content of cadmium in the human body. PMID:17474575

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) μg/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

  5. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  6. Low concentration of arsenic could induce caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage apoptosis with JNK-p38 activation in Clarias batrachus

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soma; Mazumder, Shibnath; Ghosh, Debabrata; Dey, Saibal; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2009-12-15

    We had earlier demonstrated that chronic exposure (30 days) to micro-molar concentration (0.50 muM) of arsenic induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) death in Clarias batrachus. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of HKM death induced by arsenic and elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in the process. Arsenic-induced HKM death was apoptotic in nature as evident from DNA gel, Annexin V-propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Inhibitor studies and immunoblot analyses further demonstrated that arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Preincubation with antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethyl sulfoxide significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arsenic-treated HKM and prevented caspase activation, malondialdehyde formation and HKM apoptosis. Arsenic induced membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47{sup phox}. Preincubation with apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, both selective inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, prevented p47{sup phox} translocation, ROS production and HKM death. Exposure of HKM to arsenic induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) proteins including c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Preincubation of HKM with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 protected the HKM against arsenic-induced apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to micro-molar concentration of arsenic induces ROS generation through the activation of NADPH oxidases, which in turn causes caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. In addition, the study also indicates a role of p38-JNK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  7. Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially-enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations were elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 ug/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg body weight (BW) in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1 to 10 mg As/kg BW, or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19 to 48 ug As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) >1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3 to 28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25 to 85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations >3.9 ug As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 ug/L (range 2.2-106.0 ug/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect

  8. Comparison of urine toxic metals concentrations in athletes and in sedentary subjects living in the same area of Extremadura (Spain).

    PubMed

    Llerena, F; Maynar, M; Barrientos, G; Palomo, R; Robles, M C; Caballero, M J

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd), tungsten (W), tellurium (Te), beryllium (Be), and lead (Pb), are non-essential metals pervasive in the human environment. Studies on athletes during training periods compared to non-training control subjects, indicate increased loss of minerals through sweat and urine. The aim of this study was to compare the level of these trace elements, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in urine samples, between athletes and age-matched sedentary subjects living in the same geographical area, although anthropometric and cardiovascular measurements showed that athletes have significantly (P ≤ 0.001) lower BMI, body fat and heart rate, whereas the muscle and bone percentage was significantly (P ≤ 0.001) higher than in sedentary subjects. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference material. Trace element analysis concentrations, expressed in μg/mg creatinine, of five toxic elements in urine from athletes (n = 21) versus sedentary subjects, (n = 26) were as follows: Cd (0.123 ± 0.075 vs. 0.069 ± 0.041, P ≤ 0.05); W (0.082 ± 0.053 vs. < limit of detection); Te (0.244 ± 0.193 vs. 0.066 ± 0.045, P ≤ 0.001), Be (0.536 ± 0.244 vs. 0.066 ± 0.035, P ≤ 0.001); Pb (0.938 ± 0.664 vs. 2.162 ± 1.444 P ≤ 0.001). With the exception of Pb, urine toxic metal concentrations from athletes were higher than from sedentary subjects. This fact suggests that physical activity counteracts, at least in part, the cumulative effect of toxic environment by increasing the urine excretion of toxic metals in trained people. PMID:22179857

  9. Airborne arsenic exposure and excretion of methylated arsenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J; Crecelius, E A; Reading, J C

    1977-01-01

    First void urine samples were collected from copper smelter workers exposed to inorganic arsenic and from unexposed controls. Arsenic compounds (As (III), As (V), methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) in these samples were analyzed by selective volatilization as arsines with determination of arsenic by plasma excitation emission spectrometry. On the day preceding the urine sample collection a breathing zone measurement was made of respirable arsenic particulates for each subject. It was found that all of the subjects, including the controls excreted arsenic primarily as methylated species. Approximately 50% of the total arsenic was excreted as dimethylarsinic acid and 20% as methylarsonic acid. Slight differences in the proportion of various arsenic compounds were observed with varying levels of inorganic arsenic exposure. Amounts of arsenic species were all closely correlated with each other and with exposure. Irrespirable particulate exposures were measured on a subset of high exposure workers. Irrespirable arsenic was found to be more closely correlated with excretion of arsenic compounds than was respirable arsenic. PMID:908318

  10. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  11. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  12. Regional estimation of groundwater arsenic concentrations through systematical dynamic-neural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is an odorless semi-metal that occurs naturally in rock and soil, and As contamination in groundwater resources has become a serious threat to human health. Thus, assessing the spatial and temporal variability of As concentration is highly desirable, particularly in heavily As-contaminated areas. However, various difficulties may be encountered in the regional estimation of As concentration such as cost-intensive field monitoring, scarcity of field data, identification of important factors affecting As, over-fitting or poor estimation accuracy. This study develops a novel systematical dynamic-neural modeling (SDM) for effectively estimating regional As-contaminated water quality by using easily-measured water quality variables. To tackle the difficulties commonly encountered in regional estimation, the SDM comprises of a neural network and four statistical techniques: the Nonlinear Autoregressive with eXogenous input (NARX) network, Gamma test, cross-validation, Bayesian regularization method and indicator kriging (IK). For practical application, this study investigated a heavily As-contaminated area in Taiwan. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is adopted for comparison purpose. The results demonstrate that the NARX network (Root mean square error (RMSE): 95.11 μg l-1 for training; 106.13 μg l-1 for validation) outperforms the BPNN (RMSE: 121.54 μg l-1 for training; 143.37 μg l-1 for validation). The constructed SDM can provide reliable estimation (R2 > 0.89) of As concentration at ungauged sites based merely on three easily-measured water quality variables (Alk, Ca2+ and pH). In addition, risk maps under the threshold of the WHO drinking water standard (10 μg l-1) are derived by the IK to visually display the spatial and temporal variation of the As concentration in the whole study area at different time spans. The proposed SDM can be practically applied with satisfaction to the regional estimation in study areas of interest and the

  13. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  14. The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh's drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H; Ortega, Richard; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2002-01-01

    For drinking water, the people of Bangladesh used to rely on surface water, which was often contaminated with bacteria causing diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, and other life-threatening diseases. To reduce the incidences of these diseases, millions of tubewells were installed in Bangladesh since independence in 1971. This recent transition from surface water to groundwater has significantly reduced deaths from waterborne pathogens; however, new evidence suggests disease and death from arsenic (As) and other toxic elements in groundwater are affecting large areas of Bangladesh. In this evaluation, the areal and vertical distribution of As and 29 other inorganic chemicals in groundwater were determined throughout Bangladesh. This study of 30 analytes per sample and 112 samples suggests that the most significant health risk from drinking Bangladesh's tubewell water is chronic As poisoning. The As concentration ranged from < 0.0007 to 0.64 mg/L, with 48% of samples above the 0.01 mg/L World Health Organization drinking water guideline. Furthermore, this study reveals unsafe levels of manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Our survey also suggests that groundwater with unsafe levels of As, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cr may extend beyond Bangladesh's border into the four adjacent and densely populated states in India. In addition to the health risks from individual toxins, possible multimetal synergistic and inhibitory effects are discussed. Antimony was detected in 98% of the samples from this study and magnifies the toxic effects of As. In contrast, Se and Zn were below our detection limits in large parts of Bangladesh and prevent the toxic effects of As. PMID:12417487

  15. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  16. Arsenic and heavy metal concentrations in surface soils and vegetables of Feni district in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Karim, R A; Hossain, S M; Miah, M M H; Nehar, K; Mubin, M S H

    2008-10-01

    An investigation of various heavy metals including the arsenic (As) poisoning in soils and vegetables in five upazillas under Feni district of Bangladesh was performed by neutron activation technique using the neutron irradiation facilities of TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Bangladesh Atomic Energy Research Establishment (BAERE), Savar, Dhaka. A total of 30 samples (15 surface soils and 15 foodstuffs) were studied in five Upazillas namely as, Sonagazi, Dagan Bhuiya, Feni Sadar, Fulgazi and Parsuram of Feni district taking three samples of each kind from each upazilla. Samples of each kind together with the standard reference material (SRM) were irradiated in the same neutron flux and the gamma-rays of nuclides from the irradiated samples were assessed and screened for As, Br, U, Th, Cr, Sc, Fe, Zn and Co in soils and As, Br, Na, K, Cr, Sc, Fe, Zn and Co in vegetables (i.e; eddoe, taro, green papaya, plantain, potato, callaloo, bottle ground and carambola). The measurement of gamma-rays was carried out by means of a calibrated high resolution HPGe detector. The concentration of product nuclides containing in the irradiated samples was determined from the peak count-rates of prominent gamma-lines for the corresponding nuclides. Among all contaminants, only As, Zn and Cr for both samples were focused because of their higher values compared with the local as well as the world typical values. The present results revealed that the mean levels of As in Parsuram, Feni Sadar and Pulgazi upazillas are higher than the world typical value of 2 mg/kg. The mean values of Zn and Cr for all upazillas are higher than the world typical values 32 and 27.9 mg/kg, respectively. For the case of vegetables, the mean concentration of As is found only in Eddoe (5.33 ppm) and Taro (1.46 ppm) collected from Sonagazi and Feni Sadar upazilla; which are higher than the values in Samta (0.1 ppm for eddoe and 0.44 ppm for taro) under Jessore district of Bangladesh. The mean concentrations of

  17. Dissolved sulfide in groundwater with elevated arsenic concentrations at Winthrop, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Locke, D. C.; Simpson, J. H.; Stute, M.

    2001-12-01

    Although sulfur is a biogeochemically significant element because of its strong influence on and response to redox conditions, there are relatively few reliable data sets of trace levels of dissolved sulfide \\(less than1 uM \\) in groundwaters This circumstance results from the relatively high detection limit \\(˜ 1uM \\) of methylene blue colorimetry and the general lack of sensitive methods for field analysis. We were motivated to investigate trace levels of dissolved sulfide because highly insoluble sulfide precipitates of many elements such as As and Fe represent important removal pathways for these metals in reducing groundwaters. Using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry \\(DPCSV\\) capable of detecting 4 nM of dissolved sulfide, we observed that at a site in Winthrop, Maine, groundwater sulfide concentrations ranged from less than 4 nM to ˜ 2000 nM for about a dozen multi-level observation wells under a landfill cap and less than 4 nM to ˜ 7300 nM from several nearby monitoring wells outside the landfill. Sulfide concentrations generally increased when oxygen reduction potential \\(ORP\\) values became more negative. Determination of sulfide should be carried out within 1 hr of sample collection. Samples taken by two methods, \\(1\\) PTFE syringes with luer-lock valves and \\(2\\) BOD bottles show a rapid decline of sulfide following sampling, with up to 90% and 60% losses, respectively, after 24 hrs of storage at 4 ° C. Despite the three orders of magnitude range of dissolved sulfide, arsenic and iron concentrations were all elevated in observational wells installed in a roughly 25 m by 20 m rectangle under the landfill cap, suggesting that As remains mobile under mildly sulfate-reducing conditions. In one well outside of the landfill area, with extremely negative ORP \\(-321 mV\\) and ˜ 7300 nM of dissolved sulfide, groundwater was very low in dissolved As, Fe, and sulfate, suggesting that precipitation of arsenopyrite could be a

  18. Adaptation of a mixed culture of acidophiles for a tank biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing a high concentration of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeongsik; Silva, Rene A; Park, Jeonghyun; Lee, Eunseong; Park, Jayhyun; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-05-01

    We adapted a mixed culture of acidophiles to high arsenic concentrations to confirm the possibility of achieving more than 70% biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing high arsenic (As) concentration. The biooxidation process was applied to refractory gold concentrates containing approximately 139.67 g/kg of total As in a stirred tank reactor using an adapted mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The percentage of the biooxidation process was analyzed based on the total As removal efficiency. The As removal was monitored by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, conducted every 24 h. The results obtained with the adapted culture were compared with the percentage of biooxidation obtained with a non-adapted mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, and with their respective pure cultures. The percentages of biooxidation obtained during 358 h of reaction were 72.20%, 38.20%, 27.70%, and 11.45% for adapted culture, non-adapted culture, and pure cultures of A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans, respectively. The adapted culture showed a peak maximum percentage of biooxidation of 77% at 120 h of reaction, confirming that it is possible to obtain biooxidation percentages over 70% in gold concentrates containing high As concentrations. PMID:26481159

  19. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... inorganic forms. The FDA has been measuring total arsenic concentrations in foods, including rice and juices, through its Total Diet Study program ... readily take up much arsenic from the ground, rice is different because it takes ... has high levels of less toxic organic arsenic. Do organic foods ...

  20. Cadmium blood and urine concentrations as measures of exposure: NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium, a heavy metal present in cigarettes, can be assessed in both urine and blood. Few studies have compared the properties of concurrent measurements of urine cadmium (uCd) and blood cadmium (bCd) in relation to the duration and timing of a known exposure. In this study, bCd and uCd were modeled with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010). Adjusted geometric mean bCd and uCd were estimated from regression results. Each 1% higher geometric mean uCd was associated with 0.50% (95% CI: 0.47%–0.54%; R2=0.30) higher bCd. In male never-smokers, bCd was 69% (59%–81%) and uCd was 200%(166%–234%) higher at age ≥70y versus 20–29y. Ten pack-years (py) of smoking were associated with 13.7%(10.0%–17.4%) higher bCd and 16.8% (12.6%–21.1%) higher uCd in male smokers. The first year after smoking cessation was associated with 53% (48%–58%) lower bCd and 23%(14%–33%) lower uCd in representative males age 55y with 20py smoking. Smoking in the previous 5 days was associated with 55%(40%–71%) higher bCd and 7%(−3%–18%) higher uCd. Results were similar for women. uCd mainly measures long-term exposure and bCd recent exposure, but with noticeable overlap. Epidemiological studies should base the choice of uCd or bCd on the timing of cadmium exposure relevant to the disease under study. PMID:24002489

  1. Association of arsenic concentration and speciation with straighthead disease in US produced rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent reports have indicated that rice when grown under anaerobic flooded field conditions can accumulate high levels of grain arsenic (As). This is a public health concern due to the high daily consumption of rice by some populations. The As-based herbicide (monosodium methanearsonate, MSMA) has ...

  2. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciaton of arsenic in water, food and urine are analytical capabilities which are an essential part in arsenic risk assessment. The cancer risk associated with arsenic has been the driving force in generating the analytical research in each of these matrices. This presentat...

  3. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  7. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  9. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic factors, socio-economic conditions, and concentrations in farm soils of the eight kinds of heavy metal. Spatial regression and GIS (Geographic Information System) were used. The registration contained 22,083 patients, who were diagnosed with oral cancer between 1982 and 2002. The concentrations of metal in the soils were retrieved from a nation-wide survey in the 1980s. Results The incidence rate of oral cancer is geographically related to the concentrations of arsenic and nickel in the patients' residential areas, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing as controlled variables. Conclusions Beside the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, arsenic and nickel in farm soils may be new risk factors for oral cancer. These two kinds of metal may involve in the development of oral cancer. Further studies are required to understand the pathways via which metal in the farm soils exerts its effects on human health. PMID:20152030

  10. Trichloroacetic acid in urine as biological exposure equivalent for low exposure concentrations of trichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Csanády, György A; Göen, Thomas; Klein, Dominik; Drexler, Hans; Filser, Johannes G

    2010-11-01

    A urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) concentration of 100 mg/l at the end of the last work shift (8 h/day, 5 days/week) of the week has been established in workers as exposure equivalent for the carcinogenic substance trichloroethene (EKA for TRI) at an exposure concentration of 50 ppm TRI. Due to the continuous reduction of atmospheric TRI concentrations during the last years, the quantitative relation given by the EKA for TRI is revised for exposures to low TRI concentrations. A physiological two-compartment model is presented by which the urinary TCA concentrations are calculated that result from inhaled TRI in humans. The model contains one compartment for trichloroethanol (TCE) and one for TCA. Inhaled TRI is metabolized to TCA and to TCE. The latter is in part further oxidized to TCA. Urinary elimination of TCA is modeled to obey first order kinetics. All required model parameters were taken form the literature. In order to evaluate the model performance on the urinary TCA excretion at low exposure concentrations, predicted urinary TCA concentrations were compared with data obtained in two volunteer studies and in one field study. The model was evaluated at exposure concentrations as low as 12.5 ppm TRI. It is demonstrated that the correlation described by the hitherto used EKA for TRI is also valid at low TRI concentrations. For TRI exposure concentrations of 0.6 and 6 ppm, the resulting urinary TCA concentrations at the end of the last work shift of a week are predicted to be 1.2 and 12 mg/l, respectively. PMID:20414643