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Sample records for urine arsenic concentrations

  1. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 20032006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 g/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 g/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 g/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 g/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  2. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutirrez-Milln, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 g/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 g/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 g/L) whereas a high of 2.0 g/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  3. Measurements of Arsenic in the Urine and Nails of Individuals Exposed to Low Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water From Private Wells in a Rural Region of Qubec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Fabien; Lampron-Goulet, Eric; Normandin, Louise; Langlois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to an increased risk of cancer. A biological measurement was conducted in 153 private well owners and their families consuming water contaminated by inorganic arsenic at concentrations that straddle 10 ?g/L. The relationship between the external dose indicators (concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake) and the internal doses (urinary arsenic--sum of As(III), DMA, and MMA, adjusted for creatinine--and total arsenic in toenails) was evaluated using multiple linear regressions, controlling for age, gender, dietary sources of arsenic, and number of cigarettes smoked. It showed that urinary arsenic was associated with concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells (p < .001) and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p < .001) in adults, and with daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p = .017) and rice consumption (p = .022) in children (n = 43). The authors' study reinforces the drinking-water quality guidelines for inorganic arsenic. PMID:26867295

  4. ARSENIC LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...

  5. Determination of monomethylarsonous acid, a key arsenic methylation intermediate, in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Le, X C; Ma, M; Cullen, W R; Aposhian, H V; Lu, X; Zheng, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study we report on the finding of monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] in human urine. This newly identified arsenic species is a key intermediate in the metabolic pathway of arsenic biomethylation, which involves stepwise reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic species followed by oxidative addition of a methyl group. Arsenic speciation was carried out using ion-pair chromatographic separation of arsenic compounds with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Speciation of the inorganic arsenite [As(III)], inorganic arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], and MMA(III) in a urine sample was complete in 5 min. Urine samples collected from humans before and after a single oral administration of 300 mg sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) were analyzed for arsenic species. MMA(III) was found in 51 out of 123 urine samples collected from 41 people in inner Mongolia 0-6 hr after the administration of DMPS. MMA(III )in urine samples did not arise from the reduction of MMA(V) by DMPS. DMPS probably assisted the release of MMA(III) that was formed in the body. Along with the presence of MMA(III), there was an increase in the relative concentration of MMA(V) and a decrease in DMA(V) in the urine samples collected after the DMPS ingestion. PMID:11102289

  6. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  7. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoiding fluids Concentrated after receiving ADH Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

  8. The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species.

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, D A; Hughes, J; van Belle, G; Burbacher, T; Bolgiano, D; Coble, K; Mottet, N K; Polissar, L

    1990-01-01

    Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 microgram/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 micrograms/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant (p less than 0.001) increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced in males (5-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) than in females (2-fold increase in median sum of species concentration over control group) and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption. PMID:2088741

  9. Thio-dimethylarsinate is a common metabolite in urine samples from arsenic-exposed women in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Raml, Reingard; Rumpler, Alice; Goessler, Walter; Vahter, Marie; Li Li; Ochi, Takafumi; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2007-08-01

    Over the last 6 years, much work on arsenic species in urine samples has been directed toward the determination of the reduced dimethylated arsenic species, DMA(III), because of its high toxicity and perceived key role in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Recent work, however, has suggested that DMA(III) may at times have been misidentified because its chromatographic properties can be similar to those of thio-dimethylarsinate (thio-DMA). We analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) urine samples from 75 arsenic-exposed women from Bangladesh with total arsenic concentrations ranging from 8 to 1034 {mu}g As/L and found that thio-DMA was present in 44% of the samples at concentrations ranging mostly from trace amounts to 24 {mu}g As/L (one sample contained 123 {mu}g As/L). Cytotoxicity testing with HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocarcinoma indicated that thio-DMA was about 10-fold more cytotoxic than dimethylarsinate (DMA). The widespread occurrence of thio-DMA in urine from these arsenic-exposed women suggests that this arsenical may also be present in other urine samples and has so far escaped detection. The work highlights the need for analytical methods providing specific determinations of arsenic compounds in future studies on arsenic metabolism and toxicology.

  10. Urine concentrating and diluting ability during aging.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Urine concentrating ability is reduced during normal aging in people and rats. The abundance of many of the key transport proteins that contribute to urine concentrating ability is reduced in the kidney medulla of aged rats. The reductions in water, sodium, and urea transport protein abundances, and their reduced response to water restriction, contribute to the reduced ability of aged rats to concentrate their urine and conserve water. If similar mechanisms occur in human kidneys, it would provide a molecular explanation for the reduced urine concentrating ability in aging and may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to improve urine concentrating ability and/or nocturnal polyuria. PMID:22588950

  11. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaa, Marina; Rodrguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernndez, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduo, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  12. Dietary arsenic consumption and urine arsenic in an endemic population: response to improvement of drinking water quality in a 2-year consecutive study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Anirban; Deb, Debasree; Ghose, Aloke; Du Laing, Gijs; De Neve, Jan; Santra, Subhas Chandra; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the association between arsenic intake through water and diet, and arsenic levels in first morning-void urine under variable conditions of water contamination. This was done in a 2-year consecutive study in an endemic population. Exposure of arsenic through water and diet was assessed for participants using arsenic-contaminated water (≥50 μg L(-1)) in a first year (group I) and for participants using water lower in arsenic (<50 μg L(-1)) in the next year (group II). Participants with and without arsenical skin lesions were considered in the statistical analysis. Median dose of arsenic intake through drinking water in groups I and II males was 7.44 and 0.85 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p <0.0001). In females, it was 5.3 and 0.63 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p <0.0001) for groups I and II, respectively. Arsenic dose through diet was 3.3 and 2.6 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p = 0.088) in males and 2.6 and 1.9 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p = 0.0081) in females. Median arsenic levels in urine of groups I and II males were 124 and 61 μg L(-1) (p = 0.052) and in females 130 and 52 μg L(-1) (p = 0.0001), respectively. When arsenic levels in the water were reduced to below 50 μg L(-1) (Indian permissible limit), total arsenic intake and arsenic intake through the water significantly decreased, but arsenic uptake through the diet was found to be not significantly affected. Moreover, it was found that drinking water mainly contributed to variations in urine arsenic concentrations. However, differences between male and female participants also indicate that not only arsenic uptake, but also many physiological factors affect arsenic behavior in the body and its excretion. As total median arsenic exposure still often exceeded 3.0 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (the permissible lower limit established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives) after installation of the drinking water filters, it can be concluded that supplying the filtered water only may not be sufficient to minimize arsenic availability for an already endemic population. PMID:23818078

  13. EXCRETION OF ARSENIC IN URINE AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first mornin...

  14. Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed deleterious arsenic effects to the kidney by increased levels of low-molecular weight protein in urine and the extent of the renal copper accumulation/excretion. The results of our work also support the usefulness of application of the sensitive neurophysiologic tests, such as VEP, EEG and ENeG, for the detection of early subclinical effects of the exposure of the nervous system in copper smelters. PMID:24679086

  15. SEPARATION OF TOXICOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS IN URINE USING A NEW SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals are critically influenced by the oxidation state of As. In human urine, inorganic and methylated arsenicals contain both As(III) and As(V). Because As(III) is easily oxidized, a method is needed to preserve the native oxidation sta...

  16. Preliminary screening method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in urine.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Nishida, Manami; Fujiwara, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Nagao, Masataka; Namera, Akira

    2009-03-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for the routine determination and classification of inorganic arsenic based on its clinical and forensic properties. Inorganic arsenic was isolated from urine by using copper granules, which was then made to react with ammonium molybdate in order to detect its presence with the naked eye. Based on studies of extraction and reaction conditions, e.g., reaction temperature and time, a colorimetric screening method was established. The reaction mixture was measured by a spectrophotometer, and there was linearity from 0.05 to 2.0microg/ml and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were greater than 0.99. The coefficients of intra-day variation at 0.2 and 2.0microg/ml of inorganic arsenic in urine were 9.6 and 4.2%, respectively (n=5). The minimum detectable level in urine is 0.03microg/ml, and it is possible to detect the lowest level of poisoning according to the published reports. The proposed method was applied to a poisoning case wherein the patient ingested NEOARSEN BLACK with alcohol, which contained 45% of arsenic trioxide. This method produced positive results in all the urine samples tested, and this method is useful for the screening of inorganic arsenic based on its clinical properties because it enables the detection of inorganic arsenic in urine without expensive equipment. PMID:19041271

  17. Interference in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine.

    PubMed

    Del Razo, L M; Aguilar, C; Sierra-Santoyo, A; Cebrin, M E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on the presence of chemical interferences in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine when using a method based on selective volatile arsine species generation, chromatographic separation, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) detection. An abnormal profile of methylated arsenic species characterized by the absence of the peak corresponding to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was observed in urine from some individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water and living in rural communities of northwestern Argentina. The absence of this peak persisted even after the addition of known amounts of DMA to the samples. However, the DMA peak appeared after urine digestion with hydrochloric acid (2M). Samples showing interferences were provided by individuals who had mate consumption and coca-leaf chewing habits. Because the relative proportions of methylated arsenic species present in urine have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the methylation process, interferences in the formation or detection of methylarsines may cause underestimation of As exposure and also lead to erroneous conclusions about relative biomethylation efficiencies. Therefore, we recommend that urine samples should be digested with 2M HCl before performing speciation analysis using HGAA techniques. Further studies on the impact of this type of interferences on other arsenic speciation methods are also required. PMID:10192413

  18. Arsenic levels in tube-wells water, food, residents urine and the prevalence of skin lesions in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Som, Issa T.; Sakira, Abdoul K.; Oudraogo, Theodore Z.; Traor, Adama; Sondo, Blaise; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic in tube-well water, food and residents urines samples in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso. The prevalence of skin lesions was evaluated as well. The study was cross-sectional in design. It was conducted during April 2009. Permanent residents of 20 villages were included in the study. Water samples were collected from 31 tube-wells located in the selected villages. Tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes produced in the selected village were randomly sampled. Arsenic content in water, food, and residents urine was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using hydride generation method. Finally, 240 people were examined by a medical doctor for skin lesions. Arsenic concentrations from the tube-well water ranged from 1 to 124 ?g/l. Arsenic concentrations of more than one-half (52%) of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ?g/l). No trace of arsenic was found in the samples of tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes. Variation in arsenic concentrations in the urines was correlated to arsenic concentrations in tube-well water. Clinical examinations revealed that melanosis and keratosis were respectively identified in 29.26% and 46.34% of the population. Both conditions were observed in 24.39% of the population. The frequency of skin lesions was positively associated with the arsenic concentration in tube-well water. A great majority (89.53%) of those who had skin lesions were at least 18 years old. In conclusion, chronic arsenic poisoning remains a major public health problem in the province of Yatenga (Burkina Faso). PMID:22783148

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. Conclusions The UPCR in samples with low or high specific gravity is more likely to overestimate or underestimate actual daily urine protein amount, respectively, especially in a dilute urine sample with its creatinine below 38.8 mg/dL or a concentrated sample with its creatinine above 61.5 mg/dL. In particular, UPCR results should be interpreted with caution in cases that involve dilute urine samples because its overestimation may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of proteinuric renal disease or an incorrect staging of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26353117

  20. Correlation between plasma and urine phenylalanine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Manal; Boulat, Olivier; Van Melle, Guy; Guignard, Jean-Pierre; Matthieu, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this pilot study, we show that plasma phenylalanine concentration can be predicted from urine concentration if the age of the patient is taken into consideration. This observation could open the way to a new monitoring of phenylketonuric patients in which painful frequent blood sampling, mandatory to adapt the low phenylalanine diet, could be mostly replaced by urinalysis. Compliance to treatment would be improved and hence also the ultimate mental development. Since this study was based on a small number of patients, validation of the model in a large multicentric survey is needed before it can be recommended. PMID:14739551

  1. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  2. Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2–12.6 ng g−1, n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3–22 ng g−1. Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

  3. Diet and toenail arsenic concentrations in a New Hampshire population with arsenic-containing water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data exist on the contribution of dietary sources of arsenic to an individual’s total exposure, particularly in populations with exposure via drinking water. Here, the association between diet and toenail arsenic concentrations (a long-term biomarker of exposure) was evaluated for individuals with measured household tap water arsenic. Foods known to be high in arsenic, including rice and seafood, were of particular interest. Methods Associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of 120 individual diet items were quantified using general linear models that also accounted for household tap water arsenic and potentially confounding factors (e.g., age, caloric intake, sex, smoking) (n = 852). As part of the analysis, we assessed whether associations between log-transformed toenail arsenic and each diet item differed between subjects with household drinking water arsenic concentrations <1 μg/L versus ≥1 μg/L. Results As expected, toenail arsenic concentrations increased with household water arsenic concentrations. Among the foods known to be high in arsenic, no clear relationship between toenail arsenic and rice consumption was detected, but there was a positive association with consumption of dark meat fish, a category that includes tuna steaks, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish. Positive associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of white wine, beer, and Brussels sprouts were also observed; these and most other associations were not modified by exposure via water. However, consumption of two foods cooked in water, beans/lentils and cooked oatmeal, was more strongly related to toenail arsenic among those with arsenic-containing drinking water (≥1 μg/L). Conclusions This study suggests that diet can be an important contributor to total arsenic exposure in U.S. populations regardless of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Thus, dietary exposure to arsenic in the US warrants consideration as a potential health risk. PMID:24237880

  4. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Brima, Eid I.; Haris, Parvez I. . E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk; Jenkins, Richard O.; Polya, Dave A.; Gault, Andrew G.; Harrington, Chris F.

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

  5. Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulidou, M.; Charalambous, C.; Aletrari, M.; Nicolaidou Kanari, P.; Petronda, A.; Ward, N. I.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryCyprus being a Mediterranean island with long dry summers and mild winters suffers from water deficiency and over exploitation of its water resources. Groundwater in Cyprus is a valuable natural resource as approximately 50% of the total water needs come from underground water supplies. According to the Directive 118/2006/EC, groundwater should be protected from deterioration and chemical pollution, this is particularly important for groundwater dependent ecosystems and for the use of groundwater as a water supply for human consumption. During 2007 to 2009, as part of a national monitoring programme, 84 boreholes were sampled in Cyprus and subsequently analysed for total arsenic by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The groundwater concentrations ranged from <0.3 to 41 ?g/L As. Several boreholes located in a rural farming district near Nicosia had concentrations above the World Health Organisation (WHO) Drinking Water Guideline limit of 10 ?g/L As. Evaluation of the groundwater sampling procedure for boreholes provided data recommending that water samples should be collected after an initial borehole washout for 5 min. Further sampling of these boreholes in 2010, revealed total arsenic concentrations of <0.3-64.2 ?g/L As, with the predominant arsenic species (determined using a novel field-based methodology) being arsenate (AsV). The maximum total arsenic concentration is 6-fold higher than the WHO Drinking Water Guideline limit (10 ?g/L As) and approximately half of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN-FAO) irrigational limit of 100 ?g/L As.

  6. Linkage Analysis of Urine Arsenic Species Patterns in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Laston, Sandra L; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Umans, Jason G; Thomas, Duncan C; Gilliland, Frank; North, Kari E; Franceschini, Nora; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic toxicokinetics are important for disease risks in exposed populations, but genetic determinants are not fully understood. We examined urine arsenic species patterns measured by HPLC-ICPMS among 2189 Strong Heart Study participants 18 years of age and older with data on ?400 genome-wide microsatellite markers spaced ?10 cM and arsenic speciation (683 participants from Arizona, 684 from Oklahoma, and 822 from North and South Dakota). We logit-transformed % arsenic species (% inorganic arsenic, %MMA, and %DMA) and also conducted principal component analyses of the logit % arsenic species. We used inverse-normalized residuals from multivariable-adjusted polygenic heritability analysis for multipoint variance components linkage analysis. We also examined the contribution of polymorphisms in the arsenic metabolism gene AS3MT via conditional linkage analysis. We localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 10 (LOD 4.12 for %MMA, 4.65 for %DMA, and 4.84 for the first principal component of logit % arsenic species). This peak was partially but not fully explained by measured AS3MT variants. We also localized a QTL for the second principal component of logit % arsenic species on chromosome 5 (LOD 4.21) that was not evident from considering % arsenic species individually. Some other loci were suggestive or significant for 1 geographical area but not overall across all areas, indicating possible locus heterogeneity. This genome-wide linkage scan suggests genetic determinants of arsenic toxicokinetics to be identified by future fine-mapping, and illustrates the utility of principal component analysis as a novel approach that considers % arsenic species jointly. PMID:26209557

  7. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M. . E-mail: adair.blakely@epa.gov; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-06-15

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P<0.0001) positive regressions were seen between the TAs concentration in toenails and in drinking water (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine.

  8. Genetic variability in arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2004-2007 with selected rice varieties to evaluate arsenic concentration and speciation (methyl-arsenic:inorganic-arsenic ratio) in the rice grain. There were substantial differences between rice varieties for each of these traits, which demonstrate the potential to s...

  9. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs{sup III}, MAs{sup V}, DMAs{sup III}, DMAs{sup V}). This study examines the relationship between TGF-{alpha} concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-{alpha} in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-{alpha} levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-{alpha} than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-{alpha} in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas.

  10. The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matilda O.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Awofolu, Omotayo R.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. PMID:20623005

  11. Urine chemistry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jones protein Urinary casts Urine amino acids Urine concentration test Urine culture (catheterized specimen) Urine culture (clean catch) Urine dermatan sulfate Urine - hemoglobin Urine metanephrine Urine pH Urine specific gravity Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

  12. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers. PMID:655606

  13. Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively. PMID:12782488

  14. Nickel concentration of blood, urine and sweat after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B; Mller, H; Andrasko, L; Lagesson, V

    1979-09-01

    Healthy volunteers without nickel hypersensitivity were given 5.6 mg nickel orally. The nickel concentration was assayed in urine, serum and sauna-provocated sweat from hands and trunk before and after nickel ingestion. The nickel concentration in serum increased in all subjects, and in most cases in urine, but not decisively in sweat. PMID:509933

  15. Arsenic Exposure within the Korean Community (United States) Based on Dietary Behavior and Arsenic Levels in Hair, Urine, Air, and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Bill; Tsuchiya, Ami; Kalman, David A.; Dills, Russell; Burbacher, Thomas M.; White, Jim W.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Mariën, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Background Determining arsenic exposure in groups based on geographic location, dietary behaviors, or lifestyles is important, as even moderate exposures may lead to health concerns. Objectives/Methods The Korean community in Washington State, represents a group warranting investigation, as they consume foods (e.g., shellfish, rice, finfish, and seaweed) known to contain arsenic. As part of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study, we examined the arsenic levels in hair and urine along with the diets of 108 women of childbearing age from within this community. Arsenic levels in indoor air and drinking water were also investigated, and shellfish commonly consumed were collected and analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. Results The six shellfish species analyzed (n = 667) contain total arsenic (range, 1–5 μg/g) but are a small source of inorganic arsenic (range, 0.01–0.12 μg/g). Six percent of the individuals may have elevated urinary inorganic arsenic levels (> 10 μg/L) due to diet. Seaweed, rice, shellfish, and finfish are principal sources for total arsenic intake/excretion based on mass balance estimates. Rice consumption (163 g/person/day) may be a significant source of inorganic arsenic. Air and water are not significant sources of exposure. Hair is a poor biometric for examining arsenic levels at low to moderate exposures. Conclusions We conclude that a portion of this community may have dietary inorganic arsenic exposure resulting in urine levels exceeding 10 μg/L. Although their exposure is below that associated with populations exposed to high levels of arsenic from drinking water (> 100 μg/L), their exposure may be among the highest in the United States. PMID:19440504

  16. Nickel concentration of blood and urine after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B; Lagesson, V

    1981-01-01

    Nickel concentration in serum and whole blood as well as nickel excretion in urine was assayed at different time intervals before and after ingestion of nickel sulfate in eight healthy volunteers during a three days study. The peak level of nickel in blood was reached 2.5 hours after nickel ingestion and the maximal urinary excretion of nickel was during the first eight hours after ingestion. Great individual variations in nickel concentrations in blood and nickel excretion in urine were observed. Analysis of nickel in both urine and serum reflects ingestion of a soluble nickel salt, but urine seems to be most reliable to follow. PMID:7259086

  17. Total grain-arsenic and arsenic-species concentrations in diverse rice cultivars under flooded conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic is not an essential element and can be toxic to both plants and animals in high concentration. Decreasing arsenic concentrations in all foodstuffs, including rice grain, is a desirable goal because of the potential detrimental impacts of As on plant growth and yield and its potential toxici...

  18. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L. Comparison of arsenic concentrations in Pennsylvania groundwater by physiographic province indicates that the Central Lowland physiographic province had the highest median arsenic concentration (4.5 µg/L) and the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L (59 percent) and greater than or equal to 10.0 µg/L (43 percent). Evaluation of four major aquifer types (carbonate, crystalline, siliciclastic, and surficial) in Pennsylvania showed that all types had median arsenic concentrations less than 4.0 µg/L, and the highest arsenic concentration (490.0 µg/L) was in a siliciclastic aquifer. The siliciclastic and surficial aquifers had the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L and 10.0 µg/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with low pH (less than or equal to 4.0), high pH (greater than or equal to 8.0), or reducing conditions. For waters classified as anoxic (405 samples), 20 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated concentrations of arsenic; for waters classified as oxic (1,530 samples) only 10 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated arsenic concentrations. Nevertheless, regardless of the reduction-oxidation classification, 54 percent of samples with low pH (13 of 24 samples) and 25 percent of samples with high pH (57 of 230 samples) had elevated arsenic concentrations. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in Pennsylvania were correlated with concentrations of several chemical constituents or properties, including (1) constituents associated with redox processes, (2) constituents that may have a similar origin or be mobilized under similar chemical conditions as arsenic, and (3) anions or oxyanions that have similar sorption behavior or compete for sorption sites on iron oxides. Logistic regression models were created to predict and map the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater statewide in Pennsylvania and in three intrastate regions to further improve predictions for those three regions (glacial aquifer system, Gettysburg Basin, Newark Basin). Although the Pennsylvania and regional predictive models retained some different variables, they have common characteristics that can be grouped by (1) geologic and soils variables describing arsenic sources and mobilizers, (2) geochemical variables describing the geochemical environment of the groundwater, and (3) locally specific variables that are unique to each of the three regions studied and not applicable to statewide analysis. Maps of Pennsylvania and the three intrastate regions were produced that illustrate that areas most at risk are those with geology and soils capable of functioning as an arsenic source or mobilizer and geochemical groundwater conditions able to facilitate redox reactions. The models have limitations because they may not characterize areas that have localized controls on arsenic mobility. The probability maps associated with this report are intended for regional-scale use and may not be accurate for use at the field scale or when considering individual wells.

  19. Urinary arsenic speciation profiles in mice subchronically exposed to low concentrations of sodium arsenate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huijie; Krishnamohan, Manonmanii; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ng, Jack Chakmeng

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a proven human carcinogen. Although the mechanism of its carcinogenicity is still largely unknown, methylation is thought to have an important role to play in arsenic toxicity. In this study, urinary methylation profiles were investigated in female C57BL/6J black mice given drinking water containing 500 ?g arsenate (As(V))/L, 250 ?g As(V)/L, or 100 ?g As(V)/L as sodium arsenate for 2 months. The concentrations of arsenic chosen reflected those in the drinking water often encountered in arsenic-endemic areas. Urine samples were collected from the mice at the end of the exposure period, and the arsenic species were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All detectable arsenic species showed strong linear correlation with the administered dosage. The methylation patterns were similar in all three groups with a slight decrease of dimethylarsinic acid/As(V) ratio in the 500-?g/L group, which corresponded to the significantly higher arsenic retention in the tissue. The results indicate that urinary arsenic could be used as a good biomarker for internal dose and potential biological effects. Different doses of arsenic exposure could result in different degrees of methylation, excretion, and tissue retention, and this may contribute to the understanding of arsenic carcinogenicity. PMID:21914530

  20. HPLC-ICP-MS speciation analysis of arsenic in urine of Japanese subjects without occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Hata, Akihisa; Endo, Yoko; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Ikebe, Maiko; Ogawa, Masanori; Fujitani, Noboru; Endo, Ginji

    2007-05-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic depend on its species. Individuals living in Japan consume much seafood that contains high levels of organoarsenics. Speciation analysis of urinary arsenic is required to clarify the health risks of arsenic intake. There has been no report of urinary arsenic analysis in Japan using high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). We performed speciation analysis of urinary arsenic for 210 Japanese male subjects without occupational exposure using HPLC-ICP-MS. The median values of urinary arsenics were as follows: sodium arsenite (AsIII), 3.5; sodium arsenate (AsV), 0.1; monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), 3.1; dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), 42.6; arsenobetaine (AsBe), 61.3; arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide, and unidentified arsenics (others), 5.2; and total arsenic (total As), 141.3 microgAs/l. The median creatinine-adjusted values were as follows: AsIII, 3.0; AsV, 0.1; MMA, 2.6; DMA, 35.9; AsBe, 52.1; others 3.5; and total As, 114.9 microgAs/g creatinine. Our findings indicate that DMA and AsBe levels in Japan are much higher than those found in Italian and American studies. It appears that the high levels of DMA and AsBe observed in Japan may be due in part to seafood intake. ACGIH and DFG set the BEI and BAT values for occupational arsenic exposure as 35 microgAs/l and 50 microgAs/l, respectively, using the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs), MMA, and DMA. In the general Japanese population, the sums of these were above 50 microgAs/l in 115 (55%) samples. We therefore recommend excluding DMA concentration in monitoring of iAs exposure. PMID:17575402

  1. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Elers, J; Pedersen, L; Henninge, J; Hemmersbach, P; Dalhoff, K; Backer, V

    2011-08-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline, 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and 8-12 h after the first inhalations. Median urine concentrations peaked in the period 4-8 h after the first inhalations in the asthmatics and between 8-12 h in controls and the median ranged from 268 to 611 ngmL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ngmL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ngmL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood and urine concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We found high variability in urine concentrations between subjects in both groups. The variability between subjects was still present after the samples were corrected for urine specific gravity. PMID:21563035

  2. Urine concentration and avian aquaporin water channels.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroko

    2008-07-01

    Although birds and mammals have evolved from primitive tetrapods and advanced divergently, both can conserve water by producing hyperosmotic urine. Unique aspects in the avian system include the presence of loopless and looped nephrons, lack of the thin ascending limb of Henle's loop, a corticomedullary osmotic gradient primarily consisting of NaCl without contribution of urea, and significant postrenal modification of final urine. The countercurrent multiplier mechanism operates between the descending and ascending limbs of Henle via recycling of a single solute (NaCl) with no water accompaniment, forming an osmotic gradient along the medullary cone. Bird kidneys and developing rat kidneys share morphological and functional characteristics. Avian kidneys express aquaporin (AQP) 1, 2, and 4 homologues that share considerable homology with mammalian counterparts, but their distribution and function may not be the same. AQP2 expression in Japanese quail (q) evolves in the collecting duct of early metanephric kidneys and continues to increase in intensity and distribution during nephrogenesis and maturation. qAQP2 mRNA and protein are increased by arginine vasotocin (avian ADH), but vasotocin-induced enhancement of cAMP production and water permeability are less marked than in mammalian kidneys. Nephrogenesis is delayed by insufficient nutrition in avian embryos and newborns and results in fewer nephrons and an impaired water balance in adults. Diabetes insipidus quail with homozygous autosomal recessive mutation and an unaffected vasotocin system have low AQP2 expression, underdeveloped medullary cones. Comparative studies will provide important insight into integrative, cellular, and molecular mechanisms of epithelial water transport and its control by humoral, neural, and hemodynamic mechanisms. PMID:18278509

  3. Rice consumption and urinary concentrations of arsenic in US adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic in the general population occurs mainly from drinking water and food sources. This study examined the association between rice consumption and urinary concentrations of arsenic in US adults, aged 20-85 years, in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Significantly higher geometric means of creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of total arsenic (TAs) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were found in participants who consumed rice more than twice per week, compared to the reference group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between rice consumption and urinary concentrations of TAs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51 (1.08, 2.09)] and DMA [OR = 2.24 (1.57, 3.21)] after adjustment for demographic variables, seafood intake (the main source of organic arsenic), and source of drinking water. Furthermore, significant variations in rice consumption and urinary concentrations of arsenic were observed in different racial groups. This study demonstrated that rice consumption contributed to inorganic arsenic exposure in US adults. PMID:24236891

  4. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  5. Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb and Tl than Re. An empirically derived equation relating the measurement of 16O 35Cl to the 40Ar 35Cl contribution to the arsenic signal at mass 75 is refined by measuring the responses at mass 51 and 75 for urines with added hydrochloric acid. Overall, ICP-MS results for blood and urine are within 6% of Zeeman GFAAS results for patient samples. For surveys, the overall average of ICP-MS results is within 3% of target.

  6. Evaluation of two new arsenic field test kits capable of detecting arsenic water concentrations close to 10 microg/L.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig M; George, Christine M; Kalman, David A; Smith, Allan H

    2006-05-15

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Arsenic field test kits may offer a cost-effective approach for measuring these exposures in the field, although the accuracy of some kits used in the past has been poor. In this study, arsenic concentrations were measured in 136 water sources in western Nevada using two relatively new arsenic test kits and compared to laboratory measurements using atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the Quick Arsenic and Hach EZ kits to laboratory measurements were 0.96 (p < 0.001) and 0.95 (p < 0.001), respectively. When analyzed in seven exposure categories (0-9, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499, and > or = 500 microg/L), test kit and AFS measurements were in the same category in 71% (Quick Arsenic) and 62% (Hach EZ) of samples, and within one category of each other in 99% (Quick Arsenic) and 97% (Hach EZ) of samples. Both kits identified all water samples with high arsenic concentrations (> 15 microg/L) as being above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard and the World Health Organization's guideline value for arsenic of 10 microg/L. These results suggestthatthese easily portable kits can be used to identify water sources with high arsenic concentrations and may provide an important tool for arsenic surveillance and remediation programs. PMID:16749706

  7. Screening of rice cultivars for grain arsenic concentration and speciation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the concentration and speciation of arsenic in rice grain because of concerns with food quality and interest in minimizing any potential risk from dietary exposure. Our objective was to screen a range of rice varieties from the USDA world collection for ...

  8. Estimation of the method evaluation function for the determination of hydride-generating arsenic compounds in urine by flow-injection atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mrer, A J; Abildtrup, A; Poulsen, O M; Christensen, J M

    1992-05-01

    A direct flow-injection atomic-absorption spectrometric (FIA-AAS) method for the assessment of inorganic arsenic compounds and their metabolites was developed and statistically evaluated by the estimation of the method evaluation function (MEF), which provides detailed information on the analytical performance of the method, i.e., the average combined uncertainty and the magnitude of potential systematic errors. The method evaluation study demonstrated that the use of standard addition was a necessity to obtain an acceptable method performance at low concentrations typical for low dose exposure. In contrast the use of calibration curves resulted in a method with reduced sensitivity and high systematic error. The developed method, using standard addition, had a limit of detection (2.9 microg/l.) sufficiently low for the determination of hydride-generating arsenic species in urine from non-exposed and low exposed persons. Organoarsenicals such as arsenobetaine and arsenocholine are not detected by this method. Hence, the contribution of these compounds derived from a diet containing seafood does not affect the monitoring of inorganic arsenic compounds after occupational or environmental exposure. The high capacity of the FIA-AAS system (three minutes per sample measured by standard addition) together with the low limit of detection makes this method suitable for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure even though standard addition is required. PMID:18965402

  9. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration. PMID:25736163

  10. Arsenic exposure in Hungary, Romania and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Rudnai, Peter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Slotova, Katarina; Gheorghiu, Emilia; Vahter, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a potent human carcinogen and toxicant which people are exposed to mainly via drinking water and food. The objective of the present study was to assess current exposure to arsenic via drinking water in three European countries. For this purpose, 520 individuals from four Hungarian, two Slovakian and two Romanian countries were investigated by measuring inorganic arsenic and methylated arsenic metabolites in urine by high performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Arsenic in drinking water was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Significantly higher concentrations of arsenic were found in both the water and the urine samples from the Hungarian counties (median: 11 and 15 microg dm(-3), respectively; p < 0.001) than from the Slovakian (median: 0.94 and 4.5 microg dm(-3), respectively) and Romanian (median: 0.70 and 2.1 microg dm(-3), respectively) counties. A significant correlation was seen between arsenic in water and arsenic in urine (R(2)= 0.46). At low water arsenic concentrations, the relative amount of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine was increased, indicating exposure via food. Also, high body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of arsenic in urine (p= 0.03), mostly in the form of DMA. Smokers had significantly higher urinary arsenic concentrations than non-smokers (p= 0.03). In conclusion, elevated arsenic exposure via drinking water was prevalent in some of the counties. Exposure to arsenic from food, mainly as DMA, and cigarette smoke, mainly as inorganic arsenic, are major determinants of arsenic exposure at very low concentrations of arsenic in drinking water. PMID:16395480

  11. Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arsenic is mainly found in its less toxic organic form. Industrial processes Arsenic is used industrially as ... insecticide. Health effects Arsenic occurs in inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic arsenic compounds (such as those found ...

  12. Determinants of Arsenic Metabolism: Blood Arsenic Metabolites, Plasma Folate, Cobalamin, and Homocysteine Concentrations in MaternalNewborn Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marni; Gamble, Mary; Slavkovich, Vesna; Liu, Xinhua; Levy, Diane; Cheng, Zhongqi; van Geen, Alexander; Yunus, Mahammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Pilsner, J. Richard; Graziano, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, tens of millions of people have been consuming waterborne arsenic for decades. The extent to which As is transported to the fetus during pregnancy has not been well characterized. Objectives We therefore conducted a study of 101 pregnant women who gave birth in Matlab, Bangladesh. Methods Maternal and cord blood pairs were collected and concentrations of total As were analyzed for 101 pairs, and As metabolites for 30 pairs. Maternal urinary As metabolites and plasma folate, cobalamin, and homocysteine levels in maternal cord pairs were also measured. Household tube wellwater As concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 10 ?g/L in 38% of the cases. Results We observed strong associations between maternal and cord blood concentrations of total As (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Maternal and cord blood arsenic metabolites (n = 30) were also strongly correlated: in dimethylarsinate (DMA) (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001), monomethylarsonate (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), arsenite (As+3) (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), and arsenate (As+5) (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001). Maternal homocysteine was a strong predictor of %DMA in maternal urine, maternal blood, and cord blood (? = ?6.2, p < 0.02; ? = ?10.9, p < 0.04; and ? = ?13.7, p < 0.04, respectively). Maternal folate was inversely associated with maternal blood As5+ (? = 0.56, p < 0.05), and maternal cobalamin was inversely associated with cord blood As5+ (? = ?1.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that exposure to all metabolites of inorganic As occurs in the prenatal period. PMID:17938743

  13. Distribution of Arsenic Sulfides in Van Phuc, Vietnam, and Their Relationship to Aquifer Arsenic Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, B. C.; Harvey, C.; Stahl, M.; Oates, P.; L., Vi; Nguyen, M.; Viet, P.; Trang, P. T.; Berg, M.; Stengel, C.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater arsenic concentrations are highly heterogeneous, in part due to spatial variability in sediment geochemical and hydrological properties on fine scales. The concentration of As in groundwater depends on the balance between sources of dissolved As, and the sinks that can return it to the solid phase. While much effort has focused on Fe(III) reduction as a source of groundwater arsenic, much less research has been devoted the variation in the sinks of arsenic in exhibiting sharp contrasts between As-impacted and As-free waters. It is critical to understand these processes at such boundaries to properly evaluate the long-term viability of low-As aquifers as alternative water sources. Here, we examine the Fe, As, and S speciation in sediments collected while installing a transect of wells across a sharp gradient in dissolved As levels in Van Phuc village, Vietnam. Marked variations in solid phase As speciation as As(V), As(III) and As2S3 were observed as a function of core location and depth. Arsenic sulfides were not found in shallow, weakly reducing and oxic sediments associated with groundwater low in As, but were extensive in some gray sediments from reduced aquifers. Many reduced aquifers also exhibited low dissolved sulfate concentrations. These observations indicate that the formation of these sulfides is tied to sulfate reduction within anoxic aquifers, but the prevalence of arsenic sulfide is not correlated directly to aqueous As levels. Iron speciation indicates that many, but not all, sediments from low-As aquifers materials contain appreciable Fe(III). In such low-As aquifers, As concentrations may be buffered by adsorption to iron oxides. In low-As aquifers within reduced sediments, however, Fe(III) minerals are rare and sulfide minerals may play a dominant role in regulating the fate of arsenic. In either case, the quantity of Fe(III) and/sulfate as terminal electron acceptors limits the sediments capacity to scavenge As. Thus, the boundaries between high- and low-As groundwaters may not be stable over time. This is a concern in Van Phuc because high-As groundwater elevated appears to be passing through the low-As portion of the aquifer. Extensive groundwater pumping of low-As groundwater may also facilitate this process.

  14. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  15. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  16. Arsenic-rich acid mine water with extreme arsenic concentration: mineralogy, geochemistry, microbiology, and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Majzlan, Juraj; Plášil, Jakub; Škoda, Radek; Gescher, Johannes; Kögler, Felix; Rusznyak, Anna; Küsel, Kirsten; Neu, Thomas R; Mangold, Stefan; Rothe, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Extremely arsenic-rich acid mine waters have developed by weathering of native arsenic in a sulfide-poor environment on the 10th level of the Svornost mine in Jáchymov (Czech Republic). Arsenic rapidly oxidizes to arsenolite (As2O3), and there are droplets of liquid on the arsenolite crust with high As concentration (80,000-130,000 mg·L(-1)), pH close to 0, and density of 1.65 g·cm(-1). According to the X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the frozen droplets, most of the arsenic is As(III) and iron is fully oxidized to Fe(III). The EXAFS spectra on the As K edge can be interpreted in terms of arsenic polymerization in the aqueous solution. The secondary mineral that precipitates in the droplets is kaatialaite [Fe(3+)(H2AsO4)3·5H2O]. Other unusual minerals associated with the arsenic lens are běhounekite [U(4+)(SO4)2·4H2O], štěpite [U(4+)(AsO3OH)2·4H2O], vysokýite [U(4+)[AsO2(OH)2]4·4H2O], and an unnamed phase (H3O)(+)2(UO2)2(AsO4)2·nH2O. The extremely low cell densities and low microbial biomass have led to insufficient amounts of DNA for downstream polymerase chain reaction amplification and clone library construction. We were able to isolate microorganisms on oligotrophic media with pH ∼ 1.5 supplemented with up to 30 mM As(III). These microorganisms were adapted to highly oligotrophic conditions which disabled long-term culturing under laboratory conditions. The extreme conditions make this environment unfavorable for intensive microbial colonization, but our first results show that certain microorganisms can adapt even to these harsh conditions. PMID:25365451

  17. Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  18. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the early placentas of arsenate-dosed hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors determined the concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the placentas of hamsters following continuous exposure via the osmotic minipump to minimally and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate. Close to 70% of the placental arsenic is bound to macromolecules, two-thirds of which is dialyzable. The remaining 30% of arsenic consists of low molecular weight species, predominantly inorganic arsenic. This mix is the same for minimally teratogenic and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate.

  19. Exceptions in patterns of arsenic compounds in urine of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients treated with As2O3.

    PubMed

    Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Podgornik, Helena; Černelč, Peter; Falnoga, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(III) in solution) has been shown to be the most active single agent in combating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is metabolized and excreted via urine as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V), along with excess As(III). In our study eight APL patients were treated (intravenously) with 0.15 mg As2O3/kg/day. During the therapy As(III) and its metabolites were followed in pre- and post-infusion urine using HPLC for separation followed by on-line detection using hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Five patients had a normal excretion pattern of residual arsenic compounds in morning pre-infusion urine, with 15-25 % of As(III), 35-55 % of DMA, 25-30 % of MMA and 1-5 % of As(V), while three patients showed unexpected exceptions from typical excretion patterns of arsenic compounds (i) a high DMA/MMA ratio (factor 5.3), (ii) severe As(III) oxidation (10.2 % As(III) converted to As(V)) or (iii) the presence of an excessive amount of As(III) (average 30.4 % of total arsenic). Intriguing was the occurrence of post-infusion oxidation of As(III) to As(V) observed in almost all patients and being especially high (>40 %) in patient with increased residual As(V). Results indicate that arsenic metabolites patterns can be unpredictable. Observed high levels of un-metabolised As(III) are a warning signal for side effects and for routine determination of arsenic metabolites during first days of treatment. High or low percentages of MMA or DMA did not show any observable effect on treatment results, while clear presence of post-infusion As(V) supports theoretical claims of in vivo oxidation (detoxification) of As(III) to As(V) associated with various metabolic processes. PMID:26671504

  20. A 1,800-year record of arsenic concentration in the penguin dropping sediment, Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang

    2008-09-01

    Heavy/toxic metals have been widely investigated in the Antarctic. However, there are rare reports on arsenic up to now. Here, we analyzed a 1,800-year record of arsenic concentration in lake sediments affected by penguin droppings. We found that arsenic enriches in the penguin dropping sediments with 12.41 0.45 ?g/g (on dry weight), which is about two times higher than the one in the background sediments with absence of penguin. Historical change in arsenic concentration was found to significantly correlate with the fluctuation of penguin number, indicating that penguin activity will result in the enrichment of arsenic somewhere in the maritime Antarctic.

  1. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Megan N.; Niedzwiecki, Megan; Liu, Xinhua; Harper, Kristin N.; Alam, Shafiul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu B.; Parvez, Faruque; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine. Citation: Hall MN, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper KN, Alam S, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Levy D, Siddique AB, Parvez F, Mey JL, van Geen A, Graziano J, Gamble MV. 2013. Chronic arsenic exposure and blood glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentrations in Bangladeshi adults. Environ Health Perspect 121:1068–1074; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205727 PMID:23792557

  2. Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632 ?g/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51 ?g/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ?50 ?g/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1 ?g/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435 ?g/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam. PMID:24262873

  3. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  4. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo Garca; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  5. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo Garca; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  6. Total grain-arsenic and arsenic-species concentrations in rice as impacted by genotype and water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have indicated that high soil arsenic (As) concentrations can result in decreased rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yields and increased grain-As concentrations. Low As-concentration in rice grain is especially desirable for populations that rely upon rice as a staple food and live where ...

  7. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    PubMed

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

  8. Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De

    Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

  9. Distribution of Microbial Arsenic Reduction, Oxidation and Extrusion Genes along a Wide Range of Environmental Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Lorena V.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx)-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations. PMID:24205341

  10. Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meliker, J.R.; Slotnick, M.J.; Avruskin, G.A.; Haack, S.K.; Nriagu, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 ??g/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization and subsequent transport in groundwater are equivocal. Recent evidence has begun to suggest that groundwater recharge and characteristics of well construction may affect arsenic mobilization and transport. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between dissolved arsenic concentrations, reported groundwater recharge rates, well construction characteristics, and geology in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is more prevalent in bedrock wells that are cased in proximity to the bedrock-unconsolidated interface; no other factors were associated with arsenic contamination in water drawn from bedrock or unconsolidated aquifers. Conditions appropriate for arsenic mobilization may be found along the bedrock-unconsolidated interface, including changes in reduction/oxidation potential and enhanced biogeochemical activity because of differences between geologic strata. These results are valuable for understanding arsenic mobilization and guiding well construction practices in southeastern Michigan, and may also provide insights for other regions faced with groundwater arsenic contamination. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  11. Stress-induced changes in corticosteroid metabolism. [plasma and urine concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacker, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Because plasma and urine corticosteroid concentrations are influenced by several factors in addition to adrenal cortex secretion, the effect of stress on all of these factors was determined in order to interpret the plasma and urine concentrations. Progress on the investigation is reported.

  12. Dietary Sources of Methylated Arsenic Species in Urine of the United States Population, NHANES 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Pan, Yi; Ward, Cynthia; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic is an ubiquitous element linked to carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, as well as adverse respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and dermal health effects. Objective Identify dietary sources of speciated arsenic: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Methods Age-stratified, sample-weighted regression of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2003–2010 data (∼8,300 participants ≥6 years old) characterized the association between urinary arsenic species and the additional mass consumed of USDA-standardized food groups (24-hour dietary recall data), controlling for potential confounders. Results For all arsenic species, the rank-order of age strata for median urinary molar concentration was children 6–11 years > adults 20–84 years > adolescents 12–19 years, and for all age strata, the rank-order was DMA > MMA. Median urinary molar concentrations of methylated arsenic species ranged from 0.56 to 3.52 µmol/mol creatinine. Statistically significant increases in urinary arsenic species were associated with increased consumption of: fish (DMA); fruits (DMA, MMA); grain products (DMA, MMA); legumes, nuts, seeds (DMA); meat, poultry (DMA); rice (DMA, MMA); rice cakes/crackers (DMA, MMA); and sugars, sweets, beverages (MMA). And, for adults, rice beverage/milk (DMA, MMA). In addition, based on US (United States) median and 90th percentile consumption rates of each food group, exposure from the following food groups was highlighted: fish; fruits; grain products; legumes, nuts, seeds; meat, poultry; and sugars, sweets, beverages. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population, fish (adults), rice (children), and rice cakes/crackers (adolescents) had the largest associations with urinary DMA. For MMA, rice beverage/milk (adults) and rice cakes/crackers (children, adolescents) had the largest associations. PMID:25251890

  13. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  14. Certification of Total Arsenic in Blood and Urine Standard Reference Materials by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rick L.; Davis, W. Clay; Yu, Lee; Murphy, Karen E.; Guthrie, William F.; Leber, Dennis D.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Vetter, Thomas W.; Shakirova, Gulchekhra; Mitchell, Graylin; Kyle, David J.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Eckdahl, Steven; Wermers, Michelle; Maras, Melissa; Palmer, C. D.; Verostek, M.F.; Geraghty, C. M.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed procedure for determination of arsenic by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in SRM 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 11014cm?2s?1. After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform, and 76As quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a 77As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) values from NIST and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of (10.81 0.54) ?g/kg and (213.1 0.73) ?g/kg for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of (21.66 0.73) ?g/kg, (52.7 1.1) ?g/kg, and (78.8 4.9) ?g/kg for SRM 955c Levels 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level 1, an information value of < 5 ?g/kg was assigned for this material. PMID:26300575

  15. A field lab method to determine urine concentration in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Corts, A; Rosenmann, M

    1989-01-01

    1. The concentrations of 136 urine samples from four species of small mammals were compared using osmometry, refractometry and a colorimetric test for urea concentration. 2. To obtain a wide range of concentrations (430-3950 mOsm/kg), urine samples were collected under normal and dehydration conditions. 3. Regression analyses of paired values indicate that measurements of total solids concentration (refractometric method) permit evaluations of urine osmolality and estimations of the concentration of urea with a high degree of confidence. PMID:2573471

  16. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J; Teng, Yuanxin; McLaurin, Brett T

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 ?g g(-1) in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 ?g m(-3) in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (? 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 ?g m(-3). The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  17. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  18. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 ?g g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  19. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Mayzel, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenicmagnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:25762993

  20. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

  1. [Effect of tobacco smoking on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizonń, Anna; Witt, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Malgorzata; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to estimate the nephrotoxicity of occupational exposure to heavy metals on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in the urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters. The study was performed in urine of 101 smoking and non-smoking smelters as well as 65 smoking and non-smoking male subjects unexposed to heavy metals. Section into smoking and non-smoking groups was made on basis on direct personal interview and by determination of serum cotinine concentration. The concentration of albumin in urine was measured with commercial test (Micro-Albumin ELISA Cat. No 5MA 74212, ORGENTEC Diagnostika Gmbh, Germany). The activity of β-glucuronidase in urine were determined in urine using 4-nitrophenyl β D-glucuronide (Cat. No 73677, Sigma Aldrich, Germany) as a substrate. We have observed higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters when compared to control groups. We have also found the influence of tobacco smoke as well as amount of cigarettes smoked on albumin concentration in urine of smoking smelters. A statistically significant difference was detected between activity of β-glucuronidase in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters, which suggest as additional negative factor of exposure to tobacco smoke. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity we have found higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day when compared to smelters smoking <20 cigarettes per day. The elevation of albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of workers occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke indicated, that environmental exposure on these factors can disorders kidney functions. PMID:25799848

  2. Artificial neural networks for estimating regional arsenic concentrations in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Kao, Li-shan; Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2010-06-01

    SummaryHigh arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been detected in the south-western coastal area of Taiwan. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were investigated for their applicability to recovering the missing arsenic data and constructing the spatial distribution of arsenic concentration based on the arsenic concentration data of 28 groundwater observation wells. Due to a limited number of data sets, several strategies were proposed to construct the backpropagation neural networks (BPNs). The leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation was adopted to diminish the bias in choosing validation data, and the modified performance function (MPF) was applied to reducing an over-fitting situation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to transform the arsenic concentration of the regional wells into a limited number of main factors that were used as the input variables for the ANNs. Results showed that the LOO cross-validation was an effective tool for model selection, and the parameter, ?, of MPF played an important role for reducing errors in the model training and validation processes and alleviating the problem of over-fitting. Although sparse data sets have been used to construct ANNs, the models still achieved acceptable performance. The predicted spatial distribution of the arsenic concentration can provide useful information to local residents when groundwater achieves high levels of arsenic concentrations in non-functioning groundwater monitoring wells.

  3. Urinary concentrations and urine ex-vivo effect of mecillinam and sulphamethizole.

    PubMed

    Kerrn, M B; Frimodt-Mller, N; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adult volunteers received 1 g of sulphamethizole orally (n = 10) and later 400 mg of pivmecillinam (274 mg of mecillinam) (n = 9). All urine was collected in defined periods over 24 h, and the drug concentrations in urine were determined. For sulphamethizole, the maximum urine concentration for seven subjects was reached in 0-3 h, and for the remaining three in 3-6 h. For mecillinam, eight of the nine subjects attained a maximum urine concentration in 0-3 h, after which the concentration declined rapidly for six subjects in 3-6 h. Strains of Escherichia coli with different MICs for sulphamethizole and mecillinam were exposed to collected urine for 2.5 h and 5 h. The results indicated that a sensitive E. coli population should be suppressed by sulphamethizole in urine for two-thirds of the time (with 1 g twice-daily) and by mecillinam in urine throughout the 24-h period (with 400 mg three times a day). There was a slight but significant correlation between the ex-vivo effect (Delta log10 CFU/mL) and the log10 concentration/MIC ratio after exposure to sulphamethizole for 5 h (r2 = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation between the variables with mecillinam (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.0001). PMID:14706087

  4. ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an in-depth study that attempts to assemble, organize, and interpret present-day information on arsenic and its compounds, and the effects of these substances on man, animals, and plants. Emphasis is given to the effects of arsenic on man, conclusions are drawn from...

  5. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  6. Arsenic risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson-Lynch, H; Beck, B D; Boardman, P D

    1994-01-01

    We review recent publications by Hopenhayn-Rich et al. and Smith et al. regarding two critical issues in arsenic risk assessment: the role of methylation in the dose-response relationship and the role of internal cancers. Hopenhayn-Rich et al. applied simple linear regression to data from several studies to determine whether the percentage of inorganic arsenic in urine increases with increasing dose. Although their results failed to show a correlation between percent inorganic arsenic and urinary arsenic concentration, their evaluation does not demonstrate the absence of a methylation threshold because of the relatively low level of arsenic in urine and the use of grab samples in evaluating methylating capacity. Using data from an epidemiological study in Taiwan, Smith et al. have indicated that arsenic could be an important risk factor not only for skin cancer (the basis of the current EPA cancer slope factor), but also for several internal cancers including lung, liver, bladder, and kidney. We note the following deficiencies in the analysis of Smith et al: 1) the likely underestimated exposure estimate due to lack of consideration on nonwater sources of arsenic and the underestimate of water consumption, 2) lack of consideration of detoxification in estimating potential risks from low-level exposures typical of the U.S. population, and 3) lack of consideration of key differences, particularly nutritional differences, between the Taiwanese and U.S. populations that could affect potential risks. PMID:7503825

  7. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    SciTech Connect

    Faengstroem, Britta; Hamadani, Jena; Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  8. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5±7.5μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4±1.4μg/L for B+As treatment for 56days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5μg As/L. PMID:26657392

  9. Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentrations in Tubewells in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Savarimuthu, Xavier; Hira-Smith, Meera M.; Yuan, Yan; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Das, Subhankar; Ghosh, Nilima; Mazumder, D.N. Guha

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to monitor the changes in arsenic concentration during different seasons in a one-year period during 20022003 in selected tubewells in an arsenic-affected area in the district of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India, and to map the location of the wells. Seasonal variations in concentrations of arsenic in water were measured from 74 selected tubewells, ranging in depth from 40 to 500 feet. Water samples were collected from these wells during winter, summer, monsoon, and the following winter in 20022003. A global positioning system was used for locating the tubewells, and a geographic information system was used for mapping. There was evidence of seasonal variation in concentrations of arsenic in water (p=0.02) with the minimum average concentration occurring in the summer season (694 ?g/L) and the maximum in the monsoon season (906 ?g/L). From the winter of 2002 to the winter of 2003, arsenic concentrations increased, irrespective of the depth of the tubewells, from an average of 464 ?g/L to 820 ?g/L (p<0.001). This extent of variation in arsenic concentration, if confirmed, has important implications for both epidemiological research and mitigation programmes. PMID:17366769

  10. Arsenic concentrations and bacterial contamination in a pilot shallow dugwell program in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hira-Smith, Meera M; Yuan, Yan; Savarimuthu, Xavier; Liaw, Jane; Hira, Alpana; Green, Cynthia; Hore, Timir; Chakraborty, Protap; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Smith, Allan H

    2007-01-01

    Project Well has developed a pilot self-supporting community-based mitigation program to provide arsenic-safe water to the villagers of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Shallow concrete dugwells, less than 25 feet deep, that tap into an unconfined aquifer are constructed following stipulated guidelines. The design differs from the traditional dugwell in two major ways: (i) there is a layer of coarse sand in the annular space enveloping the outer wall of the concrete cylinder; and (ii) handpumps are used for water extraction to reduce the potential for bacterial contamination. Monitoring programs for arsenic and coliform bacteria in selected dugwells have been completed. In summer, when the water levels were low, the arsenic concentrations were measured. In 11 wells, measured over three years, the average water arsenic concentration was 29 micro gL-1. Two dugwells had high concentrations of arsenic (average 152 micro gL-1 and 61 micro gL-1), but the remaining nine dugwells had an overall average of 11 micro gL-1. Seasonal variation was assessed in five wells with monthly measurements and there was a direct relationship between increases in arsenic concentrations and decreases in the volume of water in the dugwells in the dry summer season. To control bacterial contamination, sodium hypochlorite solution containing 5% chlorine was applied once a month. In 2005, fecal coliform was undetected in 65% (n = 13) of the dugwells but detected at high levels in 35% (n = 7) of the dugwells. The program clearly reduced exposure to arsenic, but we conclude that further study of increases in arsenic concentrations in the dry season are warranted, as well as assessment of ways to more effectively control bacterial contamination such as more frequent chlorination, perhaps with lower doses on each occasion. PMID:17129953

  11. Arsenic Species in Drinking Water Wells in the USA with High Arsenic Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) arsenic treatment demonstration program, 65 five well waters scattered across the US were speciated for As(III) and As(V). The speciation test data showed that most (60) well waters had one dominant species, but...

  12. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  13. Peat formation concentrates arsenic within sediment deposits of the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckey, Jason W.; Schaefer, Michael V.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Dittmar, Jessica; Pacheco, Juan Lezama; Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Mekong River Delta sediment bears arsenic that has been released to groundwater under anaerobic conditions over the past several thousand years. The oxidation state, speciation, and distribution of arsenic and the associated iron bearing phases are crucial determinants of As reactivity in sediments. Peat from buried mangrove swamps in particular may be an important host, source, or sink of arsenic in the Mekong Delta. The total concentration, speciation, and reactivity of arsenic and iron were examined in sediments in a Mekong Delta wetland by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and selective chemical extractions. Total solid-phase arsenic concentrations in a peat layer at a depth of 6 m below ground increased 10-fold relative to the overlying sediment. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that arsenic in the peat was predominantly in the form of arsenian pyrite. Arsenic speciation in the peat was examined further at the micron-scale using μXRF and μX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis. The multiple energy μXRF mapping and μXANES routine was repeated for both iron and sulfur phase analyses. Our μXRF/μXANES analyses confirm arsenic association with pyrite - a less reactive host phase than iron (hydr)oxides under anaerobic conditions. The arsenian pyrite likely formed upon deposition/formation of the peat in a past estuarine environment (∼5.5 ka BP), a process that is not expected under current geochemical conditions. Presently, arsenian pyrite is neither a detectable source nor a sink for aqueous arsenic in our sediment profile, and under present geochemical conditions represents a stable host of As under the reducing aquifer conditions of the Mekong Delta. Furthermore, organic carbon within the peat is unable to fuel Fe(III) reduction, as noted by the persistence of goethite which can be reduced microbially with the addition of glucose.

  14. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    PubMed Central

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  15. Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  16. Rice Consumption and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations in U.S. Children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Punshon, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: In adult populations, emerging evidence indicates that humans are exposed to arsenic by ingestion of contaminated foods such as rice, grains, and juice; yet little is known about arsenic exposure among children. Objectives: Our goal was to determine whether rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in U.S. children. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between rice consumption (measured in 0.25 cups of cooked rice per day) over a 24-hr period and subsequent urinary arsenic concentration among the 2,323 children (617 years of age) who participated in NHANES from 2003 to 2008. We examined total urinary arsenic (excluding arsenobetaine and arsenocholine) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) concentrations overall and by age group: 611 years and 1217 years. Results: The median [interquartile range (IQR)] total urinary arsenic concentration among children who reported consuming rice was 8.9 ?g/L (IQR: 5.315.6) compared with 5.5 ?g/L (IQR: 3.18.4) among those who did not consume rice. After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, and restricting the study to participants who did not consume seafood in the preceding 24 hr, total urinary arsenic concentration increased 14.2% (95% confidence interval: 11.3, 17.1%) with each 0.25 cup increase in cooked rice consumption. Conclusions: Our study suggests that rice consumption is a potential source of arsenic exposure in U.S. children. PMID:23008276

  17. Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter.

    PubMed

    Morse, D L; Harrington, J M; Housworth, J; Landrigan, P J; Kelter, A

    1979-04-01

    A nationwide survey of heavy-metal exposure in children living near primary nonferrous metal smelters demonstrated high urine arsenic levels in children living near a copper smelter in Ajo, Arizona. Airborne smelter emissions and drinking water were the apparent sources of exposure. To determine whether increased arsenic absorption had produced adverse health effects, we conducted an evaluation of 132 Ajo children 5 to 18 years old and compared results with those of 47 children from a comparison town with low arsenic exposure. Environmental testing showed that Ajo's municipal water supply contained arsenic in concentrations of 0.09 mg/l (the EPA standard is 0.05 mg/l); arsenic concentrations in dust averaged 342.2 microgram/g. Urine arsenic levels in Ajo children correlated positively with amount of tap-water consumed (r = .32, p less than. 0002) and with distance of residence from the smelter (r = .20, p less than .02). Tap-water drinkers had significantly higher urine arsenic levels than bottled water drinkers (t = 4.21 p less than .001). Mean urine arsenic levels were significantly higher for children in Ajo (4.75 microgram/100 ml) than for children in the comparison town (1.17 microgram/100 ml). Hair arsenic levels correlated poorly with arsenic exposure. Despite the study population's chronic exposure to elevated environmental levels of arsenic, no clinical or hematologic abnormalities attributable to arsenic were found. PMID:466981

  18. Effects of arsenic species and concentrations on arsenic accumulation by different fern species in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Ma, L Q; Santos, Jorge; Rathinasabapathi, B; Stamps, B; Littell, R C

    2005-01-01

    Two hydroponic experiments were conducted to evaluate factors affecting plant arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation. In the first experiment; two As hyperaccumulators (Pteris vittata and P. cretica mayii) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg L(-1) arsenite (AsIII) and monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA) for 4 wk. Total As concentrations in plants (fronds and roots) and solution were determined In the second experiment P. vittata and Nephrolepis exaltata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) were exposed to 5 mgL(-1) arsenate (AsV) and 20 mgL(-1) AsIIIfor 1 and 15 d. Total As and AsIII concentrations in plants were determined Compared to P. cretica mayii, P. vittata was more efficient in arsenic accumulation (1075-1666 vs. 249-627mg kg(-1) As in the fronds) partially because it is more efficient in As translocation. As translocation factor (As concentration ratio in fronds to roots) was 3.0-5.6 for P. vittata compared to 0.1 to 4.8 for P. cretica. Compared to N. exaltata, P. vittata was significantly more efficient in arsenic accumulation (38-542 vs. 4.8-71 mg kg(-1) As in thefronds) as well asAs translocation (1.3-5.6 vs. 0.2-0.5). In addition, P. vittata was much more efficient in As reduction from AsV to AsIII (83-84 vs. 13-24% AsIII in the fronds). Little As reduction occurred after 1-d exposure to AsV in both species indicates that As reduction was not instantaneous even in an As hyperaccumulator. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that both As translocation and As reduction are important for plant As hyperaccumulation. PMID:16285413

  19. Infant toenails as a biomarker of in utero arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Li, Zhigang; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Lee, Joyce S.; Baker, Emily R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that in utero and early-life exposure to arsenic may have detrimental effects on children, even at the low to moderate levels common in the United States and elsewhere. In a sample of 170 motherinfant pairs from New Hampshire, we determined infant exposure to in utero arsenic by evaluating infant toenails as a biomarker using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant toenail arsenic concentration correlated with maternal postpartum toenail concentrations (Spearmans correlation coefficient 0.34). In adjusted linear models, a doubling of maternal toenail arsenic concentration was associated with a 53.8% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration as compared with 20.4% for a doubling of maternal urine arsenic concentration. In a structural equation model, a doubling of the latent variable integrating maternal toenail and urine arsenic concentrations was associated with a 67.5% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration. A similar correlation between infant and maternal postpartum toenail concentrations was observed in a validation cohort of 130 motherinfant pairs from Rhode Island. In utero exposure to arsenic occurs through maternal water and dietary sources, and infant toenails appear to be a reliable biomarker for estimating arsenic exposure during the critical window of gestation. PMID:24896769

  20. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  1. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  2. Arsenic concentrations and associated health risks in Laccaria mushrooms from Yunnan (SW China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Yang, Ya-Li; Liu, Hong-Gao; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Some species of Laccaria have been known to contain relatively high levels of arsenic in Europe and are used as edible mushrooms in the southwest China. One population of Laccaria proxima and one population of L. vinaceoavellanea as well as topsoil (0-10 cm) they grew on were collected from natural habitats of Yunnan (SW China), while other samples such as Laccaria mushroom samples without soil were purchased from four different local markets in Yunnan. Concentrations of arsenic were determined in fruit bodies of the mushrooms and in the soils by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to assess potential health risks of these species. The mean arsenic concentrations in caps were 135, 14.1-143, 5.5 and 130-163 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) for Laccaria amethystina, Laccaria laccata, L. proxima and L. vinaceoavellanea, respectively. The mean value for bioconcentration factor of arsenic in caps of L. vinaceoavellanea was 29.1 for soil with arsenic content at 5.6 mg kg(-1) dw, which indicate that L. vinaceoavellanea is an accumulator for arsenic. Caps of L. amethystina, L. laccata and L. vinaceoavellanea consumed at a volume of 300 g fresh weight for a single meal in a week can yield an exposure amount of arsenic at 4.1, 0.42-4.3 and 3.9-4.9 mg, respectively. These values are higher than the limit dose for the intake of inorganic arsenic recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:25534292

  3. Comparison of the accuracy of kriging and IDW interpolations in estimating groundwater arsenic concentrations in Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Mattevada, Sravan; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to arsenic causes many diseases. Most Americans in rural areas use groundwater for drinking, which may contain arsenic above the currently allowable level, 10g/L. It is cost-effective to estimate groundwater arsenic levels based on data from wells with known arsenic concentrations. We compared the accuracy of several commonly used interpolation methods in estimating arsenic concentrations in >8000 wells in Texas by the leave-one-out-cross-validation technique. Correlation coefficient between measured and estimated arsenic levels was greater with inverse distance weighted (IDW) than kriging Gaussian, kriging spherical or cokriging interpolations when analyzing data from wells in the entire Texas (p<0.0001). Correlation coefficient was significantly lower with cokriging than any other methods (p<0.006) for wells in Texas, east Texas or the Edwards aquifer. Correlation coefficient was significantly greater for wells in southwestern Texas Panhandle than in east Texas, and was higher for wells in Ogallala aquifer than in Edwards aquifer (p<0.0001) regardless of interpolation methods. In regression analysis, the best models are when well depth and/or elevation were entered into the model as covariates regardless of area/aquifer or interpolation methods, and models with IDW are better than kriging in any area/aquifer. In conclusion, the accuracy in estimating groundwater arsenic level depends on both interpolation methods and wells' geographic distributions and characteristics in Texas. Taking well depth and elevation into regression analysis as covariates significantly increases the accuracy in estimating groundwater arsenic level in Texas with IDW in particular. PMID:24559533

  4. Using DET and DGT probes (ferrihydrite and titanium dioxide) to investigate arsenic concentrations in soil porewater of an arsenic-contaminated paddy field in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Jean-Marie; Garnier, Jrmie; Jzquel, Didier; Angeletti, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic concentration in the pore water of paddy fields (Csoln) irrigated with arsenic-rich groundwater is a key parameter in arsenic uptake by rice. Pore water extracts from cores and in situ deployment of DET and DGT probes were used to measure the arsenic concentration in the pore water. Ferrihydrite (Fe) and titanium dioxide (Ti) were used as DGT binding agents. Six sampling events during different growing stages of the rice, inducing different biogeochemical conditions, were performed in one rice field. A time series of DGT experiments allow the determination of an in situ arsenic diffusion coefficient in the diffusive gel (3.3410(-6) cm(2) s(-1)) needed to calculate the so-called CDGT(Fe) and CDGT(Ti) concentrations. Over 3 days of a given sampling event and for cores sampled at intervals smaller than 50 cm, great variability in arsenic Csoln concentrations between vertical profiles was observed, with maxima of concentrations varying from 690 to 2800 ?g L(-1). Comparisons between arsenic measured Csol and CDET and calculated CDGT(Fe) and CDGT(Ti) concentrations show either, in a few cases, roughly similar vertical profiles, or in other cases, significantly different profiles. An established iron oxyhydroxide precipitation in the DET gel may explain why measured arsenic CDET concentrations occasionally exceeded Csoln. The large spread in results suggests limitations to the use of DET and type of DGT probes used here for similarly representing the spatio-temporal variations of arsenic content in soil pore water in specific environmental such as paddy soils. PMID:26225738

  5. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  6. Experimental studies on arsenic absorption routes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz

    1977-01-01

    Pentavalent inorganic arsenic was introduced by intravenous, intratracheal, gastrointestinal, and skin application in doses 0.1 to 4.0 mg/kg in rats. Isotopic technics were applied by use of As74. It was found that the dynamics of arsenic distribution in the body as well as the kinetics of its elimination in urine and feces varies very substantially, depending on the mode of administration. Intravenous administration of As causes immediate appearance of arsenic in most tissues and a slow decrease of its concentrations in time. Similar situations could be observed with intratracheal dosing, because arsenic is very rapidly absorbed from the site of administration. Concentration in tissues increases more slowly after gastrointestinal resorption. Skin application causes first the accumulation of arsenic in the skin and next continuous, slow transport from the skin into the blood stream. The rate of skin resorption was 1.1433.1 ?g/cm2-hr for 0.010.2M concentrations. The red blood cell level of arsenic is very substantial and does not change with time, which indicates the accumulation of arsenic in this tissue. The elimination of arsenic occurred chiefly in urine and feces, but the urine/feces ratio changed very substantially, depending on the route of administration. The kinetics of arsenic elimination in urine was multiphasic, being three-phase in case of intravenous and intratracheal administration and two-phase after gavage and skin resorption. After intravenous administration of As, the half-times of elimination were 2.5, 10, and 690 hr, respectively. Administration of selenium salts during the slow phase increased the rate of arsenic elimination. The straight-line relations found between the absorbed dose of arsenic and its blood or urine concentrations could serve as baselines for exposure tests for humans. PMID:908295

  7. Reconnaissance of Arsenic Concentrations in Ground Water From Bedrock and Unconsolidated Aquifers in Eight Northern-Tier Counties of Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of ground water for analysis of total-arsenic concentrations were collected in eight counties--Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Susquehanna, Wayne, Pike, Sullivan, and Wyoming--and from eight bedrock formations (bedrock aquifers) and overlying glacial aquifers in the north-central and northeastern parts of Pennsylvania in July 2005 and from March through June 2006. The samples were collected from a total of 143 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 4 non-community wells, 2 community water-system wells, and 3 domestic springs by well or spring owners using sampling kits provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). An additional 15 domestic wells were sampled by the USGS for analysis of total arsenic. These 15 samples were collected using the same methods and sampling kits provided to the homeowners. Samples were analyzed for total arsenic by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Laboratory using a minimum reporting level of 4.0 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). Arsenic was detected in water from 18 domestic wells in four counties--Bradford (3 wells), Sullivan (1 well), Tioga (13 wells), and Wayne (1 well). The median concentration of total arsenic was less than 4.0 ?g/L, and the maximum concentration was 188 ?g/L. Water from 10 wells had concentrations of total arsenic greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ?g/L. Detectable concentrations of total arsenic were measured in water from wells that ranged in depth from 29 to 400 feet, and that were completed in three aquifers--Lock Haven Formation, Catskill Formation, and unconsolidated glacial sediments; no springs had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the Lock Haven Formation were collected from 60 wells; water from 12 of these wells had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the Catskill Formation were collected from 57 wells; water from 4 wells had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the unconsolidated glacial sediments were collected from 17 wells; 2 wells had water with detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Contingency tables tested for significant differences in total arsenic between aquifers, topographic settings, and well depths. Concentrations of total arsenic were significantly greater (95-percent confidence level) in the Lock Haven Formation than in the other bedrock units. Concentrations of total arsenic also varied significantly by topographic setting. Wells completed in the Lock Haven Formation and located in valleys had significantly greater concentrations of total arsenic than similar wells located on hilltops or slopes. Concentrations of total arsenic did not vary significantly by topographic setting in the Catskill Formation. Concentrations of total arsenic did not vary significantly by well depth for any aquifer. Iron staining, hydrogen-sulfide odor, or both were common complaints of well owners. Iron staining was a complaint of 44 well owners. Hydrogen-sulfide odor was a complaint of 35 well owners. Fourteen well owners complained of both iron staining and hydrogen sulfide. No correlation to the presence of arsenic in the wells sampled was found with iron staining, hydrogen-sulfide odor, or both. Water from 8 of the 10 wells that contained concentrations of total arsenic greater than 10 ?g/L were sampled by USGS personnel for the determination of concentrations of dissolved arsenic (minimum reporting level 0.3 ?g/L) and arsenic species {arsenite [As (III)], arsenate [As (V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA)} at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Analytical results from these samples showed a median concentration of 38.7 ?g/L dissolved arsenic in water and a maximum of 178 ?g/L. As (III) was the most common arsenic species present in the water for seven of the eight wells and was found in water characteristic of reducing environments [pH 8.2

  8. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  9. AT1 receptors in the collecting duct directly modulate the concentration of urine.

    PubMed

    Stegbauer, Johannes; Gurley, Susan B; Sparks, Matthew A; Woznowski, Magdalena; Kohan, Donald E; Yan, Ming; Lehrich, Ruediger W; Coffman, Thomas M

    2011-12-01

    Mice lacking AT(1) angiotensin receptors have an impaired capacity to concentrate the urine, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. To determine whether direct actions of AT(1) receptors in epithelial cells of the collecting duct regulate water reabsorption, we used Cre-Loxp technology to specifically eliminate AT(1A) receptors from the collecting duct in mice (CD-KOs). Although levels of AT(1A) receptor mRNA in the inner medulla of CD-KO mice were significantly reduced, their kidneys appeared structurally normal. Under basal conditions, plasma and urine osmolalities and urine volumes were similar between CD-KO mice and controls. The increase in urine osmolality in response to water deprivation or vasopressin administration, however, was consistently attenuated in CD-KO mice. Similarly, levels of aquaporin-2 protein in inner and outer medulla after water deprivation were significantly lower in CD-KO mice compared with controls, despite its normal localization to the apical membrane. In summary, these results demonstrate that AT(1A) receptors in epithelial cells of the collecting duct directly modulate aquaporin-2 levels and contribute to the concentration of urine. PMID:22052052

  10. Impedimetric method for measuring ultra-low E. coli concentrations in human urine.

    PubMed

    Settu, Kalpana; Chen, Ching-Jung; Liu, Jen-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Jang-Zern

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we developed an interdigitated gold microelectrode-based impedance sensor to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) in human urine samples for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis. E. coli growth in human urine samples was successfully monitored during a 12-h culture, and the results showed that the maximum relative changes could be measured at 10Hz. An equivalent electrical circuit model was used for evaluating the variations in impedance characteristics of bacterial growth. The equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the change in impedance values at low frequencies was caused by double layer capacitance due to bacterial attachment and formation of biofilm on electrode surface in urine. A linear relationship between the impedance change and initial E. coli concentration was obtained with the coefficient of determination R(2)>0.90 at various growth times of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12h in urine. Thus our sensor is capable of detecting a wide range of E. coli concentration, 7×10(0) to 7×10(8) cells/ml, in urine samples with high sensitivity. PMID:25437359

  11. Correlations between cadmium concentration in urine and exposure variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Elmar; Chutsch, Martina; Krause, Christian M.; Schulz, Christine; Thefeld, Wolfgang

    1993-03-01

    As part of the study 'UMWELT und GESUNDHEIT 1985/86', a representative samples of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany was examined for urinary Cd. A log-linear prediction model based on 2109 cases led to an explained variance portion of R2 equals .32. Strong associations were revealed between urinary cadmium and the smoking history and age of the subjects. This is evidence of the function urinary cadmium has as an indicator of the Cd body burden. However, there are also clear connections with physiological parameters (urinary creatinine and serum urea), which are taken to be a modification of Cd excretion by renal function. The association between urinary Cd and serum urea can also be interpreted as a cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd concentrations tend to be lower in regions with low industrial nitrogen oxide emissions and high economic dynamics, as well as in non- urban residential structures.

  12. Association of Arsenic and Metals with Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D among Adolescents in Torren, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Guallar, Eliseo; Garca-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Resnick, Carol; Andrade, Marisela Rubio; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and uranium (U) may disrupt vitamin D metabolism and inhibit production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active vitamin D metabolite, from 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the kidney. Objectives: We evaluated the association between blood lead (BPb) and urine arsenic (As), Cd, molybdenum (Mo), thallium (Tl), and U with markers of vitamin D metabolism [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D]. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 512 adolescents in Torren, a town in Mexico with a Pb smelter near residential areas. BPb was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine As, Cd, Mo, Tl, and U were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Multivariable linear models with vitamin D markers as the outcome were used to estimate associations of BPb and creatinine-corrected urine As and metal concentrations with serum vitamin D concentrations, controlling for age, sex, adiposity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and time outdoors. Results: Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with urine Mo and Tl [1.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.6) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.1) ng/mL higher with a doubling of exposure, respectively]. Serum 1,25(OH)2D was positively associated with urine As and U [3.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.9) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.7) pg/mL higher, respectively], with little change in associations after additional adjustment for serum 25(OH)D. Pb and Cd were not associated with 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Conclusions: Overall, our findings did not support a negative effect of As or metal exposures on serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Additional research is needed to confirm positive associations between serum 1,25(OH)2D and urine U and As concentrations and to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. Citation: Zamoiski RD, Guallar E, Garca-Vargas GG, Rothenberg SJ, Resnick C, Rubio Andrade M, Steuerwald AJ, Parsons PJ, Weaver VM, Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK. 2014. Association of arsenic and metals with concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D among adolescents in Torren, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:12331238; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307861 PMID:25095279

  13. Increasing arsenic concentrations in runoff from 12 small forested catchments (Czech Republic, Central Europe): patterns and controls.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Blaha, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Krachler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The 40-year long period of heavy industrialization in Central Europe (1950-1990) was accompanied by burning of arsenic-rich lignite in thermal power plants, and accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic in forest soils. There are fears that retreating acidification may lead to arsenic mobilization into drinking water, caused by competitive ligand exchange. We present monthly arsenic concentrations in surface runoff from 12 headwater catchments in the Czech Republic for a period of 13 years (1996-2008). The studied area was characterized by a north-south gradient of decreasing pollution. Acidification, caused mainly by SOx and NOx emissions from power plants, has been retreating since 1987. Between 1996 and 2003, maximum arsenic concentrations in runoff did not change, and were < 1 ppb in the rural south and < 2 ppb in the industrial north. During the subsequent two years, 2004-2005, maximum arsenic concentrations in runoff increased, reaching 60% of the drinking water limit (10 ppb). Starting in 2006, maximum arsenic concentrations returned to lower values at most sites. We discuss three possible causes of the recent arsenic concentration maximum in runoff. We rule out retreating acidification and a pulse of high industrial emission rates as possible controls. The pH of runoff has not changed since 1996, and is still too low (<6.5) at most sites for an As-OH(-) ligand exchange to become significant. Elevated arsenic concentrations in runoff in 2004-2005 may reflect climate change through changing hydrological conditions at some, but not all sites. Dry conditions may result in elevated production of DOC and sulfur oxidation in the soil. Subsequent wet conditions may be accompanied by acidification leading to faster dissolution of arsenic-bearing sulfides, dissolution of arsenic-bearing Fe-oxyhydroxides, and elevated transport of arsenic sorbed on organic matter. Anaerobic domains exist in normally well-aerated upland soils for hours-to-days following precipitation events. PMID:20494405

  14. Metabolism and the scaling of urine concentrating ability in mammals: resolution of a paradox?

    PubMed

    Beuchat, C A

    1990-03-01

    Currently accepted theories of the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney predict that concentrating ability should increase with increasing length of the loop of Henle. However, larger mammals have longer nephrons than do smaller ones, yet concentrating ability declines with increasing body mass (M, in kg) as M-0.097. Greenwald & Stetson (1988, News Physiol. Sci. 3, 46-49) have suggested that the diminished concentrating ability of large mammals reflects their lower mass-specific metabolic rate. They propose that, because the urine concentrating mechanism depends upon the energy-dependent transport of sodium chloride, concentrating ability should be closely related to mass-specific metabolic rate. Examination of the allometric scalings with body mass of medullary thickness and metabolic rate indicate that the rate of increase in length of the loop of Henle with body size (M0.129) is insufficient to offset the decline in mass-specific metabolism (M-0.24). The residual product of these scalings (M-0.11) indicates that urine concentrating ability should be inversely related to body size and is similar to the observed allometry of concentrating ability (M-0.097). The decline in concentrating ability of the kidney with body size is probably not a result of inability of the kidney to adapt physiologically or structurally to changes in size, but rather reflects the scaling of the need to conserve water. Small mammals, because of their high rates of evaporative and respiratory water loss, have a much higher rate of water turnover than do large mammals (Vwater.kg-1 alpha M-0.20). Because the need to concentrate the urine diminishes with increasing body size, the increase in loop length need only partially compensate for the simultaneous decline in metabolism. PMID:2359314

  15. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. The data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.

  16. Monitoring of arsenic exposure with speciated urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites for ion implanter maintenance engineers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Zhih-Young; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Lu, I-Chun; Yao, Wan-Lin

    2002-11-01

    For wafer fabrication in the semiconductor industry, maintenance engineers are potentially exposed to hazards during their work of disassembling machine components for cleanup. One special concern is the presence of arsenic or arsenic compounds in the working environment. This study analyzed speciated urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites of the maintenance engineers using high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry to study the potential arsenic exposure during their maintenance work. In total, from six wafer fabrication facilities, 30 maintenance engineers were recruited as the exposed group and another 12 office-based engineers served as the control group. First morning-voided urine samples of each study subject were collected for 7 consecutive days. The levels of total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites for the exposed group were 1.7+/-1.4, 1.4+/-1.1, 6.2+/-6.7, 20.2+/-14.1, and 29.5+/-17.2 micro g/L for As3+, As5+, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and total inorganic arsenic, respectively. Both the concentration of monomethylarsonic acid and its percentage in total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites showed significantly ascending trends for the control group, for the engineers without preventative maintenance work prior to their urine sampling, and for the engineers with such work prior to their urine sampling (P<0.05 and P<0.0005, respectively). The data also suggested that, at low-level occupational arsenic exposure, the concentration of total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites might be misleading due to the confounding effect resulting from intake of seafood, such as arsenosuger. Nevertheless, monitoring of urinary arsenic species by using the percentage change of monomethylarsonic acid in total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites as an indicator for the verification of arsenic exposure is helpful and appropriate in such cases. PMID:12477466

  17. A cultural practice of drinking realgar wine leading to elevated urinary arsenic and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Huang, Qing; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-07-01

    Toasting friends and family with realgar wines and painting children's foreheads and limbs with the leftover realgar/alcohol slurries is an important customary ritual during the Dragon Boat Festival (DBF); a Chinese national holiday and ancient feast day celebrated throughout Asia. Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral, and source of highly toxic inorganic arsenic. Despite the long history of realgar use during the DBF, associated risk to human health by arsenic ingestion or percutaneous adsorption is unknown. To address this urine samples were collected from a cohort of volunteers who were partaking in the DBF festivities. The total concentration of arsenic in the wine consumed was 70 mg L? with all the arsenic found to be inorganic. Total arsenic concentrations in adult urine reached a maximum of ca. 550 ?g L? (mean 220.2 ?g L?) after 16 h post-ingestion of realgar wine, while face painting caused arsenic levels in children's urine to soar to 100 ?g L? (mean 85.3 ?g L?) 40 h after the initial paint application. The average concentration of inorganic arsenic in the urine of realgar wine drinkers on average doubled 16 h after drinking, although this was not permanent and levels subsided after 28 h. As would be expected in young children, the proportions of organic arsenic in the urine remained high throughout the 88-h monitoring period. However, even when arsenic concentrations in the urine peaked at 40 h after paint application, concentrations in the urine only declined slightly thereafter, suggesting pronounced longer term dermal accumulation and penetration of arsenic. Drinking wines blended with realgar or using realgar based paints on children does result in the significant absorption of arsenic and therefore presents a potentially serious and currently unquantified health risk. PMID:21450346

  18. mPGES-1 deletion potentiates urine concentrating capability after water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Gang; Downton, Maicy; Dong, Zheng; Zhang, Aihua; Yang, Tianxin

    2012-04-15

    PGE(2) plays an important role in the regulation of fluid metabolism chiefly via antagonizing vasopressin-induced osmotic permeability in the distal nephron, but its enzymatic sources remain uncertain. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 in the regulation of urine concentrating ability after water deprivation (WD). Following 24-h WD, wild-type (WT) mice exhibited a significant reduction in urine volume, accompanied by a significant elevation in urine osmolality compared with control groups. In contrast, in response to WD, mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice had much less urine volume and higher urine osmolality. Analysis of plasma volume by measurement of hematocrit and by using a nanoparticle-based method consistently demonstrated that dehydrated WT mice were volume depleted, which was significantly improved in the KO mice. WD induced a twofold increase in urinary PGE(2) output in WT mice, which was completely blocked by mPGES-1 deletion. At baseline, the KO mice had a 20% increase in V(2) receptor mRNA expression in the renal medulla but not the cortex compared with WT controls; the expression was unaffected by WD irrespective of the genotype. In response to WD, renal medullary aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mRNA exhibited a 60% increase in WT mice, and this increase was greater in the KO mice. Immunoblotting demonstrated increased renal medullary AQP2 protein abundance in both genotypes following WD, with a greater increase in the KO mice. Similar results were obtained by using immunohistochemistry. Paradoxically, plasma AVP response to WD seen in WT mice was absent in the KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that mPGES-1-derived PGE(2) reduces urine concentrating ability through suppression of renal medullary expression of V(2) receptors and AQP2 but may enhance it by mediating the central AVP response. PMID:22237797

  19. Effect of environmental exposure of arsenic on cattle and poultry in nadia district, west bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination. PMID:22736905

  20. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Nrregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Pernille B L; Bie, Peter; Thavalingam, Sugarna; Frkir, Jrgen; Jensen, Boye L

    2011-12-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP mRNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 11 vs. 70 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex-outer medulla), AQP3 (all regions), and UT-A1 (inner medulla) protein abundances were elevated in COX-2(-/-) at baseline and further increased after WD. COX-2(-/-) mice had elevated plasma urea and creatinine and accumulation of small subcapsular glomeruli. In conclusion, hypothalamic COX-2 activity is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins. PMID:21880835

  1. Arsenic concentrations in soils impacted by dam failure of coal-ash pond in Zemianske Kostolany, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Jurkovi?, L'ubomr; Hiller, Edgar; Veselsk, Veronika; Pet'kov, Katarna

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the concentrations of arsenic were determined in the soils around old coal-ash pond. The soils in the study area were severely contaminated with arsenic after dam failure of the coal-ash pond. The mean concentrations of arsenic in soils collected from three sampling depths of 0-20, 20-40 and >40cm were 173, 155 and 426?g/g, respectively, exceeding greatly the Dutch intervention threshold for this element. Arsenic concentrations were positively correlated with total iron and aluminium contents in the soils (r=0.73, p<0.001 and r=0.72, p<0.001, respectively), indicating that oxyhydroxides of iron and aluminium may control the distribution of arsenic in these soils. Ammonium nitrate extractant was used to mimic availability of arsenic for plant uptake from the soils. Between 0.05 and 6.21% of the total soil arsenic were extracted using asingle extraction test and a significant positive correlation between soil leachate pH and arsenic extractability (r=0.70, p<0.01) was observed. This suggested that soil pH might play a role in the bioavailability of arsenic. PMID:21331534

  2. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Guan, Youfei

    2014-02-11

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

  3. Influence of storage conditions on aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysis fluid, urine, and tap water.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Ohnesorge, F K

    1990-01-01

    The influence of storage temperature, vessel type, and treatment on alterations of aluminum (Al) concentrations in serum, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied at three different concentrations for each sample over an 18-month period. Furthermore, the influence of acidification on Al levels in tap water, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied over a four-month period. Al was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample storage in glass vessels was unsuitable, whereas only minor alterations of Al levels were observed with storage in polypropylene tubes, polystyrene tubes, and Monovettes. By using appropriate plastic containers, acid washing of the vessels showed no improvement. Frozen storage was superior compared with 4 degrees C, whereas storage at -80 degrees C offered no advantage compared with storage at -20 degrees C. Acidification of tap water samples was necessary to stabilize Al levels during storage. No striking effect of acidification on Al levels in urine and dialysis fluid samples was found. It is concluded that longterm storage of serum, urine, tap water, and dialysis fluid samples is possible if appropriate conditions are used. PMID:2395338

  4. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany.

    PubMed

    Pesch, A; Wilhelm, M; Rostek, U; Schmitz, N; Weishoff-Houben, M; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    2002-07-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8-10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 microg/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 microg/l or 0.25 microg/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in microg/l and microg/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the variance of mercury levels in urine: the number of teeth with amalgam fillings (23.2%) and the number of defective amalgam fillings (2.1%). The mercury content in hair ranged from <0.06 to 1.7 microg/g (GM 0.18 microg/g; median 0.18 microg/g). The frequency of fish consumption, the smoking habits of the parents, and the age of the children accounted for 20.4% of the variance of mercury levels in hair. The correlation between the hair mercury content and urine mercury concentration was low (r=0.297). Mercury levels in saliva ranged between <0.32 and 4.5 microg/l (median 0.16 microg/l). The mercury concentration in saliva was below the limit of quantification of 0.32 microg/l in more than 70% of the samples. Mercury analysis in urine is suitable to estimate mercury exposure due to amalgam fillings, whereas hair mercury better reflects mercury intake by fish consumption. Up to now, saliva does not seem to be a suitable tool to monitor the mercury burden, at least not at low exposure levels. PMID:12087431

  5. Application of granular ferric hydroxides for removal elevated concentrations of arsenic from mine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlachta, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Paweł; Wójtowicz, Patryk

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic is naturally occurring element in the environment. Over three hundred minerals are known to contain some form of arsenic and among them arsenopyrite is the most common one. Arsenic-bearing minerals are frequently associated with ores containing mined metals such as copper, tin, nickel, lead, uranium, zinc, cobalt, platinum and gold. In the aquatic environment arsenic is typically present in inorganic forms, mainly in two oxidation states (+5, +3). As(III) is dominant in more reduced conditions, whereas As(V) is mostly present in an oxidizing environment. However, due to certain human activities the elevated arsenic levels in aquatic ecosystems are arising to a serious environmental problem. High arsenic concentrations found in surface and groundwaters, in some regions originate from mining activities and ore processing. Therefore, the major concern of mining industry is to maintain a good quality of effluents discharged in large volumes. This requires constant monitoring of effluents quality that guarantee the efficient protection of the receiving waters and reacting to possible negative impact of contamination on local communities. A number of proven technologies are available for arsenic removal from waters and wastewaters. In the presented work special attention is given to the adsorption method as a technically feasible, commonly applied and effective technique for the treatment of arsenic rich mine effluents. It is know that arsenic has a strong affinity towards iron rich materials. Thus, in this study the granular ferric hydroxides (CFH 12, provided by Kemira Oyj, Finland) was applied to remove As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficiency of the tested Fe-based material under various operating parameters, including composition of treated water, solution pH and temperature. The results obtained from the fixed bed adsorption tests demonstrated the benefits of applying granular ferric hydroxides for treatment As-contaminated waters. This research is a part of the study supported by the National Centre for Research and Development grant (2014-2017) "Sustainable and responsible supply of primary resources - SUSMIN" (http://projects.gtk.fi/susmin), within the EU ERA-NET ERA-MIN program.

  6. HIGH ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND ENRICHED SULFUR AND OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN A FRACTURED-BEDROCK GROUND-WATER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated arsenic concentrations are coincident with enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in bedrock ground water within Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the lack of correlations between sulfate concentrations an...

  7. Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora before and after Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuehui; Yuan, Xuewu; Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaoguang; Abdelgadir, Awad; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the bioleaching efficiency of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, a mixed bacterial flora had been developed, and the mutation breeding method was adopted to conduct the research. The original mixed bacterial flora had been enrichedin acid mine drainage of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi Province, China. It was induced by UV (ultraviolet), ultrasonic, and microwave, and their combination mutation. The most efficient bacterial flora after mutation was collected for further bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates. Results indicated that the bacterial flora after mutation by UV 60 s combined with ultrasonic 10 min had the best oxidation rate of ferrous, the biggest density of cells, and the most activity of total protein. During bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, the density of the mutant bacterial cells reached to 1.13 × 108 cells/mL at 15 days, more than 10 times compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of iron reached to 95.7% after 15 days, increased by 9.9% compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of arsenic reached to 92.6% after 12 days, which was increased by 46.1%. These results suggested that optimum combined mutation could improve leaching ability of the bacterial flora more significantly. PMID:24381948

  8. Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 19972008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061

  9. Arsenic levels in fingernails as a biological indicator of exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Agahian, B; Lee, J S; Nelson, J H; Johns, R E

    1990-12-01

    The analysis of urine, blood, and hair has been used previously to monitor occupational exposure to arsenic (As). Although arsenic is normally present in human fingernails (usually as a result of dietary factors), this study evaluated the potential use of levels of arsenic in fingernails as a biological indicator of occupational exposure to this element. Air samples and fingernail clippings were obtained from individuals with no exposure and high, medium, and low exposure. A washing technique, previously developed to remove exogenous arsenic from hair, was modified to wash the fingernail samples collected in this study. It was demonstrated that 98% of exogenous arsenic was removed from these nails. A high correlation coefficient (r = 0.89) was observed in a comparison of the mean air arsenic concentrations of each exposure group with corresponding arsenic levels in fingernails. From the data collected, an equation was derived to estimate the air arsenic exposure level for a worker from the arsenic content of fingernails: air arsenic concentration (micrograms As/m3) = 1.79 x fingernail arsenic level (micrograms As/g nail)-5.9. PMID:2270832

  10. Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water

    PubMed Central

    Spayd, Steven E.; Robson, Mark G.; Buckley, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations in the well water and obtaining water-use histories for each subject, including years of residence with the current well and amount of water consumed from the well per day. A series of urine samples were collected from the subjects, some starting before water treatment was installed and continuing for at least nine months after treatment had begun. Urine samples were analyzed and speciated for inorganic-related arsenic concentrations. A two-phase clearance of inorganic-related arsenic from urine and the likelihood of a significant body burden from chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water were identified. After nine months of water treatment the adjusted mean of the urinary inorganic-related arsenic concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.0005) in the point-of-entry treatment group (2.5 ?g/g creatinine) than in the point-of-use treatment group (7.2 ?g/g creatinine). The results suggest that whole house arsenic water treatment systems provide a more effective reduction of arsenic exposure from well water than that obtained by point-of-use treatment. PMID:24975493

  11. Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples exceeding 10, 50, 100, and 500 ug/L were calculated for the 174 towns with 20 or more sampled wells, and statewide maps were prepared for each of these categories. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 towns exceeded 10 ug/L. Many fewer towns had wells with samples that exceeded the 50, 100, or 500 ug/L categories. For 19 towns, more than 10 percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 ug/L, and in 45 towns, 1 percent or more exceeded 100 ug/L. Of these, Surry in Hancock County had 120 wells tested, and 23 percent of those wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 100 ug/L, which is a much higher rate than for other towns. In only four towns (Danforth in Washington County, Surry and Blue Hill in Hancock County, and Woolwich in Sagadahoc County), 1 percent or more of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 500 ug/L during 2005-09. The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally geologically controlled. There are clusters or belts of towns with high arsenic concentrations (> 50 ug/L), such as in southern coastal areas, the Kennebec County area, and towns along the central coastal part of Maine. In contrast, there are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such as the northernmost towns, as well as towns in the western and west-central areas. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater-one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. Earlier testing has identified other clusters of very high arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the towns of Northport, Buxton/Hollis, and Waldoboro, but those samples were collected before 2005 and did not factor in this analysis.

  12. [Methodological study on the determination of oxiracetam concentration in serum and urine by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Jiao, X L; Yu, D H; Zou, A Q; Lou, Y Q

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of oxiracetam concentration in serum and urine by HPLC. Acyclovir was used as an internal standard. The analytical column was a stainless-steel column (30 mm x 4.6 mm ID) filled with 10 microns Bondapak NH2. A mixture of acetonitrile and water (80: 20) as mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 1 ml.min-1. Detection was performed at 210 nm. The retention times were 6.3 min for oxiracetam and 8.1 min for the internal standard. The lower detection limits were 1 microgram.ml-1 for serum and 20 micrograms.ml-1 for urine. The precision and accuracy within-day and day-to-day for both serum and urine samples ranged from 5.0 to 10.7%. The mean recoveries were 99.7 +/- 5.9% and 99.0 +/- 5.6% for human serum and urine, respectively. The results showed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable and good enough to be used in studying the clinical pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam. PMID:7985515

  13. Speciated arsenic concentrations, exposure, and associated health risks for rice and bulgur.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Gzelkaya, Hilal; Akgl, zlem; Kavcar, P?nar; Kurucaoval?, Filiz; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    2014-02-01

    Arsenic species were determined in rice and bulgur samples that were collected from 50 participants who also supplied exposure related information through a questionnaire survey. Speciation analysis was conducted using an HPLC-ICP-MS system. Ingestion exposure to arsenic and associated health risks were assessed by combining the concentration and questionnaire data both for individual participants and the subject population. Inorganic arsenic dominated both in rice and bulgur but concentrations were about an order of magnitude higher in rice (16038 ng/g) than in bulgur. Because participants also consumed more rice than bulgur, exposures were significantly higher for rice resulting in carcinogenic risks above acceptable level for 53% and 93% of the participants when the in-effect and the proposed potencies were used, respectively, compared to 0% and 5% for bulgur. An inorganic arsenic standard for rice would be useful to lower the risks while public awareness about the relation between excessive rice consumption and health risks is built, and bulgur consumption is promoted. PMID:24296133

  14. Arsenic methylation efficiency increases during the first trimester of pregnancy independent of folate status.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Renee M; Nermell, Barbro; Kippler, Maria; Grandr, Margaretha; Li, Li; Ekstrm, Eva-Charlotte; Rahman, Anisur; Lnnerdal, Bo; Hoque, A M Waheedul; Vahter, Marie

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic during pregnancy may negatively influence the offspring, though efficient metabolism of arsenic to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) likely reduces the health risks. This study aimed to evaluate methylation of arsenic over the entire pregnancy and the influence of nutritional status. We studied longitudinally the arsenic metabolite pattern in the urine of 324 pregnant women exposed to arsenic via drinking water and food in rural Bangladesh. Metabolism of arsenic to DMA increased markedly over the course of pregnancy, with the greatest improvement occurring in the first trimester, along with a marked decrease in the most risk-associated monomethylated metabolite. This improvement in methylation was not associated with nutritional status, including vitamin B(12) and folate. Efficient methylation to DMA was associated with improved urinary excretion of arsenic, relative to blood arsenic concentrations, indicating that micronutrient-independent up-regulation of arsenic metabolism already in early pregnancy may provide protection for the fetus. PMID:21078382

  15. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  16. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.2360.677 kBq/L and 1.7040.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 ?Sv/year and 0.532 ?Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 ?Sv/year.

  17. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-09-15

    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 ?g/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density. PMID:23892312

  18. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to calcium silicate containing different arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    MINOTTI, Paloma Gagliardi; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue in implanted polyethylene tubes that were filled with GMTA Angelus and Portland cements containing different arsenic concentrations. Material and Methods Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized to obtain the values of the arsenic concentration in the materials. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 animals for each experimental period. Each animal received two implants of polyethylene tubes filled with different test cements and the lateral of the tubes was used as a control group. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and the specimens were prepared for descriptive and morphometric analysis considering: inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, blood vessels and other components. The results were analyzed utilizing the Kuskal-Wallis test and the Dunn´s Multiple test for comparison (p<0.05). Results The materials showed, according to atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the following doses of arsenic: GMTA Angelus: 5.01 mg/kg, WPC Irajazinho: 0.69 mg/kg, GPC Minetti: 18.46 mg/kg and GPC Votoran: 10.76 mg/kg. In a 60-day periods, all specimens displayed a neoformation of connective tissue with a structure of fibrocellular aspect (capsule). Control groups and MTA Angelus produced the lower amount of inflammatory reaction and GPC Minetti, the highest reaction. Conclusions There was no direct relationship between the concentration of arsenic present in the composition of the materials and the intensity of the inflammatory reactions. Higher values, as 18.46 mg/kg of arsenic in the cement, produce characteristics of severe inflammation reaction at the 60-day period. The best results were found in MTA angelus. PMID:25075671

  19. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 2. Acute exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1986-08-01

    The concentration and chemical composition of arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters between 0.2 and 6 hr after an intraperitoneal injection of a teratogenic dose of radiolabeled sodium arsenate on the morning of the eighth day of gestation. Arsenic was present in plasma and red cells 0.20 hr postinjection. The plasma arsenic concentration reached a maximum of 220 ..mu..mole/kg blood near 0.5 hr postinjection. Plasma arsenic existed entirely as low-molecular-weight species. Both arsenite and dimethylarsinate (DMA) were present in plasma 0.20 hr postinjection, indicating that arsenate reduction and methylation of arsenic are rapidly initiated. However, the arsenite contribution remained small while the DMA contribution increased with time. Red cells arsenic included macromolecular arsenic (AsP) as well as three low-molecular-weight forms. The contribution of DMA remained small, but arsenite and AsP contributions increased with time. These findings identify the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic following the administration of a teratogenic dose of arsenate during the period of organogenesis. They could prove useful for predicting the likelihood of a teratogenic outcome in other mammalian species.

  20. Role of UTB urea transporters in the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Layton, Anita T

    2007-04-01

    A mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney was used to investigate urine concentrating mechanism function in animals lacking the UTB urea transporter. The UTB transporter is believed to mediate countercurrent urea exchange between descending vasa recta (DVR) and ascending vasa recta (AVR) by facilitating urea transport across DVR endothelia. The model represents the outer medulla (OM) and inner medulla (IM), with the actions of the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. In the base-case model configuration tubular dimensions and transport parameters are based on, or estimated from, experimental measurements or immunohistochemical evidence in wild-type rats. The base-case model configuration generated an osmolality gradient along the cortico-medullary axis that is consistent with measurements from rats in a moderately antidiuretic state. When expression of UTB was eliminated in the model, model results indicated that, relative to wild-type, the OM cortico-medullary osmolality gradient and the net urea flow through the OM were little affected by absence of UTB transporter. However, because urea transfer from AVR to DVR was much reduced, urea trapping by countercurrent exchange was significantly compromised. Consequently, urine urea concentration and osmolality were decreased by 12% and 8.9% from base case, respectively, with most of the reduction attributable to the impaired IM concentrating mechanism. These results indicate that the in vivo urine concentrating defect in knockout mouse, reported by Yang et al. (J Biol Chem 277(12), 10633-10637, 2002), is not attributable to an OM concentrating mechanism defect, but that reduced urea trapping by long vasa recta plays a significant role in compromising the concentrating mechanism of the IM. Moreover, model results are in general agreement with the explanation of knockout renal function proposed by Yang et al. PMID:17265123

  1. A Cross-sectional Study of the Impact of Blood Selenium on Blood and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic can naturally occur in the groundwater without an anthropogenic source of contamination. In Bangladesh over 50 million people are exposed to naturally occurring arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organizations guideline of 10 ?g/L. Selenium and arsenic have been shown to facilitate the excretion of each other in bile. Recent evidence suggests that selenium may play a role in arsenic elimination by forming a selenium-arsenic conjugate in the liver before excretion into the bile. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1601 adults and 287 children was conducted to assess the relationship between blood selenium and urinary and blood arsenic in a study population residing in a moderately arsenic-contaminated rural area in Bangladesh. Results The results of this study indicate a statistically significant inverse relationship between blood selenium and urinary arsenic concentrations in both adult and pediatric populations in rural Bangladesh after adjustment for age, sex, Body Mass Index, plasma folate and B12 (in children), and ever smoking and current betel nut use (in adults). In addition, there appears to be a statistically significant inverse relationship between blood selenium and blood arsenic in children. Conclusions Our results suggest that selenium is inversely associated with biomarkers of arsenic burden in both adults and children. These findings support the hypothesis that Se facilitates the biliary elimination of As, possibly via the putative formation of a Se-As conjugate using a glutathione complex. However, laboratory based studies are needed to provide further evidence to elucidate the presence of Se-As conjugate and its role in arsenic elimination in humans. PMID:23816141

  2. Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F.

    2008-10-15

    In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

  3. Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Isomer Concentrations in Human Urine Following Controlled Vicks VapoInhaler Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC–MS method with >99% purity of R-(−)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC–MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0–1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT® II Plus, KIMS® II and DRI® had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT® II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

  4. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

  5. Folic acid supplementation lowers blood arsenic2

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Mary V; Liu, Xinhua; Slavkovich, Vesna; Pilsner, J Richard; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Levy, Diane; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Mominul; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure currently affects >100 million persons worldwide. Methylation of ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) to monomethylarsonic (MMAs) and dimethylarsinic (DMAs) acids relies on folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and facilitates urinary arsenic elimination. Objective We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation to arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults would increase arsenic methylation and thereby lower total blood arsenic. Design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated blood concentrations of total arsenic, InAs, MMAs, and DMAs in 130 participants with low plasma folate (<9 nmol/L) before and after 12 wk of supplementation with folic acid (400 ?g/d) or placebo. Results MMAs in blood was reduced by a mean SE of 22.24 2.86% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 1.24 3.59% in the placebe group (P < 0.0001). There was no change in DMAs in blood; DMAs is rapidly excreted in urine as evidenced by an increase in urinary DMAs (P = 0.0099). Total blood arsenic was reduced by 13.62% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 2.49% in the placebo group (P = 0.0199). Conclusions Folic acid supplementation to participants with low plasma concentrations of folate lowered blood arsenic concentrations, primarily by decreasing blood MMAs and increasing urinary DMAs. Therapeutic strategies to facilitate arsenic methylation, particularly in populations with folate deficiency or hyperhomocysteinemia or both, may lower blood arsenic concentrations and thereby contribute to the prevention of arsenic-induced illnesses. PMID:17921403

  6. Relationship of arsenic concentration with ammonium-nitrogen concentration, oxidation reduction potential and pH of groundwater in arsenic-contaminated areas in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu

    This study examines how arsenic (As) concentration is related to ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and pH in groundwater to determine if they have common characteristics in groundwater with high As concentrations in the As-contaminated areas of Bangladesh, Nepal, Cambodia and Vietnam. For the groundwater samples having the three highest As concentrations (top three groundwaters) selected as representatives at each location, As and NH4-N concentrations varied, but ORP and pH did not vary by locations. The ORP value of 30-110 mV, indicating the reducing condition, and the neutral to slightly alkaline pH (pH 7.0-7.6) were presumed to be the key conditions for high As concentrations in groundwater of the study areas. According to the ORP (Eh)-pH diagram, the dominant As species in the top three groundwaters from each location was hydrogen arsenate (HAsO42-). Out of the correlations between the four elements for the top three groundwaters in the areas, only the correlation between As and NH4-N concentrations was positive and significant. Thus, it was identified that NH4-N had an effect on increasing As concentration in groundwater.

  7. Urine Concentrating Ability in Infants with Sickle Cell Disease: Baseline Data from the Phase III Trial of Hydroxyurea (BABY HUG)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi; Rana, Sohail; Lane, Peter; Ware, Russell E.; Li, Daner; Rees, Renée C.

    2009-01-01

    Background A urine concentrating defect is quite common in sickle cell anemia, has its onset in early childhood, and may be reversible with transfusion. The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing organ damage in young children with sickle cell anemia. Procedures Enrolled infants were subjected to parent-supervised fluid deprivation and urine and serum osmolality were determined. Results Of 185 infants age 7.5 – 17.9 months (mean 13.0+/-2.7) and fluid-deprived 7.4+/-2.4 hours (range 4-13), 178 had concurrent determinations of urine and serum osmolality. Mean serum osmolality was 286+/-6 mOsm/kg H2O (range 275-312) and independent of age, height, weight, or duration of fluid deprivation. Urine osmolality (mean 407+/-151, range 58-794 mOsm/ kg H2O) was greater than serum (p<0.0001) and correlated with duration of fluid deprivation (p=0.001). Of 142 (77.2%) who concentrated urine, 54 (29.4%) had urine osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality correlated with 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p=0.02) and serum urea nitrogen (p<0.0001), but not with serum osmolality, gender, age, height, weight or serum creatinine. Infants able to produce urine with osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O had higher mean fetal hemoglobin concentrations than did those who could not (p=0.014). Conclusions Even with often limited fluid deprivation, 77.2 percent of young infants with sickle cell anemia were able to concentrate urine. Preservation of concentrating ability was associated with higher fetal hemoglobin concentration. Assessment will be repeated after two years of hydroxyurea or placebo treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006400.) PMID:19621454

  8. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  9. Normative concentrations of urine thiocyanate in cassava eating communities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A; Oludiran, A O

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to cyanide is a major public health problem where highly cyanogenic cassava foods are consumed. Thiocyanate (SCN), the biomarker of exposure to cyanide is present in several foods, and produced endogenously. Concentrations of urine SCN were measured in endemic and non-endemic areas of ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria. Cassava food consumption in the endemic area was twice that of non-endemic areas. Geometrical mean (95% CI) urine SCN was 20?mol/l (18-24) for no consumption of cassava foods, 56?mol/l (49-64) for daily consumption, 56?mol/l (48-65) for twice daily consumption and 85?mol/l (62-117) for thrice daily consumption. 95th percentile reference limit was 125?mol/l for no consumption of cassava food, but 360?mol/l for thrice daily consumption. Urine SCN is a useful biomarker of exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. There is strong ecological association of exposure to cyanide and endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:23944969

  10. Regression models to estimate the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic and as such their exposure is of serious concern. Regression models to estimate the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (?PAH) in urine were developed. Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 and 2011-2012, regression models were developed to estimate ?PAH in urine. The performance of the fitted models were computed by comparing percent predicted values located between 0 and 5%, 5-10%, 15-20% and >20% of the observed values. While data for 2003-2008 were used to fit the regression models, the data for 2011-2012 were solely used to evaluate the performance of the fitted models. R(2) of the fitted model was 94.7%. About 46% of the predicted values for the 2003-2008 data and over 48% of the predicted values for the 2011-2012 data were found to be between 0 and 10% of the observed values. In order to use these models, in addition to age, gender, and smoking status, and optionally race/ethnicity, the knowledge of the levels of only 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, and 9-hydroxyfluorene is necessary. Models that optionally require the knowledge of the levels of urine creatinine were also developed. PMID:26735733

  11. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Citation Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F, Manservisi F, Falcioni L, Bua L, Silva MJ, Ye X, Calafat AM, Chen J. 2016. Paired serum and urine concentrations of biomarkers of diethyl phthalate, methyl paraben, and triclosan in rats. Environ Health Perspect 124:39–45; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409586 PMID:26047088

  12. [Environmental tobacco smoke--assessment of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of exposed medicine students].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is ranked as one of the factors of confirmed carcinogenicity to human. It consists of the mixture of smoke exhaled by the smoker as well as the sidestream smoke and contains many times higher concentrations of some toxic substances in comparison to the amount of toxic compounds inhaled by a smoker. From many years the issue of passive smoking has been the subject of many research and still not all of its aspects of affecting human health have been explored. Apart from the tobacco varieties, also diverse additives added during the process of tobacco manufacturing, including particularly carbohydrates, influence the composition of the environmental tobacco smoke. During smoking they can undergo many complex transformations, as a result of which toxic components of the environmental tobacco smoke are formed, carbonyl compounds in particular, like aldehydes. They are marked by a significant chemical reactivity which enables them to modify amino groups of proteins leading to the changes in their structure, biological functions and often antigenicity. Therefore their influence to the human body is the cause of numerous adverse health effects caused by the increase in free radical processes which can constitute to the source of these compounds. Well known representative of this group of xenobiotics is formaldehyde as a compound that reflects well the environmental exposure to carbonyl compounds. The considerable source of this compound is tobacco smoke. Therefore analysis of formaldehyde in body fluids is a valuable biomonitoring tool of exposure to it. The aim of this study was the evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of medicine students exposed to ETS. The study material consisted of 149 urine samples of students from School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia. The concentration of formaldehyde in urine samples was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the Purpald reagent. To verify the collected questionnaire data regarding exposure to constituents of tobacco smoke, the immuno-enzymatic method was used to determine main nicotine metabolites in tested urine samples. This enabled dividing the investigated students' group into active smokers, passively exposed to tobacco smoke and not exposed. Analysis of obtained results showed that mean concentration of formaldehyde in urine of active smokers (68.45 ± 58.67 µmol/l) and passive smokers (79.23 ± 53.64 µmol/l) were significantly higher in comparison to not exposed students (42.99 ± 30.29 µmol/l). Mean concentrations of formaldehyde in urine samples of active and passive smokers are comparable. The results of our study allow to conclude that passive exposure to tobacco smoke is an equivalent source of exposure to active smoking regarding formaldehyde adverse influence to human. Applied method enables to quick evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in biological samples. PMID:26731871

  13. Biomarkers of Exposure: A Case Study with Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental contaminant inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Most mammals metabolize iAs by reducing it to trivalency, followed by oxidative methylation to pentavalency. iAs and its methylated metabolites are primarily excreted in urine within 45 days by most species and have a relatively low rate of bioaccumulation. Intra- and interindividual differences in the methylation of iAs may affect the adverse health effects of arsenic. Both inorganic and organic trivalent arsenicals are more potent toxicants than pentavalent forms. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed for arsenic-induced toxicity, but a scientific consensus has not been achieved. Biomarkers of exposure may be used to quantify exposure to iAs. The most common biomarker of exposure for iAs is the measurement of total urinary arsenic. However, consumption of seafood containing high concentrations of organic arsenic can confound estimation of iAs exposure. Because these organic species are thought to be relatively nontoxic, their presence in urine may not represent increased risk. Speciation of urinary arsenic into inorganic and organic forms, and even oxidation state, gives a more definitive indication of the exposure to iAs. Questions still remain, however, as to how reliably the measurement of urinary arsenic, either total or speciated, may predict arsenic concentrations at target tissues as well as how this measurement could be used to assess chronic exposures to iAs. PMID:17107869

  14. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  15. [A study of the literature on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in body fluids and tissues to define normal values and detection of overload. 1. Description of analytical methods and arsenic].

    PubMed

    Baron, P; Schweinsberg, F

    1988-07-01

    The present review covers 208 papers dealing with determination of the metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in human biologic material. A comprehensive data bank survey of the literature from January 1980 to April 1984 was conducted and supplemented by review of some earlier publications. As shown by comparison of the results from a number of papers, the various state-of-the-art methods for determining metal content in biologic materials (e.g., atomic absorption spectrophotometry, neutron activation analysis, and x-ray fluorescent analysis) appear to be equally sensitive and reliable. These detection methods are suited to determination of the above metals in the following media: arsenic in urine, hair; cadmium in blood, urine, hair, renal cortex; lead in blood, hair; mercury in blood, urine, hair. To permit better comparison of the results presented in various publications, agreement must be reached on use of uniform concentration units and participation in quality control programs. Safe levels of chronic biological exposure overlap with concentrations which cause health effects or measurable impairment of body function over a wide range. Individual sensitivity to biological exposure varies. In a number of studies, metal concentrations are measured in symptom-free persons which cause symptoms in persons examined in other studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of detection of symptoms, the range of minimum levels of biological exposure considered to be associated with deleterious health effects (levels of critical exposure) is unacceptably broad. Minimum levels of critical exposure should protect against development of early symptoms of toxicity. If the lowest published critical levels of biological exposure are taken as a cutoff, then a sizable portion of the persons currently revealing metal exposure in any of the reported media exceeds such levels. Symptoms of detrimental effects should be detectable in such persons and should be investigated. In establishing and evaluating current minimum levels of critical chronic metal exposure, there is a general need for a quantitative increase in determinations and for a qualitative increase in the sensitivity of detection of symptoms and other health effects--in order to avoid dependence on reports of acute toxicity. When detected levels of a given metal are in a range held to be normal, exclusion of toxic effects and poisoning requires additional consideration of clinical findings. PMID:3140534

  16. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  17. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativexa cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7105.3 %, imprecision 1.46.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.592.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.347.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  18. Urine-concentrating defects exacerbate with age in male offspring with a low-nephron endowment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reetu R; Denton, Kate M; Bertram, John F; Dowling, John; Moritz, Karen M

    2011-12-01

    Fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) in male sheep at 100 days of gestation (term = 150 days) reduces overall nephron endowment without affecting birth weight. Offspring have a lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 6 mo of age. This study investigated whether this reduction in renal function was associated with impaired urine-concentrating ability at 6 mo of age and exacerbated with ageing (4 yr) and examined response to 1) nonpressor dose of exogenous arginine vasopressin (AVP; 0.2 ?gkg(-1)h(-1) iv) and 2) 30 h of water deprivation. Basal MAP was higher in uni-x animals at both ages, and became further elevated with age compared with the sham group (elevation in MAP with age; sham: ~4 mmHg, uni-x: 9 mmHg, P(group age) < 0.01). GFR declined with ageing in both groups with the decrease being greater with age in the uni-x group (further 26%, P(group age) < 0.001). In response to AVP infusion, urine osmolality increased in both treatment groups; this response was significantly lower in the uni-x animals and became further reduced with ageing. Uni-x animals had reduced renal expression of vasopressin-2 receptor and aquaporin-2 at both ages (P < 0.01). The increase in plasma AVP levels in response to dehydration was similar between the treatment groups, suggesting the urine-concentrating defect was associated with these renal gene changes rather than defects in AVP secretion. Renal insufficiency due to a low-nephron endowment increases the risk of hypertension and chronic renal disease and may incur greater vulnerability to physiological challenges such as water deprivation as observed in the uni-x animals. PMID:21921022

  19. Predicting arsenic concentrations in the porewaters of buried uranium mill tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, Donald; Mahoney, John; MacDonald, Anjali; Rowson, John

    1999-10-01

    The proposed JEB Tailings Management Facility (TMF) to be emplaced below the groundwater table in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, will contain uranium mill tailings from McClean Lake, Midwest and Cigar Lake ore bodies, which are high in arsenic (up to 10%) and nickel (up to 5%). A serious concern is the possibility that high arsenic and nickel concentrations may be released from the buried tailings, contaminating adjacent groundwaters and a nearby lake. Laboratory tests and geochemical modeling were performed to examine ways to reduce the arsenic and nickel concentrations in TMF porewaters so as to minimize such contamination from tailings buried for 50 years and longer. The tests were designed to mimic conditions in the mill neutralization circuit (3 hr tests at 25C), and in the TMF after burial (5-49 day aging tests). The aging tests were run at, 50, 25 and 4C (the temperature in the TMF). In order to optimize the removal of arsenic by adsorption and precipitation, ferric sulfate was added to tailings raffinates having Fe/As ratios of less that 3-5. The acid raffinates were then neutralized by addition of slaked lime to nominal pH values of 7, 8, or 9. Analysis and modeling of the test results showed that with slaked lime addition to acid tailings raffinates, relatively amorphous scorodite (ferric arsenate) precipitates near pH 1, and is the dominant form of arsenate in slake limed tailings solids except those high in Ni and As and low in Fe, in which cabrerite-annabergite (Ni, Mg, Fe(II) arsenate) may also precipitate near pH 5-6. In addition to the arsenate precipitates, smaller amounts of arsenate are also adsorbed onto tailings solids. The aging tests showed that after burial of the tailings, arsenic concentrations may increase with time from the breakdown of the arsenate phases (chiefly scorodite). However, the tests indicate that the rate of change decreases and approaches zero after 72 hrs at 25C, and may equal zero at all times in the TMF at 4C. Consistent with a kinetic model that describes the rate of breakdown of scorodite to form hydrous ferric oxide, the rate of release of dissolved arsenate to tailings porewaters from slake limed tailings: (1) is proportional to pH above pH 6-7; (2) decreases exponentially as the total molar Fe/As ratio of tailings raffinates is increased from 1/1 to greater than 5/1; and (3) is proportional to temperature with an average Arrhenius activation energy of 13.4 4.2 kcal/mol. Study results suggest that if ferric sulfate and slaked lime are added in the tailings neutralization circuit to give a raffinate Fe/As molar ratio of at least 3-5 and a nominal (initial) pH of 8 (final pH of 7-8), arsenic and nickel concentrations of 2 mg/L or less, are probable in porewaters of individual tailings in the TMF for 50 to 10,000 yrs after tailings disposal. However, the tailings will be mixed in the TMF, which will contain about 35% tailings with Fe/As = 3.0, and 65% tailings with Fe/As = 5.0-7.7. Thus, it seems likely that average arsenic pore water concentrations in the TMF may not exceed 1 mg/L.

  20. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  1. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. PMID:25841211

  2. Family correlations of arsenic methylation patterns in children and parents exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joyce S; Kalman, David A; Moore, Lee E; Kosnett, Michael J; Arroyo, Alex P; Beeris, Martin; Mazumder, D N Guha; Hernandez, Alexandra L; Smith, Allan H

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the evidence of a familial contribution to urinary methylation patterns in families ingesting arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic methylation can be assessed by measuring urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (InAs) and its methylated metabolites, monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Methylation activity is reflected in the ratios: InAs/methylated arsenic (InAs/metAs) and MMA/DMA. Eleven families from Chile were selected because of their long-term exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water (735-762 microg/L). Each family consisted of a father, a mother, and two children. We measured urinary arsenic and its methylated metabolites for each participant (n = 44). The intraclass correlation coefficients showed that 13-52% of the variations in the methylation patterns were from being a member of a specific family. Family correlations were calculated for father-mother, parent-child, and sibling-sibling pairs. Methylation patterns correlated strongly between siblings [r = 0.78 for InAs/metAs, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.94; r = 0.82 for MMA/DMA, 95%CI, 0.43-0.95] compared to lower correlations in father-mother pairs (r = 0.18, r = -0.01, respectively), after adjustment for total urinary arsenic, age, and sex. Family correlations were not notably altered when adjustments were made for specific blood micronutrients (methionine, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6, selenium, and vitamin B12 potentially related to methylation. We also report on a family pedigree with high prevalence of arsenic-induced effects. Participants from this family had low InAs/metAs values, which is consistent with increased toxicity of trivalent methylated arsenic species. Despite our small sample size, we observed that methylation patterns aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Larger studies with more extensive pedigrees will need to be conducted to confirm these findings. PMID:12117651

  3. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

  4. Bacterial community succession during the enrichment of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria at high arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen, Ai; Sato, Akiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-01-01

    To generate cost-effective technologies for the removal of arsenic from water, we developed an enrichment culture of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria (CAOs) that could effectively oxidize widely ranging concentrations of As(III) to As(V). In addition, we attempted to elucidate the enrichment process and characterize the microbial composition of the enrichment culture. A CAOs enrichment culture capable of stably oxidizing As(lII) to As(V) was successfully constructed through repeated batch cultivation for more than 700 days, during which time the initial As(III) concentrations were increased in a stepwise manner from 1 to 10-12 mmol/L. As(III) oxidation activity of the enrichment culture gradually improved, and 10-12 mmol/L As(III) was almost completely oxidized within four days. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the enrichment culture varied drastically during the enrichment process depending on the As(III) concentration. Isolation and characterization of bacteria in the enrichment culture revealed that the presence of multiple CAOs with various As(III) oxidation abilities enabled the culture to adapt to a wide range of As(III) concentrations. The CAOs enrichment culture constructed here may be useful for pretreatment of water from which arsenic is being removed. PMID:23534210

  5. Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?

    PubMed Central

    Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G

    2013-01-01

    The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:18801773

  6. Urinary arsenic speciation profile in ethnic group of the Atacama desert (Chile) exposed to variable arsenic levels in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yez, Jorge; Mansilla, Hctor D; Santander, I Paola; Fierro, Vladimir; Cornejo, Lorena; Barnes, Ramn M; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic groups from the Atacama Desert (known as Atacameos) have been exposed to natural arsenic pollution for over 5000years. This work presents an integral study that characterizes arsenic species in water used for human consumption. It also describes the metabolism and arsenic elimination through urine in a chronically exposed population in northern Chile. In this region, water contained total arsenic concentrations up to 1250?g L(-1), which was almost exclusively As(V). It is also important that this water was ingested directly from natural water sources without any treatment. The ingested arsenic was extensively methylated. In urine 93% of the arsenic was found as methylated arsenic species, such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. The original ingested inorganic species [As(V)], represent less than 1% of the total urinary arsenic. Methylation activity among individuals can be assessed by measuring primary [inorganic As/methylated As] and secondary methylation [MMA/DMA] indexes. Both methylation indexes were 0.06, indicating a high biological converting capability of As(V) into MMA and then MMA into DMA, compared with the control population and other arsenic exposed populations previously reported. PMID:25438126

  7. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U.; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (?700 g/L) and coexposure to barium (137 g/L) and arsenic (225 g/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 g/L) and barium (700 g/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 g/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system. PMID:23805262

  8. [Acute methoxetamine intoxication--a case report with serum and urine concentrations].

    PubMed

    ?ukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Tezyk, Artur; Zieli?ska-Psuja, Barbara; Druzdz, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel synthetic drug, structurally related to phencyclidine, with ketamine-like properties. Available in Poland since 2010, with no legal control, is adverti. sed as the "ideal dissociation drug". The aim of this study was to present a case of nasal methoxetamine acute poisoning in a 28-year-old man, the course of treatment, and the method of identification of this substance in serum and urine. In the course of this intoxication extreme agitation and aggression with slight response to benzodiazepines were observed. The patient was confused, hallucinated. In addition, the physical examination re. vealed tachycardia 120/min and normal blood pressure (130/80 mm Hg). The period of acute poisoning was covered by amnesia. The MXE concentrations in serum and urine were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method, and were respectively 270 ng/ml and 660 ng/ml. Confirmed MXE poisoning increases our knowledge about this new substance, providing relevant clinical and analytical data. PMID:24466717

  9. Nickel concentrations in serum and urine of patients with nickel eczema.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, N H; Menn, T; Byrialsen, K

    1999-09-01

    This study is a part of the Biological Risk Assessment of Human Metal Sensitisation (BRAHMS) project with the aim of elucidating clinical and physiological effects of repeated exposures to low concentrations of metal allergens. Nickel allergic individuals (n = 35) with hand eczema and healthy controls (n = 30) were included in the study. Both groups had similar levels of nickel in urine, while the level of nickel in serum was significantly lower in nickel allergic individuals compared to controls. Nickel allergic individuals had a significantly lower intake of nickel-rich food items (chocolate, nuts, beans, porridge oats). Serum nickel levels correlated with intake of these foods, suggesting that the difference in serum nickel levels was caused by differences in dietary nickel intake. PMID:10511261

  10. Assessment of Arsenic Exposure by Measurement of Urinary Speciated Inorganic Arsenic Metabolites in Workers in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the exposure to arsenic in preventive maintenance (PM) engineers in a semiconductor industry by detecting speciated inorganic arsenic metabolites in the urine. Methods The exposed group included 8PM engineers from the clean process area and 13PM engineers from the ion implantation process area; the non-exposed group consisted of 14 office workers from another company who were not occupationally exposed to arsenic. A spot urine specimen was collected from each participant for the detection and measurement of speciated inorganic arsenic metabolites. Metabolites were separated by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Results Urinary arsenic metabolite concentrations were 1.73g/L, 0.76g/L, 3.45g/L, 43.65g/L, and 51.32g/L for trivalent arsenic (As3+), pentavalent arsenic (As5+), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and total inorganic arsenic metabolites (As3+ + As5+ + MMA?+?DMA), respectively, in clean process PM engineers. In ion implantation process PM engineers, the concentrations were 1.74g/L, 0.39g/L, 3.08g/L, 23.17g/L, 28.92g/L for As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, and total inorganic arsenic metabolites, respectively. Levels of urinary As3+, As5+, MMA, and total inorganic arsenic metabolites in clean process PM engineers were significantly higher than that in the non-exposed group. Urinary As3+ and As5+ levels in ion implantation process PM engineers were significantly higher than that in non-exposed group. Conclusion Levels of urinary arsenic metabolites in PM engineers from the clean process and ion implantation process areas were higher than that in office workers. For a complete assessment of arsenic exposure in the semiconductor industry, further studies are needed. PMID:24472712

  11. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10μg/L to 640μg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p≤0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40μg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure. PMID:26674699

  12. Use of a pre-analysis osmolality normalisation method to correct for variable urine concentrations and for improved metabolomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chetwynd, Andrew J; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Holt, Stephen G; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-29

    Metabolomics analyses of urine have the potential to provide new information on the detection and progression of many disease processes. However, urine samples can vary significantly in total solute concentration and this presents a challenge to achieve high quality metabolomic datasets and the detection of biomarkers of disease or environmental exposures. This study investigated the efficacy of pre- and post-analysis normalisation methods to analyse metabolomic datasets obtained from neat and diluted urine samples from five individuals. Urine samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to metabolomic analyses using a sensitive nanoflow/nanospray LC-MS technique and the data analysed by principal component analyses (PCA). Post-analysis normalisation of the datasets to either creatinine or osmolality concentration, or to mass spectrum total signal (MSTS), revealed that sample discrimination was driven by the dilution factor of urine rather than the individual providing the sample. Normalisation of urine samples to equal osmolality concentration prior to LC-MS analysis resulted in clustering of the PCA scores plot according to sample source and significant improvements in the number of peaks common to samples of all three dilutions from each individual. In addition, the ability to identify discriminating markers, using orthogonal partial least squared-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), was greatly improved when pre-analysis normalisation to osmolality was compared with post-analysis normalisation to osmolality and non-normalised datasets. Further improvements for peak area repeatability were observed in some samples when the pre-analysis normalisation to osmolality was combined with a post-analysis mass spectrum total useful signal (MSTUS) or MSTS normalisation. Future adoption of such normalisation methods may reduce the variability in metabolomics analyses due to differing urine concentrations and improve the discovery of discriminating metabolites associated with sample source. PMID:26755417

  13. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98?g/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  14. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  15. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio; Razo, Luz Maria del; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge . E-mail: jorgeep@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  16. High soil and groundwater arsenic levels induce high body arsenic loads, health risk and potential anemia for inhabitants of northeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Masumeh; Mehrzad, Jalil; Mahmudy Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein; Afshari, Reza; Dadsetan, Ahmad; Hami, Shakiba

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic bioavailability in rock, soil and water resources is notoriously hazardous. Geogenic arsenic enters the body and adversely affects many biochemical processes in animals and humans, posing risk to public health. Chelpu is located in NE Iran, where realgar, orpiment and pyrite mineralization is the source of arsenic in the macroenvironment. Using cluster random sampling strategy eight rocks, 23 soils, 12 drinking water resources, 36 human urine and hair samples and 15 adult sheep urine and wool samples in several large-scale herds in the area were randomly taken for quantification of arsenic in rock/soil/water, wool/hair/urine. Arsenic levels in rock/soil/water and wool/hair/urine were measured using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. While arsenic levels in rocks, soils and water resources hazardously ranged 9.40-25,873.3 mg kg(-1), 7.10-1448.80 mg kg(-1) and 12-606 μg L(-1), respectively, arsenic concentrations in humans' hair and urine and sheep's wool and urine varied from 0.37-1.37 μg g(-1) and 9-271.4 μg L(-1) and 0.3-3.11 μg g(-1) and 29.1-1015 μg L(-1), respectively. Local sheep and human were widely sick and slightly anemic. Hematological examination of the inhabitants revealed that geogenic arsenic could harm blood cells, potentially resulting in many other hematoimmunological disorders including cancer. The findings warn widespread exposure of animals and human in this agroecologically and geopolitically important region (i.e., its proximity with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan) and give a clue on how arsenic could induce infectious and non-infectious diseases in highly exposed human/animals. PMID:26100324

  17. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

  18. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  19. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  20. Concentration of Selected Metals in Whole Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Short Stature and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Klatka, Maria; Błażewicz, Anna; Partyka, Małgorzata; Kołłątaj, Witold; Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2015-08-01

    The short stature in children is defined as height below the third percentile from the mean for age and gender. This problem affects about 3% of young people. More than 20,000 children in Poland have problems with short stature. There is not much information available in the literature on the study of metals in blood, plasma, and urine in children with short stature. The study was conducted on a group of 56 short stature Polish children and 35 healthy children. The content of metals was determined using high-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The study revealed significant differences between the content of selected metals in body fluids between a short stature group and healthy children. There were significant differences in the Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations between the groups with respect to the hormonal therapy. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the area where the children lived. The results showed no statistically significant differences between metal concentration and age, body weight, and height. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between the content of metals in body fluids in short stature children compared with the healthy children. It seems that the difference in the concentration of certain elements may also be the result of growth hormone therapy and the interaction between various metals. Both the alterations in the content of metals and their mutual interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of short stature children. PMID:25855373

  1. Evaluation of Urine Aquaporin 1 and Perilipin 2 Concentrations as Biomarkers to Screen for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Jeremiah J.; Mellnick, Vincent M.; Luo, Jinquin; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Figenshau, R. Sherburne; Bhayani, Sam; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Early detection of small asymptomatic kidney tumors presages better patient outcome. Incidental discovery of asymptomatic renal tumors by abdominal imaging is expensive and cannot reliably distinguish benign from malignant tumors. OBJECTIVE This investigation evaluated the clinical utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin-2 (PLIN2) concentrations as unique noninvasive biomarkers to diagnose malignant clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a screening paradigm. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Urine samples were obtained from 720 patients undergoing routine abdominal CT (screening population), 80 healthy controls and 19 patients with pathologically confirmed RCC. Urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations were measured by sensitive and specific ELISA and Western blot procedures, respectively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES AQP1 and PLIN2 were measured prospectively in a screening paradigm in an otherwise asymptomatic population. The absence or presence of a renal mass and of RCC, were verified by abdominal computed tomography (CT) and by post-nephrectomy pathologic diagnosis, respectively. RESULTS Median urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations in patients with known RCC were more than 12-fold higher (P<0.0001 each) than controls and the screening population. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations individually or in combination was ≥0.92, with ≥85% sensitivity and ≥87% specificity compared with control or screening patients. Three of the 720 screening patients had biomarker concentrations suggestive of RCC and were found to have an imaged renal mass by CT. Two patients, evaluated further, had RCC. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results demonstrate the clinical utility, specificity and sensitivity of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 to diagnose RCC. These novel tumor-specific proteins have high clinical validity and substantial potential as specific diagnostic and screening biomarkers for clear cell and papillary RCC, and in the differential diagnosis of imaged renal masses. PMID:26181025

  2. Arsenic and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Laura; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Agnew, Jackie; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, high arsenic exposure has been associated with adverse kidney disease outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence of the association between arsenic and various kidney disease outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through January 2014. Twenty-five papers (comprising 24 studies) meeting the search criteria were identified and included in this review. In most studies, arsenic exposure was assessed by measurement of urine concentrations or with an ecological indicator. There was a generally positive association between arsenic and albuminuria and proteinuria outcomes. There was mixed evidence of an association between arsenic exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD), β-2 microglobulin (β2MG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) outcomes. There was evidence of a positive association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease mortality. Assessment of a small number of studies with three or more categories showed a clear dose-response association between arsenic and prevalent albuminuria and proteinuria, but not with CKD outcomes. Eight studies lacked adjustment for possible confounders, and two had small study populations. The evaluation of the causality of the association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease outcomes is limited by the small number of studies, lack of study quality, and limited prospective evidence. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure worldwide, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of arsenic and kidney disease outcomes. PMID:25221743

  3. Reduction in urinary arsenic with bottled-water intervention.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Arun B; McClellen, Hannah; Hysong, Tracy A; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S; Strup, Stefan; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2006-09-01

    The study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of providing bottled water in reducing arsenic exposure. Urine, tap-water and toenail samples were collected from non-smoking adults residing in Ajo (n=40) and Tucson (n=33), Arizona, USA. The Ajo subjects were provided bottled water for 12 months prior to re-sampling. The mean total arsenic (microg/L) in tap-water was 20.3+/-3.7 in Ajo and 4.0+/-2.3 in Tucson. Baseline urinary total inorganic arsenic (microg/L) was significantly higher among the Ajo subjects (n=40, 29.1+/-20.4) than among the Tucson subjects (n=32, 11.0+/-12.0, p<0.001), as was creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic (microg/g) (35.5+/-25.2 vs 13.2+/-9.3, p<0.001). Baseline concentrations of arsenic (microg/g) in toenails were also higher among the Ajo subjects (0.51+/-0.72) than among the Tucson subjects (0.17+/-0.21) (p<0.001). After the intervention, the mean urinary total inorganic arsenic in Ajo (n=36) dropped by 21%, from 29.4+/-21.1 to 23.2+/-23.2 (p=0.026). The creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic and toenail arsenic levels did not differ significantly with the intervention. Provision of arsenic-free bottled water resulted in a modest reduction in urinary total inorganic arsenic. PMID:17366771

  4. Impacts of nitric oxide and superoxide on renal medullary oxygen transport and urine concentration.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brendan C; Edwards, Aurlie; Layton, Anita T

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 (-)) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2 (-) concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2 (-), the effects of NO and O2 (-) on sodium transport, osmolality, and medullary oxygenation cannot be gleaned by considering each solute's effect in isolation. An additional simulation suggests that a sufficiently large reduction in tubular transport efficiency may be the key contributing factor, more so than oxidative stress alone, to hypertension-induced medullary hypoxia. Moreover, model predictions suggest that urine Po2 could serve as a biomarker for medullary hypoxia and a predictor of the risk for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. PMID:25651567

  5. Blood Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Palaneeswari M., Subha; Rajan, P.M. Abraham Sam; Silambanan, Santhi; Jothimalar

    2013-01-01

    Background: In India, there is a rising burden of chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. It has been estimated that 25-40% of these patients are likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD), with a significant percentage requiring renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis is the most common method which is used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure. Derangements in the metabolism of several toxic and trace elements such as antimony, arsenic cadmium, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium have been reported for several decades in patients with chronically reduced renal functions. Overall, the available literature suggests that the blood levels of some elements such as cadmium, chromium, fluorine, iodine, lead, or vanadium are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Aim and Objectives: Our aim was to study the levels of blood arsenic and cadmium in ESRD patients who were on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), and to study whether there was any relationship between their concentrations and the duration of the MHD. Methods: The blood lead levels were determined in 50 healthy subjects with normal renal functions and in 50 patients with ESRD, who were on MHD. None of them had any history of smoking or any industrial exposure. Results: The results of the study revealed that the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were higher in the ESRD patients who were on MHD than in the healthy adults. The blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were found to increase with the duration of the MHD. Conclusion: The mild increase in the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations, with an increase in the duration of the MHD in the study population, may be viewed in the wider context, that a prolonged exposure to arsenic and cadmium, even at low levels, may result in renal damage and/or progression of an already existing CKD. PMID:23814716

  6. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 ?g/dL), 4.4 (2.4 ?g/L), 10.9 (9.2 ?g/L), and 43.7 (17.7 ?g/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 ?g/L vs. 6.4 ?g/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  7. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  8. Anomalously high arsenic concentration in a West Antarctic ice core and its relationship to copper mining in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanck, Franciele; Simões, Jefferson C.; Handley, Michael; Mayewski, Paul A.; Bernardo, Ronaldo T.; Aquino, Francisco E.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic variability records are preserved in snow and ice cores and can be utilized to reconstruct air pollution history. The Mount Johns ice core (79°55‧S; 94°23‧W and 91.2 m depth) was collected from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 2008/09 austral summer. Here, we report the As concentration variability as determined by 2137 samples from the upper 45 m of this core using ICP-SFMS (CCI, University of Maine, USA). The record covers approximately 125 years (1883-2008) showing a mean concentration of 4.32 pg g-1. The arsenic concentration in the core follows global copper mining evolution, particularly in Chile (the largest producer of Cu). From 1940 to 1990, copper-mining production increased along with arsenic concentrations in the MJ core, from 1.92 pg g-1 (before 1900) to 7.94 pg g-1 (1950). In the last two decades, environmental regulations for As emissions have been implemented, forcing smelters to treat their gases to conform to national and international environmental standards. In Chile, decontamination plants required by the government started operating from 1993 to 2000. Thereafter, Chilean copper production more than doubled while As emission levels declined, and the same reduction was observed in the Mount Johns ice core. After 1999, arsenic concentrations in our samples decreased to levels comparable to the period before 1900.

  9. ARSENIC URINARY METABOLITES: BIOMARKER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population of adults and children with ranges of 10 to 300 g/l of arsenic in their drinking water will have their urine analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. A sample of 30 families will be selected based on tap water analyses for arsenic. This sample will comprise 50% adul...

  10. PATHWAY OF INORGANIC ARSENIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remarkable aspect of the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans is its conversion to methylated metabolites. These metabolites account for most of the arsenic found in urine after exposure to inorganic arsenic. At least some of the adverse health effects attributed to inor...

  11. Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Williams, P N; Price, A H; Raab, A; Hossain, S A; Feldmann, J; Meharg, A A

    2005-08-01

    Ingestion of drinking water is not the only elevated source of arsenic to the diet in the Bengal Delta. Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets. We set out to survey As speciation in different rice varieties from different parts of the globe to understand the contribution of rice to arsenic exposure. Pot experiments were utilized to ascertain whether growing rice on As contaminated soil affected speciation and whether genetic variation accounted for uptake and speciation. USA long grain rice had the highest mean arsenic level in the grain at 0.26 microg As g(-1) (n = 7), and the highest grain arsenic value of the survey at 0.40 microg As g(-1). The mean arsenic level of Bangladeshi rice was 0.13 microg As g(-1) (n = 15). The main As species detected in the rice extract were AsIII, DMAV, and AsV. In European, Bangladeshi, and Indian rice 64 +/- 1% (n = 7), 80 +/- 3% (n = 11), and 81 +/- 4% (n = 15), respectively, of the recovered arsenic was found to be inorganic. In contrast, DMAV was the predominant species in rice from the USA, with only 42 +/- 5% (n = 12) of the arsenic being inorganic. Pot experiments show that the proportions of DMAV in the grain are significantly dependent on rice cultivar (p = 0.026) and that plant nutrient status is effected by arsenic exposure. PMID:16124284

  12. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  13. Plasma and urine dimercaptopropanesulfonate concentrations after dermal application of transdermal DMPS (TD-DMPS).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jennifer P; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Curry, Steven C; Biswas, Kallol; Westenberger, Benjamin; Ye, Wei; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Lovecchio, Frank; Burkhart, Keith; Samia, Nasr

    2013-03-01

    2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) is a metal chelator approved in Europe for oral or intravenous use for heavy metal poisoning. Transdermally applied DMPS (TD-DMPS) is used by some alternative practitioners to treat autism, despite the absence of evidence for its efficacy. We found no literature evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the transdermal route of delivery or the ability of TD-DMPS to enhance urinary mercury elimination. We hypothesized that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. Eight adult volunteers underwent application of 1.5-3 drops/kg of TD-DMPS. Subjects provided 12-h urine collections the day before and day of application. Subjects underwent blood draws at 0, 30, 60,90, 120, and 240 min after TD-DMPS application. Plasma and urine were assayed for the presence of DMPS. Urine was assayed for any change in urinary mercury excretion after DMPS. One control subject ingested 250 mg of oral DMPS and underwent the same urine and blood collections and analyses. No subject had detectable urine DMPS or increased urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. One subject had detectable levels of DMPS in the 30-min plasma sample, suspected to be contamination. All other samples for that subject and the other seven subjects showed no detectable plasma DMPS. The control subject had detectable urine and plasma DMPS levels and increased urine mercury excretion. These results indicate that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. There was no increase in urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. Our results argue that TD-DMPS is an ineffective metal chelator. PMID:23143832

  14. Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...

  15. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-08-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. PMID:24769413

  16. Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    GORODKIEWICZ, EWA; GUSZCZ, TOMASZ; ROSZKOWSKA-JAKIMIEC, WIESLAWA; KOZ?OWSKI, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.280.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.357.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.320.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717

  17. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test on fresh, frozen and concentrated urine samples in elderly patients with and without community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Pascal, Thierry; Palmu, Arto A

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the BinaxNOW urine antigen test in elderly. For fresh un-concentrated urine samples, the sensitivity for pneumococcal pneumonia was 63% and specificity 97%. After freezing and concentration, the results comparable to positive control line in intensity at 60min gave high sensitivity (81%) with no loss in specificity (96%). PMID:26684855

  18. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20C, 4C and 20C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20C compared to -20C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20C, 4C and 20C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  19. GLUTATHIONE MODULATES RECOMBINANT RAT ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE-CATALYZED FORMATION OF TRIMETHYLARSINE OXIDE AND TRIMETHYLARSINE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Humans and other species enzymatically convert inorganic arsenic into methylated metabolites. Although the major metabolites are mono- and dimethylated arsenicals, trimethylated arsenicals have been detected in urine following exposure to inorganic arsenic. The AS3MT gene e...

  20. Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 ?g L(-1)-2000 ?g L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 ?g kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils. PMID:23583727

  1. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 g/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 g/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-m (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-m (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 m (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  2. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  3. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenic

    speciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no single

    technique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complex

    e...

  4. CONTAINMENT OF HIGHLY CONCENTRATED ARSENIC-LADEN SPENT REGENERANT ON THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Phase II EPA P3 project encompasses the following two activities in the Indian subcontinent: Continued installation of arsenic removal units in rural villages and extension of sustainable arsenic-laden waste disposal practices. For ten years, Lehigh University and Benga...

  5. Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E; Kopple, J D

    1987-04-01

    Taurine concentrations in plasma, platelets, lymphocytes, granulocytes, erythrocytes, and urine were measured in 19 children who were undergoing long-term home parenteral nutrition for 27.4 +/- 7.1 (SEM) months. The parenteral solutions contained methionine, but not taurine or cysteine. The patients' plasma, platelet, and urine taurine concentrations were significantly reduced to 54, 48, and 16%, respectively, of the values from normal children of similar ages. The most significant reductions in plasma and platelet taurine concentrations were observed in the children who were estimated to absorb less than 5% of their daily calorie needs from the enteral tract. Lymphocyte and erythrocyte taurine levels tended to be lower but were not significantly different from those in normal children. The patients' plasma methionine and cystine levels were not different from normal. There was a direct correlation between plasma and platelet taurine concentrations and between plasma and urine taurine. Both plasma and platelet taurine tended to be directly correlated with age and, after the 1st yr of total parenteral nutrition, with the duration of total parenteral nutrition therapy. PMID:3106924

  6. When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

  7. Concentrations of Arsenic, Chromium, and Nickel in Toenail Samples From Appalachian Kentucky Residents

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nancy; Shelton, Brent J.; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Tucker, Thomas T.; Unrine, Jason M.; Huang, Bin; Christian, W. Jay; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer rates in Appalachian Kentucky are almost twice national rates; colorectal cancer rates are also elevated. Although smoking prevalence is high, it does not explain all excess risk. The area is characterized by poverty, low educational attainment, and unemployment. Coal production is a major industry. Pyrite contaminants of coal contain established human carcinogens, arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni). We compared biological exposure to As, Cr, and Ni for adults living in Appalachian Kentucky with residents of Jefferson, a non-Appalachian, urban county. We further compared lung and colon cancer rates, demographics, and smoking prevalence across the study areas. Toenail clipping analysis measured As, Cr, and Ni for residents of 23 rural Appalachian Kentucky counties and for Jefferson County. Reverse Kaplan-Meier statistical methodology addressed left-censored data. Appalachian residents were exposed to higher concentrations of As, Cr, and Ni than Jefferson County residents. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in Appalachia are higher than Jefferson County and elsewhere in the state, as are colorectal mortality rates. Environmental factors may contribute to the increased concentration of trace elements measured in residents of the Appalachian region. Routes of human exposure need to be determined. PMID:22126614

  8. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-05-11

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:26865228

  9. Hypochlorite adulteration of urine causing decreased concentration of delta 9-THC-COOH by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Baiker, C; Serrano, L; Lindner, B

    1994-01-01

    Marijuana is confirmed and quantitated in urine as 11-nor-delta 9-THC-9-COOH by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode after extraction from urine. The addition of varying amounts of household bleach causes significant decreases in the quantitated amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Urine samples containing various known amounts of THC (25-219 ng/mL) were spiked with increasing amounts of household bleach (0-64 microL/mL of urine). The samples were extracted using a solid-phase extraction procedure, derivatized, and analyzed by GC/MS. The area counts for the deuterated internal standard versus the native drug, as well as the quantitation for the various spiked samples, were compared with those of the non-adulterated samples. The results demonstrated that there was an inverse relationship between the amount of bleach used and the amount of THC recovered. The area counts for both the deuterated and native THC decreased as the amount of bleach increased. There appeared to be a consistent decrease in the ratio of native to deuterated THC, suggesting that the bleach affected the native drug more than the deuterated compound. The same decrease in THC concentrations were noted when the samples were assayed by an RIA methodology (Roche Abuscreen) as well as by an FPIA assay (Abbott TDx). PMID:8207929

  10. Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.

    1981-08-01

    The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

  11. Nephron-specific deletion of the prorenin receptor causes a urine concentration defect.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Stuart, Deborah; Calquin, Matias; Quadri, Syed; Wang, Shuping; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Siragy, Helmy M; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-07-01

    The prorenin receptor (PRR), a recently discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system, is expressed in the nephron in general and the collecting duct in particular. However, the physiological significance of nephron PRR remains unclear, partly due to developmental abnormalities associated with global or renal-specific PRR gene knockout (KO). Therefore, we developed mice with inducible nephron-wide PRR deletion using Pax8-reverse tetracycline transactivator and LC-1 transgenes and loxP flanked PRR alleles such that ablation of PRR occurs in adulthood, after induction with doxycycline. Nephron-specific PRR KO mice have normal survival to ?1 yr of age and no renal histological defects. Compared with control mice, PRR KO mice had 65% lower medullary PRR mRNA and protein levels and markedly diminished renal PRR immunofluorescence. During both normal water intake and mild water restriction, PRR KO mice had significantly lower urine osmolality, higher water intake, and higher urine volume compared with control mice. No differences were seen in urine vasopressin excretion, urine Na(+) and K(+) excretion, plasma Na(+), or plasma osmolality between the two groups. However, PRR KO mice had reduced medullary aquaporin-2 levels and arginine vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the isolated renal medulla compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest nephron PRR can potentially modulate renal water excretion. PMID:25995108

  12. Ammonia volatilization from artificial dung and urine patches measured by the equilibrium concentration technique (JTI method)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarijrvi, K.; Mattila, P. K.; Virkajrvi, P.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of ammonia (NH 3) volatilization from intensively managed pastures on a soil type typical of the dairy production area in Finland and to clarify the effect of rainfall on NH 3 volatilization. The study included two experiments. In Experiment 1 the total amount of NH 3-N emitted was calculated based on the annual surface coverage of dung (4%) and urine (17%). The application rate of total N in the simulated dung and urine patches was approximately 47 g N m -2 and 113 g N m -2, respectively. In Experiment 1 the general level of NH 3 emissions from the urine patches was high and the peak volatilization rate was 0.54 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. As expected, emissions from the dung pats were clearly lower with a maximum rate of 0.10 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. The total emission calculated for the whole pasture area (stocking rate four cows ha -1 y -1, urine coverage 17% and dung coverage 4%) was 16.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1. Approximately 96% of the total emission originated from urine. In Experiment 2 we measured the emissions from urine only and the treatments on the urine patches were: (1) no irrigation, (2) 5+5 mm and (3) 20 mm irrigation. The peak emission rates were 0.13, 0.09 and 0.04 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1 and the total emissions were 6.9, 3.0 and 1.7 kg NH 3-N ha -1, for treatments (1), (2) and (3), respectively. In both measurements over 80% of the total emission occurred during the first 48 h and there was a clear diurnal rhythm. Increasing rainfall markedly decreased NH 3 emission. Volatilization was highest with dry and warm soil. The JTI method appeared to be suitable for measuring NH 3 volatilization in this kind of experiment. According to our results, the importance of pastures as a source of NH 3 emission in Finland is minor.

  13. Arsenic removal from groundwater by MnO2-modified natural clinoptilolite zeolite: effects of pH and initial feed concentration.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Lucy M; Parra, Ramona R; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-05-15

    Adsorption of arsenic (As(5+)) on natural and MnO(2)-modified clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite adsorbents was investigated to explore the feasibility of removing arsenic from groundwater using natural zeolite adsorbents. The natural and MnO(2)-modified clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite adsorbents were characterized with nitrogen adsorption at 77K for pore textural properties, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence for morphology, elemental composition and distribution. Batch adsorption equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH and initial feed concentration on arsenic removal efficiency. It was found that the amphoteric properties and arsenic removal efficiency of the natural clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite were significantly improved after modification with MnO(2). The MnO(2)-modified zeolite could effectively remove arsenic from water at a wide pH range, and the arsenic removal efficiency that is basically independent of the pH of feed solutions varies slightly with the initial arsenic concentration in the feed solutions. The removal efficiency obtained on the modified zeolite was doubled as compared to that obtained on the unmodified zeolite. The MnO(2)-modified clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite appears to be a promising adsorbent for removing trace arsenic amounts from water. PMID:21398033

  14. Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.

    2012-12-01

    Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

  15. Synthesis of mixed coating with multi-functional groups for in-tube hollow fiber solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry speciation of arsenic in human urine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin; He, Man; Mao, Xiangju; Zu, Wanqing

    2012-03-01

    A novel method based on in-tube hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction (in-tube HF-SPME) on-line coupled with ion pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for arsenic speciation. Partially sulfonated poly(styrene) (PSP) and mixed-sol of 3-mercapto propyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AAPTS) were prepared and immobilized in the pores and the inner surface of polypropylene hollow fiber (HF). The prepared MPTS-AAPTS/PSP immobilized HF was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). With arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) as model arsenic species, a series of factors that influence the extraction of target arsenic species by in-tube HF-SPME, including pH value, sample volume and flow rate, elution conditions and interference of co-existing ions were investigated in details, and the conditions for subsequent HPLC-ICP-MS determination were also optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the sampling frequency was 6.5 h?, the detection limits for six target arsenic species were in the range of 0.017-0.053 ?g L? with the relative standard deviations (c(As(V),MMA)=0.1 ?g L?, c(As(III),DMA,AsB,AsC)=0.5 ?g L?, n=5) ranging in 3.1-8.7%, and the enrichment factors were varied from 4 to 19-fold. To validate the accuracy of this method, certified reference materials DORM-2 (dogfish) and CRM No. 18 (human urine) were analyzed, and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was also successfully applied for arsenic speciation in human urine samples, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 92.6-107%. The self-designed in-tube HF-SPME-HPLC-ICP-MS system shows high efficiency and good stability, and the proposed method is sensitive and suitable for simultaneous speciation of organic and inorganic arsenic species (including anions and cations) in biological samples. PMID:22265781

  16. Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic in Milled Rice from China and Associated Dietary Exposure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yatao; Wang, Min; Mao, Xuefei; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-23

    Total arsenic (As) and inorganic As (Asi) in milled rice (n = 1653) collected from China were studied to evaluate the contamination level, distribution, and health risks. The mean concentrations of the total As and Asi were 116.5 and 90.9 μg/kg, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 11 provinces, and 1.1% of samples exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by Chinese legislation. According to the exposure assessment method of probabilistic simulation, all values of the target hazard quotients (THQs) for chronic noncarcinogenic risks (skin lesions as the point of departure) were below 1, suggesting that the Chinese population will not encounter a significant noncarcinogenic risk. However, the mean values of margin of exposure (MOE) for lung cancer risks ranging from 3.86 to 8.54 were under 100 for all age groups and genders of the Chinese population; moreover, MOE values for some major rice-producing and -consuming countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and the United States, were all also below 100. More attention should be paid to carcinogenic risks from rice Asi intake, and some control measures to reduce rice Asi intake should be taken. PMID:26641731

  17. Modeling spatial patterns in soil arsenic to estimate natural baseline concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Basta, Nicolas T.; Bigham, Jerry M.; Rea, Ron

    2014-05-09

    ABSTRACT Arsenic in soil is an important public health concern. Toxicity guidelines and models based on laboratory studies (i.e., U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System) should consider natural soil As concentrations to avoid unnecessary remediation burdens on society. We used soil and stream sediment samples from the USGS National Geochemical Survey database to assess the spatial distribution of natural As in a 1.16E+5 km2 area. Samples were collected at 348 soil and 144 stream locations, providing approximately one sample for every 290 km2. Sample sites were selected to minimize the potential influence of anthropogenic inputs. Samples were processed using acid digestion of whole samples (concentrated HCl and ascorbic acid) and concentrations were measured using hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Soil As ranged from 2.0 to 45.6 mg kg-1. Geostatistical techniques were used to model and map the spatial variability of As. The mean and variance at unsampled locations were estimated using sequential Gaussian simulation. Five areas of elevated concentration (> the median of 10 mg kg-1) were identified and the relationships to geologic parent materials, glacial sedimentation patterns, and soil conditions interpreted. Our results showed As concentrations >10 mg kg-1 were common, and >20 mg kg-1 were not unusual for the central and west central portions of Ohio (USA). In contrast, concentrations <4 mg kg-1 were rare. Measured concentrations typically exceeded the soil As human generic screening levels of 0.39 mg/kg (1); the calculated value that corresponds to a cancer risk level of 1 in 1,000,000 for soil ingestion. Because the As content of Ohio soils is similar to many world soils, the USEPA generic soil screening level of 0.39 mg/kg is of little utility. A more useful and practical approach would be the uses of natural background levels. Regional soil As patterns based on geology and biogeochemistry and not political boundaries should be used for soil screening and other risk assessment determinations.

  18. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 1. Subchronic exposure to arsenate utilizing constant rate administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1986-08-01

    The concentration, availability, and chemical status of radiolabeled arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters at the beginning (morning of Day 8) and the end (morning of Day 9) of the critical period of embryogenesis. Hamster dams were exposed to teratogenic doses of arsenate by means of osmotic minipumps implanted on the morning of Day 6 of the gestation period. Whole blood arsenic concentrations were the same for 48 and 72 hr postimplant. The arsenic concentration of plasma equaled that of red cells. Plasma arsenic was not bound to macromolecules and had the same chemical status 48 and 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant form (67% of the total). However, the presence of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite indicates that the pentavalent species was metabolized. Red cell arsenic was bound to macromolecules in the cell sap. Seventy percent of red cell sap arsenic was dialyzable 48 hr postimplant, but only 56% 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant dialyzable red cell species on Day 8 and arsenite was the major dialyzable form on Day 9. The authors findings demonstrate a relationship between the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic and the presence of malformations resulting from a constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate via the osmotic minipump.

  19. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  20. Effect of fasting on the pattern of urinary arsenic excretion.

    PubMed

    Brima, Eid I; Jenkins, Richard O; Lythgoe, Paul R; Gault, Andrew G; Polya, Dave A; Haris, Parvez I

    2007-01-01

    Millions of people in some of the poorest regions of the world are exposed to high levels of arsenic through drinking contaminated water. It has been reported that development of cancer caused by arsenic exposure in such populations is dependent on dietary and nutritional factors which can modulate arsenic metabolism. Many people in arsenic exposed regions of Bangladesh and India practice fasting for at least one month every year when they refrain from consumption of food and fluid during daylight hours. How such practices may modulate arsenic metabolism has not been previously investigated. This study investigated this issue by determining total arsenic and its species in urine samples from a group of 29 unexposed volunteers at the beginning of the fasting and at the end of approximately 12 h of fasting period. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS was used to measure the total arsenic and arsenic speciation in the urine samples, respectively. The mean total levels of arsenic at the beginning of fasting (18.3 microg g(-1) creatinine) and at the end of approximately 12 h of fasting (17.7 microg g(-1) creatinine) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). However, the percentages of urinary arsenic as the methylated arsenic species methylarsonate (MA) were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) and this species was observed more frequently at the end of fasting, although its overall concentration was similar. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in both the concentrations and percentages of other urinary arsenic species detected, namely arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) were also analyzed, but were not detected. We conclude that fasting for a period of 12 h results in a significant increase in the percentage of urinary arsenic as MA, and its frequency of detection in the volunteers at the end of the fasting period is almost nine fold higher. This suggests that metabolism of arsenic is altered by fasting. PMID:17213949

  1. Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale vector spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  2. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for human drinking; the second zone is downflow and contains groundwater suitable for continuous irrigation but not drinkable due to high ammonium concentrations; and the third zone contains groundwater of elevated salinity (up to 5940 μS cm(-1)) and is not useable due to high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations. PMID:26437343

  3. Fate of low arsenic concentrations during full-scale aeration and rapid filtration.

    PubMed

    Gude, J C J; Rietveld, L C; van Halem, D

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, groundwater treatment commonly consists of aeration, with subsequent sand filtration without using chemical oxidants like chlorine. With arsenic (As) concentrations well below the actual guidelines of 10?g As/L, groundwater treatment plants have been exclusively designed for the removal of iron (Fe), manganese and ammonium. The aim of this study was to investigate the As removal capacity at three of these groundwater treatment plants (10-26?g As/L) in order to identify operational parameters that can contribute to lowering the filtrate As concentration to <1?g/L. For this purpose a sampling campaign and experiments with supernatant water and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) flocs were executed to identify the key mechanisms controlling As removal. Results showed that after aeration, As largely remained mobile in the supernatant water; even during extended residence times only 20-48% removal was achieved (with 1.4-4.2mg/L precipitated Fe(II)). Speciation showed that the mobile As was in the reduced As(III) form, whereas, As(V) was readily adsorbed to the formed HFO flocs. In the filter bed, the remaining As(III) completely oxidized within 2min of residence time and As removal efficiencies increased to 48-90%. Filter grain coating analysis showed the presence of manganese at all three treatment plants. It is hypothesized that these manganese oxides are responsible for the accelerated As(III) oxidation in the filter bed, leading to an increased removal capacity. In addition, pH adjustment from 7.8 to 7.0 has been found to improve the capacity for As(V) uptake by the HFO flocs in the filter bed. The overall conclusion is, that during groundwater treatment, the filter bed is crucial for rapid As(III) removal, indicating the importance to control the oxidation sequence of Fe and As for improved As removal efficiencies. PMID:26547752

  4. A Direct Aqueous Derivatization GSMS Method for Determining Benzoylecgonine Concentrations in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Da Valle, Ylenia; Giusiani, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for extraction and quantification of benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (COC) in urine is presented. Propyl-chloroformate was used as derivatizing agent, and it was directly added to the urine sample: the propyl derivative and COC were then recovered by liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode. The method proved to be precise for BZE and COC both in term of intraday and interday analysis, with a coefficient of variation (CV)<6%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2.7 ng/mL for BZE and 1.4 ng/mL for COC. The calibration curve showed a linear relationship for BZE and COC (r2>0.999 and >0.997, respectively) within the range investigated. The method, applied to thirty authentic samples, showed to be very simple, fast, and reliable, so it can be easily applied in routine analysis for the quantification of BZE and COC in urine samples. PMID:26300490

  5. Low concentration of arsenic could induce caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage apoptosis with JNK-p38 activation in Clarias batrachus

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soma; Mazumder, Shibnath; Ghosh, Debabrata; Dey, Saibal; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2009-12-15

    We had earlier demonstrated that chronic exposure (30 days) to micro-molar concentration (0.50 muM) of arsenic induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) death in Clarias batrachus. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of HKM death induced by arsenic and elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in the process. Arsenic-induced HKM death was apoptotic in nature as evident from DNA gel, Annexin V-propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Inhibitor studies and immunoblot analyses further demonstrated that arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Preincubation with antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethyl sulfoxide significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arsenic-treated HKM and prevented caspase activation, malondialdehyde formation and HKM apoptosis. Arsenic induced membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47{sup phox}. Preincubation with apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, both selective inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, prevented p47{sup phox} translocation, ROS production and HKM death. Exposure of HKM to arsenic induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) proteins including c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Preincubation of HKM with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 protected the HKM against arsenic-induced apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to micro-molar concentration of arsenic induces ROS generation through the activation of NADPH oxidases, which in turn causes caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. In addition, the study also indicates a role of p38-JNK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  6. Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations are elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 microg/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg DW in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7,700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/ kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg BW in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1-10 mg As/kg BW or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19-48 microg As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) > 1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3-28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25-85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations > 3.9 microg As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems, including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 microg/L (range, 2.2-106.0 microg/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in their urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect human health and natural resources are listed and discussed. Many of these proposed criteria do not adequately protect sensitive species. PMID:14561078

  7. Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially-enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations were elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 ug/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg body weight (BW) in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1 to 10 mg As/kg BW, or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19 to 48 ug As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) >1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3 to 28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25 to 85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations >3.9 ug As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 ug/L (range 2.2-106.0 ug/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect human health and natural resources are listed and discussed. Many of these proposed criteria do not adequately protect sensitive species.

  8. Airborne arsenic exposure and excretion of methylated arsenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J; Crecelius, E A; Reading, J C

    1977-01-01

    First void urine samples were collected from copper smelter workers exposed to inorganic arsenic and from unexposed controls. Arsenic compounds (As (III), As (V), methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) in these samples were analyzed by selective volatilization as arsines with determination of arsenic by plasma excitation emission spectrometry. On the day preceding the urine sample collection a breathing zone measurement was made of respirable arsenic particulates for each subject. It was found that all of the subjects, including the controls excreted arsenic primarily as methylated species. Approximately 50% of the total arsenic was excreted as dimethylarsinic acid and 20% as methylarsonic acid. Slight differences in the proportion of various arsenic compounds were observed with varying levels of inorganic arsenic exposure. Amounts of arsenic species were all closely correlated with each other and with exposure. Irrespirable particulate exposures were measured on a subset of high exposure workers. Irrespirable arsenic was found to be more closely correlated with excretion of arsenic compounds than was respirable arsenic. PMID:908318

  9. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...

  10. Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) ?g/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

  11. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... This test can be done on any urine sample. For an infant, thoroughly wash the area where urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an ...

  12. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for selective solid phase extraction and pre-concentration of Tizanidine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Sheykhaghaei, Golaleh; Hossainisadr, Moayad; Khanahmadzadeh, Salah; Seyedsajadi, Mirabdollah; Alipouramjad, Awat

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MMIP-NPs) for the selective pre-concentration of Tizanidine have been described. The polymer nanoparticles were synthesized by the polymerization of methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator and Tizanidine as a template molecule. The MMIP-NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA). Imprinted Tizanidine molecules were removed from the polymeric structure using acetic acid in methanol (10:90 V/V%), as the eluent solvent. The limits of detection (L.O.D) for Tizanidine were 1.13×10(-6)M and 1.68×10(-6)M in ultrapure water and urine, respectively. Also, the relative standard deviations (R.S.D) in ultrapure water and urine were 2.21% and 2.58%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Tizanidine in the human urine samples. PMID:26744788

  13. Regional estimation of groundwater arsenic concentrations through systematical dynamic-neural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is an odorless semi-metal that occurs naturally in rock and soil, and As contamination in groundwater resources has become a serious threat to human health. Thus, assessing the spatial and temporal variability of As concentration is highly desirable, particularly in heavily As-contaminated areas. However, various difficulties may be encountered in the regional estimation of As concentration such as cost-intensive field monitoring, scarcity of field data, identification of important factors affecting As, over-fitting or poor estimation accuracy. This study develops a novel systematical dynamic-neural modeling (SDM) for effectively estimating regional As-contaminated water quality by using easily-measured water quality variables. To tackle the difficulties commonly encountered in regional estimation, the SDM comprises of a neural network and four statistical techniques: the Nonlinear Autoregressive with eXogenous input (NARX) network, Gamma test, cross-validation, Bayesian regularization method and indicator kriging (IK). For practical application, this study investigated a heavily As-contaminated area in Taiwan. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is adopted for comparison purpose. The results demonstrate that the NARX network (Root mean square error (RMSE): 95.11 ?g l-1 for training; 106.13 ?g l-1 for validation) outperforms the BPNN (RMSE: 121.54 ?g l-1 for training; 143.37 ?g l-1 for validation). The constructed SDM can provide reliable estimation (R2 > 0.89) of As concentration at ungauged sites based merely on three easily-measured water quality variables (Alk, Ca2+ and pH). In addition, risk maps under the threshold of the WHO drinking water standard (10 ?g l-1) are derived by the IK to visually display the spatial and temporal variation of the As concentration in the whole study area at different time spans. The proposed SDM can be practically applied with satisfaction to the regional estimation in study areas of interest and the estimation of missing, hazardous or costly data to facilitate water resources management.

  14. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  15. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables are compound- and class-specific correlates of urine phytoestrogen concentrations in the US population1,2,3,4

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Michael E.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Isoflavones and lignans are plant-derived dietary compounds generally believed to be beneficial to human health. We investigated the extent to which sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and dietary supplement use) were correlates of spot urine concentration for daidzein (DAZ), genistein (GNS), O-desmethylangolensin (DMA), equol (EQU), enterodiol (ETD) and enterolactone (ETL) in the US population ≥20 y (NHANES 2003–2006). We performed correlation analyses with continuous variables and calculated stratified unadjusted geometric means for each sociodemographic and lifestyle variable. We used bivariate significance testing and covariate adjustment by use of multiple regression models to identify influential variables, and used beta coefficients to estimate relative effects. Urine creatinine was also included in our analyses because of its use in correcting for variable dilution in spot urine samples. We observed many statistically significant (P <0.05) associations with the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that withstood covariate adjustment. Smoking was a significant correlate of urine DMA and ETL, with concentrations at least 25% lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers. Consumers of 1 daily alcoholic drink vs. none were estimated to have 18–21% lower urine EQU and DMA concentrations. A 25% increase in BMI was associated with 21% lower urine ETL, and increasing physical activity was associated with >6% higher urine ETL concentrations. Dietary supplement use was not significantly associated with any of the urine phytoestrogens. Overall, we found that relationships between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and urine phytoestrogen concentration were highly compound- and class-specific. PMID:23596167

  16. The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Ortega, Richard; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2002-11-01

    For drinking water, the people of Bangladesh used to rely on surface water, which was often contaminated with bacteria causing diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, and other life-threatening diseases. To reduce the incidences of these diseases, millions of tubewells were installed in Bangladesh since independence in 1971. This recent transition from surface water to groundwater has significantly reduced deaths from waterborne pathogens; however, new evidence suggests disease and death from arsenic (As) and other toxic elements in groundwater are affecting large areas of Bangladesh. In this evaluation, the areal and vertical distribution of As and 29 other inorganic chemicals in groundwater were determined throughout Bangladesh. This study of 30 analytes per sample and 112 samples suggests that the most significant health risk from drinking Bangladesh's tubewell water is chronic As poisoning. The As concentration ranged from < 0.0007 to 0.64 mg/L, with 48% of samples above the 0.01 mg/L World Health Organization drinking water guideline. Furthermore, this study reveals unsafe levels of manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Our survey also suggests that groundwater with unsafe levels of As, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cr may extend beyond Bangladesh's border into the four adjacent and densely populated states in India. In addition to the health risks from individual toxins, possible multimetal synergistic and inhibitory effects are discussed. Antimony was detected in 98% of the samples from this study and magnifies the toxic effects of As. In contrast, Se and Zn were below our detection limits in large parts of Bangladesh and prevent the toxic effects of As. PMID:12417487

  17. The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh's drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H; Ortega, Richard; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2002-01-01

    For drinking water, the people of Bangladesh used to rely on surface water, which was often contaminated with bacteria causing diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, and other life-threatening diseases. To reduce the incidences of these diseases, millions of tubewells were installed in Bangladesh since independence in 1971. This recent transition from surface water to groundwater has significantly reduced deaths from waterborne pathogens; however, new evidence suggests disease and death from arsenic (As) and other toxic elements in groundwater are affecting large areas of Bangladesh. In this evaluation, the areal and vertical distribution of As and 29 other inorganic chemicals in groundwater were determined throughout Bangladesh. This study of 30 analytes per sample and 112 samples suggests that the most significant health risk from drinking Bangladesh's tubewell water is chronic As poisoning. The As concentration ranged from < 0.0007 to 0.64 mg/L, with 48% of samples above the 0.01 mg/L World Health Organization drinking water guideline. Furthermore, this study reveals unsafe levels of manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Our survey also suggests that groundwater with unsafe levels of As, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cr may extend beyond Bangladesh's border into the four adjacent and densely populated states in India. In addition to the health risks from individual toxins, possible multimetal synergistic and inhibitory effects are discussed. Antimony was detected in 98% of the samples from this study and magnifies the toxic effects of As. In contrast, Se and Zn were below our detection limits in large parts of Bangladesh and prevent the toxic effects of As. PMID:12417487

  18. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants could cause contamination of the human food-chain, being beans a low-cost proteins source and a staple food in many Countries. Moreover, the compost application has allowed to reduce the As concentration in all tissues of the amended plants than those non-amended. The concentration of the As free-fraction in soil decreased significantly by increasing level of compost application, whereas the higher the compost application the higher was the concentration of specifically sorbed As by soil colloidal particles. The results of this study suggest that the growth of bean plants and their own As uptake were substantially affected by the mobility of As in soils and the plant management. Higher mobility of As in soil resulted in higher As uptake by bean plants. The use of compost, in addition to improve bean plants growth and their nutritional status, has allowed to limit the As uptake by biomasses, through the immobilization of the metalloid, derived by irrigation water, on/in their humified organic macromolecules. Furthermore, the supply of nutrients through the compost falls within the context of the organic farming, eco-friendly production system, which ensures the sustainability of the soil, improving its fertility.

  19. Ultrasonic extraction of arsenic and selenium from rocks associated with mountaintop removal/valley fills coal mining: Estimation of bioaccessible concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pumure, I; Renton, J J; Smart, R B

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasonic extraction (UE) was used to estimate the total bioaccessible fractions of arsenic and selenium released from rocks associated with mountaintop removal/valley fill coal mining. The combined readily bioaccessible amounts of arsenic and selenium in water soluble, exchangeable and NaOH fractions can be extracted from the solid phase within a 20 or 25 min application of 200 W cm(-2) ultrasound energy in nanopure water for selenium and arsenic, respectively. Application of a two-way ANOVA predicted that there are no significant differences (p0.001, n=12) in the extracted arsenic and selenium concentrations between the combined bioaccessible and ultrasonic extracts. The mechanisms for the UE of arsenic and selenium are thought to involve the formation of secondary minerals on the particle surfaces which eventually dissolve with continued sonication. This is supported by the presence of transient Si-O stretching and OH absorption and bending ATR-FTIR peaks at 795.33 cm(-1), 696.61 cm(-1) and 910.81 cm(-1). The subsequent dissolution of secondary minerals is followed by the release of chemical species that include selenium and arsenic. Release rates decrease after the ultrasound energy elastic limit for the particles is reached. Selenium and arsenic are bound differently within the rock lattice because no selenium was detected in the acid soluble fraction and no arsenic was found in the exchangeable fraction. However, selenium was found in the exchangeable fraction and arsenic was found in the acid soluble fraction. The characterization of coal associated rocks is essential to the design of methodologies and procedures that can be used to control the release of arsenic and selenium from valley fills. PMID:20129641

  20. Predicting the phenylalanine blood concentration from urine analyses. An approach to noninvasive monitoring of patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Langenbeck, U; Baum, F; Mench-Hoinowski, A; Luthe, H; Behbehani, A W

    2005-01-01

    The need for regular blood-drawing in the management of chronic metabolic disorders may negatively influence the compliance of patients and their parents; noninvasive analytical procedures could well alleviate this burden. Using data obtained in six adult probands with phenylketonuria, we evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive prediction of phenylalanine blood concentrations from analysis of phenylalanine and creatinine in urine. Cross-validated regression equations correct for the significant inter-individual variation of phenylalanine fractional excretion rates. With sensitive and specific enzymatic assays for phenylalanine and creatinine, the accuracy of this noninvasive procedure may also become clinically satisfactory for the purpose of self-monitoring. PMID:16435177

  1. Urinary arsenic levels influenced by abandoned mine tailings in the Southernmost Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coln-Torres, Carlos G; Murillo-Jimnez, Janette M; Del Razo, Luz M; Snchez-Pea, Luz C; Becerra-Rueda, Oscar F; Marmolejo-Rodrguez, Ana J

    2014-10-01

    Gold has been mined at San Antonio-El Triunfo, (Baja California Sur, Mexico) since the 18th century. This area has approximately 5,700 inhabitants living in the San Juan de Los Planes and El Carrizal hydrographic basins, close to more than 100 abandoned mining sites containing tailings contaminated with potentially toxic elements such as arsenic. To evaluate the arsenic exposure of humans living in the surrounding areas, urinary arsenic species, such as inorganic arsenic (iAs) and the metabolites mono-methylated (MMA) and di-methylated arsenic acids (DMA), were evaluated in 275 residents (18-84 years of age). Arsenic species in urine were analyzed by hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry, which excludes the non-toxic forms of arsenic such as those found in seafood. Urinary samples contained a total arsenic concentration (sum of arsenical species) which ranged from 1.3 to 398.7 ng mL(-1), indicating 33% of the inhabitants exceeded the biological exposition index (BEI = 35 ng mL(-1)), the permissible limit for occupational exposure. The mean relative urinary arsenic species were 9, 11 and 80% for iAs, MMA and DMA, respectively, in the Los Planes basin, and 17, 10 and 73%, respectively, in the El Carrizal basin. These data indicated that environmental intervention is required to address potential health issues in this area. PMID:24737417

  2. Reliability of concentrations of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in serial urine specimens from pregnancy in the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Suzanne; Pronk, Anjoeka; Koch, Holger M; Jusko, Todd A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Shaw, Pamela A; Tiemeier, Henning M; Hofman, Albert; Pierik, Frank H; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-05-01

    The widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has resulted in ubiquitous exposure in humans, primarily through their diet. Exposure to OP pesticides may have adverse health effects, including neurobehavioral deficits in children. The optimal design of new studies requires data on the reliability of urinary measures of exposure. In the present study, urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, the main urinary metabolites of OP pesticides, were determined in 120 pregnant women participating in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) across serial urine specimens taken at <18, 18-25, and >25 weeks of pregnancy were determined to assess reliability. Geometric mean total DAP metabolite concentrations were 229 (GSD 2.2), 240 (GSD 2.1), and 224 (GSD 2.2)?nmol/g creatinine across the three periods of gestation. Metabolite concentrations from the serial urine specimens in general correlated moderately. The ICCs for the six DAP metabolites ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 (0.30 for total DAPs), indicating weak to moderate reliability. Although the DAP metabolite levels observed in this study are slightly higher and slightly more correlated than in previous studies, the low to moderate reliability indicates a high degree of within-person variability, which presents challenges for designing well-powered epidemiological studies. PMID:25515376

  3. Urine concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney: role of three-dimensional architecture.

    PubMed

    Dantzler, W H; Pannabecker, T L; Layton, A T; Layton, H E

    2011-07-01

    The urine concentrating mechanism in the mammalian renal inner medulla (IM) is not understood, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in tubules and blood vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional relationships of these tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by recent reconstructions from serial sections labelled with antibodies to tubular and vascular proteins and mathematical models based on these studies. The reconstructions revealed that the lower 60% of each descending thin limb (DTL) of Henle's loops lacks water channels (aquaporin-1) and osmotic water permeability and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) begin with a prebend segment of constant length. In the outer zone of the IM (i) clusters of coalescing collecting ducts (CDs) form organizing motif for loops of Henle and vasa recta; (ii) DTLs and descending vasa recta (DVR) are arrayed outside CD clusters, whereas ATLs and ascending vasa recta (AVR) are uniformly distributed inside and outside clusters; (iii) within CD clusters, interstitial nodal spaces are formed by a CD on one side, AVR on two sides, and an ATL on the fourth side. These spaces may function as mixing chambers for urea from CDs and NaCl from ATLs. In the inner zone of the IM, cluster organization disappears and half of Henle's loops have broad lateral bends wrapped around terminal CDs. Mathematical models based on these findings and involving solute mixing in the interstitial spaces can produce urine slightly more concentrated than that of a moderately antidiuretic rat but no higher. PMID:21054810

  4. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  5. Low-Concentration Arsenic Trioxide Inhibits Skeletal Myoblast Cell Proliferation via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Sen; Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lan, Kuo-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation and differentiation are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration. Myoblast proliferation is a critical step in the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle. The precise action of inorganic arsenic on myoblast growth has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the in vitro effect of inorganic arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the growth of C2C12 myoblasts. As2O3 decreased myoblast growth at submicromolar concentrations (0.25–1 μM) after 72 h of treatment. Submicromolar concentrations of As2O3 did not induce the myoblast apoptosis. Low-concentration As2O3 (0.5 and 1 μM) significantly suppressed the myoblast cell proliferative activity, which was accompanied by a small proportion of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression. As2O3 (0.5 and 1 μM) increased the intracellular arsenic content but did not affect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the myoblasts. Cell cycle analysis indicated that low-concentrations of As2O3 inhibited cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases. As2O3 also decreased the protein expressions of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK4, but did not affect the protein expressions of p21 and p27. Furthermore, As2O3 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt. Insulin-like growth factor-1 significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of As2O3 on Akt phosphorylation and cell proliferation in the myoblasts. These results suggest that submicromolar concentrations of As2O3 alter cell cycle progression and reduce myoblast proliferation, at least in part, through a ROS-independent Akt inhibition pathway. PMID:26359868

  6. Adaptation of a mixed culture of acidophiles for a tank biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing a high concentration of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeongsik; Silva, Rene A; Park, Jeonghyun; Lee, Eunseong; Park, Jayhyun; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-05-01

    We adapted a mixed culture of acidophiles to high arsenic concentrations to confirm the possibility of achieving more than 70% biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing high arsenic (As) concentration. The biooxidation process was applied to refractory gold concentrates containing approximately 139.67 g/kg of total As in a stirred tank reactor using an adapted mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The percentage of the biooxidation process was analyzed based on the total As removal efficiency. The As removal was monitored by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, conducted every 24 h. The results obtained with the adapted culture were compared with the percentage of biooxidation obtained with a non-adapted mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, and with their respective pure cultures. The percentages of biooxidation obtained during 358 h of reaction were 72.20%, 38.20%, 27.70%, and 11.45% for adapted culture, non-adapted culture, and pure cultures of A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans, respectively. The adapted culture showed a peak maximum percentage of biooxidation of 77% at 120 h of reaction, confirming that it is possible to obtain biooxidation percentages over 70% in gold concentrates containing high As concentrations. PMID:26481159

  7. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ma, Jianzhong; Bressler, Jan; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Grove, Megan L.; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Beecher, Compton; McLaughlin, Wayne; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC) in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (age 2–8 years) from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01). Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic. PMID:25101770

  8. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciaton of arsenic in water, food and urine are analytical capabilities which are an essential part in arsenic risk assessment. The cancer risk associated with arsenic has been the driving force in generating the analytical research in each of these matrices. This presentat...

  9. Association of arsenic concentration and speciation with straighthead disease in US produced rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent reports have indicated that rice when grown under anaerobic flooded field conditions can accumulate high levels of grain arsenic (As). This is a public health concern due to the high daily consumption of rice by some populations. The As-based herbicide (monosodium methanearsonate, MSMA) has ...

  10. Determination of arsenic in ores, concentrates and related materials by continuous hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry after separation by xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M; Leaver, M E

    1988-04-01

    A recent graphite-furnace atomic-absorption method for determining approximately 0.2 mug/g or more of arsenic in ores, concentrates, rocks, soils and sediments, after separation from matrix elements by cyclohexane extraction of arsenic(III) xanthate from approximately 8-10M hydrochloric acid, has been modified to include an alternative hydride-generation atomic-absorption finish. After the extract has been washed with 10M hydrochloric acid-2% thiourea solution to remove co-extracted copper and residual iron, arsenic(III) in the extract is oxidized to arsenic(V) with bromine solution in carbon tetrachloride and stripped into water. Following the removal of bromine by evaporation of the solution, arsenic is reduced to arsenic(III) with potassium iodide in approximately 4M hydrochloric acid and ultimately determined to hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry at 193.7 nm, with sodium borohydride as reductant. Interference from gold, platinum and palladium, which are partly co-extracted as xanthates under the proposed conditions, is eliminated by complexing them with thiosemicarbazide before the iodide reduction step. The detection limits for ores and related materials is approximately 0.1 mug of arsenic per g. Results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained previously by the graphite-furnace method. PMID:18964516

  11. Arsenic speciation and spatial and interspecies differences of metal concentrations in mollusks and crustaceans from a South China estuary.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li

    2013-05-01

    Arsenic speciation and concentrations were determined in mollusks and crustaceans in the intertidal zone from twelve locations in Zhanjiang estuary, South China. Metal concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also concurrently determined in these species. Arsenic speciation analysis showed that the less-toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) constituted 80.6-98.8 % of all As compounds, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) constituted 0.47-3.44 %. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As(V) were only detected in the whelk Drupa fiscella and the crab Heteropilumnus ciliatus, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)] was not detected in any of the sampled specimens, but there were also unidentified other As species. A strong spatial variation of metals in the oyster Saccostrea cucullata was found in the estuary, confirming that oysters can be used as a good biomonitor of metal contamination in the studied area. The concentrations of eight metals in the studied mollusks and crustaceans clearly revealed that these invertebrates accumulated different metals to different degrees. Furthermore, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb contents in mollusks and crustacean samples were below the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) safe concentrations, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of the metals through marine mollusks and crustaceans consumption. PMID:23475307

  12. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  17. Association between In Utero arsenic exposure, placental gene expression, and infant birth weight: a US birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies and animal models suggest that in utero arsenic exposure affects fetal health, with a negative association between maternal arsenic ingestion and infant birth weight often observed. However, the molecular mechanisms for this association remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed to increase our understanding of the impact of low-dose arsenic exposure on fetal health by identifying possible arsenic-associated fetal tissue biomarkers in a cohort of pregnant women exposed to arsenic at low levels. Methods Arsenic concentrations were determined from the urine samples of a cohort of 133 pregnant women from New Hampshire. Placental tissue samples collected from enrollees were homogenized and profiled for gene expression across a panel of candidate genes, including known arsenic regulated targets and genes involved in arsenic transport, metabolism, or disease susceptibility. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to examine the relationship of candidate gene expression with arsenic exposure or with birth weight of the baby. Results Placental expression of the arsenic transporter AQP9 was positively associated with maternal urinary arsenic levels during pregnancy (coefficient estimate: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 0.45). Placental expression of AQP9 related to expression of the phospholipase ENPP2 which was positively associated with infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09 0.47). A structural equation model indicated that these genes may mediate arsenics effect on infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: -0.009; 95% confidence interval: -0.032 -0.001; 10,000 replications for bootstrapping). Conclusions We identified the expression of AQP9 as a potential fetal biomarker for arsenic exposure. Further, we identified a positive association between the placental expression of phospholipase ENPP2 and infant birth weight. These findings suggest a path by which arsenic may affect birth outcomes. PMID:23866971

  18. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  19. Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Subhash C; Pati, Shyamapada; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Rahman, Mohammad M; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta R; Chakraborti, Anil K; Basu, Gautam K

    2003-01-01

    The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. PMID:12842773

  20. Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Subhash C; Pati, Shyamapada; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Rahman, Mohammad M; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta R; Chakraborti, Anil K; Basu, Gautam K

    2003-07-01

    The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. PMID:12842773

  1. Determining the concentration and distribution of arsenic deposits in rock matrices and porous media by X-ray difference microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Alsina, M.; Chen, C.; Keane, D.; Packman, A. I.; Gaillard, J.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray microtomography was used to characterize arsenic (As) deposits within porous media. The distribution of arsenic was determined using difference tomography, where the X-rays used to image the sample were selected to be just above and below the As absorption edge at 11,853 eV. The difference tomograms have background noise from other minerals contained in the sample, local variation of X-ray beam intensity, and electronic noise associated with the data acquisition process. Image processing filters, such as windowing or adaptive filters derived from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, were employed to reduce background noise in the tomograms and enhance information on the arsenic deposits. These errors are generally larger in difference tomography than in conventional X-ray microtomography because this method requires operating at very specific X-ray energies (i.e., an edge of the element of interest), and this constraint makes it very difficult to obtain optimal contrast for tomographic reconstruction. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio is often low in difference tomograms of geological samples having high background X-ray absorption. The relationship between As concentration and difference image intensity was evaluated using well defined As samples prepared in the laboratory, along with As-rich sinter deposits from El Tatio hydrothermal field and fluvial sediments from the Loa River downstream of El Tatio. This relationship is non-linear because of interactions between the different sources of error in the construction of the difference tomograms. As a result, the difference tomography method is relatively insensitive to bulk As concentrations, and instead primarily provides information on the distribution of regions of the sample that have high As concentrations, such as As-rich particles, precipitates, or evaporite deposits. Tomographic 3D reconstructions of the porous media and of the aggregate structure thus provide an unique opportunity to observe the distribution and morphology of arsenic deposits within primary source formations and mixed fluvial sediments. This approach provides a useful method for obtaining 3D microstructural and chemical information in rock matrices, for investigating contaminant distributions within sedimentary deposits, and for assessing distributions of different mineral phases within biofilms and other organic material.

  2. Monomethylated trivalent arsenic species disrupt steroid receptor interactions with their DNA response elements at non-cytotoxic cellular concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gosse, Julie A.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Bodwell, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is considered a top environmental chemical of human health because it has been linked to adverse health effects including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive and developmental problems. In several cell culture and animal models, As acts as an endocrine disruptor, which may underlie many of its health effects. Previous work showed that steroid receptor (SR)-driven gene expression is disrupted in cells treated with inorganic As (arsenite, iAs+3). In those studies, low iAs+3 concentrations (0.10.7 ?M) stimulated hormone-inducible transcription, whereas somewhat higher but still non-cytotoxic levels (13 ?M) inhibited transcription. This investigation focuses on the mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects and evaluates the role of methylated trivalent As metabolites on SR function. Recent evidence suggests that, compared with iAs, methylated forms may have distinct biochemical effects. Here, fluorescence polarization (FP) experiments utilizing purified, hormone-bound human glucocorticoid (GR) and progesterone receptor (PR) have demonstrated that neither inorganic (iAs+3) nor dimethylated (DMA+3) species of trivalent As affect receptor interactions with glucocorticoid DNA response elements (GREs). However, monomethylated forms (monomethylarsenite, MMA+3 and monomethylarsonic diglutathione, MADG) strongly inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE binding. Additionally, speciation studies of iAs+3-treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells show that, under treatment conditions that cause inhibition of hormone-inducible gene transcription, the intracellular concentration of MADG is sufficient to inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE interactions in vivo. These results indicate that arsenics inhibitory endocrine disruption effects are probably caused in part by methylated metabolites disruption of SR ability to bind DNA response elements that are crucial to hormone-driven gene transcription. PMID:23765520

  3. Arsenic metabolism and thioarsenicals.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Kanwal; Naranmandura, Hua

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic has received considerable attention in the world, since it can lead to a multitude of toxic effects and has been recognized as a human carcinogen causing cancers. Here, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the proposed mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation, with a little about cellular uptake, toxicity and clinical utilization of arsenicals. Since pentavalent methylated metabolites were found in animal urine after exposure to iAs(III), methylation was considered to be a detoxification process, but the discovery of methylated trivalent intermediates and thioarsenicals in urine has diverted the view and gained much interest regarding arsenic biotransformation. To further investigate the partially understood phenomena relating to arsenic toxicity and the uses of arsenic as a drug, it is important to elucidate the exact pathways involved in metabolism of this metalloid, as the toxicity and the clinical uses of arsenic can be best recognized in context of its biotransformation. Thereby, in this perspective, we have focused on arsenic metabolic pathways including three proposed mechanisms: a classic pathway by Challenger in 1945, followed by a new metabolic pathway proposed by Hayakawa in 2005 involving arsenic-glutathione complexes, while the third is a new reductive methylation pathway that is proposed by our group involving As-protein complexes. According to previous and present in vivo and in vitro experiments, we conclude that the methylation reaction takes place with simultaneous reductive rather than stepwise oxidative methylation. In addition, production of pentavalent methylated arsenic metabolites are suggested to be as the end product of metabolism, rather than intermediates. PMID:22358131

  4. [Tracing for arsenic exposure - a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    PubMed

    Weistenhfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Gen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 ?g / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 ?g / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 ?g / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 ?g / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption. PMID:26710207

  5. Urinary porphyrins as biomarkers for arsenic exposure among susceptible populations in Guizhou Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Zhai, C.; Maddalena, R.; Liu, F.; Moore, M.R.

    2005-08-07

    Coal from some areas in Guizhou Province contains elevated levels of arsenic. This has caused arsenicosis in individuals who use arsenic-contaminated coal for the purposes of heating, cooking and drying of food in poorly ventilated dwellings. The population at risk has been estimated to be approximately 200,000 people. We analyzed the porphyrin excretion profile using a HPLC method in urine samples collected from 113 villagers who lived in Xing Ren district, a coal-borne arsenicosis endemic area and from 30 villagers from Xing Yi where arsenicosis is not prevalent. Urinary porphyrins were higher in the arsenic exposed group than those in the control group. The correlation between urinary arsenic and porphyrin concentrations demonstrated the effect of arsenic on heme biosynthesis resulting in increased porphyrin excretion. Both uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin III showed significant increases in the excretion profile of the younger age ({lt} 20 years) arsenic-exposed group, suggesting that porphyrins could be used as early warning biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure in humans. Greater increases of urinary arsenic and porphyrins in women, children and older age groups who spend much of their time indoors suggest that they might be at a higher risk. Whether elevated porphyrins could predict adverse health effects associated with both cancer and non-cancer end-points in chronically arsenic-exposed populations need further investigation.

  6. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valds, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodrguez, Felipe E.; Acua-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernndez, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernn; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mnica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  7. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast to concentrations over 5,000 ?g/L in the Congo Road area. Although concentrations of fluoride up to 4 mg/L were reported for a few well-water samples collected throughout the Newark Basin, about 90 percent of the samples had concentrations of 0.5 mg/L or less. The USGS sampled 58 wells primarily in 5 areas in the Newark Basin, southeastern Pennsylvania, from February 2004 through April 2005 to identify other possible areas of elevated arsenic, boron, and fluoride and to characterize the geochemical environment associated with elevated concentrations of these constituents. Sampled wells included 12 monitor wells at an industrial facility near Congo Road, 45 private-supply wells in Berks, Montgomery, and Bucks Counties, and 1 private-supply well near Dillsburg, York County, an area where elevated fluoride in ground water had been reported in the adjacent Gettysburg Basin. Wells were sampled in transects from the diabase through the adjacent hornfels and into the unaltered shales of the Brunswick Group. Field measurements were made of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, dissolved and total concentrations of selected trace elements, and boron isotopic composition. Generally, the ground water from the 46 private-supply wells had relatively neutral to alkaline pH (ranging from 6.1 to 9.1) and moderate concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Most water samples were of the calcium-bicarbonate type. Concentrations of arsenic up to 60 ?g/L, boron up to 3,950 ?g/L, and fluoride up to 0.70 mg/L were measured. Drinking-water standards or health advisories (for constituents that do not have standards established) were exceeded most frequently (about 20 percent of samples) for arsenic and boron and less frequently (6 percent or less of samples) for total iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, lead, molybdenum, and strontium. In water from 12 monitor

  8. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

  9. Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 μg CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 μg CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of arsenic in concentrates and copper-base alloys by the molybdenum blue method after separations by iron collection and xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1977-02-01

    A method for determining 0.0001-1% of arsenic in copper, nickel, molybdenum, lead and zinc concentrates is described. After sample decomposition, arsenic is separated from most of the matrix elements by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric oxide from an ammoniacal medium. Following reprecipitation of arsenic and iron, the precipitate is dissolved in approximately 2 M hydrochloric acid and the solution is evaporated to a small volume to remove water. Arsenic(V) is reduced to the tervalent state with iron(II) and separated from iron, lead and other co-precipitated elements by chloroform extraction of its xanthate from an 11M hydrochloric acid medium. After oxidation of arsenic(III) in the extract to arsenic(V) with bromine-carbon tetrachloride solution, it is back-extracted into water and determined by the molybdenum blue method. Small amounts of iron, copper and molybdenum, which are co-extracted as xanthates, and antimony, which is co-extracted to a slight extent as the chloro-complex under the proposed conditions, do not interfere. The proposed method is also applicable to copper-base alloys. PMID:18962035

  11. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969?g/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. PMID:24239724

  12. AT1a receptor knockout in mice impairs urine concentration by reducing basal vasopressin levels and its receptor signaling proteins in the inner medulla.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Shao, Yuan; Zhuo, Jia L

    2009-07-01

    Angiotensin II plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, body salt and fluid balance, and urine concentration. Mice with deletion of the AT(1a) receptor develop polyuria and urine concentration defects. We studied the mechanisms of these urine concentration defects by treating wild-type and AT(1a)-knockout mice with arginine vasopressin (AVP) for 2 weeks, controlling their water intake, or giving them an osmotic diuretic (sucrose) in order to determine whether central or nephrogenic mechanisms were involved. Under basal conditions, AT(1a)-knockout mice were hypotensive, had lower plasma AVP, and excreted more urine with a markedly reduced osmolality compared with wild-type mice. However, basal glomerular filtration rates were similar in both strains of mice. We isolated total lysate and membrane proteins from the inner medulla of wild-type and mutant mouse kidneys, and found that the amounts of aquaporin 2 (AQP2), adenylyl cyclases III and V/VI, and phosphorylated MAP kinases ERK 1/2 proteins were all reduced in the inner medulla of the knockout mice. Infusion of AVP raised plasma levels and blood pressure proportionally in both strains, but polyuria persisted and urine osmolality remained significantly lower in the knockout mice. Although AVP increased urine osmolality slightly in water-deprived knockout mice, this was well below the basal osmolality of wild-type mice. The diuretic response to the hyperosmotic sucrose was also impaired in the knockout mice. Neither AVP nor water rationing restored the levels of the inner medullary signaling proteins and membrane AQP2 proteins in the knockout mice. We suggest that AT(1a) receptor deletion causes polyuria and urine concentration defects by decreasing basal AVP release and impairing AVP-induced receptor signaling in the inner medulla. PMID:19387470

  13. A medical geology study of an arsenic-contaminated area in Kouhsorkh, NE Iran.

    PubMed

    Tabasi, Samira; Abedi, Arezoo

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of arsenic were determined in sediments from the Kouhsorkh area, Khorasan province, NE Iran. The main rock formations in the area consist of Tertiary volcanic rocks as Tuffaceous sandstone, polymictic conglomerate and andesite. Furthermore, some As-Sb-Au mineralization occurred in this area. Concentrations of arsenic in sediments were determined to range between 4.2 and 268.2 ppm, exceeding US EPA (2004) limits. It seems that young volcanic activity is one of the most important factors for arsenic contamination in this area. The first stage of this medical geology study was done at 2 villages in the Kouhsorkh area in which the arsenic concentration in water is high. People in this residential area suffer from skin diseases including hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, keratosis on head, hands, and feet. The 24-h urine specimens were tested for arsenic, the level of total arsenic in urine were determined to range between 13.66 and 75.92 μg/l day, exceeding permissible limits from 5 to 40 μg/day. More systematic studies are needed to determine the link between As exposure and its related diseases. PMID:21960314

  14. Role of three-dimensional architecture in the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat renal inner medulla.

    PubMed

    Pannabecker, Thomas L; Dantzler, William H; Layton, Harold E; Layton, Anita T

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies of three-dimensional architecture of rat renal inner medulla (IM) and expression of membrane proteins associated with fluid and solute transport in nephrons and vasculature have revealed structural and transport properties that likely impact the IM urine concentrating mechanism. These studies have shown that 1) IM descending thin limbs (DTLs) have at least two or three functionally distinct subsegments; 2) most ascending thin limbs (ATLs) and about half the ascending vasa recta (AVR) are arranged among clusters of collecting ducts (CDs), which form the organizing motif through the first 3-3.5 mm of the IM, whereas other ATLs and AVR, along with aquaporin-1-positive DTLs and urea transporter B-positive descending vasa recta (DVR), are external to the CD clusters; 3) ATLs, AVR, CDs, and interstitial cells delimit interstitial microdomains within the CD clusters; and 4) many of the longest loops of Henle form bends that include subsegments that run transversely along CDs that lie in the terminal 500 microm of the papilla tip. Based on a more comprehensive understanding of three-dimensional IM architecture, we distinguish two distinct countercurrent systems in the first 3-3.5 mm of the IM (an intra-CD cluster system and an inter-CD cluster system) and a third countercurrent system in the final 1.5-2 mm. Spatial arrangements of loop of Henle subsegments and multiple countercurrent systems throughout four distinct axial IM zones, as well as our initial mathematical model, are consistent with a solute-separation, solute-mixing mechanism for concentrating urine in the IM. PMID:18495796

  15. The carcinogenicity of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Pershagen, G

    1981-01-01

    A carcinogenic role of inorganic arsenic has been suspected for nearly a century. Exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds occurs in some occupational groups, e.g., among smelter workers and workers engaged in the production and use of arsenic containing pesticides. Substantial exposure can also result from drinking water in certain areas and the use of some drugs. Tobacco and wine have had high As concentrations due to the use of arsenic containing pesticides. Inorganic arsenic compounds interfere with DNA repair mechanisms and an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations have been observed among exposed workers and patients. Epidemiological data show that inorganic arsenic exposure can cause cancer of the lung and skin. The evidence of an etiologic role of arsenic for angiosarcoma of the liver is highly suggestive; however, the association between arsenic and cancer of other sites needs further investigation. No epidemiological data are available on exposure to organic arsenic compounds and cancer. Animal carcinogenicity studies involving exposure to various inorganic and organic arsenic compounds by different routes have been negative, with the possible exception of some preliminary data regarding lung cancer and leukemia. Some studies have indicated an increased mortality from lung cancer in populations living near point emission sources of arsenic into the air. The role of arsenic cannot be evaluated due to lack of exposure data. Epidemiological data suggest that the present WHO standard for drinking water (50 micrograms As/l.) provides only a small safety margin with regard to skin cancer. PMID:7023936

  16. Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.

    PubMed

    Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R

    2008-01-01

    Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

  17. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea. PMID:26507969

  18. All-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide induce apoptosis and modulate intracellular concentrations of calcium in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianfeng; Ye, Chaoping; Liu, Fengsheng; Wang, Wenqing

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), alone and in combination, on apoptosis and intracellular calcium concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. We used HepG2 cells to test the effects of ATRA and ATO, individually and in combination, on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and intracellular-free calcium concentration. The results indicate that each drug decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and increased intracellular-free calcium in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also calculated the coefficients of drug interaction for sub-threshold administration of both drugs in combination (1 ?mol/L each). ATRA and ATO acted synergistically in inhibition of cell proliferation and additively in the promotion of apoptosis. All-trans retinoic acid and ATO interacted synergistically to reduce cell proliferation in HepG2 cells. PMID:25068185

  19. Arsenic in the groundwater of Majuli - The largest river island of the Brahmaputra: Magnitude of occurrence and human exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Ritusmita; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Sarma, Kali Prasad; Thakur, Ritu; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in tube-well water, sediment, and biological samples, including hair, nail and urine were measured to determine the degree of contamination in groundwater and its impact on local inhabitants in the largest populated riverine island Majuli, Assam, India. Arsenic in the groundwater (n = 380) ranged from <3 to 468 μg/L with 37.6% and 16% of the samples having As above 10 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Arsenic concentration in the groundwater gradually decreased beyond 25 m depth of tube-wells. Nearly 90% of urine, 100% of hair and 97% of nail samples had As above the normal ranges, but mean As concentrations in hair, nail and urine of Majuli residents were lower than those in other contaminated areas of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra Plain. Significant positive correlations were observed between As in drinking water and As concentrations in hair, nail and urine samples (r = 0.71-0.78). The range of As concentration in bore-hole sediment was 0.29-1.44 mg/kg. The correlation between As and iron in sediment was found to be very poor. Hydrogeological studies are required to understand the source and mobilization process of As in groundwater of Majuli. Early mitigation measures are urgently needed to save the inhabitants of Majuli from arsenic exposure and possible health effects.

  20. Analytical strategy for the determination of various arsenic species in landfill leachate containing high concentrations of chlorine and organic carbon by HPLC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J.; An, J.; Kim, J.; Jung, H.; Kim, K.; Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2012-12-01

    As a variety of wastes containing arsenic are disposed of in landfills, such facilities can play a prominent role in disseminating arsenic sources to the environment. Since it is widely recognized that arsenic toxicity is highly dependent on its species, accurate determination of various arsenic species should be considered as one of the essential goals to properly account for the potential health risk of arsenic in human and the environment. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry linked to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICPMS) is acknowledged as one of the most important tools for the trace analysis of metallic speciation because of its superior separation capability and detectability. However, the complexity of matrices can cause severe interferences in the analysis results, which is the problem often encountered with HPLC-ICPMS system. High concentration of organic carbon in a sample solution causes carbon build-up on the skimmer and sampling cone, which reduces analytical sensitivity and requires a high maintenance level for its cleaning. In addition, argon from the plasma and chlorine from the sample matrix may combine to form 40Ar35Cl, which has the same nominal mass to charge (m/z) ratio as arsenic. In this respect, analytical strategy for the determination of various arsenic species (e.g., inorganic arsenite and arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, dimethyldithioarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine) in landfill leachate containing high concentrations of chlorine and organic carbon was developed in the present study. Solid phase extraction disk (i.e., C18 disk), which does not significantly adsorb any target arsenic species, was used to remove organic carbon in sample solutions. In addition, helium (He) gas was injected into the collision reaction cell equipped in ICPMS to collapse 40Ar35Cl into individual 40Ar and 35Cl. Although He gas also decreased arsenic intensity by blocking 75As, its signal to noise ratio significantly increased after injecting He gas. We demonstrated that the analytical strategy was achieved improved sensitivity for the determination of various arsenic species in the landfill leachate as one of the complex matrices.

  1. Arsenic Exposure and Cancer Mortality in a US-based Prospective Cohort: the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Esquinas, Esther; Polln, Marina; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara; Farley, John; Yeh, Jeunliang; Best, Lyle G.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic, a carcinogen at high exposure levels, is a major global health problem. Prospective studies on carcinogenic effects at low-moderate arsenic levels are lacking. Methods We evaluated the association between baseline arsenic exposure and cancer mortality in 3,932 American Indians 4574 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North/South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 19891991 and were followed through 2008. We estimated inorganic arsenic exposure as the sum of inorganic and methylated species in urine. Cancer deaths (386 overall, 78 lung, 34 liver, 18 prostate, 26 kidney, 24 esophagus/stomach, 25 pancreas, 32 colon/rectal, 26 breast, 40 lymphatic/hematopoietic) were assessed by mortality surveillance reviews. We hypothesized an association with lung, liver, prostate and kidney cancer. Results Median (interquartile range) urine concentration for inorganic plus methylated arsenic species was 9.7 (5.815.6) ?g/g creatinine. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) comparing the 80th versus 20th percentiles of arsenic were 1.14 (0.921.41) for overall cancer, 1.56 (1.022.39) for lung cancer, 1.34 (0.66, 2.72) for liver cancer, 3.30 (1.288.48) for prostate cancer, and 0.44 (0.14, 1.14) for kidney cancer. The corresponding hazard ratios were 2.46 (1.095.58) for pancreatic cancer, and 0.46 (0.220.96) for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Arsenic was not associated with cancers of the esophagus and stomach, colon and rectum, and breast. Conclusions Low to moderate exposure to inorganic arsenic was prospectively associated with increased mortality for cancers of the lung, prostate and pancreas. Impact These findings support the role of low-moderate arsenic exposure in lung, prostate and pancreas cancer development and can inform arsenic risk assessment. PMID:23800676

  2. Metabolites of arsenic and increased DNA damage of p53 gene in arsenic plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Weihua; Wen Jinghua; Lu Lin; Liu Hua; Yang Jun; Cheng Huirong; Che Wangjun; Li Liang; Zhang Guanbei

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that monomethylarsonous acid is more cytotoxic and genotoxic than arsenate and arsenite, which may attribute to the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we used hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to determine three arsenic species in urine of workers who had been working in arsenic plants,and calculated primary and secondary methylation indexes. The damages of exon 5, 6, 8 of p53 gene were determined by the method developed by Sikorsky, et al. Results show that the concentrations of each urinary arsenic species,and damage indexes of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene in the exposed population were significantly higher, but SMI was significantly lower than in the control group. The closely positive correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and PMI,MMA, DMA were found, but there was closely negative correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and SMI. Those findings suggested that DNA damage of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene existed in the population occupationally exposed to arsenic. For exon 5, the important factors may include the model of arsenic metabolic transformation, the concentrations of MMA and DMA, and the MMA may be of great importance. - Research Highlights: > In our study, the mean SMI for workers came from arsenic plants is 4.06, so they may be in danger. > There are more MMA, there are more damage of exon 5 of p53 gene. > MMA and damage of exon 5 of p53 gene may be useful biomarkers to assess adverse health effects caused by arsenic.

  3. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jimnez-Corona, Aida; vila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G; Ramrez-Lpez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ?20?mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6-59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  4. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jimnez-Corona, Aida; vila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramrez-Lpez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ?20?mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.659.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.513.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.216.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  5. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8ng/kgbw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5%, 0.74%, 0.98%, 0.22% of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population. PMID:26679324

  6. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  7. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  8. Urine odor

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may ...

  9. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex. PMID:26521311

  10. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral 26Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 024 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 024 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (?0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 024 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 024 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  11. Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Longitudinal Change in Blood Pressure among HEALS Cohort Participants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Parvez, Faruque; Wang, Binhuan; Wu, Fen; Eunus, Mahbub; Bangalore, Sripal; Newman, Jonathan D.; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Hayes, Richard B.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between arsenic exposure and prevalence of high blood pressure; however, studies examining the relationship of arsenic exposure with longitudinal changes in blood pressure are lacking. Method We evaluated associations of arsenic exposure in relation to longitudinal change in blood pressure in 10,853 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Arsenic was measured in well water and in urine samples at baseline and in urine samples every 2 years after baseline. Mixed-effect models were used to estimate the association of baseline well and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic with annual change in blood pressure during follow-up (median, 6.7 years). Result In the HEALS population, the median water arsenic concentration at baseline was 62 ?g/L. Individuals in the highest quartile of baseline water arsenic or urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic had a greater annual increase in systolic blood pressure compared with those in the reference group (? = 0.48 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.61, and ? = 0.43 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.56 for water arsenic and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic, respectively) in fully adjusted models. Likewise, individuals in the highest quartile of baseline arsenic exposure had a greater annual increase in diastolic blood pressure for water arsenic and urinary creatinine-adjusted arsenic, (? = 0.39 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.49, and ? = 0.45 mmHg/year; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.55, respectively) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Our findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may accelerate age-related increases in blood pressure. These findings may help explain associations between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Citation Jiang J, Liu M, Parvez F, Wang B, Wu F, Eunus M, Bangalore S, Newman JD, Ahmed A, Islam T, Rakibuz-Zaman M, Hasan R, Sarwar G, Levy D, Slavkovich V, Argos M, Scannell Bryan M, Farzan SF, Hayes RB, Graziano JH, Ahsan H, Chen Y. 2015. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and longitudinal change in blood pressure among HEALS cohort participants. Environ Health Perspect 123:806812;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409004 PMID:25816368

  12. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Melak, Dawit; Ferreccio, Catterina; Kalman, David; Parra, Roxana; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Steinmaus, Craig

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 μg/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 μg/L (median = 60 μg/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 μg/L.

  13. Urine culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  14. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  15. Arsenic-induced health crisis in peri-urban Moyna and Ardebok villages, West Bengal, India: an exposure assessment study.

    PubMed

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Kar, Sandeep; Chen, Chien-Yen; Banerjee, Satabdi; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Ming-Yie; Centeno, Jos A; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chang, Christina L; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Drinking of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater has adverse effects on health of millions of people worldwide. This study aimed to determine the degree of severity of As exposure from drinking water in peri-urban Moyna and Ardebok villages, West Bengal, India. Arsenic concentrations in hair, nail and urine samp les of the individuals were determined. Arsenical dermatosis, keratosis and melanosis were investigated through medical evaluation. We have evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water, and keratosis and melanosis outcomes. The results showed that 82.7% of the sampled tube wells contain As concentrations above 10?g/L, while 57.7% contain As concentrations above 50?g/L. The hair, nail and urine As concentrations were positively correlated with As concentrations in drinking water. In our study population, we observed a strong association between As concentrations ranging 51-99?g/L and keratosis and melanosis outcomes, although the probability decreases at higher concentration ranges perhaps due to switching away from the use of As-contaminated tube wells for drinking and cooking purposes. High As concentrations in hair, nail and urine were observed to be associated with the age of the study population. The level of As concentrations in hair, nail and urine samples of the study population indicated the degree of severity of As exposure in the study region. PMID:22580621

  16. The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A.; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2-8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03?g/L for cases vs. 4.48?g/L for controls, P < 0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of yam, sweet potato, or dasheen, carrot or pumpkin, callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi, cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36?g/L for cases vs. 4.65?g/L for controls, P = 0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi were significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P < 0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

  17. Concentrations of arsenic and other elements in groundwater of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: potential cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Dong, Zhaomin; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the concentrations of 23 elements in groundwater from arsenic (As) contaminated areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India to determine the potential human exposure to metals and metalloids. Elevated concentrations of As was found in all five study areas that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10?g/L. The mean As concentrations in groundwater of Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur were 297?g/L, 262?g/L, 115?g/L, 161?g/L and 349?g/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Mn were also detected in all areas with mean concentrations were 139?g/L, 807?g/L, 341?g/L, 579?g/L and 584?g/L for Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur, respectively. Daily As intakes from drinking water for adults and the potential cancer risk for all areas was also estimated. Results suggest that mitigation activities such as water treatment should not only be focused on As but must also consider other elements including Mn, B and Ba. The groundwater used for public drinking purposes needs to be tested periodically for As and other elements to ensure the quality of drinking water is within the prescribed national guidelines. PMID:26047720

  18. Glutathione-S-transferase-omega [MMA(V) reductase] knockout mice: Enzyme and arsenic species concentrations in tissues after arsenate administration

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Uttam K.; Zakharyan, Robert A.; Hernandez, Alba; Avram, Mihaela D.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Aposhian, H. Vasken . E-mail: aposhian@u.arizona.edu

    2006-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed via their naturally contaminated drinking water. Its molecular mechanisms of carcinogenicity have remained an enigma, perhaps because arsenate is biochemically transformed to at least five other arsenic-containing metabolites. In the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic, GSTO1 catalyzes the reduction of arsenate, MMA(V), and DMA(V) to the more toxic + 3 arsenic species. MMA(V) reductase and human (hGSTO1-1) are identical proteins. The hypothesis that GST-Omega knockout mice biotransformed inorganic arsenic differently than wild-type mice has been tested. The livers of male knockout (KO) mice, in which 222 bp of Exon 3 of the GSTO1 gene were eliminated, were analyzed by PCR for mRNA. The level of transcripts of the GSTO1 gene in KO mice was 3.3-fold less than in DBA/1lacJ wild-type (WT) mice. The GSTO2 transcripts were about two-fold less in the KO mouse. When KO and WT mice were injected intramuscularly with Na arsenate (4.16 mg As/kg body weight); tissues removed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after arsenate injection; and the arsenic species measured by HPLC-ICP-MS, the results indicated that the highest concentration of the recently discovered and very toxic MMA(III), a key biotransformant, was in the kidneys of both KO and WT mice. The highest concentration of DMA(III) was in the urinary bladder tissue for both the KO and WT mice. The MMA(V) reducing activity of the liver cytosol of KO mice was only 20% of that found in wild-type mice. There appears to be another enzyme(s) other than GST-O able to reduce arsenic(V) species but to a lesser extent. This and other studies suggest that each step of the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic has an alternative enzyme to biotransform the arsenic substrate.

  19. Effects of Mn, Cu doping concentration to the properties of magnetic nanoparticles and arsenic adsorption capacity in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Tran Minh; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi

    2015-06-01

    The research results of Fe3O4 and Mn, Cu doped Fe3O4 nanomaterials synthesized by a chemical method for As(III) wastewater treatment are presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy images showed that samples had the cubic spinel structure with the grain sizes were varied from 9.4 nm to 18.1 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer measurements at room temperature showed that saturation magnetic moments of Fe1-xCuxFe2O4 and Fe1-xMnxFe2O4 samples decreased from 65.9 emu/g to 53.2 emu/g and 65.9 emu/g to 61.5 emu/g, respectively, with the increase of Cu, Mn concentrations from 0.0 to 0.15. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm of a typical Fe3O4 sample at 77 K was studied in order to investigate the surface and porous structure of nanoparticles by BET method. The specific surface area of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was calculated about of 100.2 m2/g. The pore size distribution of about 15-20 nm calculated by the BJH (Barrett, Joyner, and Halendar) method at a relative pressure P/P0 of about 1. Although the saturation magnetic moments of samples decreased when the increase of doping concentration, but the arsenic adsorption capacity of Cu doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles is better than that of Fe3O4 and Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a solution with pH = 7. In the solution with a pH > 14, the arsenic adsorption of magnetic nanoparticles is insignificant.

  20. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  1. Arsenic treatment considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Frey, M.M.; Clifford, D.; McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1999-03-01

    The best arsenic treatment technique for a given utility will depend on arsenic concentration and species in source water, other constituents in the water, existing treatment processes, treatment costs, and handling of residuals. To evaluate these issues, a national survey investigated arsenic occurrence and speciation in US drinking water sources. In general, total arsenic concentration was higher in groundwater than in surface water supplies. Particulate arsenic was more abundant than previously suspected, and more arsenate than arsenite was present. The cost of arsenic treatment increased in the following order: modified conventional treatment {much_lt} activated alumina or anion exchange < reverse osmosis. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective treatment still might not be best, because secondary treatment benefits and residuals handling should also be taken into account.

  2. Determination of arsenic in chicken feed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Dos Passos, A S; Nri, T S; Maciel, M V; da Silva Romo, I L; Lemos, V A

    2012-01-01

    A pre-concentration procedure with solid-phase extraction was developed for the determination of arsenic (As) in chicken feed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The procedure was based on the sorption of As(III) ions as complexes with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate onto a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam. After pre-concentration, the As was removed from the mini-column by acid solution, and the analyte content in the eluate was measured by HG-AAS. The following main experimental conditions were established: adjustment of the As solution pH with 0.05?mol?l? HCl, 2.88??10? mol?l? complexing agent concentration and 6.0?mol?l? eluting hydrochloric acid concentration. The proposed method produced an enrichment factor of 67, with 0.050 and 0.165?g?g? limits of detection and quantification, respectively. The procedure was applied to the determination of As content in two types of chicken feed using the proposed procedure and atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomisation (ETAAS). The t-test indicated that the results were not significantly different at a confidence level of 95%. PMID:22845621

  3. Arsenic concentrations in dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Ulery, April; McLaurin, Brett T.; Baron, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin

    2012-08-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area near Las Vegas, NV, USA to evaluate arsenic concentrations associated with dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles. Soil samples were collected from 17 types of desert surfaces and five unpaved parking lot locations for analyses. The surface units are based on surficial characteristics that affect dust emissions. Arsenic concentrations were also measured in dust emitted from each surface unit using a Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). Emissions were measured from ORV trails and undisturbed terrain. Concentrations of As in the soil and parking lot samples ranged from 3.49 to 83.02 ?g g-1 and from 16.13 to 312 ?g g-1 in the PI-SWERL samples. The lower concentrations in the soil samples are expected because of the larger particle sizes (<2 mm) as compared to the PI-SWERL samples (<10 and 10-60 ?m). Soluble As in the PI-SWERL samples was as high as 14.7 ?g g-1. In the Nellis Dunes area the emission rates for As for wind-induced emissions (wind erosion) are highest for the surfaces with significant amounts of sand. Surfaces rich in silt and clay, on the other hand, produce nearly no arsenic during wind erosion but can emit substantial arsenic concentrations when driven on by off-road vehicles. The elevated arsenic emissions from the Nellis Dunes area are of great concern because the site is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Las Vegas, and utilized by over 300,000 visitors annually.

  4. Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (estimated from job category) with concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine from workers at a steel plant.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D; Rothman, N; Cho, S H; Lim, H S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S M; Schwartz, B; Strickland, P T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of assessing individual internal dose of PAHs. This study examined the relative contribution of occupation and smoking to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) among a group of workers at a steel plant. METHODS--Concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine from 44 workers with jobs associated with increased air concentrations of PAHs and 40 workers with jobs with low or no exposure to PAHs were measured. 20 workers in each group were not current smokers. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy after immunoaffinity chromatography specific for PAH metabolites. RESULTS--Mean (SEM) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.16 (0.42) pmol/ml urine among the 44 occupationally exposed workers compared with 0.38 (0.05) among the 40 workers with no or low exposure (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 1.82 (0.41) pmol/ml urine among the 44 current smokers compared with 0.75 (0.20) among the 40 non-smokers (P < 0.005). Mean 1-OHPG concentrations in non-smokers were 0.26 (n = 20), 0.70 (n = 15), and 2.84 pmol/ml urine (n = 5) for strata of exposure to PAHs (no or low, mid, and high) based on job category; the corresponding values in smokers were 0.55 (n = 20), 0.94 (n = 12), and 4.91 pmol/ml (n = 12), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed significant differences between subjects in different PAH exposure with increased concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine. Amounts of foods containing PAHs ingested by this group of workers were relatively low and did not contribute significantly to urinary 1-OHPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that 1-OHPG is a common urinary metabolite in people with recent occupational exposure to PAHs and is associated with both job category and estimated stratum of PAH exposure. PMID:7550799

  5. Assessment of in vivo Bioaccessibility of Arsenic in Dietary Rice by a Mass Balance Approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi; Zheng, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A pilot dietary experiment was conducted over ten days to evaluate whether a simple yet often under utilized approach of constructing mass balance of arsenic metabolites can be used to assess in vivo bioaccessibility of arsenic in cooked rice. Two volunteers were involved in this study. The quantity of drinking water, food and urine samples, together with arsenic concentration and speciation of these samples were monitored to construct a mass balance of arsenic intake and excretion. In the first five days, the two volunteers on a wheat diet had an average arsenic daily intake of 15.4 2.6 g and 9.6 0.7 g, respectively. In the next five days, these volunteers switched to a rice diet, increasing the average arsenic daily intake to 36.4 2.8 g and 34.1 7.7 g, respectively. Daily excretion of urinary arsenic, mostly as dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), doubled from 9.8 0.3 g to 21.0 3.0 g, and from 6.5 0.8 g to 11.6 4.5 g, respectively. The percentage of ingested arsenic excreted in urine remained constant at ~ 58% for one volunteer before and after the rice diet, and was ~ 69 % for another. Mass balance established during a controlled dietary experiment over 10 days is shown to be a useful approach to evaluate in vivo bioaccessibility and metabolism of arsenic uptake from diet and is applicable to study with more subjects. PMID:20071009

  6. Elevated concentrations of arsenic, predominance of thioarsenates, and orpiment precipitation on the seafloor at the marine shallow-water hydrothermal system off Milos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. E.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Savov, I. P.; Pichler, T.

    2009-12-01

    Marine shallow-water hydrothermal vents off Milos Island, Greece, are discharging a low pH, high temperature, highly sulfidic brine into the coastal ocean. We present here the discovery that hydrothermal fluids are extremely elevated in arsenic (maximum ~78 ?M (5.9 mg/L)), or almost 3000 times sea water concentration). This is the highest concentration of arsenic reported for marine hydrothermal vents to date. Ion microprobe analysis confirmed that red hydrothermal precipitates on the seafloor are orpiment (As2S3). Two sites were investigated; Palaeochori Bay, where abundant gas discharge is surrounded by large white and red patches of hydrothermal precipitates in 3-5 meters water depth, and Spathi Bay, a deeper site (~18 meters) where large patches of white hydrothermal precipitates occur. Total arsenic was measured on the hydrothermal fluids, as well as on fluids from brown areas surrounding the white and red patches. These 4 areas contained total arsenic concentrations of 20 (brown), 640 (white), 2700 (red), and 5900 ?g/L (Spathi). Arsenic speciation analysis of the hydrothermal fluids revealed arsenite, arsenate, and mono-, di-, and trithioarsenate as the major species present in hydrothermal fluids. Fluids from the red area at Palaeochori Bay contained predominantly arsenite (77 %) followed by arsenate (14 %), then monothioarsenate (7 %) and dithioarsenate (1%). The hydrothermal fluids from the Palaeochori Bay white area were dominantly arsenite (49 %) and dithioarsenate (29 %), followed by arsenate, monothioarsenate, and trithioarsenate (9, 9, and 2 %, respectively). The brown area in Palaeochori Bay contained a similar distribution of arsenic species compared to the white area, only at much lower concentrations. Finally, the Spathi Bay site, which contained overall higher H2S and lower pH, was dominated by trithioarsenate (50%), followed by arsenite (24%), dithioarsenate (22%), and low abundances of monothioarsenate (3%) and arsenate (1%). Each of the hydrothermal fluids had pH ~5.1, and the detection of trithioarsenate at such acidic conditions is unique so far. Previously, trithioarsenate has only been observed in geothermal waters with pH > 6. The occurrence of di- and trithioarsenates in the hydrothermal fluids seems to be related to H2S concentration, and may be linked to the precipitation of orpiment on the seafloor. This also suggests that thioarsenic species are much more important in marine arsenic cycling than previously considered. Very little is know about the toxicity of thioarsenic species, but previous investigations on bioluminescent marine bacteria (Vibrio fisheri) have shown an increase in toxicity with an increasing number of thio(SH)-groups. The toxicity of trithioarsenate was reported to be similar to that of arsenite. Thus, marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems may be considered as natural analogs to coastal anthropogenic pollution.

  7. Urine Metabolomics by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Indicates Associations between Serum 3,5-T2 Concentrations and Intermediary Metabolism in Euthyroid Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pietzner, Maik; Homuth, Georg; Budde, Kathrin; Lehmphul, Ina; Vlker, Uwe; Vlzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Khrle, Josef; Friedrich, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Context 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) is a thyroid hormone metabolite which exhibited versatile effects in rodent models, including the prevention of insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis typically forced by a high-fat diet. With respect to euthyroid humans, we recently observed a putative link between serum 3,5-T2 and glucose but not lipid metabolism. Objective The aim of the present study was to widely screen the urine metabolome for associations with serum 3,5-T2 concentrations in healthy individuals. Study Design and Methods Urine metabolites of 715 euthyroid participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression models were used to detect associations between urine metabolites and serum 3,5-T2 concentrations. Results Serum 3,5-T2 concentrations were positively associated with urinary levels of trigonelline, pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate. In detail, the odds for intermediate or suppressed serum 3,5-T2 concentrations doubled owing to a 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in urine trigonelline levels, or increased by 29-50% in relation to a 1-SD decrease in urine pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate levels. Conclusion Our findings in humans confirmed the metabolic effects of circulating 3,5-T2 on glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and enhanced drug metabolism as postulated before based on interventional pharmacological studies in rodents. Of note, 3,5-T2 exhibited a unique urinary metabolic profile distinct from previously published results for the classical thyroid hormones. PMID:26601079

  8. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  9. Urine melanin

    MedlinePLUS

    Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

  10. Low concentrations of arsenic induce vascular endothelial growth factor and nitric oxide release and stimulate angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Chia-Li; Chang, Louis W; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2003-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in nature, and its contamination in drinking water remains a major public health problem. Exposure to As may lead to degenerative peripheral vascular diseases. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of As in modulating cell proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to scrutinize the contributing factors of these events. The results revealed that lower concentrations (up to 1 microM) of sodium arsenite stimulated HUVEC cell growth. An in vitro angiogenesis assay indicated that low concentrations of As increased vascular tubular formation, which was abrogated by hemoglobin, a potent nitric oxide scavenger. In contrast, higher concentrations of As (>5 micro M) revealed cytotoxicity and inhibition to angiogenesis. We also demonstrated that lower concentrations of As upregulated the expression of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) at both transcriptional and translational levels and that lower concentrations of As implicated a modulatory role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. In addition, low concentrations of As (<1 micro M) increased von Willebrand Factor (vWF) antigen expression, whose elevation paralleled the onset of angiogenesis and was considered an early indicator of endothelial activation in tumor metastasis. VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor can synergistically upregulate the vWF gene expression. Therefore, we conclude that the treatment of HUVECs with As leads to cell proliferation and activation, which preferentially enhances angiogenesis in vitro, possibly via the VEGF-NOS signaling pathway. The molecular mechanism(s) by which As facilitates angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. PMID:12703962

  11. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  12. Genetic Variation in Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase (AS3MT), Arsenic Metabolism and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma in a European Population

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Karin S; Vahter, Marie; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Rudnai, Peter; Kumar, Rajiv; Broberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Arsenic metabolism is a susceptibility factor for arsenic toxicity, and specific haplotypes in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) have been associated with increased urinary fractions of the most toxic arsenic metabolite, methylarsonic acid (MMA). The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of AS3MT haplotypes with arsenic metabolism and the risk of BCC. Four AS3MT polymorphisms were genotyped in BCC cases (N = 529) and controls (N = 533) from Eastern Europe with low to moderate arsenic exposure (lifetime average drinking water concentration: 1.3 µg/L, range 0.01–167 µg/L). Urinary metabolites [inorganic arsenic (iAs), MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS. Five AS3MT haplotypes (based on rs3740400 A/C, rs3740393 G/C, rs11191439 T/C and rs1046778 T/C) had frequencies >5%. Individuals with the CCTC haplotype had lower %iAs (P = 0.032) and %MMA (P = 0.020) in urine, and higher %DMA (P = 0.033); individuals with the CGCT haplotype had higher %MMA (P < 0.001) and lower %DMA (P < 0.001). All haplotypes showed increased risk of BCC with increasing arsenic exposure through drinking water (ORs 1.1–1.4, P values from <0.001 to 0.082), except for the CCTC haplotype (OR 1.0, CI 0.9–1.2, P value 0.85). The results suggest that carriage of AS3MT haplotypes associated with less-efficient arsenic methylation, or lack of AS3MT haplotypes associated with a more-efficient arsenic methylation, results in higher risk of arsenic-related BCC. The fact that AS3MT haplotype status modified arsenic metabolism, and in turn the arsenic-related BCC risk, supports a causal relationship between low-level arsenic exposure and BCC. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:60–69, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society PMID:25156000

  13. Genetic variation in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), arsenic metabolism and risk of basal cell carcinoma in a European population.

    PubMed

    Engstrm, Karin S; Vahter, Marie; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Rudnai, Peter; Kumar, Rajiv; Broberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Arsenic metabolism is a susceptibility factor for arsenic toxicity, and specific haplotypes in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) have been associated with increased urinary fractions of the most toxic arsenic metabolite, methylarsonic acid (MMA). The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of AS3MT haplotypes with arsenic metabolism and the risk of BCC. Four AS3MT polymorphisms were genotyped in BCC cases (N = 529) and controls (N = 533) from Eastern Europe with low to moderate arsenic exposure (lifetime average drinking water concentration: 1.3 g/L, range 0.01-167 g/L). Urinary metabolites [inorganic arsenic (iAs), MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS. Five AS3MT haplotypes (based on rs3740400 A/C, rs3740393 G/C, rs11191439 T/C and rs1046778 T/C) had frequencies >5%. Individuals with the CCTC haplotype had lower %iAs (P = 0.032) and %MMA (P = 0.020) in urine, and higher %DMA (P = 0.033); individuals with the CGCT haplotype had higher %MMA (P < 0.001) and lower %DMA (P < 0.001). All haplotypes showed increased risk of BCC with increasing arsenic exposure through drinking water (ORs 1.1-1.4, P values from <0.001 to 0.082), except for the CCTC haplotype (OR 1.0, CI 0.9-1.2, P value 0.85). The results suggest that carriage of AS3MT haplotypes associated with less-efficient arsenic methylation, or lack of AS3MT haplotypes associated with a more-efficient arsenic methylation, results in higher risk of arsenic-related BCC. The fact that AS3MT haplotype status modified arsenic metabolism, and in turn the arsenic-related BCC risk, supports a causal relationship between low-level arsenic exposure and BCC. PMID:25156000

  14. Non-analytic problems in detecting arsenic and cadmium in children living near a cadmium refinery in Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, K.; Koehler, J.R.; Tessari, J. )

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine urinary arsenic (N = 322) and cadmium (N = 366) levels in children aged six months to six years who live near a working cadmium refinery and to compare their values with those of children from comparison neighborhoods. A questionnaire designed to identify exposure pathways was administered to the parents. There were unexpected problems in the study. Eighty-four percent of the arsenic samples were below the detection limit of 10 micrograms/l and summary statistics could not be calculated. Urinary arsenic and cadmium values could not be standardized for volume and concentration of urine because a large proportion of the samples had very low creatinine values. The original round of cadmium testing was afflicted with contamination problems, possibly due to the mishandling of pediatric urine bags by the parents during the collection procedure. A retest for cadmium levels under clinical conditions showed lower cadmium levels, all but two were below the detection limit. While biological monitoring of exposure to metals can be undertaken indirectly by measuring the concentration of the metals in urine, the analyses in this study were complicated by (1) not using more sensitive analytical tests for arsenic and cadmium determination, (2) not being able to standardize children's urinary values with creatinine, and (3) allowing in-home urine collection.

  15. Abnormal function of the vasopressin-cyclic-AMP-aquaporin2 axis during urine concentrating and diluting in patients with reduced renal function. A case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The kidneys ability to concentrate and dilute urine is deteriorated during progressive renal insufficiency. We wanted to test the hypothesis that these phenomena could be attributed to an abnormal function of the principal cells in the distal part of the nephron. Methods Healthy control subjects and patients with chronic kidney diseases were studied. Group 1 comprised healthy subjects, n = 10. Groups 2-4 comprised patients with chronic kidney disease (Group 2, n = 14, e-GFR ? 90 m1/min; Group 3, n = 11, 60 m1/min ? e-GFR < 90 ml/min; and Group 4, n = 16, 15 ml/min ? e-GFR < 60 ml/min). The subjects collected urine during 24 hours. A urine concentrating test was done by thirsting during the following 12 hours. Thereafter, a urine diluting test was performed with a water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), cyclic-AMP (u-c-AMP), urine volume (UV), free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolarity (u-Osm), and plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP). Results After fluid deprivation, u-Osm increased. In all groups, UV and CH2O decreased and u-AQP2 and u-c-AMP increased in Groups 1 and 2, but were unchanged in Group 3 and 4. P-AVP was significantly higher in Group 4 than in the other groups. During urine diluting, UV and CH2O reached significantly higher levels in Groups 1-3 than Group 4. Both before and after water loading, u-AQP2 and p-AVP were significantly higher and u-c-AMP was significantly lower in Group 4 than the other groups. Estimated-GFR was correlated negatively to p-AVP and positively to u-c-AMP. Conclusions Patients with moderately severe chronic kidney disease have a reduced renal concentrating and diluting capacity compared to both patients with milder chronic kidney disease and healthy control subjects. These phenomena can be attributed, at least partly, to an abnormally decreased response in the AVP-c-AMP-AQP2 axis. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00313430 PMID:20923561

  16. AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Shao, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a?/?) mice to test the hypothesis that AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a?/? mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a?/? mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 5.9 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 843 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion. These responses in Agtr1a?/? mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 67 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a?/? mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a?/? mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a?/? mice. These results demonstrate that AT1a receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V2 receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla. PMID:22739536

  17. AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Shao, Yuan; Zhuo, Jia L

    2012-09-01

    It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT(1a)) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that AT(1a) receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a(-/-) mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a(-/-) mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 5.9 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 843 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion. These responses in Agtr1a(-/-) mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 67 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that AT(1a) receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V(2) receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla. PMID:22739536

  18. Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 μg/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 μg/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 μg/L) and Mn (50 μg/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 μg/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-μg/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

  19. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  20. Occurrence of trivalent monomethyl arsenic and other urinary arsenic species in a highly exposed juvenile population in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kalman, David A; Dills, Russell L; Steinmaus, Craig; Yunus, Md; Khan, Al Fazal; Prodhan, Md Mofijuddin; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Allan H

    2014-01-01

    Following reports of high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of monomethyl arsonous acid (MMA(III)) and early reports of urinary MMA(III) in arsenic-exposed individuals, MMA(III) has often been included in population studies. Use of urinary MMA(III) as an indicator of exposure and/or health risk is challenged by inconsistent results from field studies and stability studies, which indicate potential artifacts. We measured urinary arsenic species in children chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water, using collection, storage, and analysis methods shown to conserve MMA(III). MMA(III) was easily oxidized in sample storage and processing, but recoveries of 80% or better in spiked urine samples were achieved. Attempts to preserve the distribution of MMA between trivalent and pentavalent forms using complexing agents were unsuccessful and MMA(III) spiked into treated urine samples actually showed lower stability than in untreated samples. In 643 urine samples from a highly exposed population from the Matlab district in Bangladesh stored for 3-6 months at ?-70?C, MMA(III) was detected in 41 samples, with an estimated median value of 0.3??g/l, and levels of MMA(III) above 1??g/l in only two samples. The low urinary concentrations in highly exposed individuals and known difficulties in preserving sample oxidation state indicate that urinary MMA(III) is not suitable for use as an epidemiological biomarker. PMID:23549402

  1. The influence of groundwater chemistry on arsenic concentrations and speciation in a quartz sand and gravel aquifera)

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Douglas B; Fox, Patricia M

    2004-01-01

    We examined the chemical reactions influencing dissolved concentrations, speciation, and transport of naturally occurring arsenic (As) in a shallow, sand and gravel aquifer with distinct geochemical zones resulting from land disposal of dilute sewage effluent. The principal geochemical zones were: (1) the uncontaminated zone above the sewage plume [350 μM dissolved oxygen (DO), pH 5.9]; (2) the suboxic zone (5 μM DO, pH 6.2, elevated concentrations of sewage-derived phosphate and nitrate); and (3) the anoxic zone [dissolved iron(II) 100–300 μM, pH 6.5–6.9, elevated concentrations of sewage-derived phosphate]. Sediments are comprised of greater than 90% quartz but the surfaces of quartz and other mineral grains are coated with nanometer-size iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and/or silicates, which control the adsorption properties of the sediments. Uncontaminated groundwater with added phosphate (620 μM) was pumped into the uncontaminated zone while samples were collected 0.3 m above the injection point. Concentrations of As(V) increased from below detection (0.005 μM) to a maximum of 0.07 μM during breakthrough of phosphate at the sampling port; As(III) concentrations remained below detection. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that naturally occurring As(V) adsorbed to constituents of the coatings on grain surfaces was desorbed by phosphate in the injected groundwater. Also consistent with this hypothesis, vertical profiles of groundwater chemistry measured prior to the tracer test showed that dissolved As(V) concentrations increased along with dissolved phosphate from below detection in the uncontaminated zone to approximately 0.07 and 70 μM, respectively, in the suboxic zone. Concentrations of As(III) were below detection in both zones. The anoxic zone had approximately 0.07 μM As(V) but also had As(III) concentrations of 0.07–0.14 μM, suggesting that release of As bound to sediment grains occurred by desorption by phosphate, reductive dissolution of Fe oxides, and reduction of As(V) to As(III), which adsorbs only weakly to the Fe-oxide-depleted material in the coatings. Results of reductive extractions of the sediments suggest that As associated with the coatings was relatively uniformly distributed at approximately 1 nmol/g of sediment (equivalent to 0.075 ppm As) and comprised 20%-50% of the total As in the sediments, determined from oxidative extractions. Quartz sand aquifers provide high-quality drinking water but can become contaminated when naturally occurring arsenic bound to Fe and Al oxides or silicates on sediment surfaces is released by desorption and dissolution of Fe oxides in response to changing chemical conditions.

  2. The influence of groundwater chemistry on arsenic concentrations and speciation in a quartz sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, D.B.; Fox, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the chemical reactions influencing dissolved concentrations, speciation, and transport of naturally occurring arsenic (As) in a shallow, sand and gravel aquifer with distinct geochemical zones resulting from land disposal of dilute sewage effluent. The principal geochemical zones were: (1) the uncontaminated zone above the sewage plume [350 ??M dissolved oxygen (DO), pH 5.9]; (2) the suboxic zone (5 ??M DO, pH 6.2, elevated concentrations of sewage-derived phosphate and nitrate); and (3) the anoxic zone [dissolved iron(II) 100-300 ??M, pH 6.5-6.9, elevated concentrations of sewage-derived phosphate]. Sediments are comprised of greater than 90% quartz but the surfaces of quartz and other mineral grains are coated with nanometer-size iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and/or silicates, which control the adsorption properties of the sediments. Uncontaminated groundwater with added phosphate (620 ??M) was pumped into the uncontaminated zone while samples were collected 0.3 m above the injection point. Concentrations of As(V) increased from below detection (0.005 ??M) to a maximum of 0.07 ??M during breakthrough of phosphate at the sampling port; As(III) concentrations remained below detection. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that naturally occurring As(V) adsorbed to constituents of the coatings on grain surfaces was desorbed by phosphate in the injected groundwater. Also consistent with this hypothesis, vertical profiles of groundwater chemistry measured prior to the tracer test showed that dissolved As(V) concentrations increased along with dissolved phosphate from below detection in the uncontaminated zone to approximately 0.07 and 70 ??M, respectively, in the suboxic zone. Concentrations of As(III) were below detection in both zones. The anoxic zone had approximately 0.07 ??M As(V) but also had As(III) concentrations of 0.07-0.14 ??M, suggesting that release of As bound to sediment grains occurred by desorption by phosphate, reductive dissolution of Fe oxides, and reduction of As(V) to As(III), which adsorbs only weakly to the Fe-oxide-depleted material in the coatings. Results of reductive extractions of the sediments suggest that As associated with the coatings was relatively uniformly distributed at approximately 1 nmol/g of sediment (equivalent to 0.075 ppm As) and comprised 20%-50% of the total As in the sediments, determined from oxidative extractions. Quartz sand aquifers provide high-quality drinking water but can become contaminated when naturally occurring arsenic bound to Fe and Al oxides or silicates on sediment surfaces is released by desorption and dissolution of Fe oxides in response to changing chemical conditions. ?? 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Relations between exposure to arsenic, skin lesions, and glucosuria

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M.; Tondel, M.; Chowdhury, I. A.; Axelson, O.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to arsenic causes keratosis, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation and seemingly also diabetes mellitus, at least in subjects with skin lesions. Here we evaluate the relations of arsenical skin lesions and glucosuria as a proxy for diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Through existing measurements of arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh, wells with and without arsenic contamination were identified. Based on a questionnaire, 1595 subjects > or = 30 years of age were interviewed; 1481 had a history of drinking water contaminated with arsenic whereas 114 had not. Time weighted mean arsenic concentrations and mg-years/l of exposure to arsenic were estimated based on the history of consumption of well water and current arsenic concentrations. Urine samples from the study subjects were tested by means of a glucometric strip. People with positive tests were considered to be cases of glucosuria. RESULTS: A total of 430 (29%) of the exposed people were found to have skin lesions. Corresponding to drinking water with < 0.5, 0.5-1.0, and > 1.0 mg/l of arsenic, and with the 114 unexposed subjects as the reference, the prevalence ratios for glucosuria, as adjusted for age and sex, were 0.8, 1.4, and 1.4 for those without skin lesions, and 1.1, 2.2, and 2.6 for those with skin lesions. Taking exposure as < 1.0, 1.0-5.0, > 5.0-10.0 and > 10.0 mg- years/l of exposure to arsenic the prevalence ratios, similarly adjusted, were 0.4, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.7 for those without and 0.8, 1.7, 2.1, and 2.9 for those with skin lesions. All series of risk estimates were significant for trend, (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that skin lesions and diabetes mellitus, as here indicated by glucosuria, are largely independent effects of exposure to arsenic although glucosuria had some tendency to be associated with skin lesions. Importantly, however, glucosuria (diabetes mellitus) may occur independently of skin lesions. PMID:10450246

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

  5. Concentration dependence and interfacial instabilities during ion beam annealing of arsenic-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Priolo, F.; Rimini, E. ); Spinella, C. ); Ferla, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam induced epitaxy of amorphous Si layers onto {l angle}100{r angle} substrates has been investigated by varying the As concentration. At As concentrations below 4{times}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} no rate effect is observed. In the intermediate regime, between 4{times}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} and 2{times}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}, the growth rate increases linearly with the logarithm of As concentration and reaches a value about a factor of 2 higher than that of intrinsic Si. At concentrations above 2{times}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}, the epitaxy experiences a sudden, severe retardation. Finally, at a concentration of {similar to}6{times}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}, twins are observed to form.

  6. Determination of arsenic in ores, concentrates and related materials by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry after separation by xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    M Donaldson, E

    1988-01-01

    A method for determining approximately 0.2 mug/g or more of arsenic in ores, concentrates and related materials is described. After sample decomposition arsenic(V) is reduced to arsenic(III) with titanium(III) and separated from iron, lead, zinc, copper, uranium, tin, antimony, bismuth and other elements by cyclohexane extraction of its xanthate complex from approximately 8-10M hydrochloric acid. After washing with 10M hydrochloric acid-2% thiourea solution to remove residual iron and co-extracted copper, followed by water to remove chloride, arsenic is stripped from the extract with 16M nitric acid and ultimately determined in a 2% nitric acid medium by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry, at 193.7 nm, in the presence of thiourea (which eliminates interference from sulphate) and palladium as matrix modifiers. Small amounts of gold, platinum and palladium, which are partly co-extracted as xanthates under the proposed conditions, do not interfere. PMID:18964463

  7. Arsenic in Bangladesh Groundwater: from Science to Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Graziano, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    A large proportion of the populations of Bangladesh and other South Asian countries is at risk of contracting cancers and other debilitating diseases due to exposure to high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater supplied by millions of tube wells. Starting in January 2000, and in partnership with several Bangladeshi institutions, an interdisciplinary team of health, earth, and social scientists from Columbia University has focused its efforts to address this crisis on a 25 km2 region in Araihazar upazila, about 20 km northeast of Dhaka. The project started with the recording of the position and depth of ~6600 wells in the area, the collection of groundwater samples from these wells, and laboratory analyses for arsenic and a suite of other constituents. This was followed by the recruitment of 12,000 adult inhabitants of the area for a long-term cohort study of the effects of arsenic exposure, as well as cross-sectional studies of their children. This presentation will focus on (1) the extreme degree of spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater, (2) the notion that spatial variability hampers mitigation in the sense that it complicates predictions but also offers an opportunity for mitigation because many households live within walking or drilling distance of safe water, and (3) the implication of recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization for potential temporal changes in groundwater arsenic. In addition, (4) a unique data set documenting the response of 6500 households to 4 years of mitigation in Araihazar, supported by documented reductions in exposure to arsenic based on urine analyses, will be presented. The presentation will conclude with (5) a proposal for scaling up mitigation efforts to the rest of the country by targeting safe aquifers with information transmitted to the village level from a central data base using cellular phones.

  8. Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H(2)O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences. PMID:22914749

  9. Urine Metanephrines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , VMA All content on Lab Tests ... The Endocrine Society recommends using a test for plasma free metanephrines or urine metanephrines to evaluate an ...

  10. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  11. Do arsenic concentrations in groundwater change over time? A fourteen-year follow-up study of 760 tubewells in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Chen, T. L.; van Geen, A.; Bostick, B. C.; Ellis, T.; Ahmed, E. B.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) contamination of shallow groundwater affects numerous tubewells utilized for drinking water in Bangladesh. Long-term exposure to As contaminated water increases the risk of skin lesions and internal cancers. In 2000-2001, water samples from 61 villages distributed within a 25 km area of Araihazar, Bangladesh were collected and tested for As to better understand the spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater. In 2012, village health workers returned to the same area and performed field kit tests for arsenic and resurveyed well owners. Of the 9,000 tubewells originally sampled in 2000-01, 760 of them have been identified as potentially still in existence by matching GPS coordinates, well depth, and well age information. The goal of this work is to determine whether arsenic concentrations along with groundwater chemistry have changed over the past 14 years in these tubewells. Archived water samples from the 2000-2001 sampling campaign are being assessed for sample storage integrity and village health workers are currently resampling these 760 tubewells. In 2000-2001, these samples were initially analyzed for As using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA). The 2000-2001 archived water samples are currently being reanalyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to improve sensitivity, accuracy and precision of arsenic detection. ICP-MS will also be used to analyze for 13 other elements. Comparing ICP-MS with the GFAA As demonstrated that the long-term storage of these samples did not alter the water chemistry. Analysis of the samples currently being collected in Bangladesh will enable us to determine the stability of groundwater chemistry over time.

  12. WORKER EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT SPRAY OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulated total body exposure to arsenic was correlated with the urinary arsenic concentration. Exposure to arsenic of all workers was lower than the short-term no-effect level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. Changes of n-hexane metabolites in urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene or MEK.

    PubMed

    Iwata, M; Takeuchi, Y; Hisanaga, N; Ono, Y

    1983-01-01

    It is well known that n-hexane produces peripheral neuropathy, and 2,5-hexanedione, one of the metabolites of n-hexane, is thought to be the main causative agent. Recently, the metabolites of n-hexane in urine have been measured by gas chromatography, and 2,5-hexanedione was proved to be useful for the biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. In the present experiment, we intended to clarify the change of n-hexane metabolites in the urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene of MEK. In the first experiment, five separate groups of five rats each were exposed to 100, 500, 1000, or 3000 ppm of n-hexane, or fresh air respectively in an exposure chamber for 8 h a day. Urinary samples were gathered during exposure, 16, 24, and 40 h after exposure. Half of each sample was analyzed by gas chromatography after hydrolysis with acid and enzymes, and the other half was analyzed without hydrolysis. 2,5-Dimethylfuran, MBK, 2-hexanol, 2,5-hexanedione, and gamma-valerolactone could be identified as n-hexane metabolites in the urine. The main metabolites were 2-hexanol and 2,5-hexanedione. 2-Hexanol was mostly excreted during exposure, while most of the 2,5-hexanedione was excreted after the end of exposure. The amount of metabolites in the urine correlatively increased with the concentration of n-hexane from 100 to 1000 ppm, but the amount of metabolites scarcely increased when the concentration of n-hexane increased from 1000 to 3000 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6654498

  14. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  15. GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco P; Jones, Alan W

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  16. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408789 PMID:25707031

  17. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    PubMed

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas. PMID:26803211

  18. Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of different medical cases in urinary arsenic speciation by fast HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Heitland, Peter; Kster, Helmut D

    2009-07-01

    The inorganic arsenic species As(III), As(V) and the organic species methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) were determined in human urine by a fast anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS method, which was developed for clinical laboratories with high sample throughput. This paper compares typical chromatograms of the arsenic species in urine samples collected in different medical cases, for example, for the non-exposed population, for environmentally (plant protectants) and occupationally (glass manufacture) exposed persons, for a person after a failed suicide attempt with As2O3 and for persons before and after administration of the antidot sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS). Concentration data of the urinary As species for the non-exposed German population (n=82) are compared with the concentrations before and after administration of DMPS (n=37). For the non-exposed group the toxicologically relevant As in urine consists of 81% DMA(V), 10% MMA(V) and 9% inorganic As. However, a few hours after an acute intoxication with inorganic As this distribution changes dramatically and As(III) and As(V) are predominantly found in urine. After treatment with DMPS the total As concentration increases significantly and mainly MMA(V) and As(III) were found in urine samples. PMID:18948060

  20. Associations between land cover/use categories and soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harley T.; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between percentages of Anderson land cover categories with soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were examined. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

  1. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kopple, J D; Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E

    1990-11-01

    Thirty-four adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition (TPN) were treated either with or without intravenous taurine for less than or equal to 24 mo. Statistical comparisons were carried out in eight patients randomly assigned to receive intravenous taurine, usually 10 mg.kg-1.d-1, and 10 patients not receiving taurine. Compared with normal adults, baseline plasma taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios were decreased in both groups and platelet taurine was reduced in the taurine-treated group. During taurine treatment the mean of the mean values for taurine became normal in plasma and platelets and remained normal in erythrocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes; urine taurine-creatinine ratios rose to approximately five times normal. During follow-up, patients not given taurine had plasma, erythrocyte, and granulocyte taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios below normal values and the concentrations of taurine-treated patients. Their platelet taurine was also subnormal. Thus, 10 mg taurine.kg-1.d-1 intravenously normalizes plasma and blood cell taurine concentrations in long-term TPN patients. PMID:2122710

  2. Arsenic concentration variability, health risk assessment, and source identification using multivariate analysis in selected villages of public water system, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jawairia; Farooqi, Abida; Ali, Usman

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports high levels and variability in arsenic (As) levels at locations identified as one of the highest As-contaminated locations in Pakistan. Groundwater pollution related to arsenic has been reported since many years in the areas lying in outskirts of District Lahore, Pakistan. A comparative study is done to determine temporal variations of As from three villages, i.e., Kalalanwala (KLW), Manga Mandi (MM), and Shamki Bhattian (SKB). Seventy-three percent of the 30 investigated samples ranging in depth from 20 to 200 m, show an increasing trend in variations of As concentration over a time span of 4 years and 87% of samples exceeded the WHO standard of 10 μg/L for As while 77% of samples have As concentration >50 μg/L (national standard). Further results indicate that high levels of As is accompanied with increase pH (r = 0.8) favoring desorption of As from minerals at higher pH under oxidizing conditions. For health risk assessment of arsenic, the average daily dose, hazard quotient (HQ), and cancer risk were calculated. The residents of the studied areas had toxic risk index in the order of SKB>KLW>MM, with 87% of samples exceeding the typical toxic risk index 1.00 (ranging from 2.3-48.6) which was 83% (ranging from 0.3-41) 4 years before. The results of the present study therefore indicate that arsenic concentrations are increasing in the area, which needs an immediate attention to provide alternate sources of water to save people at risk. PMID:24197557

  3. Limited temporal variability of arsenic concentrations in 20 wells monitored for 3 years in Araihazar, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z; van Geen, A; Seddique, A A; Ahmed, K M

    2005-07-01

    Millions of people in Bangladesh have probably switched their water consumption to wells that meet the local standard for As in drinking water of 50 microg/L as a result of blanket field testing throughout the country. It is therefore important to know if As concentrations in those wells could change over time. To address this issue, we report here precise groundwater As analyses for time-series samples collected from a suite of 20 tube wells containing < or =50 microg/L As and ranging from 8 to 142 m in depth. For 17 out of 20 wells, the standard deviation of groundwater As concentrations was <10 microg/L over the 3-year monitoring period (n = 24-44 per well). Six of the 17 wells are community wells, each of which serves the needs of several hundred people in particularly affected villages. Of the three wells showing larger fluctuations in chemical composition including As, two are very shallow (8 and 10 m). Variations in As concentrations for one of these wells (50 +/- 32 microg/L, n = 36), as well as another shallow well showing smaller variations (48 +/- 5 microg/L, n = 36), appear to be coupled to seasonal precipitation and recharge linked to the monsoon. The other shallow well showing larger variations in composition indicates a worrisome and steady increase in As concentrations from 50 to 70 microg/L (n = 36) over 3 years. The time series of As (30 +/- 11 microg/L, n = 24) and other constituents in one deep community well (59 m) show large fluctuations that suggest entrainment of shallow groundwater through a broken PVC pipe. Even though the majority of wells that were initially safe remained so for 3 years, our results indicate that tube wells should be tested periodically. PMID:16053073

  4. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by arsenic accumulators: a three year study.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anshita; Singh, Nandita

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether phytoremediation can remove arsenic from the contaminated area, a study was conducted for three consecutive years to determine the efficiency of Pteris vittata, Adiantum capillus veneris, Christella dentata and Phragmites karka, on arsenic removal from the arsenic contaminated soil. Arsenic concentrations in the soil samples were analysed after harvesting in 2009, 2010 and 2011 at an interval of 6 months. Frond arsenic concentrations were also estimated in all the successive harvests. Fronds resulted in the greatest amount of arsenic removal. Root arsenic concentrations were analysed in the last harvest. Approximately 70 % of arsenic was removed by P. vittata which was recorded as the highest among the four plant species. However, 60 % of arsenic was removed by A. capillus veneris, 55.1 % by C. dentata and 56.1 % by P. karka of arsenic was removed from the contaminated soil in 3 years. PMID:25666567

  5. The Concentration of Free and Conjugated 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid in the Urine of Bladder Tumour Patients Before and After Therapy, Measured with an Enzymatic Method

    PubMed Central

    Teulings, F. A. G.; Fokkens, W.; Kaalen, J. G. A. H.; van der Werf-Messing, B.

    1973-01-01

    The basal concentration of the tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3OHA), which has carcinogenic properties, was measured with an enzymatic method of determination which allowed separate measurement of free and conjugated 3OHA. The concentration of free 3OHA in untreated bladder cancer patients was significantly (P <0001) higher than in a healthy control group, but after local therapy the concentration was significantly lower than before treatment (P <001). The concentration of conjugated 3OHA was nearly constant in the three groups. It was concluded that other factors than a genetic determined abnormality might be operating in bladder cancer patients which could lead to an abnormal concentration of 3OHA in their urine. PMID:4701704

  6. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-10-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine concentrations in canine plasma and urine samples using LC-APCI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Achanta, Satyanarayana; Ngo, Minh; Veitenheimer, Allison; Maxwell, Lara K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2013-01-15

    A highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of vinblastine and its metabolite, desacetylvinblastine, in canine plasma and urine samples. Plasma and urine samples were processed by a solid phase extraction procedure. The optimal chromatographic behavior of these analytes was achieved on pentafluorophenyl (PFP) propyl analytical column (5μm, 50×2.1mm) under isocratic elution of 0.75mL/min with a mobile phase of 5mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The samples were analyzed in positive ion, multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear over 0.125-2ng/mL (lower calibration curve); 2-100ng/mL (higher calibration curve) and 0.125-5ng/mL for vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine in plasma, and over 1-2000ng/mL and 0.5-100ng/mL for vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine in urine samples, respectively. The limits of quantitation of vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine were 0.125ng/mL in both matrices. The intra and interday accuracy was above 89% and precision below 8.6% for both analytes in both matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to ongoing in vivo vinblastine pharmacokinetic studies in dogs. PMID:23314352

  8. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  9. Arsenic speciation of terrestrial invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Maeve M; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders. PMID:19673270

  10. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  11. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 μg/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions. PMID:25252363

  12. Solid-Phase Speciation of Arsenic As the Primary Control on Dissolved As Concentrations in a Glacial Aquifer System: Quantifying Speciation of Arsenic in Glacial Aquifer Solids with μXAS Mapping.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, S. L.; Gowan, A. S.; Knaeble, A. R.; Erickson, M. L.; Woodruff, L. G.; Marcus, M.; Toner, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Western Minnesota, USA, is a regional locus of drinking-water wells with high arsenic (As) (As>10µgL-1). Arsenic concentrations vary widely among neighboring wells with otherwise similar water chemistry [1,2]. As(III) should be the most mobile As species in Minnesota well waters (median Eh in As affected wells is -50mV). This As is geogenic, sourced from glacial deposits derived from Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock (dolostone, limestone, shale). Our hypothesis is that As speciation in the solid phase is the important factor controlling the introduction of As to groundwater—more significant in this region than absolute As concentrations or landscape variability. Our previous research used micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (µXAS) speciation mapping [3] on archived glacial tills (stored dry at room temperature in air). µXAS results from this material showed that As in a reduced chemical state within the till aquitard is spatially correlated with iron sulfide at the micron scale. Conversley, As in aquifer sediments was mainly oxidized As(V). At the aquifer-aquitard contact As was observed as a mixture of both reduced and oxidized forms. This suggests that the aquifer-aquitard contact is a geochemically active zone in which reduced As species present within glacial till are converted to As(V) through complex redox processes, and subsequently release into aquifer sediments. Our current research applies the same methods to describe As speciation in samples collected from fresh cores of glacial sediment and frozen under argon in the field. Preliminary results are similar to our previous work in that As is, in general, more reduced in aquitard sediments, and more oxidized at the contact and in aquifer sediments. Arsenic(III) was preserved as a minor consitutent in ambient archived cores but is a more significant constituent in fresh, anaerobically preserved cores. Results will be presented comparing anaerobic samples with ambient-air aliquots of the same sample to document changes in the relative abundance of As species depending on sample preservation. This work was supported by LBNL-ALS, ANL-APS, USGS-MNWSC, MGS, and CURA. [1]Berndt & Soule (1999) Minnesota Arsenic Research Study: Report on Geochemistry. [2] Erickson & Barnes (2005) Water Research 39 4029-4039. [3] Toner et al. (2014) Env. Chem. 11 4-9.

  13. Differential Methylation of the Arsenic (III) Methyltransferase Promoter According to Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Pollak, Jonathan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is methylated in the body by arsenic (III) methyltransferase. Arsenic methylation is thought to play a role in arsenic-related epigenetic phenomena including aberrant DNA and histone methylation. However, it is unclear whether the promoter of the AS3MT gene, which codes for arsenic (III) methyltransferase, is differentially methylated as a function of arsenic exposure. In this study we evaluated AS3MT promoter methylation according to exposure, assessed by urinary arsenic excretion in a stratified random sample of 48 participants from the Strong Heart Study who had urine arsenic measured at baseline and DNA available from 19891991 and 19981999. For this study, all data are from the 19891991 visit. We measured AS3MT promoter methylation at its 48 CpG loci by bisulphite sequencing. We compared mean % methylation at each CpG locus by arsenic exposure group using linear regression adjusted for study centre, age and sex. A hypomethylated region in the AS3MT promoter was associated with higher arsenic exposure. In vitro, arsenic induced AS3MT promoter hypomethylation and it increased AS3MT expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These findings may suggest that arsenic exposure influences the epigenetic regulation of a major arsenic metabolism gene. PMID:24154821

  14. High-throughput chemical screening identifies AG-490 as a stimulator of aquaporin 2 membrane expression and urine concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Naohiro; Nunes, Paula; Bouley, Richard; Nair, Anil V.; Shaw, Stanley; Ueda, Erica; Pathomthongtaweechai, Nutthapoom; Lu, Hua A. Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A reduction or loss of plasma membrane aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in kidney principal cells due to defective vasopressin (VP) signaling through the VP receptor causes excessive urine production, i.e., diabetes insipidus. The amount of AQP2 on the plasma membrane is regulated by a balance of exocytosis and endocytosis and is the rate limiting step for water reabsorption in the collecting duct. We describe here a systematic approach using high-throughput screening (HTS) followed by in vitro and in vivo assays to discover novel compounds that enhance vasopressin-independent AQP2 membrane expression. We performed initial chemical library screening with a high-throughput exocytosis fluorescence assay using LLC-PK1 cells expressing soluble secreted yellow fluorescent protein and AQP2. Thirty-six candidate exocytosis enhancers were identified. These compounds were then rescreened in AQP2-expressing cells to determine their ability to increase AQP2 membrane accumulation. Effective drugs were then applied to kidney slices in vitro. Three compounds, AG-490, ?-lapachone, and HA14-1 increased AQP2 membrane accumulation in LLC-PK1 cells, and both AG-490 and ?-lapachone were also effective in MDCK cells and principal cells in rat kidney slices. Finally, one compound, AG-490 (an EGF receptor and JAK-2 kinase inhibitor), decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality significantly in the first 24 h after a single injection into VP-deficient Brattleboro rats. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic procedure for identifying new compounds that modulate AQP2 trafficking using initial HTS followed by in vitro assays in cells and kidney slices, and concluding with in vivo testing in an animal model. PMID:24944200

  15. Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C

    2006-06-01

    Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

  16. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, Frantisek; Lauko, Lukas; Manova, Alena; Dzurov, Jan; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9??g dm?3 and 2.7??g dm?3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300??g dm?3 for sample volumes of 4?mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60?g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant. PMID:22448343

  17. Temporal trends in the concentration of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, vanadium and zinc in mosses across Europe between 1990 and 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmens, Harry; Norris, David A.; Koerber, Georgia R.; Buse, Alan; Steinnes, Eiliv; Rhling, ke

    The European heavy metals in mosses biomonitoring network provides data on the concentration of 10 heavy metals in naturally growing mosses and is currently coordinated by the UNECE ICP Vegetation (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe International Co-operative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops). The technique of moss analysis provides a surrogate, time-integrated measure of metal deposition from the atmosphere to terrestrial systems. It is easier and cheaper, less prone to contamination and allows a much higher sampling density than conventional precipitation analysis. Moss surveys have been repeated at five-yearly intervals and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, vanadium and zinc between 1990 and 2000. Maps were produced of the metal concentration in mosses for 1990, 1995 and 2000, showing the mean concentration per metal per 50km50km EMEP grid square. Metal- and country-specific temporal trends were observed. Although the metal concentration in mosses generally decreased with time for all metals, only the decreases for arsenic, copper, vanadium and zinc were statistically significant. The observed temporal trends were compared with emission trends for Europe reported by EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutant in Europe).

  18. Arsenic levels in Oregon waters.

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, J C; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1977-01-01

    The arsenic content of well water in certain areas of Oregon can range up to 30 to 40 times the U.S.P.H.S. Drinking Water Standard of 1962, where concentrations in excess of 50 ppb are grounds for rejection. The elevated arsenic levels in water are postulated to be due to volcanic deposits. Wells in central Lane County, Oregon, that are known to contain arsenic rich water are in an area underlain by a particular group of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, which geologists have named the Fischer formation. The arsenic levels in water from wells ranged from no detectable amounts to 2,000 ppb. In general the deeper wells contained higher arsenic water. The high arsenic waters are characterized by the small amounts of calcium and magnesium in relation to that of sodium, a high content of boron, and a high pH. Water from some hot springs in other areas of Oregon was found to range as high as 900 ppb arsenic. Arsenic blood levels ranged from 32 ppb for people living in areas where water is low in arsenic to 250 ppb for those living in areas where water is known to contain high levels of arsenic. Some health problems associated with consumption of arsenic-rich water are discussed. PMID:908291

  19. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  20. Effects of alpha-thalassemia and sickle polymerization tendency on the urine-concentrating defect of individuals with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A K; Kirchner, K A; Nicholson, R; Adams, J G; Schechter, A N; Noguchi, C T; Steinberg, M H

    1991-01-01

    A defect in urine concentrating ability occurs in individuals with sickle cell trait (HbAS). This may result from intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in erythrocytes, leading to microvascular occlusion, in the vasa recta of the renal medulla. To test the hypothesis that the severity of the concentrating defect is related to the percentage of sickle hemoglobin present in erythrocytes, urinary concentrating ability was examined after overnight water deprivation, and intranasal desmopressin acetate (dDAVP) in 27 individuals with HbAS. The HbAS individuals were separated into those who had a normal alpha-globin genotype (alpha alpha/alpha alpha), and those who were either heterozygous (-alpha/alpha alpha) or homozygous (-alpha/-alpha) for gene-deletion alpha-thalassemia, because alpha-thalassemia modulates the HbS concentration in HbAS. The urinary concentrating ability was less in the alpha alpha/alpha alpha genotype than in the -alpha/alpha alpha or -alpha/-alpha genotypes (P less than 0.05). After dDAVP, the urine osmolality was greater in patients with the -alpha/-alpha genotype than with the -alpha/alpha alpha genotype (882 +/- 37 vs. 672 +/- 38 mOsm/kg H2O) (P less than 0.05); patients with the -alpha/alpha alpha genotype had greater concentrating ability than individuals with a normal alpha-globin gene arrangement. There was an inverse linear correlation between urinary osmolality after dDAVP and the percentage HbS in all patients studied (r = -0.654; P less than 0.05). A linear correlation also existed for urine concentrating ability and the calculated polymerization tendencies for an oxygen saturation of 0.4 and O (r = -0.62 and 0.69, respectively). We conclude that the severity of hyposthenuria in HbAS is heterogeneous. It is determined by the amount of HbS polymer, that in turn is dependent upon the percentage HbS, which is itself related to the alpha-globin genotype. Images PMID:1752955

  1. Total arsenic in rice milk.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Ron; Rodriguez, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    Rice milk and its by-products were tested for total arsenic concentration. Total arsenic concentration was determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.7 0.3 to 17.9 0.5 g L(-1). Rice milk and its by-products are not clearly defined as food, water or milk substitute. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have set a level of 10 g L(-1) for total arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The EU and the US regulatory agencies do not provide any guidelines on total arsenic concentrations in foods. This study provides us with a starting point to address this issue in the State of Mississippi, USA. PMID:24779982

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  3. Differential DNA Methylation in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants Exposed to Low Levels of Arsenic in Utero

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Devin C.; Avissar-Whiting, Michele; Houseman, E. Andres; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero, even at low levels found throughout much of the world, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. Animal models, in vitro studies, and human cancer data suggest that arsenic may induce epigenetic alterations, specifically by altering patterns of DNA methylation. Objectives: In this study we aimed to identify differences in DNA methylation in cord blood samples of infants with in utero, low-level arsenic exposure. Methods: DNA methylation of cord-blood derived DNA from 134 infants involved in a prospective birth cohort in New Hampshire was profiled using the Illumina Infinium Methylation450K array. In utero arsenic exposure was estimated using maternal urine samples collected at 2428 weeks gestation. We used a novel cell mixture deconvolution methodology for examining the association between inferred white blood cell mixtures in infant cord blood and in utero arsenic exposure; we also examined the association between methylation at individual CpG loci and arsenic exposure levels. Results: We found an association between urinary inorganic arsenic concentration and the estimated proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes (1.18; 95% CI: 0.12, 2.23). Among the top 100 CpG loci with the lowest p-values based on their association with urinary arsenic levels, there was a statistically significant enrichment of these loci in CpG islands (p = 0.009). Of those in CpG islands (n = 44), most (75%) exhibited higher methylation levels in the highest exposed group compared with the lowest exposed group. Also, several CpG loci exhibited a linear dose-dependent relationship between methylation and arsenic exposure. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in utero exposure to low levels of arsenic may affect the epigenome. Long-term follow-up is planned to determine whether the observed changes are associated with health outcomes. PMID:23757598

  4. Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Esther; Obradors, Joshua; Alarcn-Herrera, Mara Teresa; Poch, Manel

    2013-11-01

    A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values. PMID:23994963

  5. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: Influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969 μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. - Highlights: • We first survey a village with high iAs content in the drinking water (969 μg/L). • 90 villagers suffered typical skin lesions with a morbidity rate of 58%. • Cases exhibited higher %MMA and MMA/iAs, and lower %DMA and DMA/MMA than controls. • Gender and ethnicity affect the differences of iAs methylation metabolism levels. • GSTO1 and AS3MT gene polymorphisms may be factors too.

  6. Arsenic uptake and depuration by red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed to various concentrations of monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) herbicide

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.M.; Flagge, C.T.; Hawkins, R.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Like many other heavy metals, arsenic is known to accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms including crayfish. One of the earliest reports on red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, reported the bioaccumulation factor (BF) ratios for radioactive sodium methanearsonate to range from 80-480. Other heavy metals, i.e., Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg have also been reported to accumulate experimentally in P. clarkii tissues. This study was conducted to evaluate in the laboratory the bio-accumulative potential of As by the American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, which is abundant in Louisiana; and also to assess the level of arsenic present in the tissues of fieldcollected individuals. Total revenues from the sales of this crayfish exceeds $143 million annually.

  7. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

  8. Evaluation of arsenic speciation in rainbow trout and fathead minnows from dietary exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of total arsenic and various arsenic species were measured in food and fish tissue samples from two dietary arsenic exposures to juvenile fish. For arsenic speciation, samples were extracted with 10% MeOH and analyzed by HPLC/ICPMS. Total arsenic concentration...

  9. Associations of estimated residential soil arsenic and lead concentrations and community-level environmental measures with mother-child health conditions in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Aelion, C. Marjorie; Davis, Harley T.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a community-level aggregate analysis in South Carolina, USA, to examine associations between mother-child conditions from a Medicaid cohort of pregnant women and their children using spatially interpolated arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) concentrations in three geographic case areas and a control area. Weeks of gestation at birth was significantly negatively correlated with higher estimated As (rs=?0.28, p=0.01) and Pb (rs=?0.26, p=0.02) concentrations in one case area. Higher estimated Pb concentrations were consistently positively associated with frequency of black mothers (all p<0.02) and negatively associated with frequency of white mothers (all p<0.01), suggesting a racial disparity with respect to Pb. PMID:22579118

  10. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B.; Karagas, M.R.

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  11. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  12. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  13. Urine Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bacteria at lower colony counts or other microorganisms that may cause these symptoms. The presence of white blood cells and low numbers of microorganisms in the urine of a symptomatic person is ...

  14. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day World Prematurity Your support helps babies We are ... very strong. After birth For the first few days after delivery, you may urinate even more often ...

  15. Novel DFO-functionalized mesoporous silica for iron sensing. Part 2. Experimental detection of free iron concentration (pFe) in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Colleoni, Roberta; Pesavento, Maria; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2014-08-21

    Successful in vivo chelation treatment of iron(iii) overload pathologies requires that a significant fraction of the administered drug actually chelates the toxic metal. Increased mobilization of the iron(iii) in experiments on animals or humans, most often evaluated from urinary output, is usually used as an assessment tool for chelation therapy. Alternatively, the efficiency of a drug is estimated by calculating the complexing ability of a chelating agent towards Fe(iii). The latter is calculated by the pFe value, defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of the free metal ion in a solution containing 10 ?M total ligand and 1 ?M total metal at a physiological pH of 7.4. In theory, pFe has to be calculated taking into account all the complexation equilibria involving the metal and the possible ligands. Nevertheless, complexation reactions in complex systems such as serum and urine may hardly be accurately modelled by computer software. The experimental determination of the bioavailable fraction of iron(iii) in biological fluids would therefore be of the utmost relevance in the clinical practice. The efficiency of the therapy could be more easily estimated as well as the course of overload pathologies. In this context, the aim of the present work was the development of a sensor to assess the free iron directly in biological fluids (urine) of patients under treatment with chelating agents. In the proposed device (DFO-MS), the strong iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) is immobilized on the MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The characterization of the iron(iii) sorption on DFO-MS was undertaken, firstly in 0.1 M KNO3, then directly in urine samples, in order to identify the sorption mechanism. The stoichiometry of the reaction in the solid phase was found to be: with an exchange constant (average value) of log??ex = 40(1). The application of DFO-MS to assess pFe in SPU (Simulating Pathology Urine) samples was also considered. The results obtained were very promising for a future validation and subsequent application of the sensor in samples of patients undergoing chelation therapy. PMID:24883429

  16. Folate and Cobalamin Modify Associations between S-adenosylmethionine and Methylated Arsenic Metabolites in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Caitlin G.; Niedzwiecki, Megan M.; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Alam, Shafiul; Siddique, Abu B.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) through drinking water is a major problem worldwide. InAs undergoes hepatic methylation to form mono- and dimethyl arsenical species (MMA and DMA, respectively), facilitating arsenic elimination. Both reactions are catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor, yielding the methylated product and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent product-inhibitor of AS3MT. SAM biosynthesis depends on folate- and cobalamin-dependent one-carbon metabolism. With the use of samples from 353 participants in the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, our objective was to test the hypotheses that blood SAM and SAH concentrations are associated with arsenic methylation and that these associations differ by folate and cobalamin nutritional status. Blood SAM and SAH were measured by HPLC. Arsenic metabolites in blood and urine were measured by HPLC coupled to dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma MS. In linear regression analyses, SAH was not associated with any of the arsenic metabolites. However, log(SAM) was negatively associated with log(% urinary InAs) (β: −0.11; 95% CI: −0.19, −0.02; P = 0.01), and folate and cobalamin nutritional status significantly modified associations between SAM and percentage of blood MMA (%bMMA) and percentage of blood DMA (%bDMA) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). In folate- and cobalamin-deficient individuals, log(SAM) was positively associated with %bMMA (β: 6.96; 95% CI: 1.86, 12.05; P < 0.01) and negatively associated with %bDMA (β: −6.19; 95% CI: −12.71, 0.32; P = 0.06). These findings suggest that when exposure to InAs is high, and methyl groups are limiting, SAM is used primarily for MMA synthesis rather than for DMA synthesis, contributing additional evidence that nutritional status may explain some of the interindividual differences in arsenic metabolism and, consequently, susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. PMID:24598884

  17. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Margaret E.; Kerr, Kathleen J.; Bray, Riina I.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:22505948

  18. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Arnold, Lora L; Cohen, Samuel M; Thomas, David J; Le, X Chris

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated arsenicals may contribute to toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic. Here, adult female wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and female As3mt knockout (KO) mice received drinking water that contained 1, 10, or 25 ppm (mg/l) of arsenite for 33 days and blood, liver, kidney, and lung were taken for arsenic speciation. Genotype markedly affected concentrations of arsenicals in tissues. Summed concentrations of arsenicals in plasma were higher in WT than in KO mice; in red blood cells, summed concentrations of arsenicals were higher in KO than in WT mice. In liver, kidney, and lung, summed concentrations of arsenicals were greater in KO than in WT mice. Although capacity for arsenic methylation is much reduced in KO mice, some mono-, di-, and tri-methylated arsenicals were found in tissues of KO mice, likely reflecting the activity of other tissue methyltransferases or preabsorptive metabolism by the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. These results show that the genotype for arsenic methylation determines the phenotypes of arsenic retention and distribution and affects the dose- and organ-dependent toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic. PMID:21934131

  19. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    SciTech Connect

    Mingshi Wang; Dangyu Song; Baoshan Zheng; R.B. Finkelman

    2008-10-15

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong.

  20. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications. PMID:7355321

  1. Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale point spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  2. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Murata, K

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA) on the urinary excretion, erythrocyte, and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators of seven heavy metals, CaEDTA was administered by intravenous infusion to 20 workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. The workers' blood lead concentrations ranged from 22 to 59 micrograms/dl (mean 38 micrograms/dl (1.8 mumol/l]. The 24 hour urinary excretion of metals after CaEDTA administration (mobilisation yield) was on average 13 times the background excretion for lead, 11 times for zinc, 3.8 times for manganese, 3.4 times for cadmium, 1.3 times for copper, and 1.1 times for chromium; no significant increase was found for mercury. The mobilisation yield of lead (MPb) was significantly correlated with whole blood and erythrocyte concentrations and the urinary excretion of lead but not with its plasma concentration; similarly, the mobilisation yield of cadmium was significantly correlated with its erythrocyte concentration. In addition, MPb was significantly correlated with intra-erythrocytic enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary coproporphyrin excretion. The relation between the mobilisation yield of heavy metals and their body burden (and toxic signs) is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:3092853

  3. Arsenic in rain and the Atmospheric mass balance of arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1980-08-01

    An attempt to construct a mass balance of arsenic in the world atmosphere showed that the published data on arsenic concentrations in rain were not compatible with measured values of atmospheric concentrations at remote sites and with estimates of arsenic fluxes into the atmosphere. To resolve this problem, samples of rainwater and snow from eight sites in California, Washington, and Hawaii were analyzed for arsenite, arsenate, and methylated forms of arsenic. The inorganic species were detectable in most samples, but no methylated forms were present above the detection limit of 0.2 ppt. Between October 1976 and March 1978, 43 samples of rain were collected at three locations near the coast in La Jolla. No significant differences between these sites were evident. The average concentration, weighted for rainfall amounts, was 0.007 ppb arsenite and 0.012 ppb arsenate, giving a total concentration of 0.019 ppb As. The samples from Kauai gave an average total arsenic identical to that from La Jolla. This suggests that the La Jolla samples, most of which were collected during strong onshore flow of air from the Pacific, represent very clean air. During some periods of pollutant buildup, values up to 0.59 ppb were found in La Jolla. In a few samples, on the other hand, the arsenic concentrations were below the detection limit of 0.004 ppb. Comparable values were also found in samples of snow from Norden, California, a site at 2225 m elevation in the Sierra Nevada. These values fit well with concentrations modeled on the basis of aerosol analyses from remote sites. The average arsenic concentration at Anacortes Island, Washington, was significantly higher: 1.06 ppb with 88% of the arsenic in the form of arsenite. This value can be explained by a Gaussian plume model with the Tacoma smelter at its origin. This plant, which is 154 krn from the sampling site, emits 180 kg of arsenic per day in the form of arsenic trioxide, which is transported northward by the prevailing winds. The ratio of arsenite to arsenate in rain varies over a wide range. This is interpreted as a result of different oxidation states of arsenic in the source emissions and to redox reactions within atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors. By using the data from this study, a mass balance can be constructed for arsenic in the atmosphere which does not require biogenic methylation or hitherto unknown processes as a source for atmospheric arsenic.

  4. Assessing the cancer risk associated with arsenic-contaminated seafood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Ching; Chou, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2010-09-15

    Tens of millions of people worldwide ingest excessive amounts of arsenic (As) through drinking water and food. The dietary intake of seafood is the major As exposure route in humans and can cause As-related adverse health effects including cancers. The aim of this study was to quantify potential cancer risks of As exposure for children and adults through seafood consumption. By coupling the age-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and a Weibull-based dose-response function, a more accurate estimate of urinary arsenic metabolites could be achieved to better characterize potential cancer risks. The simulation results show that the proportion of inorganic As, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in human urine are estimated to total 6.7, 26.9, and 66.4% for children, and 6.2, 27.4, and 66.4% for adults, respectively. The estimated median cumulative cancer incidence ratios were respectively 2.67x10(-6) and 3.83x10(-6) for children and adults, indicating a low cancer risk for local residents exposed to As through the consumption of seafood. However, it is necessary to incorporate other exposure routes into the model to make it more realistic. The methodology proposed here can not only be applied to calculate the concentrations of As metabolites in urine, but also to provide a direct estimation of adverse health effects caused by the calculated internal concentrations. PMID:20546995

  5. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. PMID:25417842

  6. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  7. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be measured in the urine or ...

  8. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  9. Urination - painful

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any allergies to any medicines? Have you had sexual intercourse with someone who has, or may have, gonorrhea or chlamydia? Has there been a recent change in your brand of soap, ... urinary or sexual organs? A urinalysis will be done. A urine ...

  10. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  11. Chloride - urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in a certain volume of urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

  12. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine cytology ... the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. ... the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, you may get ...

  13. Protein urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine protein; Albumin - urine; Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color the ...

  14. Arsenic and Other Metals’ Presence in Biomarkers of Cambodians in Arsenic Contaminated Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Himeno, Seiichiro; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical analyses of metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ba, and Pb) concentrations in hair, nails, and urine of Cambodians in arsenic-contaminated areas who consumed groundwater daily showed elevated levels in these biomarkers for most metals of toxicological interest. The levels of metals in biomarkers corresponded to their levels in groundwater, especially for As, whose concentrations exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water. About 75.6% of hair samples from the population in this study contained As levels higher than the normal level in unexposed individuals (1 mg·kg−1). Most of the population (83.3%) showed As urinary levels exceeding the normal (<50 ng·mg−1). These results indicate the possibility of arsenicosis symptoms in residents of the areas studied. Among the three biomarkers tested, hair has shown to be a reliable indicator of metal exposures. The levels of As (r2 = 0.633), Ba (r2 = 0.646), Fe (r2 = 0.595), and Mo (r2 = 0.555) in hair were strongly positively associated with the levels of those metals in groundwater. In addition, significant weak correlations (p < 0.01) were found between levels of exposure to As and As concentrations in both nails (r2 = 0.544) and urine (r2 = 0.243). PMID:26569276

  15. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

  16. First-Trimester Urine Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites and Phenols and Placenta miRNA Expression in a Cohort of U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Jessica; Binder, Alexandra M.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Michels, Karin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can influence the risk of disease development. Phthalates and phenols are two classes of suspected EDCs that are used in a variety of everyday consumer products, including plastics, epoxy resins, and cosmetics. In utero exposure to EDCs may affect disease propensity through epigenetic mechanisms. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether prenatal exposure to multiple EDCs is associated with changes in miRNA expression of human placenta, and whether miRNA alterations are associated with birth outcomes. Methods Our study was restricted to a total of 179 women co-enrolled in the Harvard Epigenetic Birth Cohort and the Predictors of Preeclampsia Study. We analyzed associations between first-trimester urine concentrations of 8 phenols and 11 phthalate metabolites and expression of 29 candidate miRNAs in placenta by qRT-PCR. Results For three miRNAs—miR-142-3p, miR15a-5p, and miR-185—we detected associations between Σphthalates or Σphenols on expression levels (p < 0.05). By assessing gene ontology enrichment, we determined the potential mRNA targets of these microRNAs predicted in silico were associated with several biological pathways, including the regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Four gene ontology biological processes were enriched among genes significantly correlated with the expression of miRNAs associated with EDC burden. Conclusions Overall, these results suggest that prenatal phenol and phthalate exposure is associated with altered miRNA expression in placenta, suggesting a potential mechanism of EDC toxicity in humans. Citation LaRocca J, Binder AM, McElrath TF, Michels KB. 2016. First-trimester urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols and placenta miRNA expression in a cohort of U.S. women. Environ Health Perspect 124:380–387; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408409 PMID:26090578

  17. Arsenic-induced bladder cancer in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Samuel M. Ohnishi, Takamasa Arnold, Lora L. Le, X. Chris

    2007-08-01

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder, but not in mice. The carcinogenic mode of action involves cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell proliferation. Dietary DMA{sup V} does not produce urinary solids or significant alterations in urinary composition. The cytotoxicity is due to formation of a reactive metabolite, likely dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), concentrated and excreted in the urine. Urinary concentrations of DMA{sup III} are dose-dependent, and the urinary concentrations are at cytotoxic levels based on in vitro studies. The no observed effect level (NOEL) in these rat dietary studies for detectable levels of DMA{sup III}, cytotoxicity, and proliferation is 2 ppm, with marginal changes at 10 ppm. The tumorigenic dose is 100 ppm. Recent investigations have demonstrated that arsenicals administered to the rat result in binding to a specific cysteine in the hemoglobin alpha chain as DMA{sup III}, regardless of the arsenical being administered. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) is not carcinogenic in rats or mice. In short term experiments ({<=} 10 weeks), sodium arsenate in the drinking water induces significant cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. There is little evidence that the cytotoxicity produced following administration of arsenicals is caused by oxidative damage, as antioxidants show little inhibitory activity of the cytotoxicity of the various arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo. In summary, the mode of action for DMA{sup V}-induced bladder carcinogenesis in the rat involves generation of a reactive metabolite (DMA{sup III}) leading to cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation, is a non-linear process, and likely involves a threshold. Extrapolation to human risk needs to take this into account along with the significant differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics that occur between different species.

  18. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground. Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1989-11-01

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption.

  20. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  1. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Andrea

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  2. Industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K W

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic is present in all copper, lead, and zinc sulfide ores and is carried along with those metals in the mining, milling and concentrating process. Separation, final concentration and refining of by-product arsenic as the trioxide is achieved at smelters. Arsenic is the essential consistent element of many compounds important and widely used in agriculture and wood preservation. Lesser amounts are used in metal alloys, glass-making, and feed additives. There is no significant recycling. Current levels of arsenic emissions to the atmosphere from smelters and power plants and ambient air concentrations are given as data of greatest environmental interest. PMID:908308

  3. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001) following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; p< 0.00001) and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21-0.77; p = 0.0006) also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: -0.57; 95% CI: -0.80--0.31; p< 0.0001), primary methylation index (SMD: -0.57; 95% CI: -0.94--0.20; p = 0.002), and secondary methylation index (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.46--0.90; p = 0.004) decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process. PMID:26861378

  4. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Samano, Kimberly L.; Clouette, Randal E.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Sample, R.H. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze® Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC–MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155–1,408 (roll) and 294–4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140–194 (roll) and 121–664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7–143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  5. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds.

    PubMed

    Samano, Kimberly L; Clouette, Randal E; Rowland, Barbara J; Sample, R H Barry

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze() Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ?3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC-MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155-1,408 (roll) and 294-4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140-194 (roll) and 121-664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7-143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  6. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration. PMID:24933913

  7. XRF analysis of arsenic uptaking in mice organs and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez, Hctor J.; Prez, Carlos; Prez, Roberto D.

    1997-04-01

    In this work, an investigation on the levels of uptaken arsenic in different organs and tissues of mice was carried out. Mice were given water, doped with 100 ?g/ml of As 2O 3, during a period of a week. The Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique was used for the measurements; the external standard (calibration curve) and the internal standard (addition) methods were used to obtain concentrations. These methods were used in order to minimize matrix effects (which in many cases are complex and prone to errors) and to allow an easy calculation of As concentrations. The average concentrations obtained here were: 3.9 ?g/g for liver, 13 ?g/g for pre-stomach, 21 ?g/g for esophagus, 2.9 ?g/ml for blood, and 42 ?g/ml for urine.

  8. Glutathione Modulates Recominant Rat Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase-Catalyzed Formation of Trimethylarsine Oxide and Trimethylarsine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and other species enzymatically convert inorganic arsenic (iAs) into methylated metabolites. Although the major metabolites are mono- and dimethylated arsenicals, trimethylated arsenicals have been detected in urine following exposure to iAs. The AS3MT gene encodes an ars...

  9. COMPARISON OF THE URINARY METABOLITES OF RATS, MICE, AND HUMANS AFTER ORAL ARSENIC EXPOSURE FOCUSING ON THIOARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary metabolites of arsenic are useful as biomarkers of exposure because ingested arsenic is excreted primarily in urine1. Complete urinary arsenic speciation can provide insight into possible metabolic pathways as well as potential exposure sources. The pattern of excreted me...

  10. High Sensitivity of an Ha-RAS Transgenic Model of Superficial Bladder Cancer to Metformin Is Associated with ∼240-Fold Higher Drug Concentration in Urine than Serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongbo; Yokoyama, Noriko N; Blair, Christopher A; Li, Xuesen; Avizonis, Daina; Wu, Xue-Ru; Uchio, Edward; Youssef, Ramy; McClelland, Michael; Pollak, Michael; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-03-01

    While pharmacoepidemiologic and laboratory studies have supported the hypothesis that the antidiabetic drug metformin may be useful in treating or preventing cancer, there is limited evidence to suggest which specific cancer sites may be particularly sensitive. Sensitivity likely is determined both by features of tumor pathophysiology and by pharmacokinetic factors. We used UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice that develop hyperplasia and low-grade, papillary urothelial cell carcinoma to determine whether metformin has activity in a model of superficial bladder cancer. Metformin significantly improved survival, reduced urinary tract obstruction, reduced bladder weight (a surrogate for tumor volume), and led to clear activation of AMP α kinase and inhibition of mTOR signaling in neoplastic tissue. We investigated the basis of the unusual sensitivity of this model to metformin, and observed that following oral dosing, urothelium is exposed to drug concentrations via the urine that are approximately 240-fold higher than those in the circulation. In addition, we observed that bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, UMUC-3, and J82) with homozygous deletion of either TSC1 or PTEN are more sensitive to metformin than those (TEU2, TCCSUP, and HT1376) with wild-type TSC1 and PTEN genes. Our findings provide a strong rationale for clinical trials of oral metformin in treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 430-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921394

  11. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  12. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. )

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  13. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E

    PubMed Central

    Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (≥ 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (≥ 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies. PMID:21792816

  14. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W.; Francesconi, K.

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  15. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of dissolved arsenic are generated. Within the subsequent sections of this chapter, we explore and describe the biological and chemical processes that control the partitioning of arsenic between the solid and aqueous phase.

  16. Association between Low to Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine A.; Guallar, Eliseo; Umans, Jason G.; Devereux, Richard B.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Pollak, Jonathan; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Howard, Barbara V.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic exposure in water and food is a global public health problem. Chronic exposure to high levels of arsenicis consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whereas prospective data on low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure (<100?g/L in drinking water) are lacking. Objective To evaluate the association between chronic low to moderate arsenic exposure and incident cardiovascular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Strong Heart Study baseline visit in 1989-1991, with follow-up through 2008. Patients 3,575 American Indian men and women aged 45-74 years living in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Measurements The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine at baseline was used as a biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure. Participants were followed for incident fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Results 1,184 participants developed fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and 439 participants developed fatal cardiovascular disease. Comparing the highest to lowest quartile arsenic concentrations (>15.7 vs. <5.8 ?g/g creatinine), the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, smoking, body mass index, and lipids were 1.65 (1.20, 2.27; p-trend<0.001), 1.71 (1.19, 2.44; p-trend<0.001) and 3.03 (1.08, 8.50; p-trend=0.061), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were 1.32 (1.09, 1.59; p-trend=0.002), 1.30 (1.04, 1.62; p-trend=0.006), and 1.47 (0.97, 2.21; p-trend=0.032), respectively. These associations varied by study region and were attenuated following further adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and measures of kidney disease. Limitations Direct measurement of individual arsenic in drinking water was unavailable. Residual confounding and differences in potential confounders across study regions may exist. Conclusions Low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure, as measured in urine, was prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. PMID:24061511

  17. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 2.02 + 0.069 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  18. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  19. Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...

  20. The influence of arsenic speciation (AsIII & AsV) and concentration on the growth, uptake and translocation of arsenic in vegetable crops (silverbeet and amaranth): greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Farzana; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    We examined arsenic (As) uptake by vegetable crops (amaranth, Amaranthus gangeticus, and silverbeet, Beta vulgaris) as affected by As speciation (As(III) and As(V)) and their concentrations in nutrient solution. Amaranth and silverbeet were grown in a nutrient solution containing four levels of arsenate (As(V)): 0, 1, 5, and 25 mg As/l and three levels of arsenite (As(III)): 0, 5, 10 mg As/l. Both As(V) and As(III) are phytotoxic to these crops with the latter being five times more toxic. Amaranth treated with As(III) exhibited As toxicity symptoms within 48 h of exposure and was close to death within 1 week. However, As(V) treatment did not show clear toxicity symptoms other than wilting and yield reduction at the highest dose rate of 25 mg As(V)/l. The main mechanism used by vegetable crops to tolerate As(V) is probably avoidance-limiting As transport to shoots and increasing As accumulation in the root system. When As(V) was added to the nutrient solution, the uptake of As in shoots increased and, at the highest dose (25 mg As(V)/l), 60 microg As/g DW (3.6 mg/kg FW) accumulated in the edible portion, which exceeds the WHO recommended limit for food stuffs (2 mg/kg FW) as the water contents of the crops were 94%. It is therefore important to determine the nature of the As species and their bio-accessibility. Iron treatment with 0.5 mg NaFe(III)EDTA/l dose decreased silverbeet As uptake by 45% given its affinity to bind As at the root surface or root rhizosphere and so restrict As translocation to the shoots. PMID:19225721

  1. Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh

    2013-11-15

    A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900 C and 2300 C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68 mg g(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples. PMID:24148451

  2. Nature and reactivity of layered double hydroxides formed by coprecipitating Mg, Al and As(V): Effect of arsenic concentration, pH, and aging.

    PubMed

    Sommella, Alessia; Caporale, Antonio G; Denecke, Melissa A; Mangold, Stefan; Pigna, Massimo; Santoro, Anna; Terzano, Roberto; Violante, Antonio

    2015-12-30

    Arsenic (As) co-precipitation is one of the major processes controlling As solubility in soils and waters. When As is co-precipitated with Al and Mg, the possible formation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and other nanocomposites can stabilize As in their structures thus making this toxic element less available. We investigated the nature and reactivity of Mg-Al-arsenate [As(V)] co-precipitated LDHs formed in solution affected by As concentration, pH, and aging. At the beginning of the co-precipitation process, poorly crystalline LDH and non-crystalline Al(Mg)-oxides form. Prolonged aging of the samples promotes crystallization of LDHs, evidenced by an increase in As K XANES intensities and XRD peak intensities. During aging Al- and/or Mg-oxides are likely transformed by dissolution/re-precipitation processes into more crystalline but still defective LDHs. Surface area, chemical composition, reactivity of the precipitates, and anion exchange properties of As(V) in the co-precipitates are influenced by pH, aging, and As concentration. This study demonstrates that (i) As(V) retards or inhibits the formation and transformation of LDHs and (ii) more As(V) is removed from solution if co-precipitated with Mg and Al than by sorption onto well crystallized LDHs. PMID:26241870

  3. Tracer test with As(V) under variable redox conditions controlling arsenic transport in the presence of elevated ferrous iron concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, R.; Isenbeck-Schroter, M.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.; Jakobsen, R.; Jann, S.; Niedan, V.; Scholz, C.; Stadler, S.; Tretner, A.

    2006-01-01

    To study transport and reactions of arsenic under field conditions, a small-scale tracer test was performed in an anoxic, iron-reducing zone of a sandy aquifer at the USGS research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. For four weeks, a stream of groundwater with added As(V) (6.7????M) and bromide (1.6??mM), was injected in order to observe the reduction of As(V) to As(III). Breakthrough of bromide (Br-), As(V), and As(III) as well as additional parameters characterizing the geochemical conditions was observed at various locations downstream of the injection well over a period of 104??days. After a short lag period, nitrate and dissolved oxygen from the injectate oxidized ferrous iron and As(V) became bound to the freshly formed hydrous iron oxides. Approximately one week after terminating the injection, anoxic conditions had been reestablished and increases in As(III) concentrations were observed within 1??m of the injection. During the observation period, As(III) and As(V) were transported to a distance of 4.5??m downgradient indicating significant retardation by sorption processes for both species. Sediment assays as well as elevated concentrations of hydrogen reflected the presence of As(V) reducing microorganisms. Thus, microbial As(V) reduction was thought to be one major process driving the release of As(III) during the tracer test in the Cape Cod aquifer. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arsenic speciation, and arsenic and phosphate distribution in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and non-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Ma, Lena Q

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the roles of arsenic translocation and reduction, and P distribution in arsenic detoxification of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese Brake fern), an arsenic hyperaccumulator and Pteris ensiformis L. (Slender Brake fern), a non-arsenic hyperaccumulator. After growing in 20% Hoagland solution containing 0, 133 or 267 microM of sodium arsenate for 1, 5 or 10 d, the plants were separated into fronds, rhizomes, and roots. They were analyzed for biomass, and concentrations of arsenate (AsV), arsenite (AsIII) and phosphorus. Arsenic in the fronds of P. vittata was up to 20 times greater than that of P. ensiformis, yet showing no toxicity symptoms as did in P. ensiformis. While arsenic was concentrated primarily in the fronds of P. vittata as arsenite it was mainly concentrated in the roots of P. ensiformis as arsenate. Arsenic reduction in the plants took longer than 1-d. P. vittata maintained greater P in the roots while P. ensiformis in the fronds. The high arsenic tolerance of the hyperaccumulator P. vittata may be attributed to its ability to effectively reduce arsenate to arsenite in the fronds, translocate arsenic from the roots to fronds, and maintain a greater ratio of P/As in the roots. PMID:16257102

  5. Arsenic speciation in farmed Hungarian freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Soeroes, Csilla; Goessler, Walter; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kienzl, Norbert; Schaeffer, Richard; Fodor, Peter; Kuehnelt, Doris

    2005-11-16

    Arsenic speciation analysis was carried out on freshwater farmed fish collected from an area with elevated groundwater arsenic concentrations in Hungary as well as from outside of the area (control samples). The arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on methanol extracts of the muscle tissue from the fish. Catfish (Claries gariepinus) were raised in geothermal water where the average total arsenic concentrations were 167 (contaminated sites) and 15.1 ng As mL(-1) (control); they were all fed an artificial diet containing 2880 microg As kg(-1) total arsenic, mostly present as arsenobetaine. In the catfish, the accumulated total arsenic (2510-4720 microg As kg(-1)) was found mostly in the form of arsenobetaine suggesting that uptake of arsenic was dominated by their diet. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured in surface lakes with no significant arsenic pollution and had total arsenic concentrations ranging from 62 to 363 microg As kg(-1). The arsenic species found in the carp extracts differed markedly from those in the catfish in that no arsenobetaine was detected. Most samples of carp from the investigated sites contained low concentrations of As(III) (arsenite), As(V) (arsenate), MA (methylarsonate), and DMA (dimethylarsinate), and no other compounds were detected. The four individuals from the control site, however, all contained appreciable levels of oxo-arsenosugar-glycerol and oxo-arsenosugar-phosphate. Indeed, the oxo-arsenosugar-phosphate dominated the speciation pattern for these carp contributing about 75% of the sum of species. The contrast between these two freshwater aquaculture species regarding total arsenic and arsenic species has relevant toxicological aspects in terms of food safety. PMID:16277428

  6. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  7. Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling

    PubMed Central

    Aelion, C.M.; Davis, H.T.; Liu, Y.; Lawson, A.B.; McDermott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th 95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement. PMID:19603658

  8. Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling.

    PubMed

    Aelion, C M; Davis, H T; Liu, Y; Lawson, A B; McDermott, S

    2009-06-15

    Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th-95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in, metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement. PMID:19603658

  9. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead in selected foodstuffs from Serbian market basket: estimated intake by the population from the Serbia.

    PubMed

    krbi?, Biljana; ivan?ev, Jelena; Mrmo, Nataa

    2013-08-01

    In this study arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in 114 samples of various food items collected at supermarkets located in Novi Sad, the capitol of the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina in January 2012 and March 2013. The considered items represented the most consumed foodstuffs according to the "national market basket". The highest concentrations were obtained for Pb in candy (0.323 mg kg(-1)), for Cd in paprika (0.118 mg kg(-1)) and for As in canned fish (0.43 mg kg(-1)). The results were compared with the relevant data on the occurrence of these toxic elements available in literature for other European countries. Human health risk assessment through dietary exposure was evaluated for Serbian adult consumers. The estimated intakes were compared with available toxicological references to assess the risk of As, Cd and Pb intake through consumption of analysed food items. The highest intake were estimated for Pb being 72.30 ?g day(-1) for adult population, while intakes of As and Cd were significantly lower (21.89 ?g day(-1) and 11.51 ?g day(-1), respectively). PMID:23712093

  10. Inverse association between toenail arsenic and body mass index in a population of welders.

    PubMed

    Grashow, Rachel; Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Christiani, David C; Kile, Molly L; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2014-05-01

    Recent data show that arsenic may play a role in obesity-related diseases. However, urinary arsenic studies report an inverse association between arsenic level and body mass index (BMI). We explored whether toenail arsenic, a long-term exposure measure, was associated with BMI in 74 welders with known arsenic exposure. BMI showed significant inverse associations with toenail arsenic (p=0.01), which persisted in models adjusted for demographics, diet and work history. It is unclear whether low arsenic biomarker concentrations in high BMI subjects truly reflect lower exposures, or instead reflect internal or metabolic changes that alter arsenic metabolism and tissue deposition. PMID:24721130

  11. Inverse association between toenail arsenic and body mass index in a population of welders

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Christiani, David C.; Kile, Molly L.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that arsenic may play a role in obesity-related diseases. However, urinary arsenic studies report an inverse association between arsenic level and body mass index (BMI). We explored whether toenail arsenic, a long-term exposure measure, was associated with BMI in 74 welders with known arsenic exposure. BMI showed significant inverse associations with toenail arsenic (p=0.01), which persisted in models adjusted for demographics, diet and work history. It is unclear whether low arsenic biomarker concentrations in high BMI subjects truly reflect lower exposures, or instead reflect internal or metabolic changes that alter arsenic metabolism and tissue deposition. PMID:24721130

  12. Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

  13. Urination - difficulty with