Sample records for urine arsenic concentrations

  1. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePLUS

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to appropriately conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  2. Intercomparison of analytical methods for arsenic speciation in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, E; Yager, J

    1997-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise was conducted for the quantification of arsenic species in spiked human urine. The primary objective of the exercise was to determine the variance among laboratories in the analysis of arsenic species such as inorganic As (As+3 and As+5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Laboratories that participated had previous experience with arsenic speciation analysis. The results of this interlaboratory comparison are encouraging. There is relatively good agreement on the concentrations of these arsenic species in urine at concentrations that are relevant to research on the metabolism of arsenic in humans and other mammals. Both the accuracy and precision are relatively poor for arsenic concentrations of less than about 5 micrograms/l. PMID:9288500

  3. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  4. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  5. Thio-dimethylarsinate is a common metabolite in urine samples from arsenic-exposed women in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Raml, Reingard; Rumpler, Alice; Goessler, Walter [Karl-Franzens University Graz, Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Vahter, Marie; Li Li [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, PO Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Ochi, Takafumi [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa 199-0195 (Japan); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Karl-Franzens University Graz, Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at

    2007-08-01

    Over the last 6 years, much work on arsenic species in urine samples has been directed toward the determination of the reduced dimethylated arsenic species, DMA(III), because of its high toxicity and perceived key role in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Recent work, however, has suggested that DMA(III) may at times have been misidentified because its chromatographic properties can be similar to those of thio-dimethylarsinate (thio-DMA). We analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) urine samples from 75 arsenic-exposed women from Bangladesh with total arsenic concentrations ranging from 8 to 1034 {mu}g As/L and found that thio-DMA was present in 44% of the samples at concentrations ranging mostly from trace amounts to 24 {mu}g As/L (one sample contained 123 {mu}g As/L). Cytotoxicity testing with HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocarcinoma indicated that thio-DMA was about 10-fold more cytotoxic than dimethylarsinate (DMA). The widespread occurrence of thio-DMA in urine from these arsenic-exposed women suggests that this arsenical may also be present in other urine samples and has so far escaped detection. The work highlights the need for analytical methods providing specific determinations of arsenic compounds in future studies on arsenic metabolism and toxicology.

  6. Spatial modelling of individual arsenic exposure via well water: evaluation of arsenic in urine, main water source and influence of neighbourhood water sources in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sohel, Nazmul; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S; Persson, Lars Ake; Haq, M Zahirul; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Vahter, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Arsenic concentrations in well water often vary even within limited geographic areas. This makes it difficult to obtain valid estimates of the actual exposure, as people may take their drinking water from different wells. We evaluated a spatial model for estimation of the influence of multiple neighbourhood water sources on the actual exposure, as assessed by concentrations in urine in a population in rural Bangladesh. In total 1307 individuals (one per bari, group of families) were randomly selected. Arsenic concentrations of urine and water were analysed. Simple average and inverse distance weighted average of arsenic concentrations in the five nearest water sources were calculated for each individual. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated using Moran's I statistics, and spatial regression models were employed to account for spatial autocorrelation. The average distance from a household to the nearest tube-well was 32 metres (Inter-Quartile Range 1-49 metres). Water arsenic concentrations of the reported main water sources were significantly correlated with concentrations in urine (R(2) = 0.41, rho < 0.0001, R(2) for women = 0.45 and for men = 0.36). General model fit improved only slightly after spatial adjustment for neighbouring water sources (pseudo-R(2) = 0.53, spatial lag model), compared to covariate adjusted regression coefficient (R(2) = 0.46). Arsenic concentration in urine was higher than arsenic in main water source with an intercept of 57 microg L(-1), indicating exposure from food. A suitable way of estimating an individual's past exposure to arsenic in this rural setting, where influence of neighbouring water sources was minimal, was to consider the reported main source of drinking water. PMID:20390220

  7. Biomonitoring of arsenic in urine and saliva of children playing on playgrounds constructed from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Lew, Kristi; Acker, Jason P; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris

    2010-05-15

    Children may be exposed to arsenic during contact with structures treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). A high frequency of hand-to-mouth activity may increase their risk of ingesting arsenic. Previous work showed that arsenic concentrations in the hand-wash samples of children playing on CCA playgrounds were four times higher than those playing on non-CCA playgrounds. It is not clear whether playing on CCA playgrounds results in elevated overall exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to perform arsenic biomonitoring in children to determine whether playing on CCA-treated playgrounds substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic. One hundred and twenty five saliva samples from 61 children and 101 urine samples from 45 children were collected after children played on 8 CCA and 8 non-CCA playgrounds. Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted using high performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The arsenic species detected in the urine and saliva samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds were similar. Dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine were the main arsenic species found in urine samples. The sum of inorganic trivalent and pentavalent arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid in urine was 15 +/- 28 microg/L in the CCA group and 12 +/- 23 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.60). The sum of these species in saliva was 1.1 +/- 2.1 microg/L in the CCA group and 1.4 +/- 1.1 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.32). These results show that there is no significant difference in the concentration or speciation of arsenic between the samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds. Contact with CCA playgrounds is not likely to significantly contribute to the overall arsenic exposure in children; other sources such as dietary arsenic may be a main contributor to their overall exposure. PMID:20377243

  8. Hair and toenail arsenic concentrations of residents living in areas with high environmental arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2003-01-01

    Surface soil and groundwater in Australia have been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. The relative importance of long-term human exposure to these sources has not been established. Several studies have investigated long-term exposure to environmental arsenic concentrations using hair and toenails as the measure of exposure. Few have compared the difference in these measures of environmental sources of exposure. In this study we aimed to investigate risk factors for elevated hair and toenail arsenic concentrations in populations exposed to a range of environmental arsenic concentrations in both drinking water and soil as well as in a control population with low arsenic concentrations in both drinking water and soil. In this study, we recruited 153 participants from areas with elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water and residential soil, as well as a control population with no anticipated arsenic exposures. The median drinking water arsenic concentrations in the exposed population were 43.8 micro g/L (range, 16.0-73 micro g/L) and median soil arsenic concentrations were 92.0 mg/kg (range, 9.1-9,900 mg/kg). In the control group, the median drinking water arsenic concentration was below the limit of detection, and the median soil arsenic concentration was 3.3 mg/kg. Participants were categorized based on household drinking water and residential soil arsenic concentrations. The geometric mean hair arsenic concentrations were 5.52 mg/kg for the drinking water exposure group and 3.31 mg/kg for the soil exposure group. The geometric mean toenail arsenic concentrations were 21.7 mg/kg for the drinking water exposure group and 32.1 mg/kg for the high-soil exposure group. Toenail arsenic concentrations were more strongly correlated with both drinking water and soil arsenic concentrations; however, there is a strong likelihood of significant external contamination. Measures of residential exposure were better predictors of hair and toenail arsenic concentrations than were local environmental concentrations. PMID:12573904

  9. SEPARATION OF TOXICOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS IN URINE USING A NEW SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals are critically influenced by the oxidation state of As. In human urine, inorganic and methylated arsenicals contain both As(III) and As(V). Because As(III) is easily oxidized, a method is needed to preserve the native oxidation sta...

  10. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Brima, Eid I. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk; Jenkins, Richard O. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Polya, Dave A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gault, Andrew G. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harrington, Chris F. [University of Leicester, Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

  11. Determination of arsenic in urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Dang, T M; Tran, Q T; Vu, K V

    1999-09-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method was successfully applied to analysis of urine for arsenic (As) as a measure of biological monitoring of occupational exposure to As in Vietnam. The application of the method to urine samples from 75 non-exposed control urbanites (after 2-day abstinence from sea foods) gave a reference level of 62.4 +/- 11.6 microg/l (as mean +/- S.D.), from which the upper limit of the normal value (74 microg/l as mean +/- 1 S.D.) and the acceptable limit (100 microg/l as mean +/- 3S.D.) were deduced. Further application to urine samples from 147 workers occupationally exposed to As in Bacthai Non-ferrous Metallurgic Corporation showed significantly elevated levels of As in urine, with mean +/- S.D. of 78.5 +/- 20.2 microg/l. Improvement of working conditions to reduce As exposure resulted in substantial reduction in the ratio of those with urinary As at the level in excess of the acceptable limit. The practical importance of total arsenic determination in urine after 2-day sea food abstinence is discussed in connection with current conditions in analytical laboratories in Vietnam. PMID:10511260

  12. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Olga L. [Seccion de Toxicologia, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, CP 07300, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Germolec, Dori R. [Environmental Immunology and Neurobiology Section, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Borja-Aburto, Victor H. [Salud en el Trabajo, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico DF (Mexico); Contreras-Ruiz, Jose [Division de Dermatologia, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Razo, Luz M. del [Seccion de Toxicologia, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, CP 07300, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ldelrazo@cinvestav.mx

    2007-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs{sup III}, MAs{sup V}, DMAs{sup III}, DMAs{sup V}). This study examines the relationship between TGF-{alpha} concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-{alpha} in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-{alpha} levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-{alpha} than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-{alpha} in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas.

  13. SLCO1B1 Variants and Urine Arsenic Metabolites in the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic species patterns in urine are associated with risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The organic anion transporter coded by the gene SLCO1B1 may transport arsenic species, but its association with arsenic metabolites in human urine has not yet been studied. The objective of this study is to evaluate associations of urine arsenic metabolites with variants in the candidate gene SLCO1B1 in adults from the Strong Heart Family Study. We estimated associations between % arsenic species biomarker traits and 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLCO1B1 gene in 157 participants, assuming additive genetics. Linear regression models for each SNP accounted for kinships and were adjusted for sex, body mass index, and study center. The minor allele of rs1564370 was associated with lower %MMA (p = .0003) and higher %DMA (p = .0002), accounting for 8% of the variance for %MMA and 9% for %DMA. The rs1564370 minor allele homozygote frequency was 17% and the heterozygote frequency was 43%. The minor allele of rs2291075 was associated with lower %MMA (p = .0006) and higher %DMA (p = .0014), accounting for 7% of the variance for %MMA and 5% for %DMA. The frequency of rs2291075 minor allele homozygotes was 1% and of heterozygotes was 15%. Common variants in SLCO1B1 were associated with differences in arsenic metabolites in a preliminary candidate gene study. Replication of this finding in other populations and analyses with respect to disease outcomes are needed to determine whether this novel candidate gene is important for arsenic-associated disease risks. PMID:23970802

  14. The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matilda O.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Awofolu, Omotayo R.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. PMID:20623005

  15. Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation, Australia Received 4 September 2001; Accepted 17 December 2001 Total arsenic concentrations and species were. Mean arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 55 mg gŔ1 dry mass. Epiphytic algae/fungi associated

  16. Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida Arsenic background concentrations in Florida urban soils

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida Arsenic background concentrations database on arsenic background concentrations in urban and agricultural soils where most soil contamination spectrophotometer for total-recoverable arsenic concentrations; SAS statistical program and GIS program

  17. Total grain-arsenic and arsenic-species concentrations in diverse rice cultivars under flooded conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic is not an essential element and can be toxic to both plants and animals in high concentration. Decreasing arsenic concentrations in all foodstuffs, including rice grain, is a desirable goal because of the potential detrimental impacts of As on plant growth and yield and its potential toxici...

  18. Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.

    PubMed

    Zatzman, M L; South, F E

    1975-05-01

    Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

  19. Arsenic Methylation Patterns Before and After Changing from High to Lower Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic Methylation Patterns Before and After Changing from High to Lower Concentrations of Arsenic±r pefluon.E irnH lh :.... .... .... Inorganic arsenic (In-As) is known to increase the risk of cancer at several target sites. Inhalation of arsenic, mainly from dust exposure in occupational settings

  20. Limited Temporal Variability of Arsenic Concentrations in 20 Wells

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    by the Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation and Water Supply Program (BAMWSP), interna- tional agenciesLimited Temporal Variability of Arsenic Concentrations in 20 Wells Monitored for 3 Years in Araihazar, Bangladesh Z . C H E N G , * , A . V A N G E E N , A . A . S E D D I Q U E , A N D K . M . A H

  1. Bacterial Communities in Bangladesh Aquifers Differing in Aqueous Arsenic Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munawar Sultana; Cornelia Härtig; Britta Planer-Friedrich; Jana Seifert; Michael Schlömann

    2011-01-01

    At Titas, Bangladesh, two aquifers of different arsenic concentrations and redox conditions were investigated to link variations in geochemistry to in situ bacterial diversity characterized by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and clone library analysis. While the shallow aquifer was characterized by reduced gray sediments with a higher share of easily mobilized sedimentary arsenic (2.6% was easily mobilized from

  2. The separation of arsenic metabolites in urine by high performance liquid chromatographyinductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Lim, Hyoun-Ju; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine a separation method for each arsenic metabolite in urine by using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Methods Separation of the arsenic metabolites was conducted in urine by using a polymeric anion-exchange (Hamilton PRP X-100, 4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 ?m) column on Agilent Technologies 1260 Infinity LC system coupled to Agilent Technologies 7700 series ICP/MS equipment using argon as the plasma gas. Results All five important arsenic metabolites in urine were separated within 16 minutes in the order of arsenobetaine, arsenite, dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate and arsenate with detection limits ranging from 0.15 to 0.27 ?g/L (40 ?L injection). We used GEQUAS No. 52, the German external quality assessment scheme and standard reference material 2669, National Institute of Standard and Technology, to validate our analyses. Conclusions The method for separation of arsenic metabolites in urine was established by using HPLC-ICP-MS. This method contributes to the evaluation of arsenic exposure, health effect assessment and other bio-monitoring studies for arsenic exposure in South Korea. PMID:25384385

  3. Arsenic species in drinking water wells in the USA with high arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Thomas J; Chen, Abraham S C; Wang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exists in ground water as oxyanions having two oxidation states, As(III) and As(V), and its concentrations vary widely and regionally across the United States (USA). Because of the difference in toxicity and removability of As(III) and As(V), arsenic speciation is important in the selection and design of an arsenic treatment systems. Identifying the arsenic species is also helpful in explaining and understanding the behavior and characteristics of arsenic in the environment. Although laboratory methods exist for speciating arsenic in water samples, the lack of a universal preservation method has led to the predominant use of field separation methods that are somewhat complex and costly. Thus, very few studies have incorporated arsenic speciation. A U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) arsenic treatment research program provided a unique opportunity to speciate the naturally occurring arsenic in 65 well waters scattered across the USA with many of them being speciated monthly for up to three years. Speciation test data showed that 31 wells had predominantly As(V), 29 had predominantly As(III) and five had a mixture of both. A general pattern was found where As(III) was the dominant species in midwest ground waters where anoxic conditions and elevated iron concentrations prevailed and the well waters in the east, west and farwest had either As(III) or As(V) as the dominant species. The monthly (12-36) speciation tests results at many of these sites also found no major changes in arsenic species over time. PMID:24094730

  4. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts. Detection of inorganic arsenic can be explained by the conversion of inorganic arsenic to organic arsenic compounds in digestion system in the body may be occurring.

  5. Arsenic Background Concentrations in Florida, U.S.A. Surface Soils: Determination and Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Arsenic Background Concentrations in Florida, U.S.A. Surface Soils: Determination 2001) Background concentrations of soil arsenic have been used as an alternative soil cleanup criterion concentrations of arsenic in near pristine soils in Florida. Total arsenic was measured in 448 taxonomic

  6. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

  7. Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

  8. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 ?g/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 ?g/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  9. March 23, 2000 Hierarchical Modeling of Arsenic Concentrations at Entry Points in

    E-print Network

    arsenic concentrations in treated water from sources of public drinking water systems. The model allows us for arsenic in drinking water. Exposure to high levels of arsenic has been correlated with the risk of bladder Research Council Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water has concluded that the current MCL (50 Żg

  10. Screening of rice cultivars for grain arsenic concentration and speciation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the concentration and speciation of arsenic in rice grain because of concerns with food quality and interest in minimizing any potential risk from dietary exposure. Our objective was to screen a range of rice varieties from the USDA world collection for ...

  11. A rapid colorimetric method for measuring arsenic concentrations in groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Dhar; Y. Zheng; J. Rubenstone; A. van Geen

    2004-01-01

    The arsenic content of groundwater consumed by millions of people in the developing world has become a major health concern. We report here an optimization of the colorimetric method of Johnson and Pilson (1972) to accurately measure As concentrations in the <0.03–5.3?molL?1 (<2–400?gL?1) range in groundwater containing 2–30?molL?1 dissolved phosphate. The optimization includes increases in the concentrations of potassium iodate,

  12. Arsenic-rich acid mine water with extreme arsenic concentration: mineralogy, geochemistry, microbiology, and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Majzlan, Juraj; Plášil, Jakub; Škoda, Radek; Gescher, Johannes; Kögler, Felix; Rusznyak, Anna; Küsel, Kirsten; Neu, Thomas R; Mangold, Stefan; Rothe, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Extremely arsenic-rich acid mine waters have developed by weathering of native arsenic in a sulfide-poor environment on the 10th level of the Svornost mine in Jáchymov (Czech Republic). Arsenic rapidly oxidizes to arsenolite (As2O3), and there are droplets of liquid on the arsenolite crust with high As concentration (80,000-130,000 mg·L(-1)), pH close to 0, and density of 1.65 g·cm(-1). According to the X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the frozen droplets, most of the arsenic is As(III) and iron is fully oxidized to Fe(III). The EXAFS spectra on the As K edge can be interpreted in terms of arsenic polymerization in the aqueous solution. The secondary mineral that precipitates in the droplets is kaatialaite [Fe(3+)(H2AsO4)3·5H2O]. Other unusual minerals associated with the arsenic lens are b?hounekite [U(4+)(SO4)2·4H2O], št?pite [U(4+)(AsO3OH)2·4H2O], vysokýite [U(4+)[AsO2(OH)2]4·4H2O], and an unnamed phase (H3O)(+)2(UO2)2(AsO4)2·nH2O. The extremely low cell densities and low microbial biomass have led to insufficient amounts of DNA for downstream polymerase chain reaction amplification and clone library construction. We were able to isolate microorganisms on oligotrophic media with pH ? 1.5 supplemented with up to 30 mM As(III). These microorganisms were adapted to highly oligotrophic conditions which disabled long-term culturing under laboratory conditions. The extreme conditions make this environment unfavorable for intensive microbial colonization, but our first results show that certain microorganisms can adapt even to these harsh conditions. PMID:25365451

  13. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg?i-As·day?ą) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL?ą. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  14. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg?i-As·day?1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL?1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  15. Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arsenic and low-arsenic sources. For example, test water for arsenic levels and paint tube wells or hand pumps different colours. This can be an effective and low-cost means to rapidly reduce exposure to arsenic when ... low-arsenic water with higher-arsenic water to achieve an acceptable ...

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  17. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the early placentas of arsenate-dosed hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors determined the concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the placentas of hamsters following continuous exposure via the osmotic minipump to minimally and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate. Close to 70% of the placental arsenic is bound to macromolecules, two-thirds of which is dialyzable. The remaining 30% of arsenic consists of low molecular weight species, predominantly inorganic arsenic. This mix is the same for minimally teratogenic and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate.

  18. A 1,800-year record of arsenic concentration in the penguin dropping sediment, Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang

    2008-09-01

    Heavy/toxic metals have been widely investigated in the Antarctic. However, there are rare reports on arsenic up to now. Here, we analyzed a 1,800-year record of arsenic concentration in lake sediments affected by penguin droppings. We found that arsenic enriches in the penguin dropping sediments with 12.41 ± 0.45 ?g/g (on dry weight), which is about two times higher than the one in the background sediments with absence of penguin. Historical change in arsenic concentration was found to significantly correlate with the fluctuation of penguin number, indicating that penguin activity will result in the enrichment of arsenic somewhere in the maritime Antarctic.

  19. Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  20. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Megan N.; Niedzwiecki, Megan; Liu, Xinhua; Harper, Kristin N.; Alam, Shafiul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu B.; Parvez, Faruque; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine. Citation: Hall MN, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper KN, Alam S, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Levy D, Siddique AB, Parvez F, Mey JL, van Geen A, Graziano J, Gamble MV. 2013. Chronic arsenic exposure and blood glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentrations in Bangladeshi adults. Environ Health Perspect 121:1068–1074; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205727 PMID:23792557

  1. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  2. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  3. Arsenic concentrations in rice, vegetables, and fish in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Das, H K; Mitra, A K; Sengupta, P K; Hossain, A; Islam, F; Rabbani, G H

    2004-05-01

    Arsenic contaminating groundwater in Bangladesh is one of the largest environmental health hazards in the world. Because of the potential risk to human health through consumption of agricultural produce grown in fields irrigated with arsenic contaminated water, we have determined the level of contamination in 100 samples of crop, vegetables and fresh water fish collected from three different regions in Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All 11 samples of water and 18 samples of soil exceeded the expected limits of arsenic. No samples of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) had arsenic concentrations more than the recommended limit of 1.0 mg/kg. However, rice plants, especially the roots had a significantly higher concentration of arsenic (2.4 mg/kg) compared to stem (0.73 mg/kg) and rice grains (0.14 mg/kg). Arsenic contents of vegetables varied; those exceeding the food safety limits included Kachu sak (Colocasia antiquorum) (0.09-3.99 mg/kg, n=9), potatoes (Solanum tuberisum) (0.07-1.36 mg/kg, n=5), and Kalmi sak (Ipomoea reptoms) (0.1-1.53 mg/kg, n=6). Lata fish (Ophicephalus punctatus) did not contain unacceptable levels of arsenic. These results indicate that arsenic contaminates some food items in Bangladesh. Further studies with larger samples are needed to demonstrate the extent of arsenic contamination of food in Bangladesh. PMID:14987870

  4. Distribution of Microbial Arsenic Reduction, Oxidation and Extrusion Genes along a Wide Range of Environmental Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Lorena V.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx)-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations. PMID:24205341

  5. Determination of Arsenic Concentration in Well and Borehole Waters in Zaria, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, H.; Yakasai, I. A.; Musa, K. Y.; Isah, A. B.; Mshelbwala, K.

    The objective of this research is to determine the concentration of arsenic in wells and boreholes water in Zaria, to see whether the concentration level is sufficient enough to affect the health of the people living in the area under study. In this study arsenic concentrations of sixty well and five bore hole water samples collected from Zaria and environs were determined using standard procedures. The results obtained shows that arsenic concentrations ranged from <0.002 to 0.51 mg L-1, with 75% of the samples above the World Health Organization drinking water guideline. Bore whole water samples were found to contain less arsenic compared with the shallow well water samples studied. Most wells and boreholes in Zaria were found to be contaminated with abnormal concentration of arsenic sufficient enough to cause serious health hazards to the users.

  6. Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meliker, J.R.; Slotnick, M.J.; Avruskin, G.A.; Haack, S.K.; Nriagu, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 ??g/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization and subsequent transport in groundwater are equivocal. Recent evidence has begun to suggest that groundwater recharge and characteristics of well construction may affect arsenic mobilization and transport. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between dissolved arsenic concentrations, reported groundwater recharge rates, well construction characteristics, and geology in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is more prevalent in bedrock wells that are cased in proximity to the bedrock-unconsolidated interface; no other factors were associated with arsenic contamination in water drawn from bedrock or unconsolidated aquifers. Conditions appropriate for arsenic mobilization may be found along the bedrock-unconsolidated interface, including changes in reduction/oxidation potential and enhanced biogeochemical activity because of differences between geologic strata. These results are valuable for understanding arsenic mobilization and guiding well construction practices in southeastern Michigan, and may also provide insights for other regions faced with groundwater arsenic contamination. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  7. The Silicon Concentration in Cat Urine and Its Relationship with Other Elements

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Fumihito; MOCHIZUKI, Mariko; YOGO, Takuya; ISHIOKA, Katsumi; YUMOTO, Norio; SAKO, Toshinori; UEDA, Fukiko; TAGAWA, Masahiro; TAZAKI, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats. PMID:24334829

  8. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Bassett

    2004-01-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

  9. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 ?g g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 ?g m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (? 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 ?g m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  10. Some aspects of the environmental exposure to arsenic in Romania.

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, S; Coldea, V

    1977-01-01

    The main sources of arsenic emission in Romania are ore smelters and refineries. Arsenic determinations were carried out by the silver diethyldithiocarbamate spectrophotometric method on hair and urine samples taken from smelter workers and individuals residing in two polluted areas and three areas not polluted by arsenic. Arsenic in hair was found to be a more reliable biologic test than tests on urine, obviously reflecting the differences in arsenic concentrations in workroom air. Repeated determinations for arsenic content after 3 years revealed a twofold increased rate in the 48 re-examined workers. Hair arsenic analysis in people living in two locations near an ore smelter and a refinery indicated high-levels compared to those of individuals residing in nonpolluted areas. Epidemiological studies are necessary in order to ascertain effects of heavy arsenic exposure in relation with concurrent exposures to respiratory irritants and metals. PMID:908284

  11. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Mayzel, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic–magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:25762993

  12. Anomalous arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of an island community, Bowen Island, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Boyle; R. J. W. Turner; G. E. M. Hall

    1998-01-01

    Recently, occurrences of elevated arsenic concentrations in bedrock groundwaters used for individual and municipal water supplies have been recognised along the mainland coast of southern British Columbia, Canada. An area on Bowen Island (Queen Charlotte Heights community) was chosen to investigate the source(s) of arsenic, geochemical processes controlling its aqueous uptake, the role of geology and structure in the formation

  13. Comparison of Arsenic Concentrations in Carcass and Viscera of Swim-up Rainbow Trout Exposed to Dietary and Waterborne Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout fry were exposed to arsenic in water only, diet only, or both diet and water in 28-d studies evaluating survival and growth. Diets consisted of Lumbriculus variegatus that were exposed to multiple concentrations of waterborne arsenate for 7d and then fed to test fi...

  14. Assessment of arsenic concentration in stream water using neuro fuzzy networks with factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Chung, Chang-Han; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2014-10-01

    We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang Creek in northern Taiwan is used as a study case. Results indicate that rainfall, nitrite nitrogen and temperature are important factors and the proposed estimation model (ANFIS(GT)) is superior to the two comparative models, in which 50% and 52% improvements in RMSE are made over ANFIS(CC) and ANFIS(all), respectively. Results reveal that arsenic concentration reaches the highest in an environment of lower temperature, higher nitrite nitrogen concentration and larger one-month antecedent rainfall; while it reaches the lowest in an environment of higher temperature, lower nitrite nitrogen concentration and smaller one-month antecedent rainfall. It is noted that these three selected factors are easy-to-collect. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a useful and effective methodology, which can be adapted to other similar settings to reliably model water quality based on parameters of interest and/or study areas of interest for universal usage. The proposed methodology gives a quick and reliable way to estimate arsenic concentration, which makes good contribution to water environment management. PMID:25046611

  15. Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Search The CDC Search Button Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxic Substances Portal - Arsenic Toxic Substances Portal Arsenic ToxFAQs ...

  16. Infant toenails as a biomarker of in utero arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Li, Zhigang; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Lee, Joyce S.; Baker, Emily R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that in utero and early-life exposure to arsenic may have detrimental effects on children, even at the low to moderate levels common in the United States and elsewhere. In a sample of 170 mother–infant pairs from New Hampshire, we determined infant exposure to in utero arsenic by evaluating infant toenails as a biomarker using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant toenail arsenic concentration correlated with maternal postpartum toenail concentrations (Spearman’s correlation coefficient 0.34). In adjusted linear models, a doubling of maternal toenail arsenic concentration was associated with a 53.8% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration as compared with 20.4% for a doubling of maternal urine arsenic concentration. In a structural equation model, a doubling of the latent variable integrating maternal toenail and urine arsenic concentrations was associated with a 67.5% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration. A similar correlation between infant and maternal postpartum toenail concentrations was observed in a validation cohort of 130 mother–infant pairs from Rhode Island. In utero exposure to arsenic occurs through maternal water and dietary sources, and infant toenails appear to be a reliable biomarker for estimating arsenic exposure during the critical window of gestation. PMID:24896769

  17. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    PubMed Central

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  18. Arsenic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    On October 31, 2001, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its decision to move forward in implementing the standard for arsenic levels in drinking water at 10 parts per billion (ppb), down from the less strict 50 ppb standard. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to bladder and lung cancers, diabetes, and heart disease. Readers interested in learning more about the new standards, health effects, and costs should visit this EPA Web feature. Contents include a fact sheet, links to expert panel reviews including the National Academy of Science's Arsenic National Drinking Water Advisory Council, and current and past press releases on proposed standards and actions.

  19. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  20. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  1. Elevated lung cancer in younger adults and low concentrations of arsenic in water.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig; Ferreccio, Catterina; Yuan, Yan; Acevedo, Johanna; González, Francisca; Perez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Balmes, John R; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L in drinking water are a known cause of cancer, but the risks associated with lower concentrations are less well understood. The unusual geology and good information on past exposure found in northern Chile are key advantages for investigating the potential long-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas of northern Chile that had a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Previously, we reported evidence of elevated cancer risks at arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. In the present study, we restricted analyses to the 92 cases and 288 population-based controls who were exposed to concentrations less than 100 µg/L. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking behavior, these exposures from 40 or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.52), and 2.01 (90% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.52) for increasing tertiles of arsenic exposure, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Mean arsenic water concentrations in these tertiles were 6.5, 23.0, and 58.6 µg/L. For subjects younger than 65 years of age, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 1.62 (90% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.90), and 3.41 (90% confidence interval: 1.51, 7.70). Adjustments for occupation, fruit and vegetable intake, and socioeconomic status had little impact on the results. These findings provide new evidence that arsenic water concentrations less than 100 µg/L are associated with higher risks of lung cancer. PMID:25371173

  2. Plasma and urine aluminium concentrations in healthy subjects after administration of sucralfate.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, P; Mauras, Y; Krari, N; Duchier, J; Cournot, A; Larcheveque, J

    1990-01-01

    1. Sucralfate (basic sucrose aluminium sulphate), a topical intestinal agent, was administered in suspension or granule form to 25 healthy subjects at a total dose of 4 g day-1 for 21 days. Aluminium in plasma and 24 h urine samples was assayed before, during and after administration of sucralfate by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. 2. Sucralfate produced significant increases in plasma and urine aluminium concentrations. On average, plasma aluminium increased from about 2 micrograms 1-1 to more than 5 micrograms 1-1 and 24 h urine aluminium increased from less than 5 micrograms to more than 30 micrograms. Both plasma and urine aluminium concentrations decreased rapidly after sucralfate was stopped. However, urinary aluminium concentrations remained higher than normal 5 and 10 days after discontinuation of sucralfate administration. Moreover subjects receiving sucralfate granules had significantly higher average urinary excretion of aluminium than subjects receiving the suspension. 3. The small but significant increase in plasma and urine aluminium following sucralfate administration in therapeutic doses may reflect intestinal absorption of aluminium. Although such absorption would appear to be moderate in healthy subjects, it is suggested that aluminium-based treatments should be used only intermittently, especially in patients with renal disorders. PMID:2328192

  3. A cultural practice of drinking realgar wine leading to elevated urinary arsenic and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Huang, Qing; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-07-01

    Toasting friends and family with realgar wines and painting children's foreheads and limbs with the leftover realgar/alcohol slurries is an important customary ritual during the Dragon Boat Festival (DBF); a Chinese national holiday and ancient feast day celebrated throughout Asia. Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral, and source of highly toxic inorganic arsenic. Despite the long history of realgar use during the DBF, associated risk to human health by arsenic ingestion or percutaneous adsorption is unknown. To address this urine samples were collected from a cohort of volunteers who were partaking in the DBF festivities. The total concentration of arsenic in the wine consumed was 70 mg L?ą with all the arsenic found to be inorganic. Total arsenic concentrations in adult urine reached a maximum of ca. 550 ?g L?ą (mean 220.2 ?g L?ą) after 16 h post-ingestion of realgar wine, while face painting caused arsenic levels in children's urine to soar to 100 ?g L?ą (mean 85.3 ?g L?ą) 40 h after the initial paint application. The average concentration of inorganic arsenic in the urine of realgar wine drinkers on average doubled 16 h after drinking, although this was not permanent and levels subsided after 28 h. As would be expected in young children, the proportions of organic arsenic in the urine remained high throughout the 88-h monitoring period. However, even when arsenic concentrations in the urine peaked at 40 h after paint application, concentrations in the urine only declined slightly thereafter, suggesting pronounced longer term dermal accumulation and penetration of arsenic. Drinking wines blended with realgar or using realgar based paints on children does result in the significant absorption of arsenic and therefore presents a potentially serious and currently unquantified health risk. PMID:21450346

  4. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

  5. Association of Arsenic and Metals with Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D among Adolescents in Torreón, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Guallar, Eliseo; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Resnick, Carol; Andrade, Marisela Rubio; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and uranium (U) may disrupt vitamin D metabolism and inhibit production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active vitamin D metabolite, from 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the kidney. Objectives: We evaluated the association between blood lead (BPb) and urine arsenic (As), Cd, molybdenum (Mo), thallium (Tl), and U with markers of vitamin D metabolism [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D]. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 512 adolescents in Torreón, a town in Mexico with a Pb smelter near residential areas. BPb was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine As, Cd, Mo, Tl, and U were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Multivariable linear models with vitamin D markers as the outcome were used to estimate associations of BPb and creatinine-corrected urine As and metal concentrations with serum vitamin D concentrations, controlling for age, sex, adiposity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and time outdoors. Results: Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with urine Mo and Tl [1.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.6) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.1) ng/mL higher with a doubling of exposure, respectively]. Serum 1,25(OH)2D was positively associated with urine As and U [3.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.9) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.7) pg/mL higher, respectively], with little change in associations after additional adjustment for serum 25(OH)D. Pb and Cd were not associated with 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Conclusions: Overall, our findings did not support a negative effect of As or metal exposures on serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Additional research is needed to confirm positive associations between serum 1,25(OH)2D and urine U and As concentrations and to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. Citation: Zamoiski RD, Guallar E, García-Vargas GG, Rothenberg SJ, Resnick C, Rubio Andrade M, Steuerwald AJ, Parsons PJ, Weaver VM, Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK. 2014. Association of arsenic and metals with concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D among adolescents in Torreón, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:1233–1238; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307861 PMID:25095279

  6. Monitoring of arsenic exposure with speciated urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites for ion implanter maintenance engineers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Zhih-Young; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Lu, I-Chun; Yao, Wan-Lin

    2002-11-01

    For wafer fabrication in the semiconductor industry, maintenance engineers are potentially exposed to hazards during their work of disassembling machine components for cleanup. One special concern is the presence of arsenic or arsenic compounds in the working environment. This study analyzed speciated urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites of the maintenance engineers using high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry to study the potential arsenic exposure during their maintenance work. In total, from six wafer fabrication facilities, 30 maintenance engineers were recruited as the exposed group and another 12 office-based engineers served as the control group. First morning-voided urine samples of each study subject were collected for 7 consecutive days. The levels of total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites for the exposed group were 1.7+/-1.4, 1.4+/-1.1, 6.2+/-6.7, 20.2+/-14.1, and 29.5+/-17.2 micro g/L for As3+, As5+, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and total inorganic arsenic, respectively. Both the concentration of monomethylarsonic acid and its percentage in total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites showed significantly ascending trends for the control group, for the engineers without preventative maintenance work prior to their urine sampling, and for the engineers with such work prior to their urine sampling (P<0.05 and P<0.0005, respectively). The data also suggested that, at low-level occupational arsenic exposure, the concentration of total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites might be misleading due to the confounding effect resulting from intake of seafood, such as arsenosuger. Nevertheless, monitoring of urinary arsenic species by using the percentage change of monomethylarsonic acid in total urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites as an indicator for the verification of arsenic exposure is helpful and appropriate in such cases. PMID:12477466

  7. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A PESCH; M WILHELM; U ROSTEK; N SCHMITZ; M WEISHOFF-HOUBEN; U RANFT; H IDEL

    2002-01-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8–10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 ?g\\/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 ?g\\/l or 0.25 ?g\\/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in ?g\\/l and ?g\\/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the

  8. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:25344454

  9. Increasing arsenic concentrations in runoff from 12 small forested catchments (Czech Republic, Central Europe): patterns and controls.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Blaha, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Krachler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The 40-year long period of heavy industrialization in Central Europe (1950-1990) was accompanied by burning of arsenic-rich lignite in thermal power plants, and accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic in forest soils. There are fears that retreating acidification may lead to arsenic mobilization into drinking water, caused by competitive ligand exchange. We present monthly arsenic concentrations in surface runoff from 12 headwater catchments in the Czech Republic for a period of 13 years (1996-2008). The studied area was characterized by a north-south gradient of decreasing pollution. Acidification, caused mainly by SOx and NOx emissions from power plants, has been retreating since 1987. Between 1996 and 2003, maximum arsenic concentrations in runoff did not change, and were < 1 ppb in the rural south and < 2 ppb in the industrial north. During the subsequent two years, 2004-2005, maximum arsenic concentrations in runoff increased, reaching 60% of the drinking water limit (10 ppb). Starting in 2006, maximum arsenic concentrations returned to lower values at most sites. We discuss three possible causes of the recent arsenic concentration maximum in runoff. We rule out retreating acidification and a pulse of high industrial emission rates as possible controls. The pH of runoff has not changed since 1996, and is still too low (<6.5) at most sites for an As-OH(-) ligand exchange to become significant. Elevated arsenic concentrations in runoff in 2004-2005 may reflect climate change through changing hydrological conditions at some, but not all sites. Dry conditions may result in elevated production of DOC and sulfur oxidation in the soil. Subsequent wet conditions may be accompanied by acidification leading to faster dissolution of arsenic-bearing sulfides, dissolution of arsenic-bearing Fe-oxyhydroxides, and elevated transport of arsenic sorbed on organic matter. Anaerobic domains exist in normally well-aerated upland soils for hours-to-days following precipitation events. PMID:20494405

  10. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

  11. Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic Concentrations in Soil Underneath CCA-Treated Wood Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Townsend; Helena Solo-Gabriele; Thabet Tolaymat; Kristin Stook; Naila Hosein

    2003-01-01

    Soils below nine structures (decks and foot bridges) in Florida were examined to evaluate potential impacts from chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a common wood preservative. Eight of the nine structures were confirmed to have been treated with CCA. Soils collected were evaluated for arsenic, chromium, and copper concentrations as well as pH, volatile solids content and particle size distribution. Two

  12. Arsenic concentrations in soils impacted by dam failure of coal-ash pond in Zemianske Kostolany, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Jurkovi?, L'ubomír; Hiller, Edgar; Veselská, Veronika; Pet'ková, Katarína

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the concentrations of arsenic were determined in the soils around old coal-ash pond. The soils in the study area were severely contaminated with arsenic after dam failure of the coal-ash pond. The mean concentrations of arsenic in soils collected from three sampling depths of 0-20, 20-40 and >40 cm were 173, 155 and 426 ?g/g, respectively, exceeding greatly the Dutch intervention threshold for this element. Arsenic concentrations were positively correlated with total iron and aluminium contents in the soils (r = 0.73, p < 0.001 and r = 0.72, p < 0.001, respectively), indicating that oxyhydroxides of iron and aluminium may control the distribution of arsenic in these soils. Ammonium nitrate extractant was used to mimic availability of arsenic for plant uptake from the soils. Between 0.05 and 6.21% of the total soil arsenic were extracted using a single extraction test and a significant positive correlation between soil leachate pH and arsenic extractability (r = 0.70, p < 0.01) was observed. This suggested that soil pH might play a role in the bioavailability of arsenic. PMID:21331534

  13. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236±0.677 kBq/L and 1.704±0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 ?Sv/year and 0.532 ?Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 ?Sv/year.

  14. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  15. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 ?g day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food. PMID:23728998

  16. Speciation determination of arsenic in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with on-line ultraviolet photooxidation.

    PubMed

    Tsalev, D L; Sperling, M; Welz, B

    1998-08-01

    A coupled system for arsenic speciation determination based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), on-line UV photooxidation and continuous-flow hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) was built from commercially available modules with minor modifications to the electronic interface, the software and the gas-liquid separator. The best results were obtained with strong anion-exchange columns, Hamilton PRP X-100 and Supelcosil SAX 1, and gradient elution with phosphate buffers containing KH2PO4-K2HPO4. The on-line UV photooxidation with alkaline peroxodisulfate, 4% m/v K2S2O8-1 mol l-1 NaOH, in a PTFE knotted reactor for 93 s ensures the transformation of inorganic AsIII, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide and tetramethylarsonium ion to arsenate. About 32-36 HPLC-UV-HGAAS runs could be performed within 8 h, with limits of detection between 2 and 6 micrograms l-1 As, depending on the species. The method was applied to the analysis of spot urine samples and certified urine reference materials (CRMs). Upon storage at 4 degrees C, reconstituted CRMs are stable for at least 2 weeks with respect to both their total arsenic content and the individual species distribution. PMID:10071384

  17. Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora before and after Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuehui; Yuan, Xuewu; Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaoguang; Abdelgadir, Awad; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the bioleaching efficiency of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, a mixed bacterial flora had been developed, and the mutation breeding method was adopted to conduct the research. The original mixed bacterial flora had been enrichedin acid mine drainage of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi Province, China. It was induced by UV (ultraviolet), ultrasonic, and microwave, and their combination mutation. The most efficient bacterial flora after mutation was collected for further bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates. Results indicated that the bacterial flora after mutation by UV 60?s combined with ultrasonic 10?min had the best oxidation rate of ferrous, the biggest density of cells, and the most activity of total protein. During bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, the density of the mutant bacterial cells reached to 1.13 × 108 cells/mL at 15 days, more than 10 times compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of iron reached to 95.7% after 15 days, increased by 9.9% compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of arsenic reached to 92.6% after 12 days, which was increased by 46.1%. These results suggested that optimum combined mutation could improve leaching ability of the bacterial flora more significantly. PMID:24381948

  18. Application of granular ferric hydroxides for removal elevated concentrations of arsenic from mine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlachta, Ma?gorzata; W?odarczyk, Pawe?; Wójtowicz, Patryk

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic is naturally occurring element in the environment. Over three hundred minerals are known to contain some form of arsenic and among them arsenopyrite is the most common one. Arsenic-bearing minerals are frequently associated with ores containing mined metals such as copper, tin, nickel, lead, uranium, zinc, cobalt, platinum and gold. In the aquatic environment arsenic is typically present in inorganic forms, mainly in two oxidation states (+5, +3). As(III) is dominant in more reduced conditions, whereas As(V) is mostly present in an oxidizing environment. However, due to certain human activities the elevated arsenic levels in aquatic ecosystems are arising to a serious environmental problem. High arsenic concentrations found in surface and groundwaters, in some regions originate from mining activities and ore processing. Therefore, the major concern of mining industry is to maintain a good quality of effluents discharged in large volumes. This requires constant monitoring of effluents quality that guarantee the efficient protection of the receiving waters and reacting to possible negative impact of contamination on local communities. A number of proven technologies are available for arsenic removal from waters and wastewaters. In the presented work special attention is given to the adsorption method as a technically feasible, commonly applied and effective technique for the treatment of arsenic rich mine effluents. It is know that arsenic has a strong affinity towards iron rich materials. Thus, in this study the granular ferric hydroxides (CFH 12, provided by Kemira Oyj, Finland) was applied to remove As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficiency of the tested Fe-based material under various operating parameters, including composition of treated water, solution pH and temperature. The results obtained from the fixed bed adsorption tests demonstrated the benefits of applying granular ferric hydroxides for treatment As-contaminated waters. This research is a part of the study supported by the National Centre for Research and Development grant (2014-2017) "Sustainable and responsible supply of primary resources - SUSMIN" (http://projects.gtk.fi/susmin), within the EU ERA-NET ERA-MIN program.

  19. An individualized weight-based goal urine volume model significantly improves expected calcium concentrations relative to a 2-L goal urine volume.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Mark D; Anderson, Christopher B; Viprakasit, Davis P; Dietrich, Mary S; Herrell, S Duke; Miller, Nicole L

    2013-10-01

    Increased urinary volume decreases recurrence rates of nephrolithiasis. Current recommendations for goal volumes are not adjusted to reflect individual risk factors, such as obesity. Our intent was to develop and evaluate a goal urine volume for stone prevention based on predictive calcium modeling. Stone formers with a 24-h urine study (6/2001-9/2010) were identified. Patients with inadequate collections or non-calcium stones were excluded. Multivariate and univariate predictive models for daily calcium were evaluated and a univariate (weight) model was selected. A target calcium concentration constant (2.5 mM) was determined from current recommendations. Individualized weight-based goal urine volumes (WGUV) were calculated. Measured calcium concentration and expected calcium concentrations using a 2-L goal volume and WGUV were compared. 185 of 399 patients met inclusion criteria. Body weight was a strong predictor of calcium excretion in each model (p < 0.0001). While a 2-L goal urine volume would be expected to improve mean calcium concentrations for the cohort from 3.53 to 2.96 mM, the benefit is unequal between subsets with nearly twofold expected concentration for the highest weight quartile (3.98 vs. 2.10 mM) and higher expected concentration for males (3.35 vs. 2.59 mM). By contrast, a WGUV model improves expected concentrations for all subsets to <2.9 mM and the overall cohort to 2.50 mM. This study demonstrates a strong relationship between body weight and urinary calcium excretion in stone formers. We introduce the novel concept of individualized goal urine output using statistical modeling, which may be preferable to current recommendations. PMID:23857331

  20. Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health

    2008-10-15

    In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

  1. Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples exceeding 10, 50, 100, and 500 ug/L were calculated for the 174 towns with 20 or more sampled wells, and statewide maps were prepared for each of these categories. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 towns exceeded 10 ug/L. Many fewer towns had wells with samples that exceeded the 50, 100, or 500 ug/L categories. For 19 towns, more than 10 percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 ug/L, and in 45 towns, 1 percent or more exceeded 100 ug/L. Of these, Surry in Hancock County had 120 wells tested, and 23 percent of those wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 100 ug/L, which is a much higher rate than for other towns. In only four towns (Danforth in Washington County, Surry and Blue Hill in Hancock County, and Woolwich in Sagadahoc County), 1 percent or more of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 500 ug/L during 2005-09. The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally geologically controlled. There are clusters or belts of towns with high arsenic concentrations (> 50 ug/L), such as in southern coastal areas, the Kennebec County area, and towns along the central coastal part of Maine. In contrast, there are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such as the northernmost towns, as well as towns in the western and west-central areas. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater-one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. Earlier testing has identified other clusters of very high arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the towns of Northport, Buxton/Hollis, and Waldoboro, but those samples were collected before 2005 and did not factor in this analysis.

  2. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-09-15

    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 ?g/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density. PMID:23892312

  3. Arsenic exposure and tobacco consumption: Biomarkers and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Marano, Kristin M; Naufal, Ziad S; Kathman, Steven J; Bodnar, Joy A; Borgerding, Michael F; Wilson, Cody L

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is measurable in tobacco and cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS). Whether arsenic has an independent role in diseases associated with tobacco consumption is not known. Epidemiology and biomonitoring data and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods were used to investigate this potential association. Analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) showed that urine arsenic concentrations in tobacco consumers were not different or were lower than levels in non-consumers of tobacco. Additionally, urine arsenic levels from NHANES tobacco consumers were five-times or more lower than levels reported in epidemiology studies to be associated with adverse health effects. Results of PRA indicated that mean non-cancer hazard estimates and mean incremental lifetime cancer risk estimates were within accepted ranges. Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic may not be independently associated with tobacco consumption or diseases related to tobacco consumption. PMID:22874882

  4. Geochemical controls of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater, Ester Dome, Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Mueller, S.H.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Youcha, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Ester Dome, an upland area near Fairbanks, Alaska, was chosen for a detailed hydrogeochemical study because of the previously reported elevated arsenic in groundwater, and the presence of a large set of wells amenable to detailed sampling. Ester Dome lies within the Fairbanks mining district, where gold-bearing quartz veins, typically containing 2-3??vol.% sulfide minerals (arsenopyrite, stibnite, and pyrite), have been mined both underground and in open cuts. Gold-bearing veins on Ester Dome occur in shear zones and the sulfide minerals in these veins have been crushed to fine-grained material by syn- or post-mineralization movement. Groundwater at Ester Dome is circumneutral, Ca-HCO3 to Ca-SO4 type, and ranges from dilute (specific conductance of 48????S/cm) to more concentrated (specific conductance as high as 2070????S/cm). In general, solute concentrations increase down hydrologic gradient. Redox species indicate that the groundwaters range from oxic to sub-oxic (low dissolved oxygen, Fe(III) reduction, no SO4 reduction). Waters with the highest Fe concentrations, as high as 10.7??mg/L, are the most anoxic. Dissolved As concentrations range from < 1 to 1160????g/L, with a median value of 146????g/L. Arsenic concentrations are not correlated with specific conductance or Fe concentrations, suggesting that neither groundwater residence time, nor reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, control the arsenic chemistry. Furthermore, As concentrations do not covary with other constituents that form anions and oxyanions in solution (e.g., HCO3, Mo, F, or U) such that desorption of arsenic from clays or oxides also does not control arsenic mobility. Oxidation of arsenopyrite and dissolution of scorodite, in the near-surface environment appears to be the primary control of dissolved As in this upland area. More specifically, the elevated As concentrations are spatially associated with sulfidized shear zones and localities of gold-bearing quartz veins. Consistent with this interpretation, elevated dissolved Sb concentrations (as high as 59????g/L), also correlated with occurrences of hypogene sulfide minerals, were measured in samples with high dissolved As concentrations.

  5. Geochemical processes underlying a sharp contrast in groundwater arsenic concentrations in a village on the Red River delta, Vietnam

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    Geochemical processes underlying a sharp contrast in groundwater arsenic concentrations but with very different As con- centrations in groundwater (site L: to groundwater at one site and not the other. No major differences were observed in the bulk mineralogy

  6. Arsenic Concentrations in Soils Impacted by Dam Failure of Coal-Ash Pond in Zemianske Kostolany, Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L’ubomír Jurkovi?; Edgar Hiller; Veronika Veselská; Katarína Pet’ková

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of arsenic were determined in the soils around old coal-ash pond. The soils in the study\\u000a area were severely contaminated with arsenic after dam failure of the coal-ash pond. The mean concentrations of arsenic in\\u000a soils collected from three sampling depths of 0–20, 20–40 and >40 cm were 173, 155 and 426 ?g\\/g, respectively, exceeding greatly\\u000a the

  7. Modeling spatial patterns in soil arsenic to estimate natural baseline concentrations.

    PubMed

    Venteris, Erik R; Basta, Nicholas T; Bigham, Jerry M; Rea, Ron

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic in soil is an important public health concern, but risk-based toxicity regulatory standards derived from laboratory studies should also consider concentrations measured away from obvious contamination (i.e., baseline concentrations that approximate natural background) to avoid unnecessary remediation burdens on society. We used soil and stream sediment samples from the USGS National Geochemical Survey to assess the spatial distribution of As over a 1.16 × 10 km area corresponding to the state of Ohio. Samples were collected at 348 soil and 144 stream sites at locations selected to minimize anthropogenic inputs. Total As was measured by sodium peroxide fusion with subsequent dissolution using concentrated HCl and analysis using hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic in the soil and streambed samples ranged from 2.0 to 45.6 mg kg. Sequential Gaussian simulation was used to map the expected concentration of As and its uncertainty. Five areas of elevated concentration, greater than the median of 10 mg kg, were identified, and relationships to geologic parent materials, glacial sedimentation, and soil conditions interpreted. Arsenic concentrations <4 mg kg were rare, >10 mg kg common, and >20 mg kg not unusual for the central and west central portions of Ohio. Concentrations typically exceeded the soil As human generic screening level of 0.39 mg kg, a value corresponding to an increase in cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 for soil ingestion. Such results call into question the utility of the USEPA and similarly low soil screening levels. The contrast between laboratory screens and concentrations occurring in nature argue for risk assessment on the basis of baseline concentrations. PMID:25602822

  8. Relationship of arsenic concentration with ammonium-nitrogen concentration, oxidation reduction potential and pH of groundwater in arsenic-contaminated areas in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu

    This study examines how arsenic (As) concentration is related to ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and pH in groundwater to determine if they have common characteristics in groundwater with high As concentrations in the As-contaminated areas of Bangladesh, Nepal, Cambodia and Vietnam. For the groundwater samples having the three highest As concentrations (top three groundwaters) selected as representatives at each location, As and NH4-N concentrations varied, but ORP and pH did not vary by locations. The ORP value of 30-110 mV, indicating the reducing condition, and the neutral to slightly alkaline pH (pH 7.0-7.6) were presumed to be the key conditions for high As concentrations in groundwater of the study areas. According to the ORP (Eh)-pH diagram, the dominant As species in the top three groundwaters from each location was hydrogen arsenate (HAsO42-). Out of the correlations between the four elements for the top three groundwaters in the areas, only the correlation between As and NH4-N concentrations was positive and significant. Thus, it was identified that NH4-N had an effect on increasing As concentration in groundwater.

  9. Urinary Excretion of Arsenic Species After Exposure to Arsenic Present in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kurttio; H. Komulainen; E. Hakala; H. Kahelin; J. Pekkanen

    1998-01-01

    .   The water from some drilled wells in southwest Finland contains high arsenic concentrations (min–max: 17–980 ?g\\/L). We analyzed\\u000a inorganic arsenic (As-i) and organic arsenic (monomethylarsonate [MMA] and dimethylarsinate [DMA]) species in urine and conducted\\u000a a clinical examination of current users (n?=?35) and ex-users (n?=?12) of such wells. Ex-users had ceased to use the water\\u000a from the wells 2–4 months

  10. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

  11. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. PMID:25841211

  12. Green and black tea consumption by humans: impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine.

    PubMed

    He, Y H; Kies, C

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of green tea, black tea and decaffeinated black tea consumption on urinary and fecal excretions and whole blood and blood serum concentrations of polyphenols. The 56 day study was divided into four randomly arranged experimental periods of 14 days each during which the 10 healthy adult subjects consumed a laboratory controlled, constant, measured diet based on ordinary foods. During separate periods, subjects received no tea, green tea, regular black tea or decaffeinated black tea beverages at the three daily meals. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools throughout the study and fasting blood samples were drawn at the beginning of the study and at the end of each experimental period. Polyphenols contained in urine, feces, whole blood, blood serums, food and tea were analyzed by the spectrophotometry method of Wah Lau et al. (1989). Green tea consumption resulted in highest intakes in greatest fecal and urinary excretions, highest retentions, and high whole blood concentrations of polyphenols followed by effects of regular black tea, decaffeinated black tea and no tea treatments. These results indicate that polyphenols from tea are at least partly absorbable. Hence, both positive and negative effects of dietary polyphenol may occur internal to the body proper and not only as effects within the intestines. PMID:7855093

  13. A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il

    2014-10-01

    The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

  14. Concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals in vegetation at two abandoned mine tailings in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peichun; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-04-01

    Untreated abandoned mines may result in hazards to ecosystems due to dispersion of various toxic elements such as arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Phytoremediation is an alternative of remediation for large scale mine dumps. Plant species were sampled from two abandoned gold (Au) mines in South Korea. Plant samples were digested following the guidelines of US EPA Method 3050 (US-EPA, 1996) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations and bioaccumulation factors of plants are reported and out-performing species are summarized. Poplar trees (Populus davidiana) growing on the Myoungbong tailings were suggested to be a potential species for revegetation of large scale Au mine tailings. Arsenic accumulations of bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum) sampled from the Duckum tailings were far lower than those of the reported hyperaccumulators, but the possible chronic adverse effects on residents through daily diet are of concern. PMID:16003579

  15. Urinary arsenic speciation profile in ethnic group of the Atacama desert (Chile) exposed to variable arsenic levels in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yáńez, Jorge; Mansilla, Héctor D; Santander, I Paola; Fierro, Vladimir; Cornejo, Lorena; Barnes, Ramón M; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic groups from the Atacama Desert (known as Atacameńos) have been exposed to natural arsenic pollution for over 5000 years. This work presents an integral study that characterizes arsenic species in water used for human consumption. It also describes the metabolism and arsenic elimination through urine in a chronically exposed population in northern Chile. In this region, water contained total arsenic concentrations up to 1250 ?g L(-1), which was almost exclusively As(V). It is also important that this water was ingested directly from natural water sources without any treatment. The ingested arsenic was extensively methylated. In urine 93% of the arsenic was found as methylated arsenic species, such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. The original ingested inorganic species [As(V)], represent less than 1% of the total urinary arsenic. Methylation activity among individuals can be assessed by measuring primary [inorganic As/methylated As] and secondary methylation [MMA/DMA] indexes. Both methylation indexes were 0.06, indicating a high biological converting capability of As(V) into MMA and then MMA into DMA, compared with the control population and other arsenic exposed populations previously reported. PMID:25438126

  16. Arsenic concentrations in successive needle age classes of Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.).

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, A; Bajo, S; Tobler, L

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic has been determined in needles of Norway spruce by neutron activation analysis. Trees from 8 sites grown under different soil and environmental situations have been sampled. Trees and needle age classes have been treated individually. Endogenous As concentrations in needles <100 ng/g have been detected. Concentrations increased linearly with the needle age class. This biodynamic behaviour is attributed tentatively to a predominant foliar uptake. Concentrations at the various sites differed by a factor of 7. No connection could be found between As concentrations in needles and total As in the soil or pH of the soil. However, the strong correlation between the endogenous and the exogenous concentrations, and differences of As concentrations in needles between different sites are thought to be due mainly to different inputs of As from the atmosphere. PMID:15067468

  17. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. PMID:24998972

  18. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

  19. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  20. Response of Leafy Vegetable Kalmi (Water Spinach; Ipomoea aquatica L.) at Elevated Concentrations of Arsenic in Hydroponic Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molla Rahman Shaibur; Tamanna Islam; Shigenao Kawai

    2009-01-01

    Effects of elevated arsenic (As) concentrations on hydroponic Kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica L.) were investigated. Plants were treated with 0, 10, 25, and 50 ?M As in the greenhouse for 14 days. Arsenic was added\\u000a from sodium meta-arsenite (NaAsO2). Visible toxicity symptom could not easily be recognized without visible growth reduction. Little brown spots on the leaf\\u000a blade were found at 50 ?M As

  1. Assessment of Arsenic Exposure by Measurement of Urinary Speciated Inorganic Arsenic Metabolites in Workers in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the exposure to arsenic in preventive maintenance (PM) engineers in a semiconductor industry by detecting speciated inorganic arsenic metabolites in the urine. Methods The exposed group included 8 PM engineers from the clean process area and 13 PM engineers from the ion implantation process area; the non-exposed group consisted of 14 office workers from another company who were not occupationally exposed to arsenic. A spot urine specimen was collected from each participant for the detection and measurement of speciated inorganic arsenic metabolites. Metabolites were separated by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Results Urinary arsenic metabolite concentrations were 1.73 g/L, 0.76 g/L, 3.45 g/L, 43.65 g/L, and 51.32 g/L for trivalent arsenic (As3+), pentavalent arsenic (As5+), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and total inorganic arsenic metabolites (As3+ + As5+ + MMA?+?DMA), respectively, in clean process PM engineers. In ion implantation process PM engineers, the concentrations were 1.74 g/L, 0.39 g/L, 3.08 g/L, 23.17 g/L, 28.92 g/L for As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, and total inorganic arsenic metabolites, respectively. Levels of urinary As3+, As5+, MMA, and total inorganic arsenic metabolites in clean process PM engineers were significantly higher than that in the non-exposed group. Urinary As3+ and As5+ levels in ion implantation process PM engineers were significantly higher than that in non-exposed group. Conclusion Levels of urinary arsenic metabolites in PM engineers from the clean process and ion implantation process areas were higher than that in office workers. For a complete assessment of arsenic exposure in the semiconductor industry, further studies are needed. PMID:24472712

  2. The Use of Hydrogel Microparticles to Sequester and Concentrate Bacterial Antigens in a Urine Test for Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Temple; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin; Lepene, Benjamin S.; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) – acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine. PMID:21035184

  3. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Razo, Luz Maria del [Toxicology Departament, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo [School of Medicine, Durango State Juarez University, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca [Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jorgeep@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  4. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (?700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system. PMID:23805262

  5. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in-vitro activity of urine concentrates and rubber chemicals.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Carere, A; Paoletti, A; Fabri, G

    1984-01-01

    A possible occupational contribution to urinary mutagenicity was studied in a tyre plant, by assaying concentrates of urine from 72 workmen and 23 controls for their activity in the Ames test and microtitre fluctuation test. The results show that smoking habits but not occupation are related to the appearance of a detectable urinary mutagenicity in strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation was, however, observed among tyre builders who were smokers. Mutagenicity screening of 25 rubber chemicals, of major technological relevance and used in high volume in the workplace investigated, showed that three of them are weakly active in TA98 and TA100 (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) or TA98 alone (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene and mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines). PMID:6400096

  6. Can sample treatments based on advanced oxidation processes assisted by high-intensity focused ultrasound be used for toxic arsenic determination in human urine by flow-injection hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Correia; M. Galesio; H. Santos; R. Rial-Otero; C. Lodeiro; A. Oehmen; Antonio C. L. Conceiçăo; J. L. Capelo

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), based on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), namely, KMnO4\\/HCl\\/HIFU and H2O2\\/HCl\\/HIFU are studied and compared for the determination of toxic arsenic in human urine [As(III)+As(V)+MMA+DMA] by flow-injection hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). The KMnO4\\/HCl\\/HIFU procedure was found to be adequate for organic matter degradation in human urine. l-cysteine (letra minuscula) was used for As reduction to

  7. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  8. Human adaptation to arsenic-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, Carina M; Gattepaille, Lucie M; Engström, Karin; Vahter, Marie; Jakobsson, Mattias; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation drives genomic changes; however, evidence of specific adaptations in humans remains limited. We found that inhabitants of the northern Argentinean Andes, an arid region where elevated arsenic concentrations in available drinking water is common, have unique arsenic metabolism, with efficient methylation and excretion of the major metabolite dimethylated arsenic and a less excretion of the highly toxic monomethylated metabolite. We genotyped women from this population for 4,301,332 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and found a strong association between the AS3MT (arsenic [+3 oxidation state] methyltransferase) gene and mono- and dimethylated arsenic in urine, suggesting that AS3MT functions as the major gene for arsenic metabolism in humans. We found strong genetic differentiation around AS3MT in the Argentinean Andes population, compared with a highly related Peruvian population (FST = 0.014) from a region with much less environmental arsenic. Also, 13 of the 100 SNPs with the highest genome-wide Locus-Specific Branch Length occurred near AS3MT. In addition, our examination of extended haplotype homozygosity indicated a selective sweep of the Argentinean Andes population, in contrast to Peruvian and Colombian populations. Our data show that adaptation to tolerate the environmental stressor arsenic has likely driven an increase in the frequencies of protective variants of AS3MT, providing the first evidence of human adaptation to a toxic chemical. PMID:25739736

  9. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Mahidol, Chulabhorn [Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Phayathai, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  10. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

  11. Arsenic and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Laura; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Agnew, Jackie; Weaver, Virginia M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-09-01

    In epidemiologic studies, high arsenic exposure has been associated with adverse kidney disease outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence of the association between arsenic and various kidney disease outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through January 2014. Twenty-five papers (comprising 24 studies) meeting the search criteria were identified and included in this review. In most studies, arsenic exposure was assessed by measurement of urine concentrations or with an ecological indicator. There was a generally positive association between arsenic and albuminuria and proteinuria outcomes. There was mixed evidence of an association between arsenic exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD), ?-2 microglobulin (?2MG), and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) outcomes. There was evidence of a positive association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease mortality. Assessment of a small number of studies with three or more categories showed a clear dose-response association between arsenic and prevalent albuminuria and proteinuria, but not with CKD outcomes. Eight studies lacked adjustment for possible confounders, and two had small study populations. The evaluation of the causality of the association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease outcomes is limited by the small number of studies, lack of study quality, and limited prospective evidence. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure worldwide, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of arsenic and kidney disease outcomes. PMID:25221743

  12. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic along a groundwater flow-path in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Haque; K. H. Johannesson

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations and speciation were determined in groundwaters along a flow-path in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) to investigate the biogeochemical “evolution“ of As in this relatively pristine aquifer. Dissolved inorganic As species were separated in the field using anion-exchange chromatography and subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total As concentrations are higher in the recharge area

  13. Evaluation of serum and urine 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol and myo-inositol concentrations in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yohei; Mori, Akihiro; Hayakawa, Noriyuki; Niki, Tomoe; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Sato, Toko; Tazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2011-09-01

    1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5AG) is a pyranoid polyol compound found in human circulating blood. Myo-inositol (MI) is a stereoisomer of inositol and serves as a precursor of inositol phospholipids. 1,5AG and MI are filtered by the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed through the renal tubules. However, under hyperglycemic conditions, reabsorption through the renal tubules is competitively inhibited because the structures of 1,5AG and MI resemble that of glucose. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of serum and urine 1,5AG and MI levels in healthy dogs. We demonstrated that 1,5AG and MI exist in canine serum and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under continuous hyperglycemic conditions, the serum 1,5AG concentration in healthy dogs decreased while the serum MI concentration remained unchanged. Urinary excretion of 1,5AG and MI increased significantly after blood glucose concentrations reached 200 to 220 mg/dl. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum 1,5AG and glucose concentrations during hyperglycemia. However, no significant correlation was observed between serum MI and glucose concentrations. In this study, we demonstrated that serum and urine 1,5AG and MI levels were changed by blood glucose concentrations. The serum 1,5AG concentration was decreased by continuous hyperglycemia. However, the serum MI concentration does not reflect hyperglycemia. PMID:21525712

  14. Environmental Research 99 (2005) 164168 The temporal stability of arsenic concentrations in well water in

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    2005-01-01

    water in western Nevada$ Craig Murray Steinmausa,b,Ă, Yan Yuana , Allan H. Smitha a Arsenic Health of people worldwide are exposed to drinking water containing arsenic, and epidemiologic studies have identified associations between the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water and increased risks of cancer

  15. Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    GORODKIEWICZ, EWA; GUSZCZ, TOMASZ; ROSZKOWSKA-JAKIMIEC, WIESLAWA; KOZ?OWSKI, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3–5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28–0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35–7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32–0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717

  16. Fate of arsenic in swine waste from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Quazi, Shahida; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2008-01-01

    Swine diets are often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to treat animal diseases and promote growth. Recent work reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize a suite of swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs for soluble arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-HPPA), p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone, and (ii) determine the geochemical fate of roxarsone in storage lagoons nearby CAFOs. Swine waste suspensions were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions to monitor roxarsone degradation kinetics. Arsenic speciation analysis using liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) illustrated the prevalence of As(V) in swine waste suspensions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to either organoarsenicals (3-HPPA) or As(V) and a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation occurred under anaerobic conditions for suspensions low in solids content, but suspensions higher in solids content facilitated roxarsone degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Increased solids content enhanced roxarsone degradation kinetics under aerobic conditions. According to current waste storage and sampling practices, arsenic in swine wastes stored in lagoons has been overlooked as a possible environmental health issue. PMID:18574196

  17. Mechanism of postflight decline in osmotic concentration of urine in cosmonauts.

    PubMed

    Natochin YuV; Grigoriev, A I; Noskov, V B; Parnova, R G; Sukhanov YuV; Firsov, D L; Shakhmatova, E I

    1991-11-01

    The ratio of reabsorption of osmotically free water to osmolal clearance in individual urine voids was about the same before and after short-term spaceflights (the points fall on the same regression line). This ratio was reduced after long-term flights, so that the regression lines for pre- and postflight values have different slopes. This change in the function relating the two factors was accompanied by increased vasopressin in blood plasma and probably was caused by altered cellular reaction to vasopressin. The decrease in the effect of vasopressin may have been caused by development of hypokalemia and hypercalcemia in the cosmonauts, and decrease in cellular potassium in the outer renal medulla (this effect was observed in experiments on rats after flights on biosatellites). We established that, in addition to cAMP, cGMP and inositol trisphosphate participate in cellular reactions to vasopressin. Increases in the concentration of cGMP and decrease in the formation of inositol trisphosphate in the presence of neomycin increase the hydro-osmotic effect of vasopressin. We hypothesize that modulation of the effect of vasopressin in cosmonauts is due to change in the functional state of their kidneys. PMID:1660260

  18. Evaluation of Dietary Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows Based on Urea Concentrations in Blood, Urine and Milk, and on Urinary Concentration of Purine Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Leandro Gonda; Jan Erik Lindberg

    1994-01-01

    The effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on urea in blood, urine and milk, and on the urinary purine derivatives and creatinine in dairy cows, were studied. Diurnal variation in urinary concentration of urea, allantoin and creatinine was also studied. A total of 24 multiparous lactating dairy cows were selected from a production experiment and divided into two

  19. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 ?g/dL), 4.4 (2.4 ?g/L), 10.9 (9.2 ?g/L), and 43.7 (17.7 ?g/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 ?g/L vs. 6.4 ?g/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  20. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busardň, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  1. Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D.; Danish, Robert K.; Neuman, Michael R.; Toth, Blanka; Horvath, Viola; Lindner, Erno

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction, and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The “cleaned” urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers. PMID:18371638

  2. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  3. Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...

  4. Comparison of arsenic concentrations in simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer particles from Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, and

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    Comparison of arsenic concentrations in simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer particles a b s t r a c t One of the reasons the processes resulting in As release to groundwater in southern groundwater and sediment as a slurry from precisely the same interval was developed in Bangladesh. Recently

  5. Changes in the chemical speciation of arsenic following ingestion by man.

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, E A

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of four chemical species of arsenic in urine were observed with time, after ingestion of three different chemical species of arsenic. The arsenic-rich substances ingested, including arsenite-rich wine, arsenate-rich drinking water, and crab meat which contained organo-arsenic compounds. After ingestion of arsenite-rich wine, approximately 10% of the arsenic was excreted as arsenite, but the majority of the arsenic was methylated to methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid and excreted. After ingestion of arsenate-rich water, elevated levels of both arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid were observed. When crab meat was ingested, none of these four arsenic species were observed at elevated levels until the urine was heated in 2N NaOH. After the hot base digestion, high levels of dimethylarsinic acid were detected in these samples. The apparent biological half-lives were on the order of 10 hr for inorganic arsenic and 30 hr for the methylated arsenic forms. PMID:908293

  6. Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 ?g L(-1)-2000 ?g L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 ?g kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils. PMID:23583727

  7. Urine cyclic nucleotide concentrations in cancer and other conditions; cyclic GMP: a potential marker for cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Turner; R D Ellis; D Guthrie; A L Latner; J M Monaghan; W M Ross; A W Skillen; R G Wilson

    1982-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) have been determined in random urine specimens from 95 healthy individuals, 60 patients with non-cancerous conditions, 52 patients with benign tumours, and 74 patients with malignant tumours. Concentrations of cyclic GMP have also been determined in a number of other groups, including some undergoing cancer treatment. Ninety-three

  8. Detailed arsenic concentration profiles at Si/SiO2 interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Lirong [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The pile-up of arsenic at the Si/SiO2 interface after As implantation and annealing was investigated by high resolution Z-contrast imaging, electron energy-loss spectroscopy EELS, grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy GI-XRF, secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, as well as Hall mobility and four-point probe resistivity measurements. After properly taking into account their respective artifacts, the results of all methods are compatible with each other, with EELS and GI-XRF combined with etching providing similar spatial resolution on the nanometer scale for the dopant profile. The sheet concentration of the piled-up As at the interface was found to be 11015 cm 2 for an implanted dose of 11016 cm 2 with a maximum concentration of 10 at. %. The strain observed in the Z-contrast images also suggests a significant concentration of local distortions within 3 nm from the interface, which, however, do not seem to involve intrinsic point defects. 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Oxidation of the arsenic-rich concentrate at the Prebuz abandoned mine (Erzgebirge Mts., CZ): mineralogical evolution.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Michal

    2004-04-25

    Ore concentrate with up to 65 wt.% of arsenic (by-product of cassiterite extraction) exposed to climatic conditions was studied from the mineralogical point of view. Detailed sampling, X-ray diffraction analyses, energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDAX) and especially scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the arsenopyrite-löllingite-concentrate weathering. The studied concentrate contains very small proportion (<5 vol.%) of gangue minerals such as quartz and feldspars; the oxidation of arsenopyrite and löllingite (and accessory pyrite) is thus practically not complicated by interference with additional minerals and elements. Arsenolite, scorodite, kaatialaite and native sulphur were found to be the main secondary phases originating by dissolution of arsenopyrite and löllingite. New secondary phases precipitate on the surface of the ore-concentrate body but also form cement among the grains of finely milled material. The following succession of secondary minerals was determined: arsenolite, scorodite+native sulphur and kaatialaite. Significant arsenic migration into the proximal environment was revealed: 2580 and 13,622 mgkg(-1) were the highest arsenic concentrations in two sections excavated at distances of 0.5 and 1.5 m from the concentrate body. PMID:15081754

  10. Arsenic concentrations in rice, vegetables, and fish in Bangladesh: a preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K Das; A. K Mitra; P. K Sengupta; A Hossain; F Islam; G. H Rabbani

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic contaminating groundwater in Bangladesh is one of the largest environmental health hazards in the world. Because of the potential risk to human health through consumption of agricultural produce grown in fields irrigated with arsenic contaminated water, we have determined the level of contamination in 100 samples of crop, vegetables and fresh water fish collected from three different regions in

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of arsenic concentration in the High Plains Aquifer of Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Hudak

    2006-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved arsenic in groundwater were documented from samples collected at 987 water wells in the High Plains (Ogallala) Aquifer of Texas, USA. Sampled wells had a median depth of 73 m. Historic pesticide and defoliant applications to cotton fields are potential sources of arsenic in the study area. From a survey of samples collected between

  12. CONTAINMENT OF HIGHLY CONCENTRATED ARSENIC-LADEN SPENT REGENERANT ON THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Phase II EPA P3 project encompasses the following two activities in the Indian subcontinent: Continued installation of arsenic removal units in rural villages and extension of sustainable arsenic-laden waste disposal practices. For ten years, Lehigh University and Benga...

  13. Normal dolichol concentration in urine sediments from four patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Paton; A. Poulos

    1987-01-01

    The dolichol contents of urine sediments from a patient with infantile (Santavuori), a patient with late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky) and two patients with juvenile (Spielmeyer-Vogt) neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease) were not elevated when compared to those from healthy controls.

  14. Drying methods effects on nitrogen and energy concentrations in pig feces and urine, and poultry excreta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of digestibility coefficients are critical in nutrient balance and feed evaluation studies as errors that occur are often additive. However, there is no standard universal method for drying feces, urine, or excreta prior to laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to ...

  15. Nephron-specific deletion of the prorenin receptor causes a urine concentration defect.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Stuart, Deborah; Calquin, Matias; Quadri, Syed; Wang, Shuping; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Siragy, Helmy M; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-07-01

    The prorenin receptor (PRR), a recently discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system, is expressed in the nephron in general and the collecting duct in particular. However, the physiological significance of nephron PRR remains unclear, partly due to developmental abnormalities associated with global or renal-specific PRR gene knockout (KO). Therefore, we developed mice with inducible nephron-wide PRR deletion using Pax8-reverse tetracycline transactivator and LC-1 transgenes and loxP flanked PRR alleles such that ablation of PRR occurs in adulthood, after induction with doxycycline. Nephron-specific PRR KO mice have normal survival to ?1 yr of age and no renal histological defects. Compared with control mice, PRR KO mice had 65% lower medullary PRR mRNA and protein levels and markedly diminished renal PRR immunofluorescence. During both normal water intake and mild water restriction, PRR KO mice had significantly lower urine osmolality, higher water intake, and higher urine volume compared with control mice. No differences were seen in urine vasopressin excretion, urine Na(+) and K(+) excretion, plasma Na(+), or plasma osmolality between the two groups. However, PRR KO mice had reduced medullary aquaporin-2 levels and arginine vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the isolated renal medulla compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest nephron PRR can potentially modulate renal water excretion. PMID:25995108

  16. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 ?g?L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 ?g?L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 ?m) of 2.7 ± 0.9 ?g?L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 ?g?L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)?s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons?year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  17. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: application of salivary and urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r=0.56, P<0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r=0.50, P<0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (~4-fold, P<0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (~3-fold, P<0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. PMID:24128852

  18. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 1. Subchronic exposure to arsenate utilizing constant rate administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1986-08-01

    The concentration, availability, and chemical status of radiolabeled arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters at the beginning (morning of Day 8) and the end (morning of Day 9) of the critical period of embryogenesis. Hamster dams were exposed to teratogenic doses of arsenate by means of osmotic minipumps implanted on the morning of Day 6 of the gestation period. Whole blood arsenic concentrations were the same for 48 and 72 hr postimplant. The arsenic concentration of plasma equaled that of red cells. Plasma arsenic was not bound to macromolecules and had the same chemical status 48 and 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant form (67% of the total). However, the presence of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite indicates that the pentavalent species was metabolized. Red cell arsenic was bound to macromolecules in the cell sap. Seventy percent of red cell sap arsenic was dialyzable 48 hr postimplant, but only 56% 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant dialyzable red cell species on Day 8 and arsenite was the major dialyzable form on Day 9. The authors findings demonstrate a relationship between the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic and the presence of malformations resulting from a constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate via the osmotic minipump.

  19. Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2014-08-15

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

  20. Airborne arsenic exposure and excretion of methylated arsenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J; Crecelius, E A; Reading, J C

    1977-01-01

    First void urine samples were collected from copper smelter workers exposed to inorganic arsenic and from unexposed controls. Arsenic compounds (As (III), As (V), methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) in these samples were analyzed by selective volatilization as arsines with determination of arsenic by plasma excitation emission spectrometry. On the day preceding the urine sample collection a breathing zone measurement was made of respirable arsenic particulates for each subject. It was found that all of the subjects, including the controls excreted arsenic primarily as methylated species. Approximately 50% of the total arsenic was excreted as dimethylarsinic acid and 20% as methylarsonic acid. Slight differences in the proportion of various arsenic compounds were observed with varying levels of inorganic arsenic exposure. Amounts of arsenic species were all closely correlated with each other and with exposure. Irrespirable particulate exposures were measured on a subset of high exposure workers. Irrespirable arsenic was found to be more closely correlated with excretion of arsenic compounds than was respirable arsenic. PMID:908318

  1. Low concentration of arsenic could induce caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage apoptosis with JNK-p38 activation in Clarias batrachus

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath, E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.i [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Ghosh, Debabrata; Dey, Saibal [Department of Biochemistry, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)

    2009-12-15

    We had earlier demonstrated that chronic exposure (30 days) to micro-molar concentration (0.50 muM) of arsenic induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) death in Clarias batrachus. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of HKM death induced by arsenic and elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in the process. Arsenic-induced HKM death was apoptotic in nature as evident from DNA gel, Annexin V-propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Inhibitor studies and immunoblot analyses further demonstrated that arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Preincubation with antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethyl sulfoxide significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arsenic-treated HKM and prevented caspase activation, malondialdehyde formation and HKM apoptosis. Arsenic induced membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47{sup phox}. Preincubation with apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, both selective inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, prevented p47{sup phox} translocation, ROS production and HKM death. Exposure of HKM to arsenic induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) proteins including c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Preincubation of HKM with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 protected the HKM against arsenic-induced apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to micro-molar concentration of arsenic induces ROS generation through the activation of NADPH oxidases, which in turn causes caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. In addition, the study also indicates a role of p38-JNK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  2. In vitro activity and concentrations in serum, urine, prostatic secretion and adenoma tissue of ofloxacin in urological patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, K G; Adam, D; Kees, F

    1987-01-01

    Studies in vitro showed that at concentrations of 1 and 4 mg/L ofloxacin inhibited 94 and 99% of the Gram-negative pathogens in isolates cultured from the urine of patients with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Against Gram-positive bacteria, 60 and 100% were inhibited at the corresponding concentrations. Comparisons of the MIC90 values of 8 quinolones showed the decreasing order of in vitro antibacterial activity to be ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin, enoxacin, pipemidic acid, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. After an oral dose of ofloxacin 400mg, the mean peak serum concentration in 10 elderly patients was 5.5 mg/L and mean renal excretion during 24 hours was 41%. In 17 patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate, ofloxacin 400mg was given for perioperative prophylaxis. Two to 4.5 hours after administration, the median concentrations in prostatic secretion (5 patients) and prostatic adenoma tissue were 4.0 mg/L and 4.1 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding serum concentrations of ofloxacin were 3.4 and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. In a group of 10 patients, 14.5 to 19.5 hours after oral administration of ofloxacin 400mg the median serum and prostatic adenoma tissue concentrations of ofloxacin were 1.9 mg/L and 1.2 mg/kg, respectively. The in vitro activity of ofloxacin concentrations attained in serum, urine, prostatic secretion and adenoma tissue show that it appears to be well suited for the treatment of complicated UTI. PMID:3481328

  3. Geostatistical analysis of arsenic concentration in groundwater in Bangladesh using disjunctive kriging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Gaus; D. G. Kinniburgh; J. C. Talbot; R. Webster

    2003-01-01

    The National Hydrochemical Survey of Bangladesh sampled the water from 3,534 tube wells for arsenic throughout most of Bangladesh. It showed that 27% of the shallow tube wells (less than 150 m deep) and 1% of the deep tube wells (more than 150 m deep) exceeded the Bangladesh standard for arsenic in drinking water (50 µg L -1). Statistical analyses revealed the main characteristics

  4. Platinum concentrations in urban road dust and soil, and in blood and urine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Kavanagh, P; Blanks, R; Kelly, J; Kazantzis, G; Thornton, I; Simpson, P R; Cook, J M; Delves, H T; Hall, G E

    1998-03-01

    Increasing Pt concentrations from vehicle catalysts have been reported from a number of countries. Analysis of Pt and Pd in soils and road dusts taken from areas of high and low traffic flows in SE England show concentrations of Pt in the range < 0.30-40.1 ng g-1 and Pd in the range < 2.1-57.9 ng g-1. Higher concentrations of Pt are associated with high traffic densities. Samples taken from streets of lower traffic flows were found to contain the lower concentrations of the ranges. Pilot studies of Pt concentrations in blood and urine using ICP-MS have been carried out. Platinum concentrations in whole blood were: precious metal workers, 780-2170, mean 1263 pmol l-1 (0.152-0.423, mean 0.246 microgram l-1); motorway maintenance workers, 645-810, mean 744 pmol l-1 (0.126-0.158, mean 0.145 microgram l-1); Imperial College staff, 590-713, mean 660 pmol l-1 (0.115-0.139, mean 0.129 microgram l-1). Platinum concentrations in urine in pmol Pt per mmol creatinine were: precious metal workers, 122-682, mean 273 [0.21-1.18, mean 0.47 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]; motorway maintenance workers, 13-78, mean 33.7 [0.022-0.135, mean 0.058 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]; Imperial College staff, 28-130, mean 65.6 [0.048-0.224, mean 0.113 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]. Detection limits were 0.03 microgram l-1 for both blood and urine. The possible health effects of increasing Pt in the environment are discussed. Platinum provides an excellent example of the significance of speciation in metal toxicity. Platinum allergy is confined to a small group of charged compounds that contain reactive ligand systems, the most effective of which are chloride ligand systems. Metallic Pt is considered to be biologically inert and non allergenic and since the emitted Pt is probably in the metallic or oxide form, the sensitising potential is probably very low. Platinum from road dusts, however, can be solubilised, and enter waters, sediments, soils and the food chain. There is at present no evidence for any adverse health effects from Pt in the general environment, particularly allergic reactions. PMID:9659707

  5. Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. Conclusions The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects described above, is sufficient to understand and predict recent experimental data. More experimental studies are needed to explicate the detailed mechanisms of action of glutathione on arsenic methylation. Recent experimental work on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation and our modeling study suggest that supplements that increase hepatic glutathione production should be considered as strategies to reduce adverse health effects in affected populations. PMID:24885596

  6. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  7. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciaton of arsenic in water, food and urine are analytical capabilities which are an essential part in arsenic risk assessment. The cancer risk associated with arsenic has been the driving force in generating the analytical research in each of these matrices. This presentat...

  8. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants could cause contamination of the human food-chain, being beans a low-cost proteins source and a staple food in many Countries. Moreover, the compost application has allowed to reduce the As concentration in all tissues of the amended plants than those non-amended. The concentration of the As free-fraction in soil decreased significantly by increasing level of compost application, whereas the higher the compost application the higher was the concentration of specifically sorbed As by soil colloidal particles. The results of this study suggest that the growth of bean plants and their own As uptake were substantially affected by the mobility of As in soils and the plant management. Higher mobility of As in soil resulted in higher As uptake by bean plants. The use of compost, in addition to improve bean plants growth and their nutritional status, has allowed to limit the As uptake by biomasses, through the immobilization of the metalloid, derived by irrigation water, on/in their humified organic macromolecules. Furthermore, the supply of nutrients through the compost falls within the context of the organic farming, eco-friendly production system, which ensures the sustainability of the soil, improving its fertility.

  9. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maeve M. Moriarty; Iris Koch; Robert A. Gordon; Kenneth J. Reimer

    2009-01-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine

  10. Comparison of breath, blood and urine concentrations in the biomonitoring of environmental exposure to 1,3-butadiene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Perbellini; Andrea Princivalle; Marzia Cerpelloni; Francesco Pasini; Francesco Brugnone

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and compare alveolar, blood, and urine concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, 2,5 dimethylfuran, and benzene, in non-occupational exposure to these products. Methods Benzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 1,3-butadiene were measured in the breath, blood, and urine samples of 61 subjects living in small mountain villages. All 61 were regularly employed as forestry workers. Sampling was done during the long winter-season non-working

  11. Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Subhash C; Pati, Shyamapada; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Rahman, Mohammad M; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta R; Chakraborti, Anil K; Basu, Gautam K

    2003-01-01

    The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. PMID:12842773

  12. A comparison of arsenic accumulation and tolerance among four populations of Pteris vittata from habitats with a gradient of arsenic concentration.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Ming; Lei, Mei; Liu, Ying-Ru; Huang, Ze-Chun; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination poses a high risk to human health. Phytoremediation based on As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata has been utilized on large areas of contaminated farmland in southern China. However, the reason for the observed differences in As removal among P. vittata populations remains unclear. In this study, spores of four P. vittata populations were collected from four neighboring sites with varying soil As concentration (from 108 mg·kg(-1) to 7527 mg·kg(-1)) and then cultured in a controlled environment to analyze their differing abilities in terms of As accumulation and tolerance. The results indicate that populations from low-As habitats exhibited 80% greater shoot As concentrations compared with those from high-As habitats. On the other hand, populations from high-As habitats exhibited approximately five times greater biomass compared with those from low-As habitats when exposed to the same As stress. Thus, the As accumulation and tolerance of P. vittata were suggested to be two independent processes. Further investigations reveal that the As absorption and As species conversion occurring in roots are two essential activities that bridge the soil As concentration and the responses of P. vittata to As. Depending on the As concentration of the target soil, the selection of different P. vittata populations can result in approximately an eight-fold difference in terms of remediation efficiency. PMID:23178774

  13. Determination of total inorganic arsenic in water using on-line pre-concentration and hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisele G. Bortoleto; Solange Cadore

    2005-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the on-line separation and pre-concentration of inorganic arsenic in water samples is described. The analyte in the pentavalent oxidation state is reduced to its trivalent form with l-cysteine and the total inorganic arsenic is sorbed onto activated alumina in the acid form in a mini-column coupled to a FI-HG AAS system. Afterwards, it is

  14. Concentration profiles of calcium and oxalate in urine, tubular fluid and renal tissue--some theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hautmann, R; Osswald, H

    1983-02-01

    This paper analyzes some aspects of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. It is emphasized that a better understanding of factors contributing to stone formation can only be gained when the primary nucleation site is identified. Three compartments are considered in which supersaturation as a precondition for stone formation could be present: urine in the urinary tract, tubular fluid from the glomerulus down to the duct of Bellini, and the interstitium of the medulla. From calculations based on micropuncture data it becomes apparent that the oxalate concentration in the tubular fluid at the bend of Henle's loop is 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than in the duct of Bellini and that the oxalate concentration maximum invariably must be located in the final urine. The calculation of a tubular concentration profile of oxalate shows, that the probability of intra luminal crystal formation is even less likely for plasma oxalate values of 2-3 microM as compared to 1.2 microM, which therefore should be the correct value. The time necessary for the growth of crystals up to a critical size which can obstruct tubules or ureter is not available in the urinary tract nor in the tubules. However, in the medullary interstitium, where solute concentration is highest, nearly unlimited time for crystal growth is available due to the fact, that in this compartment convective flow is very low. It is concluded that the interstitium of the inner medulla has the best chances to function as the primary nucleation site where particles can be formed of a size which subsequently can obstruct the urinary tract. PMID:6834526

  15. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ma, Jianzhong; Bressler, Jan; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Grove, Megan L.; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Beecher, Compton; McLaughlin, Wayne; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC) in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (age 2–8 years) from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01). Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic. PMID:25101770

  16. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  19. An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ?20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed. PMID:22511731

  20. Speciation of arsenic in rice and vegetables from arsenic exposed areas in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir Misbahuddin; Abul Kashem Liton; M. Abdur Rahman Khan; M. Siddiqur Rahman; Salamat Khandker

    Foodstuffs from arsenic-exposed areas in Bangladesh may contain high concentration of total arsenic but their speciations are not known. About 600 samples of raw rice and vegetables were collected from two arsenic-exposed Upazillas. Speciation of arsenic was done using column chromatography and hydride generator atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl- arsinic acid

  1. Pathways of human exposure to arsenic in a community surrounding a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Polissar, L.; Lowry-Coble, K.; Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.P.; van Belle, G.; Covert, D.S.; Burbacher, T.M.; Bolgiano, D.; Mottet, N.K. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Several studies have found elevated levels of urinary arsenic among residents living near a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington. To assess pathways of exposure to arsenic from the smelter, biological and environmental samples were collected longitudinally from 121 households up to 8 miles from the smelter. The concentration of inorganic and methylated arsenic compounds in spot urine samples was used as the primary measure of exposure to environmental arsenic. Urinary concentration of arsenic dropped off to a constant background level within one-half mile of the smelter in contrast to environmental concentrations, which decreased more steadily with increasing distance. Among all age-sex-specific groups in all areas, only children ages 0-6 living within one-half mile of the smelter had elevated levels of arsenic in urine. A separate analysis of data for these children suggests that hand-to-mouth activity was the primary source of exposure. Inhalation of ambient air and resuspension of contaminated soil were not important sources of exposure for children or adults.

  2. Urinary porphyrins as biomarkers for arsenic exposure among susceptible populations in Guizhou Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Zhai, C.; Maddalena, R.; Liu, F.; Moore, M.R. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Faculty of Health Science

    2005-08-07

    Coal from some areas in Guizhou Province contains elevated levels of arsenic. This has caused arsenicosis in individuals who use arsenic-contaminated coal for the purposes of heating, cooking and drying of food in poorly ventilated dwellings. The population at risk has been estimated to be approximately 200,000 people. We analyzed the porphyrin excretion profile using a HPLC method in urine samples collected from 113 villagers who lived in Xing Ren district, a coal-borne arsenicosis endemic area and from 30 villagers from Xing Yi where arsenicosis is not prevalent. Urinary porphyrins were higher in the arsenic exposed group than those in the control group. The correlation between urinary arsenic and porphyrin concentrations demonstrated the effect of arsenic on heme biosynthesis resulting in increased porphyrin excretion. Both uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin III showed significant increases in the excretion profile of the younger age ({lt} 20 years) arsenic-exposed group, suggesting that porphyrins could be used as early warning biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure in humans. Greater increases of urinary arsenic and porphyrins in women, children and older age groups who spend much of their time indoors suggest that they might be at a higher risk. Whether elevated porphyrins could predict adverse health effects associated with both cancer and non-cancer end-points in chronically arsenic-exposed populations need further investigation.

  3. Picomolar concentrations of morphine in human urine determined by dansyl derivatization and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lamshöft; Nadja Grobe; Michael Spiteller

    2011-01-01

    Morphine is present in varying amounts as an endogenous product in human urine. Derivatization of morphine contained in urine with dansyl chloride yields a known product, which can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with high selectivity and sensitivity. Urine samples of 51 healthy individuals were spiked with stable-isotope labeled morphine, hydrolyzed and subjected to solid phase extraction followed

  4. µLC–ICP-MS Determinations of Unexposed UK Urinary Arsenic Speciation Reference Values

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Tan, Emma; Gardiner, Philip H.E.; Carolan, Vikki A.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides background levels for five arsenic species in urine, based on urinary data obtained from 95 nonoccupationally exposed volunteers based in the UK. Using a novel, sensitive, robust and reliable speciation methodology, five species of arsenic (arsenobetaine [AB], arsenite [As3+], arsenate [As5+], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA5+] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA5+]) were determined in urine samples collected from 95 adults. The analytical instrumentation used to analyze the urine samples was a hyphenated micro liquid chromatography (?LC) system coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Separation was achieved using an anion exchange micro-sized column. The results presented give the 95th percentile of concentrations, both uncorrected for creatinine (µg/L) and creatinine corrected (µmol/mol) in urine for the 95 volunteers. Statistical analysis was performed on the dataset using a Bayesian model to determine and quantify effects of gender, smoking and diet. The statistical results show that the consumption of fish, shellfish and red wine has a significant elevating effect on AB, DMA and MMA urinary concentrations; however, no significant effect was observed for smoking. The regression model results indicate that creatinine correction was effective for arsenic species As3+, MMA, DMA and AB. The background levels established here can be used as reference values to help aid interpretation of arsenic speciation results and better assess exposure. PMID:24187062

  5. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi.

    PubMed

    Mbarek, Sihem; Saidi, Tounes; González-Costas, Javier M; González-Romero, Elisa; Ben Chaouacha Chekir, Rafika

    2012-08-01

    Contamination by cadmium in the environment is of great concern because of its toxicity and threats to human and animal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of a cadmium contaminated diet on the osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi and eventual accumulation of this metal in vital organs such as the kidneys, which are directly implicated in water regulation. Originally, we used Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) to avoid the matrix interference due to the highly organic content in the biological samples. Our results show that Meriones shawi successfully maintained a homeostasis state and presented a special adaptation to regulate urine volume during cadmium exposure by decreasing diuresis and increasing urinary osmolality. The plasma osmolality and hematocrit remained constant throughout the experiment. The stripping signals of cadmium are linear up to 0.3-100 ?g L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 0.28 ?g L(-1). The DPASV technique was useful for easy, fast, selective and sensitive determination of Cd, which permits working at cellular concentration. This gives us more information about the chemical form in which Cd is introduced into the organ, as well as the intracellular Cd quantities. This study has potential importance if this valuable novel animal model, imitating human and animal environmental chronic exposure to Cd, could serve as an appropriate terrestrial biomonitor for Cd contaminated sites. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-cost and fast technology for the detection of pollutants and for studying the impairment caused by their effects. PMID:22696068

  6. Determining the concentration and distribution of arsenic deposits in rock matrices and porous media by X-ray difference microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Alsina, M.; Chen, C.; Keane, D.; Packman, A. I.; Gaillard, J.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray microtomography was used to characterize arsenic (As) deposits within porous media. The distribution of arsenic was determined using difference tomography, where the X-rays used to image the sample were selected to be just above and below the As absorption edge at 11,853 eV. The difference tomograms have background noise from other minerals contained in the sample, local variation of X-ray beam intensity, and electronic noise associated with the data acquisition process. Image processing filters, such as windowing or adaptive filters derived from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, were employed to reduce background noise in the tomograms and enhance information on the arsenic deposits. These errors are generally larger in difference tomography than in conventional X-ray microtomography because this method requires operating at very specific X-ray energies (i.e., an edge of the element of interest), and this constraint makes it very difficult to obtain optimal contrast for tomographic reconstruction. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio is often low in difference tomograms of geological samples having high background X-ray absorption. The relationship between As concentration and difference image intensity was evaluated using well defined As samples prepared in the laboratory, along with As-rich sinter deposits from El Tatio hydrothermal field and fluvial sediments from the Loa River downstream of El Tatio. This relationship is non-linear because of interactions between the different sources of error in the construction of the difference tomograms. As a result, the difference tomography method is relatively insensitive to bulk As concentrations, and instead primarily provides information on the distribution of regions of the sample that have high As concentrations, such as As-rich particles, precipitates, or evaporite deposits. Tomographic 3D reconstructions of the porous media and of the aggregate structure thus provide an unique opportunity to observe the distribution and morphology of arsenic deposits within primary source formations and mixed fluvial sediments. This approach provides a useful method for obtaining 3D microstructural and chemical information in rock matrices, for investigating contaminant distributions within sedimentary deposits, and for assessing distributions of different mineral phases within biofilms and other organic material.

  7. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

  8. Application of an improved biuret method to the determination of total protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid without concentration step by use of Hitachi 7170 auto-analyzer.

    PubMed

    Guobing, X; Lili, J; Lihua, Z; Tiean, X

    2001-01-01

    A biuret automated colorimetric assay for total protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluids was established. The procedures were as follows. Acidify all urine sample before analysis. Add precipitant Na(2)WO(4) to urine samples. After 10 min, centrifuge, decant the supernatant fluid, drain the inverted tubes on absorbent tissue, dissolve the precipitation with 0.1 mol/L NaOH, and finally adapt the reconstituted urine to the Hitachi 7170 analyzer. A cell-free cerebrospinal fluid sample produced by centrifugation can be inserted in an auto-analyzer for protein measurement directly. The program: mix 35 microl sample (CSF or reconstituted urine) and standard with 0.2 mol/L NaOH; incurable at 37 degrees C for 5 min, and real A1. Add concentrated biuret reagent, and 10 min later measure absorbance A2 at 546 nm vs. reagent blank. Secondary wavelength was 700 nm. The test results were calculated against a one-point standard. This biuret colorimetric method was relatively simple, fast, and accurate for the determination of protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid, with a wide linearity extending from 0.125 g/L up to 6 g/L, had a good correlation with Benzethonium chloride turbidimetry technique, and was a practical routine method. PMID:11436195

  9. In-vitro Relationship between Protein-binding and Free Drug Concentrations of a Water-soluble Selective Beta-adrenoreceptor Antagonist (Atenolol) and Its Interaction with Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Awal, M.A.; Subhan, N.; Mostofa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The degree of binding of a drug to plasma proteins has a marked effect on its distribution, elimination, and pharmacological effect since only the unbound fraction is available for distribution into extra-vascular space. The protein-binding of atenolol was measured by equilibrium dialysis in the bovine serum albumin (BSA). Free atenolol concentration was increased due to addition of arsenic which reduced the binding of the compounds to BSA. During concurrent administration, arsenic displaced atenolol from its high-affinity binding Site I, and free concentration of atenolol increased from 4.286±0.629% and 5.953±0.605% to 82.153±1.924% and 85.486±1.158% in absence and presence of Site I probe respectively. Thus, it can be suggested that arsenic displaced atenolol from its binding site resulting in an increase of the free atenolol concentration in plasma. PMID:19248645

  10. Metabolites of arsenic and increased DNA damage of p53 gene in arsenic plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Weihua, E-mail: Dongsijiehua@sina.com [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Public Health College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13, Hangkong Road, Wuhan City, Hubei, 430030 (China); Wen Jinghua [Guizhou College of Finance and Economics, No. 276, Chongguan Road, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550004 (China); Lu Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Liu Hua [The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, No. 295 Xichang Road, Kunming, Yunnan, 650032 (China); Yang Jun; Cheng Huirong [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Che Wangjun [The First Division of Public Health, Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 4, Ziyun Road, Xishan District, Kunming, Yunnan 650228 (China); Li Liang [Honghe Zhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 1, Guannan Road, Mengzi City, Yunnan, 661100 (China); Zhang Guanbei [Yunnan Institute for Drug Abuse, Kunming, 650028 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that monomethylarsonous acid is more cytotoxic and genotoxic than arsenate and arsenite, which may attribute to the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we used hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to determine three arsenic species in urine of workers who had been working in arsenic plants,and calculated primary and secondary methylation indexes. The damages of exon 5, 6, 8 of p53 gene were determined by the method developed by Sikorsky, et al. Results show that the concentrations of each urinary arsenic species,and damage indexes of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene in the exposed population were significantly higher, but SMI was significantly lower than in the control group. The closely positive correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and PMI,MMA, DMA were found, but there was closely negative correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and SMI. Those findings suggested that DNA damage of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene existed in the population occupationally exposed to arsenic. For exon 5, the important factors may include the model of arsenic metabolic transformation, the concentrations of MMA and DMA, and the MMA may be of great importance. - Research Highlights: > In our study, the mean SMI for workers came from arsenic plants is 4.06, so they may be in danger. > There are more MMA, there are more damage of exon 5 of p53 gene. > MMA and damage of exon 5 of p53 gene may be useful biomarkers to assess adverse health effects caused by arsenic.

  11. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast to concentrations over 5,000 ?g/L in the Congo Road area. Although concentrations of fluoride up to 4 mg/L were reported for a few well-water samples collected throughout the Newark Basin, about 90 percent of the samples had concentrations of 0.5 mg/L or less. The USGS sampled 58 wells primarily in 5 areas in the Newark Basin, southeastern Pennsylvania, from February 2004 through April 2005 to identify other possible areas of elevated arsenic, boron, and fluoride and to characterize the geochemical environment associated with elevated concentrations of these constituents. Sampled wells included 12 monitor wells at an industrial facility near Congo Road, 45 private-supply wells in Berks, Montgomery, and Bucks Counties, and 1 private-supply well near Dillsburg, York County, an area where elevated fluoride in ground water had been reported in the adjacent Gettysburg Basin. Wells were sampled in transects from the diabase through the adjacent hornfels and into the unaltered shales of the Brunswick Group. Field measurements were made of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, dissolved and total concentrations of selected trace elements, and boron isotopic composition. Generally, the ground water from the 46 private-supply wells had relatively neutral to alkaline pH (ranging from 6.1 to 9.1) and moderate concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Most water samples were of the calcium-bicarbonate type. Concentrations of arsenic up to 60 ?g/L, boron up to 3,950 ?g/L, and fluoride up to 0.70 mg/L were measured. Drinking-water standards or health advisories (for constituents that do not have standards established) were exceeded most frequently (about 20 percent of samples) for arsenic and boron and less frequently (6 percent or less of samples) for total iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, lead, molybdenum, and strontium. In water from 12 monitor

  12. Arsenic and heavy metal concentrations in surface soils and vegetables of Feni district in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Karim; S. M. Hossain; M. M. H. Miah; K. Nehar; M. S. H. Mubin

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of various heavy metals including the arsenic (As) poisoning in soils and vegetables in five upazillas under\\u000a Feni district of Bangladesh was performed by neutron activation technique using the neutron irradiation facilities of TRIGA\\u000a MARK II research reactor at Bangladesh Atomic Energy Research Establishment (BAERE), Savar, Dhaka. A total of 30 samples (15\\u000a surface soils and 15 foodstuffs)

  13. Activation and deactivation of high concentration arsenic with some evidence of precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, P.M.; Griffin, P.B.; Plummer, J.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Center for Integrated Systems; Carey, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US)

    1992-12-29

    Using box-shaped profiles created by laser melt annealing, the authors investigate the kinetics of arsenic activation and deactivation. They find deactivation shows no history effects, which can be consistent either with clustering or precipitation for the cases considered. For activation, they notice it occurs on very short time scales, followed by a slower deactivation process. This is suggestive evidence that at least some precipitation occurs.

  14. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Melak, Dawit [Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Kalman, David [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parra, Roxana [Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 ?g/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 ?g/L (median = 60 ?g/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 ?g/L.

  15. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral 26Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (?0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  16. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  17. Decreased serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites among Chinese in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in inner Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingbo Pi; Yoshito Kumagai; Guifan Sun; Hiroshi Yamauchi; Takahiko Yoshida; Hiroyasu Iso; Akiko Endo; Luyang Yu; Koichi Yuki; Takashi Miyauchi; Nobuhiro Shimojo

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to arsenic results in peripheral and cardiovascular manifestations, as does impaired production of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). In vitro studies have indicated that endothelial cells undergo damage by arsenic. However, no information has been available on the relationship between NO synthesis and chronic arsenic poisoning in humans. The present study was designed to reveal this question. The subjects

  18. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:20465865

  19. The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A; Dickerson, Aisha S; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2 and 8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.48 ?g/L for controls, P<0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of "yam, sweet potato, or dasheen", "carrot or pumpkin", "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi", cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.65 ?g/L for controls, P=0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi" was significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P<0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

  20. Non-analytic problems in detecting arsenic and cadmium in children living near a cadmium refinery in Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, K.; Koehler, J.R.; Tessari, J. (Colorado Department of Health, Denver (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine urinary arsenic (N = 322) and cadmium (N = 366) levels in children aged six months to six years who live near a working cadmium refinery and to compare their values with those of children from comparison neighborhoods. A questionnaire designed to identify exposure pathways was administered to the parents. There were unexpected problems in the study. Eighty-four percent of the arsenic samples were below the detection limit of 10 micrograms/l and summary statistics could not be calculated. Urinary arsenic and cadmium values could not be standardized for volume and concentration of urine because a large proportion of the samples had very low creatinine values. The original round of cadmium testing was afflicted with contamination problems, possibly due to the mishandling of pediatric urine bags by the parents during the collection procedure. A retest for cadmium levels under clinical conditions showed lower cadmium levels, all but two were below the detection limit. While biological monitoring of exposure to metals can be undertaken indirectly by measuring the concentration of the metals in urine, the analyses in this study were complicated by (1) not using more sensitive analytical tests for arsenic and cadmium determination, (2) not being able to standardize children's urinary values with creatinine, and (3) allowing in-home urine collection.

  1. Effects of Mn, Cu doping concentration to the properties of magnetic nanoparticles and arsenic adsorption capacity in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Tran Minh; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi

    2015-06-01

    The research results of Fe3O4 and Mn, Cu doped Fe3O4 nanomaterials synthesized by a chemical method for As(III) wastewater treatment are presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy images showed that samples had the cubic spinel structure with the grain sizes were varied from 9.4 nm to 18.1 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer measurements at room temperature showed that saturation magnetic moments of Fe1-xCuxFe2O4 and Fe1-xMnxFe2O4 samples decreased from 65.9 emu/g to 53.2 emu/g and 65.9 emu/g to 61.5 emu/g, respectively, with the increase of Cu, Mn concentrations from 0.0 to 0.15. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm of a typical Fe3O4 sample at 77 K was studied in order to investigate the surface and porous structure of nanoparticles by BET method. The specific surface area of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was calculated about of 100.2 m2/g. The pore size distribution of about 15-20 nm calculated by the BJH (Barrett, Joyner, and Halendar) method at a relative pressure P/P0 of about 1. Although the saturation magnetic moments of samples decreased when the increase of doping concentration, but the arsenic adsorption capacity of Cu doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles is better than that of Fe3O4 and Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a solution with pH = 7. In the solution with a pH > 14, the arsenic adsorption of magnetic nanoparticles is insignificant.

  2. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation. PMID:21922285

  3. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  4. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  5. The influence of diet on intra and inter-individual variability of urinary excretion of arsenic species in Italian healthy individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piero Lovreglio; Maria Nicolŕ D’Errico; Maria Enrica Gilberti; Ignazio Drago; Antonella Basso; Pietro Apostoli; Leonardo Soleo

    To study the effect of eating foods with a high arsenic (As) content on the intra and inter-individual variability of urinary concentrations of the As species, daily urine samples were collected for 10 consecutive days from 12 healthy male subjects. A daily food diary was kept throughout the study period. Personal exposure to airborne As was measured once during the

  6. Placental concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic and the risk of neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Le; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jian-meng; Ye, Rrongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether in utero exposure to mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) is associated with an elevated neural tube defects (NTDs) risk, placental concentrations of total Hg, Cd, Pb and As were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in 36 anencephaly and 44 spina bifida cases as well as in 50 healthy controls. The median Hg concentration in the NTD cases (2.25 ng/g) was higher than that of the controls (1.16 ng/g). The odds ratio (OR) for an Hg concentration above the median was 8.80 (95% CI 3.80-20.36) for the NTD cases. NTD risks increased for the second and third high levels of the concentrations, with ORs of 2.70 (95% CI 1.13-6.43) and 18.20 (95% CI 5.45-60.73), respectively. Therefore, higher placental levels of Hg are associated with an elevated risk of NTDs. PMID:23164984

  7. Occurrence of trivalent monomethyl arsenic and other urinary arsenic species in a highly exposed juvenile population in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kalman, David A; Dills, Russell L; Steinmaus, Craig; Yunus, Md; Khan, Al Fazal; Prodhan, Md Mofijuddin; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Allan H

    2014-01-01

    Following reports of high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of monomethyl arsonous acid (MMA(III)) and early reports of urinary MMA(III) in arsenic-exposed individuals, MMA(III) has often been included in population studies. Use of urinary MMA(III) as an indicator of exposure and/or health risk is challenged by inconsistent results from field studies and stability studies, which indicate potential artifacts. We measured urinary arsenic species in children chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water, using collection, storage, and analysis methods shown to conserve MMA(III). MMA(III) was easily oxidized in sample storage and processing, but recoveries of 80% or better in spiked urine samples were achieved. Attempts to preserve the distribution of MMA between trivalent and pentavalent forms using complexing agents were unsuccessful and MMA(III) spiked into treated urine samples actually showed lower stability than in untreated samples. In 643 urine samples from a highly exposed population from the Matlab district in Bangladesh stored for 3-6 months at ?-70?°C, MMA(III) was detected in 41 samples, with an estimated median value of 0.3??g/l, and levels of MMA(III) above 1??g/l in only two samples. The low urinary concentrations in highly exposed individuals and known difficulties in preserving sample oxidation state indicate that urinary MMA(III) is not suitable for use as an epidemiological biomarker. PMID:23549402

  8. Abnormal function of the vasopressin-cyclic-AMP-aquaporin2 axis during urine concentrating and diluting in patients with reduced renal function. A case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The kidneys ability to concentrate and dilute urine is deteriorated during progressive renal insufficiency. We wanted to test the hypothesis that these phenomena could be attributed to an abnormal function of the principal cells in the distal part of the nephron. Methods Healthy control subjects and patients with chronic kidney diseases were studied. Group 1 comprised healthy subjects, n = 10. Groups 2-4 comprised patients with chronic kidney disease (Group 2, n = 14, e-GFR ? 90 m1/min; Group 3, n = 11, 60 m1/min ? e-GFR < 90 ml/min; and Group 4, n = 16, 15 ml/min ? e-GFR < 60 ml/min). The subjects collected urine during 24 hours. A urine concentrating test was done by thirsting during the following 12 hours. Thereafter, a urine diluting test was performed with a water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), cyclic-AMP (u-c-AMP), urine volume (UV), free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolarity (u-Osm), and plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP). Results After fluid deprivation, u-Osm increased. In all groups, UV and CH2O decreased and u-AQP2 and u-c-AMP increased in Groups 1 and 2, but were unchanged in Group 3 and 4. P-AVP was significantly higher in Group 4 than in the other groups. During urine diluting, UV and CH2O reached significantly higher levels in Groups 1-3 than Group 4. Both before and after water loading, u-AQP2 and p-AVP were significantly higher and u-c-AMP was significantly lower in Group 4 than the other groups. Estimated-GFR was correlated negatively to p-AVP and positively to u-c-AMP. Conclusions Patients with moderately severe chronic kidney disease have a reduced renal concentrating and diluting capacity compared to both patients with milder chronic kidney disease and healthy control subjects. These phenomena can be attributed, at least partly, to an abnormally decreased response in the AVP-c-AMP-AQP2 axis. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00313430 PMID:20923561

  9. Probabilistic Analysis of Human Health Risks Associated with Background Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic: Use of a Margin of Exposure Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Petito Boyce; Ari S. Lewis; Sonja N. Sax; Michal Eldan; Samuel M. Cohen; Barbara D. Beck

    2008-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists from epidemiological and mechanistic studies supporting a sublinear or threshold dose–response relationship for the carcinogenicity of ingested arsenic; nonetheless, current regulatory agency evaluations have quantified arsenic risks using default, generic risk assessment procedures that assume a linear, no-threshold dose–response relationship. The resulting slope factors predict risks from U.S. background arsenic exposures that exceed certain regulatory levels of

  10. Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Abgaryan, Narine; Vicinanza, Roberto; de Oliveira, Daniela Moura; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Aronson, William J.; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Scope Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid and polyhydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPAA) alone and in combination on bioavailability, intracellular metabolism, and antiproliferative activity was determined in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Methods and Results The concentration of phenolic metabolites was quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection and MS. Urine concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and polyhydroxy-?-valerolactones were increased significantly in men drinking GT compared to control. Urine concentration of 3-O-methylgallic acid (3OMGA) was significantly increased in men drinking BT compared to control. Serum 3,4-DHPAA was significantly increased after consumption of GT and BT and 4-HPAA after GT consumption. In vitro treatment of HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 3,4-DHPAA and EGCG exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect, while methylation of 3,4-DHPAA was significantly decreased. 3OMGA exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity among the phenolic acids. Conclusions The consumption of both, GT and BT, was associated with a significant increase in urinary and serum phenolic acids. PMID:23319439

  11. Effects of abandoned gold mine tailings on the arsenic concentrations in water and sediments of jack of clubs lake, B.C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Azcue; A. Mudroch; F. Rosa; G. E. M. Hall

    1994-01-01

    From 1933 to 1964 gold was extracted by underground mining at the northeast shore of Jack of Clubs Lake. At present, tailings and waste rock 4.5 m thick covers approximately 25 hectares of land adjacent to the lake. Arsenic concentrations (>2,000 ?g.g) were found in the tailing materials. Two simultaneous processes are controlling the elevated As concentrations in the lake

  12. Genetic polymorphism in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and its role in toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Vahter

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen, but experimental cancer studies are negative. There is a variation in susceptibility among individuals, which probably is related to variation in metabolism. Inorganic arsenic is methylated to methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which are less toxic and more readily excreted in urine than the inorganic arsenic. The rate of methylation of arsenic

  13. Arsenic in Bangladesh Groundwater: from Science to Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Graziano, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    A large proportion of the populations of Bangladesh and other South Asian countries is at risk of contracting cancers and other debilitating diseases due to exposure to high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater supplied by millions of tube wells. Starting in January 2000, and in partnership with several Bangladeshi institutions, an interdisciplinary team of health, earth, and social scientists from Columbia University has focused its efforts to address this crisis on a 25 km2 region in Araihazar upazila, about 20 km northeast of Dhaka. The project started with the recording of the position and depth of ~6600 wells in the area, the collection of groundwater samples from these wells, and laboratory analyses for arsenic and a suite of other constituents. This was followed by the recruitment of 12,000 adult inhabitants of the area for a long-term cohort study of the effects of arsenic exposure, as well as cross-sectional studies of their children. This presentation will focus on (1) the extreme degree of spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater, (2) the notion that spatial variability hampers mitigation in the sense that it complicates predictions but also offers an opportunity for mitigation because many households live within walking or drilling distance of safe water, and (3) the implication of recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization for potential temporal changes in groundwater arsenic. In addition, (4) a unique data set documenting the response of 6500 households to 4 years of mitigation in Araihazar, supported by documented reductions in exposure to arsenic based on urine analyses, will be presented. The presentation will conclude with (5) a proposal for scaling up mitigation efforts to the rest of the country by targeting safe aquifers with information transmitted to the village level from a central data base using cellular phones.

  14. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in ... blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...

  15. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infant: Thoroughly wash the area where the urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  16. Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H(2)O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences. PMID:22914749

  17. Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r <0.2) and poor agreement for classifying nonsmoking individuals as exposed to STS (sensitivity = 0.29–0.71; specificity = 0.35–0.72) between cotinine concentrations in FF and urine. We observed fair reliability (ICC = 0.42–0.52) in FF cotinine concentrations from women undergoing multiple IVF cycles. If available, FF cotinine concentrations may be desired as a biomarker of low-level tobacco smoke exposure over urinary cotinine in studies of early reproduction. Collection of multiple FF samples for cotinine analysis may be needed to accurately represent long-term STS exposure. PMID:21397293

  18. Variability of Grain Arsenic Concentration and Speciation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 

    E-print Network

    Pillai, Tushara Raghvan

    2011-02-22

    both indica and japonica subspecies, for total grain-As (TGAs) and As-species concentrations in 2004, 2005, and 2007, on a native (moderate As-concentration) paddy soil and an adjacent monosodium monomethylarsonate (MSMA) amended soil. Cultivars were...

  19. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 ?g/L; maximum, 2.9 ?g/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (? = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 ?g/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 ?g/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408789 PMID:25707031

  20. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  1. Arsenic Detection DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800776

    E-print Network

    Yang, Peidong

    Arsenic Detection DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800776 Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Trace Arsenic, and Peidong Yang* Low-level arsenic contamination of drinking water in Ban- gladesh, India, and parts of China ) for maximum arsenic content in groundwater.[1] However, exposure to arsenic at these concentrations still

  2. Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

  3. The influence of groundwater chemistry on arsenic concentrations and speciation in a quartz sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, D.B.; Fox, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the chemical reactions influencing dissolved concentrations, speciation, and transport of naturally occurring arsenic (As) in a shallow, sand and gravel aquifer with distinct geochemical zones resulting from land disposal of dilute sewage effluent. The principal geochemical zones were: (1) the uncontaminated zone above the sewage plume [350 ??M dissolved oxygen (DO), pH 5.9]; (2) the suboxic zone (5 ??M DO, pH 6.2, elevated concentrations of sewage-derived phosphate and nitrate); and (3) the anoxic zone [dissolved iron(II) 100-300 ??M, pH 6.5-6.9, elevated concentrations of sewage-derived phosphate]. Sediments are comprised of greater than 90% quartz but the surfaces of quartz and other mineral grains are coated with nanometer-size iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and/or silicates, which control the adsorption properties of the sediments. Uncontaminated groundwater with added phosphate (620 ??M) was pumped into the uncontaminated zone while samples were collected 0.3 m above the injection point. Concentrations of As(V) increased from below detection (0.005 ??M) to a maximum of 0.07 ??M during breakthrough of phosphate at the sampling port; As(III) concentrations remained below detection. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that naturally occurring As(V) adsorbed to constituents of the coatings on grain surfaces was desorbed by phosphate in the injected groundwater. Also consistent with this hypothesis, vertical profiles of groundwater chemistry measured prior to the tracer test showed that dissolved As(V) concentrations increased along with dissolved phosphate from below detection in the uncontaminated zone to approximately 0.07 and 70 ??M, respectively, in the suboxic zone. Concentrations of As(III) were below detection in both zones. The anoxic zone had approximately 0.07 ??M As(V) but also had As(III) concentrations of 0.07-0.14 ??M, suggesting that release of As bound to sediment grains occurred by desorption by phosphate, reductive dissolution of Fe oxides, and reduction of As(V) to As(III), which adsorbs only weakly to the Fe-oxide-depleted material in the coatings. Results of reductive extractions of the sediments suggest that As associated with the coatings was relatively uniformly distributed at approximately 1 nmol/g of sediment (equivalent to 0.075 ppm As) and comprised 20%-50% of the total As in the sediments, determined from oxidative extractions. Quartz sand aquifers provide high-quality drinking water but can become contaminated when naturally occurring arsenic bound to Fe and Al oxides or silicates on sediment surfaces is released by desorption and dissolution of Fe oxides in response to changing chemical conditions. ?? 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Arsenic species in an arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos: a potential phytoremediator of arsenic-contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Francesconi; Pornsawan Visoottiviseth; Weeraphan Sridokchan; Walter Goessler

    2002-01-01

    The fern Pityrogramma calomelanos is a hyperaccumulator of arsenic that grows readily on arsenic-contaminated soils in the Ron Phibun district of southern Thailand. P. calomelanos accumulates arsenic mostly in the fronds (up to 8350 ?g As g?1 dry mass) while the rhizoids contain the lowest concentrations of arsenic (88–310 ?g As g?1 dry mass). The arsenic species in aqueous extracts

  5. Glutathione-conjugated arsenics in the potential hepato-enteric circulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K T; Tomita, T; Ogra, Y; Ohmichi, M

    2001-12-01

    The metabolic pathways for arsenic were precisely studied by determining the metabolic balance and chemical species of arsenic to gain an insight into the mechanisms underlying the animal species difference in the metabolism and preferential accumulation of arsenic in red blood cells (RBCs) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of arsenite (iAs(III)) at 2.0 mg of As/kg of body weight, and then the time-dependent changes in the concentrations of arsenic in organs and body fluids were determined. Furthermore, arsenic in the bile was analyzed on anion and cation exchange columns by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP MS). The metabolic balance and speciation studies revealed that arsenic is potentially transferred to the hepato-enteric circulation through excretion from the liver in a form conjugated with glutathione (GSH). iAs(III) is methylated to mono (MMA)- and dimethylated (DMA) arsenics in the liver during circulation in the conjugated form [iAs(III)(GS)(3)], and a part of MMA is excreted into the bile in the forms of MMA(III) and MMA(V), the former being mostly in the conjugated form [CH(3)As(III)(GS)(2)], and the latter being in the nonconjugated free form. DMA(III) and DMA(V) were not detected in the bile. In the urine, arsenic was detected in the forms of iAs(III), arsenate, MMA(V), and DMA(V), iAs(III) being the major arsenic in the first 6-h-urine, and DMA(V) being increased in the second 6-h-urine. The present metabolic balance and speciation study suggests that iAs(III) is methylated in the liver during its hepato-enteric circulation through the formation of the GSH-cojugated form [iAs(III)(GS)(3)], and MMA(III) and MMA(V) are partly excreted into the bile, the former being in the conjugated form [CH(3)As(III)(GS)(2)]. DMA is not excreted into the bile but into the bloodstream, accumulating in RBCs, and then excreted into the urine mostly in the form of DMA(V) in rats. PMID:11743743

  6. Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  8. Determination of arsenic in ores, concentrates and related materials by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry after separation by xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    M Donaldson, E

    1988-01-01

    A method for determining approximately 0.2 mug/g or more of arsenic in ores, concentrates and related materials is described. After sample decomposition arsenic(V) is reduced to arsenic(III) with titanium(III) and separated from iron, lead, zinc, copper, uranium, tin, antimony, bismuth and other elements by cyclohexane extraction of its xanthate complex from approximately 8-10M hydrochloric acid. After washing with 10M hydrochloric acid-2% thiourea solution to remove residual iron and co-extracted copper, followed by water to remove chloride, arsenic is stripped from the extract with 16M nitric acid and ultimately determined in a 2% nitric acid medium by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry, at 193.7 nm, in the presence of thiourea (which eliminates interference from sulphate) and palladium as matrix modifiers. Small amounts of gold, platinum and palladium, which are partly co-extracted as xanthates under the proposed conditions, do not interfere. PMID:18964463

  9. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardň, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t˝ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  10. Blood concentrations of methionine, selenium, beta-carotene, and other micronutrients in a case-control study of arsenic-induced skin lesions in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joyce S; Haque, Reina; Guha Mazumder, D N; Moore, Lee E; Ghosh, Nilima; Samanta, Sambit; Mitra, Soma; Hira-Smith, Meera M; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Basu, Arindam; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that susceptibility to arsenic toxicity could be influenced by micronutrients, in particular selenium, methionine, and beta-carotene. A case-control study was conducted in West Bengal, India, in a region known to have groundwater arsenic contamination, to determine whether differences in micronutrient status contribute to susceptibility to arsenic-induced skin lesions. Micronutrient status was assessed by blood levels of specific micronutrients and metabolic indicators. Blood was obtained from 180 cases with skin lesions and 192 controls. Blood assays measured micronutrients and carotenoids (folate, selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolic indicators such as glucose, cholesterol, transthyretin, amino acids, and proteins potentially associated with methylation (cysteine, homocysteine, methionine, glutathione). The distributions of nutrient concentrations were similar in cases and controls. The median selenium concentrations in cases and controls were both 1.15 micromol/L, and there was little evidence of differences in other micronutrients. Odds ratios (ORs) for arsenic-induced skin lesions were estimated for each quartile of nutrient concentrations, using the quartile with the highest nutrient level as the referent group. There were no clear trends associated with deficiencies of any micronutrient or metabolic indicator. For decreasing quartiles of selenium, the OR estimates were 1.00, 0.67, 0.99, 0.80; P=0.81; for methionine, the OR estimates were 1.00, 0.83, 0.78, 0.72; P=0.29. For beta-carotene, the ORs were 1.00, 0.53, 0.51, 0.96, demonstrating no increased risk at the lower quartiles. The measured micronutrients and metabolic indicators investigated do not appear to modify the risk of developing arsenic-induced skin lesions. The lack of any trend of increasing risk with lower selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene concentrations has important implications for proposed therapeutic interventions. The emphasis of interventions should be on reducing arsenic exposure. PMID:16332366

  11. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hřiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mřrland, Jřrg; Christophersen, Asbjřrg

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

  12. SELENIUM and arsenic concentrations in platinum group minerals of placer origin from Borneo and Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K. H.; Johanson, B.; Cabri, L. J.

    2003-04-01

    Laurite grains were examined from the type locality, Pontijn River, Tanah Laur, Borneo and from South Tambanio River, S.E. Borneo, and erlichmanite grains from Sierra Leone. The Borneo samples are associated with ophiolite (Alpine-type) ultramafic rocks and the Sierra Leone samples with the layered Freetown Igneous Complex. Laurite grains from Borneo are sub-rounded to spherical with pits and show conchoidal fractures. They contain rare inclusions of an exsolved chalcopyrite+ bornite+ pentlandite mixture. On the other hand, the erlichmanite grains from Sierra Leone are euhedral with minor smooth edges and contain abundant rounded inclusions of exsolved sulphides;(chalcopyrite +bornite) and (chalcopyrite+ pentlandite+ pyrrhotite). All grains examined are solid solutions of Ru and Os with minor to moderate Ir and Rh (mostly less than 1wt percent, and rarely over 5 wt percent). Arsenic contents vary from 0.4 to 1.3 wt percent and Se from 40 to 620 ppm and the two are correlated. Grains with less Se contain greater amounts of As; [As] = -55 x [Se]+ 16,000 (ppm). The evidence supports their presence at the S site, but the huge departure from 1:1 correlation is not understood. The laurite grains from Borneo are relatively homogeneous, showing rare zoning of Ru and Os. Ratios of S/Se show a narrow spread from 1600 to 2400, which are in the range for sulphides from the shallow, sub-arc mantle (Hattori et al., 2002). The data support their formation in the mantle and subsequent erosion after the obduction of the host ultramafic rocks. The laurite-erlichmanite from Sierra Leone show complicated internal zoning of Ru and Os, as shown pictorially previously (Hattori et al., 1991). The contents of Se and As systematically vary with Ru and Os. The Ru-rich parts (close to laurite composition) are enriched in Se and depleted in As. Furthermore; chalcopyrite inclusions contain even higher Se and lower As than the host laurite/erlichmanite. They show a narrow spread from 1650 to 2100 in S/Se and the host erlichmanite from 2500 to 5900. The weighted averages of S/Se of individual grains are approximately 3500, which is close to the primitive mantle value of 3300. The mineralogy and compositions support the formation of PGM during the solidification or subsolidus high-temperature magmatic hydrothermal activity of the Freetown Complex.

  13. Antibacterial activity of human urine

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Donald

    1968-01-01

    The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

  14. Arsenic estimation in foodstuffs of arsenic exposed areas in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Abdur Rahman Khan; Mir Misbahuddin; M. Siddiqur Rahman

    One thousand samples of different foodstuffs were collected from two Upazillas of Bangladesh for the estimation of arsenic using atomic absorption spectrometer with hydride generator. The mean (± SD) concentration of arsenic in raw rice was 878.5 ± 379.3 ?g\\/kg. Among the foodstuffs studied, lowest concentration of arsenic (61.3 ± 63.7 ?g\\/kg) was found in the leaves of Convolvus arvensis

  15. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China); Sun Xiance [Hygiene Department, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Sun Guifan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China)], E-mail: sungf@mail.cmu.edu.cn

    2008-10-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

  16. Arsenic concentration variability, health risk assessment, and source identification using multivariate analysis in selected villages of public water system, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jawairia; Farooqi, Abida; Ali, Usman

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports high levels and variability in arsenic (As) levels at locations identified as one of the highest As-contaminated locations in Pakistan. Groundwater pollution related to arsenic has been reported since many years in the areas lying in outskirts of District Lahore, Pakistan. A comparative study is done to determine temporal variations of As from three villages, i.e., Kalalanwala (KLW), Manga Mandi (MM), and Shamki Bhattian (SKB). Seventy-three percent of the 30 investigated samples ranging in depth from 20 to 200 m, show an increasing trend in variations of As concentration over a time span of 4 years and 87% of samples exceeded the WHO standard of 10 ?g/L for As while 77% of samples have As concentration >50 ?g/L (national standard). Further results indicate that high levels of As is accompanied with increase pH (r?=?0.8) favoring desorption of As from minerals at higher pH under oxidizing conditions. For health risk assessment of arsenic, the average daily dose, hazard quotient (HQ), and cancer risk were calculated. The residents of the studied areas had toxic risk index in the order of SKB>KLW>MM, with 87% of samples exceeding the typical toxic risk index 1.00 (ranging from 2.3-48.6) which was 83% (ranging from 0.3-41) 4 years before. The results of the present study therefore indicate that arsenic concentrations are increasing in the area, which needs an immediate attention to provide alternate sources of water to save people at risk. PMID:24197557

  17. Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations.

    PubMed

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Pralong, François; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2011-12-10

    Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual variability and its determination is directly dependent on the reliability of hCG immunoassays used. In order to counteract these weaknesses, new biomarkers need to be evidenced. To address this issue, a pilot clinical study was performed on 10 volunteers submitted to 3 subsequent hCG injections. Blood and urine samples were collected during two weeks in order to follow the physiological effects on related compounds such as the steroid profile or hormones involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The hCG pharmacokinetic observed in all subjects was, as expected, prone to important inter-individual variations. Using ROC plots, level of testosterone and testosterone on luteinizing hormone ratio in both blood and urine were found to be the most relevant biomarker of a hCG abuse, regardless of inter-individual variations. In conclusion, this study showed the crucial importance of reliable quantification methods to assess low differences in hormonal patterns. In regard to these results and to anti-doping requirements and constraints, blood together with urine matrix should be included in the anti-doping testing program. Together with a longitudinal follow-up approach it could constitute a new strategy to detect a hCG abuse, applicable to further forms of steroid or other forbidden drug manipulation. PMID:21798680

  18. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  19. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 ?g/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions. PMID:25252363

  20. Determination of total inorganic arsenic in water using on-line pre-concentration and hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bortoleto, Gisele G; Cadore, Solange

    2005-07-15

    A rapid and sensitive method for the on-line separation and pre-concentration of inorganic arsenic in water samples is described. The analyte in the pentavalent oxidation state is reduced to its trivalent form with l-cysteine and the total inorganic arsenic is sorbed onto activated alumina in the acid form in a mini-column coupled to a FI-HG AAS system. Afterwards, it is eluted with 3moll(-1) HCl. An enrichment factor of 7 was obtained, allowing an analytical flow rate of about 28 determinations per hour. The limits of detection (3sigma) and of quantification (10sigma) were calculated as LOD=0.15mugl(-1) of As and LOQ=0.5mugl(-1) of As, respectively. Relative standard deviations (n=10) less than 8% were obtained for different arsenic concentrations and the accuracy was verified by analysing certified reference materials. Different kinds of samples, such as mineral water, drinking water, river water and natural spring water were analyzed and good agreement was obtained with the values from spiked experiments. PMID:18970151

  1. A Weibull-PBPK model for assessing risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions in children.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2008-03-25

    Chronic arsenic exposure and skin lesions (keratosis and hyperpigmentation) are inextricably linked. This paper was to quantify the children skin lesions risks and to further recommend safe drinking water arsenic standard based on reported arsenic epidemiological data. We linked the Weibull dose-response function and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to estimate safe drinking water arsenic concentrations and to perform the risk characterization. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) to assess the relative magnitude of the effect of the arsenic exposure on the likelihood of the prevalence of children skin lesions by calculating proposed Weibull-based prevalence ratios of exposed to control groups associated with the age group-specific PBPK model predicted dimethylarsinite (MMA(III)) levels in urine. Positive relationships between arsenic exposures and cumulative prevalence ratios of skin lesions were found using Weibull dose-response model (r2=0.91-0.96). We reported that the safe drinking water arsenic standards were recommended to be 2.2 and 1 microg/L for male and 6 and 2.8 microg/L for female in 0-6 and 7-18 years age groups, respectively, based on hyperpigmentation with an excess risk of 10(-3) for a 75 years lifetime exposure. Risk predictions indicate that estimated ORs have 95% confidence intervals of 1.33-5.12, 1.74-19.15, and 2.81-19.27 based on mean drinking water arsenic contents of 283.19, 282.65, and 468.81 microg/L, respectively, in West Bengal, India, Bangladesh, and southwestern Taiwan. Our findings also suggest that increasing urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) levels are associated with an increase in risks of arsenic-induced children skin lesions. PMID:18207220

  2. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... jaundice. Bilirubin may also be measured with a blood test. ... urinated into it. Drain the urine from the bag into the container provided by your health care provider. Deliver the sample to the laboratory or to your health care provider as soon as possible.

  3. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, Frantisek; Lauko, Lukas; Manova, Alena; Dzurov, Jan; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9??g dm?3 and 2.7??g dm?3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300??g dm?3 for sample volumes of 4?mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60?g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant. PMID:22448343

  4. Evaluation of arsenic speciation in rainbow trout and fathead minnows from dietary exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of total arsenic and various arsenic species were measured in food and fish tissue samples from two dietary arsenic exposures to juvenile fish. For arsenic speciation, samples were extracted with 10% MeOH and analyzed by HPLC/ICPMS. Total arsenic concentration...

  5. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjřrg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. PMID:23879346

  6. Variability of urine albumin excretion in normal and diabetic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Gibb; Vanita Shah; Michael Preece; T. Martin Barratt

    1989-01-01

    The variability of urine albumin excretion (UAE) was studied in normal and diabetic children and, in addition, the best method of expressing the data was investigated. In 39 timed overnight urine samples from diabetic children, the urine albumin creatinine clearance ratio (CA\\/CC) was compared with the urine albumin creatinine concentration ratio (UA\\/UC), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and the

  7. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  8. Osmolality - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body fluids (dehydration) Narrowing of the kidney artery (renal artery stenosis) Shock Sugar, or glucose, in the urine Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion ( SIADH ) Lower-than-normal ... renal tubular necrosis ) Drinking too much fluid Kidney failure ...

  9. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  10. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make you urinate more frequently. Avoid beverages like coffee, tea, colas and other caffeinated drinks. Do Kegel ... them. more Explore Prematurity Research Peristats Product catalog Shop Professionals Partners Careers Annual Report © March of Dimes ...

  11. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  13. Evaluation of Arsenic Contamination in Texas

    E-print Network

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    ............................................................................................................................8 Subtask A1: Review Elevated Arsenic Concentrations (>10 ppb) in Groundwater in Surrounding States ........................................................................................................................10 Subtask A2: Evaluate Research Related to Elevated Arsenic in Groundwater Conducted by EPA, the U .....................................................10 A2-2 Research Related to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination

  14. Arsenical keratosis caused by medication: a case report and literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sijing; Zhou, Junsheng; Liu, Shengping; Wang, Ran; Wang, Zaixing

    2015-01-01

    Medication-induced arsenical keratosis is a rare type of arsenical keratosis. We describe here a case of 70-year-old man to explore the clinical characters, diagnosis and treatment of medication-induced arsenical keratosis in order to improve the understanding of this disease and reduce the misdiagnosis rate. The clinical characters, signs, lab findings as well as progression, diagnosis and treatment in the case of arsenical keratosis were analyzed. The patient of medication-induced arsenical keratosis suffered from chronic eczema. He has taken realgar during the treatment. His medication caused arsenical keratosis. Medication-induced arsenical keratosis is rare. Making the medication history clear and using urine arsenic detection if necessary are of significance to understand the patients’ condition. It is quite effective that using Sodium Dimercaptosulphonate during the treatment without delay. PMID:25785160

  15. Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Rong; Gao, Linbo; Wang, Yanyun; Song, Changping; Gong, Yunhui; Jia, Jin; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Li; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong

    2014-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (?90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals. PMID:24958499

  16. XAS Speciation of Arsenic in a Hyper-Accumulating Fern

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    XAS Speciation of Arsenic in a Hyper-Accumulating Fern S A M U E L M . W E B B , J E A N - F R A N environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyper-accumulating fern (Pteris high As concentrations (ca. 1% As per dry weight) arsenic in the fern leaves is coordinated

  17. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnifica- tion. Total arsenic concentrations are similar

  18. Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on laterite soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjoy K. Maji; Anjali Pal; Tarasankar Pal

    2007-01-01

    Laterite soil was used as an adsorbent for arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater. Effects of pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbent size, contact time, initial arsenic concentration and presence of interfering species on arsenic removal were found out. Laterite soil was found to be very effective for arsenic adsorption. It was found that 4 h contact time was sufficient for ? 98%

  19. Effect of chronic inhalation of inorganic arsenic on the risk of stillbirth in a community surrounding an agriculture chemical production facility: a hospital-based study 

    E-print Network

    Ihrig, Melanie M

    1997-01-01

    is ditnethylarsinic acid (DMAA) with significant amounts of methylarsonic acid (MAA) appearing as well. When Hood er m( measured the concentrations of the various forms of arsenic in maternal blood, placenta and fetal tissues following IP and oral administration... in the liver were significantly higher than those of arsenate. The primary metabolite excreted in the urine was DMAA with lesser quantities of MAA. In one human study, volunteers ingested 0. 5 mg. arsenic in the form of arsenite, MAA or DMAA and the pattern...

  20. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y T; Smallegange, R C; VAN Loon, J J A; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or synergists in the host-seeking behaviour of female An. gambiae. In previous work, aromatics, alcohols and ketones in human odours were found to elicit electrophysiological activity in antennal olfactory neurons of female An. gambiae. However, the behavioural effects of these compounds have not been investigated. In this study, behavioural responses of female An. gambiae to components of human breath, urine and sweat at a series of concentrations, or a single concentration in the case of acetone, were examined in combination with ammonia and L-lactic acid in a dual-choice olfactometer. The results showed that at specific concentrations 4-ethylphenol, indole, 3-methyl-1-butanol and two ketones inhibited the attractive effect of a mixture of ammonia and lactic acid. Acetone on its own was not attractive; however, when combined with lactic acid, the binary mixture was attractive. When combined with ammonia, acetone inhibited the attractiveness exerted by ammonia alone. Dodecanol and dimethyldisulphide did not affect the attraction exerted by ammonia and lactic acid at any of the concentrations tested. By contrast, a human-specific armpit odour, 7-octenoic acid, augmented the attraction exerted by the combination of ammonia and lactic acid at a specific dosage. PMID:21108650

  1. Environmental concentrations of copper, chromium, and arsenic released from a chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA-C-) treated wetland boardwalk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Lebow; Daniel Foster

    A study was conducted to evaluate environmental accumulation and mobility of total copper, chromium, and arsenic adjacent to a chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA-C-) treated wetland boardwalk. The study was considered a severe test because it included a large volume of treated wood in a site with high annual rainfall. Soil and sediment samples were collected before construction and 0.5, 2, 5.5, 11,

  2. Visualisation of gradients in arsenic concentrations around individual roots of Zea mays L. using agar-immobilized bioreporter bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke Kuppardt; Doris Vetterlein; Hauke Harms; Antonis Chatzinotas

    2010-01-01

    The classical concept of arsenic transfer into plants through arsenate uptake via phosphate transporters, reduction to arsenite,\\u000a complexation and compartmentation within vacuoles is challenged by recent identification of bidirectional transporters for\\u000a arsenite and their potential role in plant As status regulation. Soil-based studies with chemical analysis of soil solution\\u000a require root mat formation amplifying root effects on their surroundings and

  3. Arsenic concentration in the soils of the Brenta Plain (Northern Italy): Mapping the probability of exceeding contamination thresholds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ungaro; F. Ragazzi; R. Cappellin; P. Giandon

    2008-01-01

    Traditional geochemical mapping is of little help when the uncertainty associated with the estimated values at unsampled locations is required to support decision making. In the Brenta Plain in Northeastern Italy (1350 km2), soils are characterized by a pedo-geochemical background value for arsenic which is higher (36 mg kg?1) than the regulatory threshold (20 mg kg?1), and it can prove difficult to distinguish

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion,

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth, and Infant out during 2002­2004 in Matlab, Bangladesh. Spontaneous abortion was evaluated in relation to urinary of spontaneous abortion was 1.4 (95% confi- dence interval CI 0.96­2.2) among women with urine arsenic

  5. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePLUS

    Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy. ... men have some trouble with dribbling, weak urine stream, and starting urination. Another common cause is infection ...

  6. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    SciTech Connect

    Mingshi Wang; Dangyu Song; Baoshan Zheng; R.B. Finkelman [Institute of Geochemistry, Guiyang (China). State Key Lab of Environmental Geochemistry

    2008-10-15

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong.

  7. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, M.; Song, D.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong. ?? 2008 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate and phosphate

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arsenic Aquifer sediment Column leaching Phosphate Bicarbonate Datong Basin Effects of phosphate and bicarbonate concentration on mobilization of arsenic in aquifer

  9. Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale point spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  10. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E

    PubMed Central

    Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (? 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (? 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies. PMID:21792816

  11. Arsenic-induced bladder cancer in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Samuel M. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Eppley Institute for Cancer Research, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States)], E-mail: scohen@unmc.edu; Ohnishi, Takamasa [Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Eppley Institute for Cancer Research, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States)], E-mail: tohnishi@unmc.edu; Arnold, Lora L. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Eppley Institute for Cancer Research, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States)], E-mail: llarnold@unmc.edu; Le, X. Chris [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G3 (Canada)], E-mail: xc.le@ualberta.ca

    2007-08-01

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder, but not in mice. The carcinogenic mode of action involves cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell proliferation. Dietary DMA{sup V} does not produce urinary solids or significant alterations in urinary composition. The cytotoxicity is due to formation of a reactive metabolite, likely dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), concentrated and excreted in the urine. Urinary concentrations of DMA{sup III} are dose-dependent, and the urinary concentrations are at cytotoxic levels based on in vitro studies. The no observed effect level (NOEL) in these rat dietary studies for detectable levels of DMA{sup III}, cytotoxicity, and proliferation is 2 ppm, with marginal changes at 10 ppm. The tumorigenic dose is 100 ppm. Recent investigations have demonstrated that arsenicals administered to the rat result in binding to a specific cysteine in the hemoglobin alpha chain as DMA{sup III}, regardless of the arsenical being administered. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) is not carcinogenic in rats or mice. In short term experiments ({<=} 10 weeks), sodium arsenate in the drinking water induces significant cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. There is little evidence that the cytotoxicity produced following administration of arsenicals is caused by oxidative damage, as antioxidants show little inhibitory activity of the cytotoxicity of the various arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo. In summary, the mode of action for DMA{sup V}-induced bladder carcinogenesis in the rat involves generation of a reactive metabolite (DMA{sup III}) leading to cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation, is a non-linear process, and likely involves a threshold. Extrapolation to human risk needs to take this into account along with the significant differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics that occur between different species.

  12. Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Potential Mercury Transporters and Urine Mercury Concentrations in Populations Exposed to Mercury Vapor from Gold Mining

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Shegufta; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Drasch, Gustav; Baeuml, Jennifer; Skerfving, Staffan; Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elemental mercury (Hg0) is widely used in small-scale gold mining. Persons working or living in mining areas have high urinary concentrations of Hg (U-Hg). Differences in genes encoding potential Hg-transporters may affect uptake and elimination of Hg. Objective: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Hg-transporter genes that modify U-Hg. Methods: Men and women (1,017) from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were classified either as controls (no Hg exposure from gold mining) or as having low (living in a gold-mining area) or high exposure (working as gold miners). U-Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Eighteen SNPs in eight Hg-transporter genes were analyzed. Results: U-Hg concentrations were higher among ABCC2/MRP2 rs1885301 A–allele carriers than among GG homozygotes in all populations, though differences were not statistically significant in most cases. MRP2 SNPs showed particularly strong associations with U-Hg in the subgroup with highest exposure (miners in Zimbabwe), whereas rs1885301 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes [geometric mean (GM): 36.4 µg/g creatinine vs. 21.9; p = 0.027], rs2273697 GG homozygotes had higher U-Hg than A–allele carriers (GM: 37.4 vs. 16.7; p = 0.001), and rs717620 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes (GM: 83 vs. 28; p = 0.084). The SLC7A5/LAT1 rs33916661 GG genotype was associated with higher U-Hg in all populations (statistically significant for all Tanzanians combined). SNPs in SLC22A6/OAT1 (rs4149170) and SLC22A8/OAT3 (rs4149182) were associated with U-Hg mainly in the Tanzanian study groups. Conclusions: SNPs in putative Hg-transporter genes may influence U-Hg concentrations. PMID:23052037

  13. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  14. COMPARISON OF THE URINARY METABOLITES OF RATS, MICE, AND HUMANS AFTER ORAL ARSENIC EXPOSURE FOCUSING ON THIOARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary metabolites of arsenic are useful as biomarkers of exposure because ingested arsenic is excreted primarily in urine1. Complete urinary arsenic speciation can provide insight into possible metabolic pathways as well as potential exposure sources. The pattern of excreted me...

  15. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  16. Factors controlling arsenic adsorption in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, J.A.; Hering, J.G. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent epidemiological studies on arsenic report that the cancer risk associated with arsenic at the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 {mu}g/L is much greater than previously believed. In response to these findings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency intends to decrease the MCL to between 2 and 20 {mu}g/L. The efficiency of arsenic removal in water treatment and the ambient levels of arsenic in source waters are both strongly influenced by the extent of arsenic adsorption to oxide surfaces. An investigation of ft factors controlling arsenic adsorption is crucial to evaluate properly the effectiveness of arsenic removal technologies such as enhanced coagulation. This study examined the effects of the following parameters on arsenic adsorption to preformed hydrous ferric oxide: arsenic oxidation state, initial arsenic concentration, pH and the presence of sulfate. The studies were carried out over initial arsenic concentrations between 2.5 and 100 {mu}g/L (0.33 and 1.34 {mu}M).

  17. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground. Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

  18. Arsenic removal by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.N.; Green, J.F.; Do, H.D.; McLean, S.J. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated the removal of naturally occurring arsenic in a full-scale (106-mgd) conventional treatment plant. When the source water was treated with 3--10 mg/L of ferric chloride or 6, 10, or 20 mg/L of alum, arsenic removal was 81--96% (ferric chloride) and 23--71% (alum). Metal concentrations in the sludge produced during this study were below the state`s current hazardous waste levels at all coagulant dosages. No operational difficulties were encountered.

  19. Association between Low to Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine A.; Guallar, Eliseo; Umans, Jason G.; Devereux, Richard B.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Pollak, Jonathan; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Howard, Barbara V.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic exposure in water and food is a global public health problem. Chronic exposure to high levels of arsenicis consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whereas prospective data on low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure (<100?g/L in drinking water) are lacking. Objective To evaluate the association between chronic low to moderate arsenic exposure and incident cardiovascular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Strong Heart Study baseline visit in 1989-1991, with follow-up through 2008. Patients 3,575 American Indian men and women aged 45-74 years living in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Measurements The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine at baseline was used as a biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure. Participants were followed for incident fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Results 1,184 participants developed fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and 439 participants developed fatal cardiovascular disease. Comparing the highest to lowest quartile arsenic concentrations (>15.7 vs. <5.8 ?g/g creatinine), the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, smoking, body mass index, and lipids were 1.65 (1.20, 2.27; p-trend<0.001), 1.71 (1.19, 2.44; p-trend<0.001) and 3.03 (1.08, 8.50; p-trend=0.061), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were 1.32 (1.09, 1.59; p-trend=0.002), 1.30 (1.04, 1.62; p-trend=0.006), and 1.47 (0.97, 2.21; p-trend=0.032), respectively. These associations varied by study region and were attenuated following further adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and measures of kidney disease. Limitations Direct measurement of individual arsenic in drinking water was unavailable. Residual confounding and differences in potential confounders across study regions may exist. Conclusions Low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure, as measured in urine, was prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. PMID:24061511

  20. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Andrea (USGS) [USGS

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  1. Arsenics as bioenergetic substrates.

    PubMed

    van Lis, Robert; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Duval, Simon; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Although at low concentrations, arsenic commonly occurs naturally as a local geological constituent. Whereas both arsenate and arsenite are strongly toxic to life, a number of prokaryotes use these compounds as electron acceptors or donors, respectively, for bioenergetic purposes via respiratory arsenate reductase, arsenite oxidase and alternative arsenite oxidase. The recent burst in discovered arsenite oxidizing and arsenate respiring microbes suggests the arsenic bioenergetic metabolisms to be anything but exotic. The first goal of the present review is to bring to light the widespread distribution and diversity of these metabolizing pathways. The second goal is to present an evolutionary analysis of these diverse energetic pathways. Taking into account not only the available data on the arsenic metabolizing enzymes and their phylogenetical relatives but also the palaeogeochemical records, we propose a crucial role of arsenite oxidation via arsenite oxidase in primordial life. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22982475

  2. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  3. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  4. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry] [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology] [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  5. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of dissolved arsenic are generated. Within the subsequent sections of this chapter, we explore and describe the biological and chemical processes that control the partitioning of arsenic between the solid and aqueous phase.

  6. A comparison of trace level concentrations for silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead in drinking waters obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electrothermal-vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Robinson; M. Bell; C. Burns; D. Knab

    1987-01-01

    We compared the data obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrothermal-vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETVAA), for concentration values of silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead in drinking water specimens, spiked analyte recoveries, and control samples. Our goal was to obtain Environmental Protection Agency approval for the ICP-MS as an alternate analytical technique. We obtained similar concentrations for those

  7. Thermal effects on the accumulation of arsenic in green sunfish, Lepomis Cyanellus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsie M. B. Sorensen

    1976-01-01

    The pattern of arsenic concentration in several tissues ofLepomis cyanellus was measured (by neutron activation analysis) as a function of exposure time at 10‡, 20‡, and 30‡C and 0, 30, 60 ppm of arsenic as sodium arsenate. Individual variability of arsenic uptake did not override trends of greater uptake with increasing exposure time, temperature, and arsenic concentration. The mean temperature

  8. Arsenic removal from water\\/wastewater using adsorbents—A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Mohan; Charles U. Pittman

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th–21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan,

  9. Determination of eight elements in animal chow, urine and wastewater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blakemore, W.M.

    1981-02-01

    Analytical procedures are described for the analysis of arsenic, calcium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in animal feed. Mercury is determined by digesting the feed sample with concentrated HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ plus V2O5 as an oxidation catalyst, reducing the stannous chloride, and sweeping the elemental mercury into an absorption tube for measurement by atomic absorption (AA) spectrophotometry. Arsenic and selenium are determined simultaneously by digesting the sample with concentrated HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and HClO/sub 4/; forming their respective hybrides with the addition of sodium borohybride, which are swept into an argon-hydrogen flame for analysis by AA. A low temperature ash is prepared and dissolved in 1 N HNO/sub 3/ for the analysis of calcium, copper, and zinc, by emission spectroscopy using the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) source. The same solution is used for the determination of cadmium and lead by flameless AA. Animal feed spiked with three levels of each of the eight elements yielded recoveries of between 80 and 107%. Development of specific methods for the recovery of these elements for wastewater and human urine was suspended due to overriding priorities within the Analytical Methods Branch. However, a method was developed for mercury in urine and blood to address the safety surveillance requirement for NCTR workers potentially exposed to methyl mercury chloride while dosing test animals with this chemical.

  10. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.C.; Liang, S.; Wang, H.C.; Beuhler, M.D. (Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, CA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The possible use of enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal was examined at the facilities of a California utility in 1992 and 1993. The tests were conducted at bench, pilot, and demonstration scales, with two source waters. Alum and ferric chloride, with cationic polymer, were investigated at various influence arsenic concentrations. The investigators concluded that for the source waters tested, enhanced coagulation could be effective for arsenic removal and that less ferric chloride than alum, on a weight basis, is needed to achieve the same removal.

  11. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 ?g·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 ?g·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries. PMID:22198754

  12. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area. PMID:11836136

  13. Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh

    2013-11-15

    A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68 mg g(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples. PMID:24148451

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes analytical results for measurements of metals in 600 urine samples. For some chemicals, particularly arsenic, urine provides the best information about the relationship between exposure and body burden. Two samples were collected from each participant on da...

  15. Evaluation of potential health risk of arsenic-affected groundwater using indicator kriging and dose response model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Jing Lee; Cheng-Shin Jang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Chen-Wuing Liu

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain of northeastern Taiwan. Indicator kriging was used to estimate arsenic concentrations in groundwater. Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response functions were adopted to evaluate the potential health risk based on the estimated arsenic concentration distributions. The estimated arsenic concentrations in

  16. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater at Zimapán, Mexiko

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Armienta; R. Rodriguez; A. Aguayo; N. Ceniceros; G. Villaseńor; O. Cruz

    1997-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been detected in the Zimapán Valley, Mexico. Concentrations as much as 1.097 mg\\/L were observed in water pumped from one of the most productive wells. Three sources of arsenic are known. The natural source is produced by the oxidation of arsenic-bearing minerals; polluted water pumped from the deepest wells is derived from this source and

  17. Combining poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and on-line pre-concentration-capillary electrophoresis for analysis of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma and urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Wei; Min Zhang; Yu-Qi Feng

    2007-01-01

    A method based on poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith microextraction (PMME) and field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) pre-concentration technique was proposed for sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) analysis of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE) in human plasma and urine. The PMME device consisted of a regular plastic syringe (1mL), a poly (MAA-EGDMA) monolithic capillary (2cm×530?m I.D.) and a plastic pinhead

  18. Inverse association between toenail arsenic and body mass index in a population of welders

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Christiani, David C.; Kile, Molly L.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that arsenic may play a role in obesity-related diseases. However, urinary arsenic studies report an inverse association between arsenic level and body mass index (BMI). We explored whether toenail arsenic, a long-term exposure measure, was associated with BMI in 74 welders with known arsenic exposure. BMI showed significant inverse associations with toenail arsenic (p=0.01), which persisted in models adjusted for demographics, diet and work history. It is unclear whether low arsenic biomarker concentrations in high BMI subjects truly reflect lower exposures, or instead reflect internal or metabolic changes that alter arsenic metabolism and tissue deposition. PMID:24721130

  19. Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Gault, Andrew G; Rowland, Helen A L; Charnock, John M; Wogelius, Roy A; Gomez-Morilla, Inma; Vong, Sovathana; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Sampson, Mickey L; Polya, David A

    2008-04-01

    The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area recently identified to host arsenic-rich groundwaters, in order to evaluate the extent of arsenic exposure. Nail and hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.20 to 6.50 microg g(-1) (n=70) and 0.10 to 7.95 microg g(-1) (n=40), respectively, in many cases exceeding typical baseline levels. The arsenic content of the groundwater used for drinking water purposes (0.21-943 microg L(-1) (n=31)) was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.74, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.86, p<0.0001) arsenic concentrations. In addition, the nail and hair samples collected from inhabitants using groundwater that exceeded the Cambodian drinking water legal limit of 50 microg L(-1) arsenic contained significantly more arsenic than those of individuals using groundwater containing <50 microg L(-1) arsenic. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy suggested that sulfur-coordinated arsenic was the dominant species in the bulk of the samples analysed, with additional varying degrees of As(III)-O character. Tentative linear least squares fitting of the XANES data pointed towards differences in the pattern of arsenic speciation between the nail and hair samples analysed, however, mismatches in sample and standard absorption peak intensity prevented us from unambiguously determining the arsenic species distribution. The good correlation with the groundwater arsenic concentration, allied with the relative ease of sampling such tissues, indicate that the arsenic content of hair and nail samples may be used as an effective biomarker of arsenic intake in this relatively recently exposed population. PMID:18234288

  20. Arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh: A geostatistical and epidemiological framework

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh: A geostatistical and epidemiological framework for evaluating] This paper examines the health crisis in Bangladesh due to dissolved arsenic in groundwater. First, we use geostatistical methods to construct a map of arsenic concentrations that divides Bangladesh into regions

  1. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-07-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub-clinically affected. SOES and DCH made a few follow-up studies in some districts to know their overall situations after 9 to 18 years of their first exposure. The overall conclusion from these follow-up studies is (a) villagers are now more aware about the danger of drinking arsenic contaminated water (b) villagers are currently drinking less arsenic contaminated water (c) many villagers in affected village died of cancer (d) arsenic contaminated water is in use for agricultural irrigation and arsenic exposure from food chain could be future danger. Since at present more information is coming about health effects from low arsenic exposure, Bangladesh Government should immediately focus on their huge surface water management and reduce their permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water. PMID:25660323

  3. Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Gault; Helen. A. L. Rowland; John M. Charnock; Roy A. Wogelius; Inma Gomez-Morilla; Sovathana Vong; Moniphea Leng; Sopheap Samreth; Mickey L. Sampson; David A. Polya

    2008-01-01

    The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area

  4. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Chen; Joseph H Graziano; Faruque Parvez; Mengling Liu; Vesna Slavkovich; Tara Kalra; Maria Argos; Tariqul Islam; Alauddin Ahmed; Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman; Rabiul Hasan; Golam Sarwar; Diane Levy; Alexander van Geen; Habibul Ahsan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences the association.Design Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells and urine.Setting General population in Araihazar, Bangladesh.Participants 11 746 men and women who provided urine samples in 2000 and were followed up for an average of

  5. The Urinary Excretion of Arsenic Metabolites After a Single Oral Administration of Dimethylarsinic Acid to Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoshida; H. Chen; Y. Inoue; H. Wanibuchi; S. Fukushima; K. Kuroda; G. Endo

    1997-01-01

    .   The biotransformation following oral administration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), an organoarsenical herbicide and the\\u000a main metabolite of inorganic arsenic in mammals, was studied in rats. Male F344\\/DuCrj rats were administered a single dose\\u000a of DMA (50 mg\\/kg) orally. Urine was collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 24, and 48 h after administration by forced urination. Arsenic\\u000a metabolites in

  6. Potential role of sodium-proton exchangers in the low concentration arsenic trioxide-increased intracellular pH and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Carmen; Beltrán, Ana R; Cornejo, Marcelo; Torres, Viviana; Díaz, Emilce S; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic main inorganic compound is arsenic trioxide (ATO) presented in solution mainly as arsenite. ATO increases intracellular pH (pHi), cell proliferation and tumor growth. Sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs) modulate the pHi, with NHE1 playing significant roles. Whether ATO-increased cell proliferation results from altered NHEs expression and activity is unknown. We hypothesize that ATO increases cell proliferation by altering pHi due to increased NHEs-like transport activity. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in 5 mmol/L D-glucose-containing DMEM were exposed to ATO (0.05, 0.5 or 5 µmol/L, 0-48 hours) in the absence or presence of 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, 5-100 µmol/L, NHEs inhibitor), PD-98059 (30 µmol/L, MAPK1/2 inhibitor), Gö6976 (10 µmol/L, PKC?, ?I and ? inhibitor), or Schering 28080 (10 µmol/L, H(+)/K(+)ATPase inhibitor) plus concanamycin (0.1 µmol/L, V type ATPases inhibitor). Incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to estimate cell proliferation, and counting cells with a hemocytometer to determine the cell number. The pHi was measured by fluorometry in 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells. The Na(+)-dependent HMA-sensitive NHEs-like mediated proton transport kinetics, NHE1 protein abundance in the total, cytoplasm and plasma membrane protein fractions, and phosphorylated and total p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44(mapk)) were also determined. Lowest ATO (0.05 µmol/L, ~0.01 ppm) used in this study increased cell proliferation, pHi, NHEs-like transport and plasma membrane NHE1 protein abundance, effects blocked by HMA, PD-98059 or Gö6976. Cell-buffering capacity did not change by ATO. The results show that a low ATO concentration increases MDCK cells proliferation by NHEs (probably NHE1)-like transport dependent-increased pHi requiring p42/44(mapk) and PKC?, ?I and/or ? activity. This finding could be crucial in diseases where uncontrolled cell growth occurs, such as tumor growth, and in circumstances where ATO, likely arsenite, is available at the drinking-water at these levels. PMID:23236503

  7. Arsenic drinking water exposure and urinary excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Mercedes Meza; Michael J. Kopplin; Jefferey L. Burgess; A. Jay Gandolfi

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine arsenic exposure via drinking water and to characterize urinary arsenic excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2001 to May 2002. Study subjects were from the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, residents of four towns with different arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Arsenic

  8. Arsenic removal by manganese greensand filters

    SciTech Connect

    Phommavong, T. [Saskatchewan Environment, Regina (Canada); Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Some of the small communities in Saskatchewan are expected to have difficulty complying with the new maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 25 {micro}g/L for arsenic. A test column was set up in the laboratory to study the removal of arsenic from the potable water using oxidation with KMnO{sub 4}, followed by manganese greensand filtration. Tests were run using water from the tap having a background arsenic concentration of <0.5 {micro}g/L and iron concentration in the range of 0.02 to 0.77 mg/L. The test water was spiked with arsenic and iron. Results showed that 61 % to 98% of arsenic can be removed from the potable water by oxidation with KMnO{sub 4} followed by manganese greensand filtration.

  9. Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.

    PubMed

    B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

  10. The Arsenic crisis in Bangladesh (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Harvey; K. Ashfaque; R. B. Neumann; B. Badruzzaman; A. Ali

    2010-01-01

    The Ganges Delta suffers from water-borne disease. Arsenic in the groundwater pumped from drinking water wells is causing severe and widespread disease, and these wells were installed, in part, to avoid pathogens in the surface water supply. I will discuss the hydrogeologic controls of arsenic concentrations in groundwater, specifically the role of enhanced groundwater circulation driven by irrigation pumping and

  11. Arsenic Species in the Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...

  12. Removal of arsenic from water by electrocoagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Ratna Kumar; Sanjeev Chaudhari; Kartic C Khilar; S. P Mahajan

    2004-01-01

    In the present study electrocoagulation (EC) has been evaluated as a treatment technology for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] removal from water. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted with three electrode materials namely, iron, aluminum and titanium to assess their efficiency. Arsenic removal obtained was highest with iron electrodes. EC was able to bring down aqueous phase arsenic concentration to less

  13. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Harvey; Christopher H. Swartz; A. B. M. Badruzzaman; Nicole Keon-Blute; Winston Yu; M. Ashraf Ali; Jenny Jay; Roger Beckie; Volker Niedan; Daniel Brabander; Peter M. Oates; Khandaker N. Ashfaque; Shafiqul Islam; Harold F. Hemond; M. Feroze Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where

  14. Arsenic Redistribution Between Sediments and Water Near a Highly Contaminated Source

    SciTech Connect

    Keimowitz,A.; Zheng, Y.; Chillrud, S.; Mailloux, B.; Bok Jung, H.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling arsenic partitioning between sediment, groundwater, porewaters, and surface waters were investigated at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site in southern New Jersey. Extensive inorganic and organic arsenic contamination at this site (historical total arsenic >10 000 {micro}g L{sup -1} or >130 {micro}M in groundwater) has spread downstream to the Blackwater Branch, Maurice River, and Union Lake. Stream discharge was measured in the Blackwater Branch, and water samples and sediment cores were obtained from both the stream and the lake. Porewaters and sediments were analyzed for arsenic speciation as well as total arsenic, iron, manganese, and sulfur, and they indicate that geochemical processes controlling mobility of arsenic were different in these two locations. Arsenic partitioning in the Blackwater Branch was consistent with arsenic primarily being controlled by sulfur, whereas in Union Lake, the data were consistent with arsenic being controlled largely by iron. Stream discharge and arsenic concentrations indicate that despite large-scale groundwater extraction and treatment, >99% of arsenic transport away from the site results from continued discharge of high arsenic groundwater to the stream, rather than remobilization of arsenic in stream sediments. Changing redox conditions would be expected to change arsenic retention on sediments. In sulfur-controlled stream sediments, more oxic conditions could oxidize arsenic-bearing sulfide minerals, thereby releasing arsenic to porewaters and streamwaters; in iron-controlled lake sediments, more reducing conditions could release arsenic from sediments via reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides.

  15. A Speciation Study focused on the Identification of Proximate Toxic Arsenic Metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo T. Suzuki

    umans are exposed daily to arsenic mostly in the forms of inorganic arsenite\\/arsenate and organic arsenosugars\\/arsenobetaines of marine products. The former inorganic forms are more toxic than the latter organic ones, and are metabolized by consecutive reduction and methylation reactions in humans and mammals to dimethylated arsenic (DMA) (Scheme 1), which is then excreted into urine. The methylation process leading

  16. Biomarkers for the evaluation of population health status 16 years after the intervention of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Faye F; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Jian; Ng, Jack C

    2013-11-15

    The arsenicosis endemic area in the region of Kuitun and Chepaizi, Dzungaria district, Xinjiang, People Republic of China was the first identified arsenic endemic area in China where arsenic concentration of up to 850 ?g/L in the groundwater was reported. An intervention was put in place in 1985 by government to provide an alternative water source at a centralized community level. Sixteen years on since the intervention, we evaluated the health status of 178 villagers from endemic and 179 villagers from control sites. Biomarkers in their urine, included arsenic, porphyrins and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured and the prevalence of skin lesions was also assessed. The average urinary arsenic (117 ± 8.3 ?g/g of creatinine) from the endemic-villages was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of the controls (73.6 ± 3.2 ?g/g of creatinine) while no significant difference was found in urinary porphyrins and malondialdehyde concentrations in the overall studies subjects from these two areas. However when the urinary arsenic was higher than 150 ?g/g of creatinine, MDA and porphyrins were higher in the endemic-villagers compared to the controls. Fifty-one out of 178 people from the arsenic endemic area showed skin lesions related to arsenicosis but these were absent among villagers from the control site. Of particular concern, skin lesions related to arsenicosis were observed in 4 out of 9 subjects 16 years of age or younger who were from different villages and born after the completion of water intervention. Although sporadic exposure and/or voluntary drinking contaminated water were thought to be a contributor of arsenicosis after the water intervention, the contribution from other dietary arsenic intakes remain unclear. PMID:23608750

  17. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Willers; P. J. Hobbs; N. W. M. Ogink

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in a packed bed scrubber. Before entering the scrubber,

  18. Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Arsenic Exposure via Drinking-water in Northern Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Concha; Barbro Nermell; Marie Vahter

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the spatial, temporal and inter-individual variations in exposure to arsenic via drinking- water in Northern Argentina, based on measurements of arsenic in water, urine, and hair. Arsenic concen- trations in drinking-water varied markedly among locations, from <1 to about 200 µg\\/L. Over a 10- year period, water from the same source in San Antonio de los Cobres

  20. Position Paper on urine alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, A T; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2004-01-01

    This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not considered. A draft Position Paper was then produced and presented at the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology in October 2001 and at the EAPCCT Congress in May 2002 to allow participants to comment on the draft after which a revised draft was produced. The Position Paper was subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the AACT and the EAPCCT, and a final draft was approved by the boards of the two societies. The Position Paper includes a summary statement (Position Statement) for ease of use, which will also be published separately, as well as the detailed scientific evidence on which the conclusions of the Position Paper are based. Urine alkalinization is a treatment regimen that increases poison elimination by the administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate to produce urine with a pH > or = 7.5. The term urine alkalinization emphasizes that urine pH manipulation rather than a diuresis is the prime objective of treatment; the terms forced alkaline diuresis and alkaline diuresis should therefore be discontinued. Urine alkalinization increases the urine elimination of chlorpropamide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diflunisal, fluoride, mecoprop, methotrexate, phenobarbital, and salicylate. Based on volunteer and clinical studies, urine alkalinization should be considered as first line treatment for patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization cannot be recommended as first line treatment in cases of phenobarbital poisoning as multiple-dose activated charcoal is superior. Supportive care, including the infusion of dextrose, is invariably adequate in chlorpropamide poisoning. A substantial diuresis is required in addition to urine alkalinization in the chlorophenoxy herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and mecoprop, if clinically important herbicide elimination is to be achieved. Volunteer studies strongly suggest that urine alkalinization increases fluoride elimination, but this is yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. Although urine alkalinization is employed clinically in methotrexate toxicity, currently there is only one study that supports its use. Urine alkalinization enhances diflunisal excretion, but this technique is unlikely to be of value in diflunisal poisoning. In conclusion, urine alkalinization should be considered first line treatment in patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization and high urine flow (approximately 600 mL/h) should also be considered in patients with severe 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and mecoprop poisoning. Administration of bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine results in alkalemia (an increase in blood pH or reduction in its hydrogen ion concentration); pH values approaching 7.70 have been recorded. Hypokalemia is the most common complication but can be corrected by giving potassium supplements. Alkalotic tetany occurs occasionally, but hypocalcemia is rare. There is no evidence to suggest that relatively short-duration alkalemia (more than a few hours) poses a risk to life in normal individuals or in those with coronary and cerebral arterial disease. PMID:15083932

  1. Impact of local recharge on arsenic concentrations in shallow aquifers inferred from the electromagnetic conductivity of soils in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Aziz; A. van Geen; M. Stute; R. Versteeg; A. Horneman; Y. Zheng; S. Goodbred; M. Steckler; B. Weinman; I. Gavrieli; M. A. Hoque; M. Shamsudduha; K. M. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The high-degree of spatial variability of dissolved As levels in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin has been well documented but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compare here As concentrations measured in groundwater pumped from 4700 wells <22 m (75 ft) deep across a 25 km2 area of Bangladesh with variations in the nature of surface soils inferred

  2. High arsenic and boron concentrations in groundwaters related to mining activity in the Bigadiç borate deposits (Western Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünsal Gemici; Gültekin Tarcan; Cahit Helvac?; A. Melis Somay

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the environmental impacts of borate mines in Bigadiç district, which are the largest colemanite and ulexite deposits in the world. Borate-bearing formations have affected the concentrations of some contaminants in groundwater. Groundwater quality is directly related to the borate zones in the mines as a result of water–rock interaction processes. Calcium is the dominant cation and waters

  3. Phytoremediation of Arsenic and Lead in Contaminated Soil Using Chinese Brake Ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Salido; Kelly L. Hasty; Jae-Min Lim; David J. Butcher

    2003-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the performance of phytoremediation of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil at an EPA Superfund site (Barber Orchard). Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) were used to extract arsenic. On average, fern shoot arsenic concentrations were as high as 20 times the soil arsenic concentrations under field conditions. It was estimated that 8

  4. Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent monomethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Devesa, Vicenta; Adair, Blakely M.; Styblo, Miroslav; Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) can result from their formation as metabolites of inorganic arsenic and by the use of the sodium salts of MMA(V) as herbicides. This study compared the disposition of MMA(V) and MMA(III) in adult female B6C3F1 mice. Mice were gavaged po with MMA(V), either unlabeled or labeled with 14C at two dose levels (0.4 or 40 mg As/kg). Other mice were dosed po with unlabeled MMA(III) at one dose level (0.4 mg As/kg). Mice were housed in metabolism cages for collection of excreta and sacrificed serially over 24 h for collection of tissues. MMA(V)-derived radioactivity was rapidly absorbed, distributed and excreted. By 8 h post-exposure, 80% of both doses of MMA(V) were eliminated in urine and feces. Absorption of MMA(V) was dose dependent; that is, there was less than a 100-fold difference between the two dose levels in the area under the curves for the concentration-time profiles of arsenic in blood and major organs. In addition, urinary excretion of MMA(V)-derived radioactivity in the low dose group was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than in the high dose group. Conversely, fecal excretion of MMA(V)-derived radioactivity was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the high dose group than in the low dose group. Speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in urine and tissues of mice administered MMA(V) or MMA(III) found that methylation of MMA(V) was limited while the methylation of MMA(III) was extensive. Less than 10% of the dose excreted in urine of MMA(V)-treated mice was in the form of methylated products, whereas it was greater than 90% for MMA(III)-treated mice. In MMA(V)-treated mice, 25% or less of the tissue arsenic was in the form of dimethylarsenic, whereas in MMA(III)-treated mice, 75% or more of the tissue arsenic was in the form of dimethylarsenic. Based on urinary analysis, administered dose of MMA(V) did not affect the level of its metabolites excreted. In the tested range, dose affects the absorption, distribution and route of excretion of MMA(V) but not its metabolism. PMID:16183392

  5. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  6. Plant Colonization and Arsenic Uptake on High Arsenic Mine Wastes, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Craw; Cathy Rufaut; Laura Haffert; Lorraine Paterson

    2007-01-01

    Substrates associated with two historic gold mining sites in north Westland, New Zealand, have locally very high arsenic concentrations\\u000a (commonly 10–40 wt% As). The substrates consist of iron oxyhydroxide precipitates, and processing mill residues. Waters associated\\u000a with some of these substrates have high dissolved arsenic (commonly 10–50 mg\\/L As). Natural revegetation of these very high\\u000a arsenic sites has occurred over the past

  7. Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Groundwater by the Arsenic Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tu; Lena Q. Ma; Abioye O. Fayiga; Edward J. Zillioux

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in a much larger fraction of U.S. groundwater sources will exceed the maximum contaminant limit when the new 10 ?g L EPA standard for drinking water takes effect in 2006. Thus, it is important to develop remediation technologies that can meet this new standard. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a relatively new idea. In this research, an arsenic-hyperaccumulating

  8. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Mexican Children Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Yáńez, Citlalli; Ayllon-Vergara, Julio C.; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Hernández-Castellanos, Erika; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in adults, but there is little information on arsenic and early risk biomarkers for atherosclerosis in children. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an indicator of subclinical atherosclerotic burden that has been associated with plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of arsenic exposure with cIMT, ADMA, and endothelial adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1); soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)] in children who had been exposed to environmental inorganic arsenic (iAs). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 199 children 3–14 years of age who were residents of Zimapan, México. We evaluated cIMT using ultrasonography, and plasma lipid profiles by standard methods. We analyzed ADMA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 by ELISA, and measured the concentrations of total speciated arsenic (tAs) in urine using hydride generation cryotrapping atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: In the multiple linear regression model for cIMT, tAs categories were positively associated with cIMT increase. The estimated cIMT diameter was greater in 35- to 70-ng/mL and > 70-ng/mL groups (0.035 mm and 0.058 mm per 1-ng/mL increase in urinary tAs, respectively), compared with the < 35-ng/mL group. In addition to tAs level, plasma ADMA was a significant predictor of cIMT. In the adjusted regression model, cIMT, percent iAs, and plasma sVCAM-1 were significant predictors of ADMA levels (e.g., 0.419-?mol/L increase in ADMA per 1-mm increase in cIMT). Conclusions: Arsenic exposure and plasma ADMA levels were positively associated with cIMT in a population of Mexican children with environmental arsenic exposure through drinking water. Citation: Osorio-Yáńez C, Ayllon-Vergara JC, Aguilar-Madrid G, Arreola-Mendoza L, Hernández-Castellanos E, Barrera-Hernández A, De Vizcaya-Ruíz A, Del Razo LM. 2013. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine in Mexican children exposed to inorganic arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 121:1090–1096;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205994 PMID:23757599

  9. Arsenic in groundwaters of the Lower Mekong.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Gordon; Truong, To Van; Ngoc, K S Le Thi My; Luyen, T V; Thanh, Tuyen Tran

    2005-12-01

    Increasing incidence and awareness of arsenic in many alluvial aquifers of South-east Asia has raised concern over possible arsenic in the Lower Mekong Basin. Here, we have undertaken new research and reviewed many previous small-scale studies to provide a comprehensive overview of the status of arsenic in aquifers of Cambodia and the Cuu Long Delta of Vietnam. In general natural arsenic originates from the Upper Mekong basin, rather than from the local geology, and is widespread in soils at typical concentrations of between 8 and 16 ppm; (dry weight). Industrial and agricultural arsenic is localised and relatively unimportant compared to the natural alluvial arsenic. Aquifers most typically contain groundwaters of no more than 10 microg L(-1), although scattered anomalous areas of 10 to 30 microg L(-1 )are also quite common. The most serious, but possibly ephemeral arsenic anomalies, of up to 600 microg L(-1), are associated with iron and organic-rich flood-plain sediments subject to very large flood-related fluctuations in water level, resulting in transient arsenopyrite dissolution under oxidizing conditions. In general, however, high-arsenic groundwaters result from the competing interaction between sorption and dissolution processes, in which arsenic is only released under reducing and slightly alkaline conditions. High arsenic groundwaters are found both in shallow water-tables, and in deeper aquifers of between 100 and 120 m depth. There is no evidence of widespread arsenicosis, but there are serious localised health-hazards, and some risk of low-level arsenic ingestion through indirect pathways, such as through contaminated rice and aquaculture. An almost ubiquitous presence of arsenic in soils, together with the likelihood of greatly increased groundwater extraction in the future, will require continuing caution in water resources development throughout the region. PMID:16027969

  10. Arsenic in benthic bivalves of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento\\/San Joaquin River Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLYN JOHNS; SAMUEL N. LUOMA

    1990-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were determined in fine-grained, oxidized, surface sediments and in two benthic bivalves, Corbicula sp. and Macoma balthica, within San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento\\/ San Joaquin River Delta, and selected rivers not influenced by urban or industrial activity. Arsenic concentrations in all samples were characteristic of values reported for uncontaminated estuaries. Small temporal fluctuations and low arsenic concentrations in

  11. Evaluation of urine acidification by urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap in chronic metabolic acidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheun-Ho Kim; Jin Suk Han; Yon Su Kim; Kwon Wook Joo; Suhnggwon Kim; Jung Sang Lee

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap as indirect markers of urine acidification in chronic metabolic acidosis, we evaluated urine ammonium (NH4+), net acid excretion (NAE), urine anion gap (Na+ + K+ ? Cl?), and urine osmolal gap (urine osmolality ? [2(Na+ + K+) + urea]) in 24 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF),

  12. Arsenic and antimony determination by on-line flow hydride generation glow discharge optical emission detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermo Orellana-Velado, Néstor; Fernández, Matilde; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathode (HC) and conventional flat cathode (FC) glow discharge (GD) optical emission spectrometry (OES) were used as detectors for the determination of arsenic and antimony by on-line hydride generation (HG) in a flow system. Both radiofrequency (rf) and direct current (dc) sources were investigated to produce the discharge. The design of the HC and FC and also the parameters governing the discharge (pressure, He flow rate, voltage, current and delivered power) and the HG (sodium borohydride concentration and reagent flow rates) were investigated using both cathodes. The analytical performance characteristics of HG-GD-OES with HC and FC were evaluated for some emission lines of arsenic (193.7, 200.3, 228.8 and 234.9 nm). The best detection limit (0.2 ?g l -1) was obtained when the emission line of 228.8 nm was used with FC. Under the same arsenic optimized experimental conditions, the system was evaluated to determine antimony at 259.7, 252.7 and 231.1 nm, 252.7 nm being the emission line which produced the best detection limit (0.7 ?g l -1). The rf-HC-GD-OES system was applied successfully to the determination of arsenic in freeze-dried urine in the standard reference material 2670 from NIST. Finally, a flow injection system was assayed to determine arsenic at 228.8 nm, using a dc-GD with both FC and HC. The results indicated that for low volumes of sample, the HC discharge allows better analytical signals than the FC.

  13. Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polly, J.; Delos Santos, D.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Santo, D.; Beier, J.

    2006-12-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified CCA as a restricted use product, for use only by certified pesticide applicators. Of the City of San Francisco's 142 play structures, 92 are constructed with CCA pressure-treated wood. Eighty-five were tested by the City of San Francisco and 34 play structures tested positive for As by wipe tests of the play structures themselves. The SF-ROCKS high school outreach program hypothesized that we would find significant levels of As and Cr, in the sand or clay below each structure due to the weathering and flaking off of the CCA-treated wood. We visited 18 of the playgrounds that showed the highest levels of As and sampled the sand and clay beneath the structures for the presence of transported As and Cr. We collected 2-3 samples from varying depth at each of the 11 playgrounds that had not yet been replaced by the City of San Francisco. Sand and clay samples were then extracted and analyzed for As and Cr totals. This study outlines the As and Cr concentrations present in the sand and clay below each CCA-treated wood play structure we visited in San Francisco.

  14. Can arsenic occurrence rate in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 ?g L–1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 ?g L–1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology.

  15. Coping with arsenic-based pesticides on Dine (Navajo) textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jae R.

    Arsenic-based pesticide residues have been detected on Arizona State Museum's (ASM) Dine (Navajo) textile collection using a handheld portable X-ray (pXRF) spectrometer. The removal of this toxic pesticide from historic textiles in museums collections is necessary to reduce potential health risks to Native American communities, museum professionals, and visitors. The research objective was divided into three interconnected stages: (1) empirically calibrate the pXRF instrument for arsenic contaminated cotton and wool textiles; (2) engineer an aqueous washing treatment exploring the effects of time, temperature, agitation, and pH conditions to efficiently remove arsenic from wool textiles while minimizing damage to the structure and properties of the textile; (3) demonstrate the devised aqueous washing treatment method on three historic Navajo textiles known to have arsenic-based pesticide residues. The preliminary results removed 96% of arsenic from a high arsenic concentration (~1000 ppm) textile opposed to minimal change for low arsenic concentration textiles (<100 ppm).

  16. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

  17. CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN

    E-print Network

    CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER concentrations, calcium concentrations, arsenic concentrations and pH after 100,000 years of simulated ground-water flow and reaction. View is from the northwest looking to the southeast. CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN p

  18. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  19. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  20. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests. Institutional mechanisms are not capable to prevent and resolve conflicts over water; moreover, data on water resources availability, use, and quality are not accessible for all parties, promoting a potential crisis on water governance. To revert this water resources crisis in the IB, a social participation is needed and supported with scientific information. Preliminary results on participatory approaches will be discussed.

  1. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the Body Works Main Page Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  2. Effect of thermal treatments on arsenic species contents in food.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2008-01-01

    In arsenic-endemic and other areas, food is an important path of exposure to this contaminant. Food is generally consumed in processed form, after a preservation treatment or cooking, which may alter the concentrations and chemical forms of arsenic. This article summarizes and discusses the work so far published on the effect that thermal treatment used in the cooking or processing of food, including sterilization and preservation stages, has on total arsenic and arsenic species contents. It also reviews possible transformations in arsenic species. The studies included use model systems or food products of marine or vegetable origin. Processing may cause a considerable increase or decrease in the real arsenic intake from food. For example, traditional washing and soaking of Hizikia fusiforme seaweed, which has very high inorganic arsenic contents, may reduce the contents by up to 60%. On the other hand, all the arsenic present in cooking water may be retained during boiling of rice, increasing the contents of this metalloid to significant levels from a toxicological viewpoint. This calls for modifications in arsenic risk assessment, hitherto based on analysis of the raw product. It is necessary to consider the effect of processing on total arsenic and arsenical species in order to obtain a realistic view of the risk associated with intake in arsenic-endemic and other areas. PMID:17928121

  3. Arsenic Contamination in Rice, Wheat, Pulses, and Vegetables: A Study in an Arsenic Affected Area of West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bhattacharya; A. C. Samal; J. Majumdar; S. C. Santra

    2010-01-01

    Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin is one of the major arsenic-contaminated hotspot in the world. To assess the level of severity\\u000a of arsenic contamination, concentrations of arsenic in irrigation water, soil, rice, wheat, common vegetables, and pulses,\\u000a intensively cultivated and consumed by the people of highly arsenic affected Nadia district, West Bengal, India, were investigated.\\u000a Results revealed that the arsenic-contaminated irrigation water (0.318–0.643 mg l-1)

  4. Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Vahter

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic, a documented human carcinogen, is methylated in the body by alternating reduction of pentavalent arsenic to trivalent and addition of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. Glutathione, and possibly other thiols, serve as reducing agents. The liver is the most important site of arsenic methylation, but most organs show arsenic methylating activity. The end metabolites are methylarsonic acid (MMA)

  5. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  6. Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Polly; D. Delos Santos; R. Negrete; S. Orellana; D. Santo; J. Beier

    2006-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified

  7. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 9 OCTOBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1283 Arsenic migration to deep groundwater in

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    . In the Bengal Basin, a growing reliance on groundwater sourced below 150-m depth--where arsenic concentrations waters are at risk of contamination due to replenishment with high-arsenic groundwater from above, even the influence of sediment adsorption on arsenic migration. Here, we inject arsenic-bearing groundwater

  8. Human exposure to arsenic in groundwater from Lahore district, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Mehwish; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined As concentrations in healthy volunteers from three different age groups (children, adults and old age) residing in Lahore, Pakistan to gain insight into arsenic exposure to humans via drinking water. The results revealed that the concentrations of As were significantly (p<0.05) different among different sites, while non significant trends were observed among different age classes. As concentrations in blood and nails samples showed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation. The mean concentrations of As were higher in nails samples (1.43?g/g) followed by blood samples (1.15?g/L); urine samples (0.82?g/l) and hair samples (0.74?g/g) based on all sites. The antioxidants enzyme activities in blood samples showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease with the increase in As concentrations. The result suggests that urgent action is needed to prevent further human exposure to As. PMID:25434761

  9. Arsenic accumulation, tolerance and genotypic variation in plants on arsenical mine wastes in S.W. England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Benson; E. K. Porter; P. J. Peterson

    1981-01-01

    Mine and smelter wastes in S.W.England, containing high concentrations of arsenic and other elements have been investigated. Several soil profiles were examined in detail for water soluble and ‘total’ arsenic, copper and iron levels. Macroelement and pH values were also obtained. The spoil material was highly acidic, deficient in macro?elements and contained elevated levels of arsenic and iron. Concentrations of

  10. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Oremland

    2006-01-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters,

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Low-level Population Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in the

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Low-level Population Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in the United States: Although studies have reported associations between high concentrations of ingested inorganic arsenic increase in diabetes at low concentrations of urinary arsenic. This potentially affects 40 million adults

  12. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  13. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  14. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN MOUSE BLADDER TISSUE IN RESPONSE TO INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic human exposures to high arsenic concentrations are associated with lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Considerable controversy exists concerning arsenic mode of action and low dose extrapolation. This investigation was designed to identify dose-response changes in gene expre...

  15. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  16. Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J. (Royal)

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

  17. Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

  18. Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Devesa, Vicenta; Adair, Blakely M.; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Styblo, Miroslav; Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) is a rat bladder carcinogen and the major urinary metabolite of administered inorganic arsenic in most mammals. This study examined the disposition of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after acute oral administration. Adult female mice were administered [14C]-DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) and sacrificed serially over 24 h. Tissues and excreta were collected for analysis of radioactivity. Other mice were administered unlabeled DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) or dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (0.6 mg As/kg) and sacrificed at 2 or 24 h. Tissues (2 h) and urine (24 h) were collected and analyzed for arsenicals. Absorption, distribution and excretion of [14C]-DMA(V) were rapid, as radioactivity was detected in tissues and urine at 0.25 h. For low dose DMA(V) mice, there was a greater fractional absorption of DMA(V) and significantly greater tissue concentrations of radioactivity at several time points. Radioactivity distributed greatest to the liver (1–2% of dose) and declined to less than 0.05% in all tissues examined at 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the 0.6 mg As/kg DMA(V) group. Conversely, fecal excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the high dose group. Urinary metabolites of DMA(V) included DMA(III), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. Urinary metabolites of DMA(III) included TMAO, dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. DMA(V) was also excreted by DMA(III)-treated mice, showing its sensitivity to oxidation. TMAO was detected in tissues of the high dose DMA(V) group. The low acute toxicity of DMA (V) in the mouse appears to be due in part to its minimal retention and rapid elimination. PMID:18036629

  19. Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail: hughes.michaelf@epa.gov; Devesa, Vicenta [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Adair, Blakely M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Styblo, Miroslav [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) is a rat bladder carcinogen and the major urinary metabolite of administered inorganic arsenic in most mammals. This study examined the disposition of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after acute oral administration. Adult female mice were administered [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) and sacrificed serially over 24 h. Tissues and excreta were collected for analysis of radioactivity. Other mice were administered unlabeled DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) or dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (0.6 mg As/kg) and sacrificed at 2 or 24 h. Tissues (2 h) and urine (24 h) were collected and analyzed for arsenicals. Absorption, distribution and excretion of [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) were rapid, as radioactivity was detected in tissues and urine at 0.25 h. For low dose DMA(V) mice, there was a greater fractional absorption of DMA(V) and significantly greater tissue concentrations of radioactivity at several time points. Radioactivity distributed greatest to the liver (1-2% of dose) and declined to less than 0.05% in all tissues examined at 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the 0.6 mg As/kg DMA(V) group. Conversely, fecal excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the high dose group. Urinary metabolites of DMA(V) included DMA(III), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. Urinary metabolites of DMA(III) included TMAO, dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. DMA(V) was also excreted by DMA(III)-treated mice, showing its sensitivity to oxidation. TMAO was detected in tissues of the high dose DMA(V) group. The low acute toxicity of DMA(V) in the mouse appears to be due in part to its minimal retention and rapid elimination.

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  1. Resistance to oxidative stress in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus after exposure to inorganic arsenic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanu Allen; Ritu Singhal; S. V. S. Rana

    2004-01-01

    The biochemical toxicity of arsenic trioxide (AsIII) in a freshwater edible fish Channa punctatus has been studied on exposures ranging from 7 to 90 d. The arsenic concentration increased exponentially in liver, kidney,\\u000a gills, and muscles of fish up to 60 d of exposure to arsenic. However, arsenic concentration in these tissues declined at\\u000a 90 d of exposure. This relationship

  2. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Schreiber; J. A. Simo; P. G. Freiberg

    2000-01-01

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000 7g\\/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical

  3. Arsenic in ground water in selected parts of southwestern Ohio, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann; Schumann, Thomas L.; Pletsch, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 57 domestic wells in Preble, Miami, and Shelby Counties, in southwestern Ohio. The median arsenic concentration was 7.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. Thirty-seven percent of samples had arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 ?g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations (>10 ?g/L) were detected over the entire range of depths sampled (42 to 221 feet) and in each of three aquifer types, Silurian carbonate bedrock, glacial buried-valley deposits, and glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel. One factor common in all samples with elevated arsenic concentrations was that iron concentrations were greater than 1,000 ?g/L. The observed correlations of arsenic with iron and alkalinity are consistent with the hypothesis that arsenic was released from iron oxides under reducing conditions (by reductive dissolution or reductive desorption). Comparisons among the three aquifer types revealed some differences in arsenic occurrence. For buried-valley deposits, the median arsenic concentration was 4.6 ?g/L, and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. There was no correlation between arsenic concentrations and depth; the highest concentrations were at intermediate depths (about 100 feet). Half of the buried-valley samples were estimated to be methanic. Most of the samples with elevated arsenic concentrations also had elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and ammonia. For carbonate bedrock, the median arsenic concentration was 8.0 ?g/L, and the maximum was 30.7 ?g/L. Arsenic concentrations increased with depth. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in iron- or sulfate-reducing samples. Arsenic was significantly correled with molybdenum, strontium, fluoride, and silica, which are components of naturally ocurring minerals. For glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel, half of the samples had elevated arsenic concentrations. The median was 11.4 ?g/L, and the maximum was 27.6 ?g/L. At shallow depths (<100 feet), this aquifer type had higher arsenic and iron concentrations than carbonate bedrock. It is not known whether these observed differences among aquifer types are related to variations in (1) arsenic content of the aquifer material, (2) organic carbon content of the aquifer material, (3) mechanisms of arsenic mobilization (or uptake), or (4) rates of arsenic mobilization (or uptake). A followup study that includes solid-phase analyses and geochemical modeling was begun in 2004 in northwestern Preble County.

  4. Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis Regression models Take-home points Arsenic and old models 2007 Andrew Gelman Arsenic and old models #12;Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis Regression models Arsenic and old models #12;Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis Regression models Take-home points

  5. Microbial Mineral Weathering for Nutrient Acquisition Releases Arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Alexandrova, E.; Keimowitz, A.; Wovkulich, K.; Freyer, G.; Stolz, J.; Kenna, T.; Pichler, T.; Polizzotto, M.; Dong, H.; Radloff, K. A.; van Geen, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tens of millions of people in Southeast Asia drink groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The process of arsenic release from the sediment to the groundwater remains poorly understood. Experiments were performed to determine if microbial mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition can serve as a potential mechanism for arsenic mobilization. We performed microcosm experiments with Burkholderia fungorum, phosphate free artificial groundwater, and natural apatite. Controls included incubations with no cells and with killed cells. Additionally, samples were treated with two spikes - an arsenic spike, to show that arsenic release is independent of the initial arsenic concentration, and a phosphate spike to determine whether release occurs at field relevant phosphate conditions. We show in laboratory experiments that phosphate-limited cells of Burkholderia fungorum mobilize ancillary arsenic from apatite as a by-product of mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition. The released arsenic does not undergo a redox transformation but appears to be solubilized from the apatite mineral lattice as arsenate during weathering. Apatite has been shown to be commonly present in sediment samples from Bangladesh aquifers. Analysis of apatite purified from the Ganges, Brahamputra, Meghna drainage basin shows 210 mg/kg of arsenic, which is higher than the average crustal level. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of the microbial phenotype that releases arsenic from apatite in Bangladesh sediments. These results suggest that microbial weathering for nutrient acquisition could be an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization.

  6. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  7. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    SciTech Connect

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  8. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    PubMed

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails. PMID:15028000

  9. TU & MA: ARSENIC UPTAKE BY THE HYPERACCUMULATOR LADDER BRAKE 641 reproductive growth of simulated and field-grown soybean. I. Seed-dynamics of N2-fixing, field-growing Alnus glutinosa under elevated

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    TU & MA: ARSENIC UPTAKE BY THE HYPERACCUMULATOR LADDER BRAKE 641 reproductive growth of simulated and nitrogen Effects of Arsenic Concentrations and Forms on Arsenic Uptake by the Hyperaccumulator Ladder Brake of arsenic-contaminated soils has thus become aLadder brake (Pteris vittata L.) is a newly discovered arsenic

  10. Tissue distribution of arsenic species in rabbits after single and multiple parenteral administration of arsenic trioxide: tissue accumulation and the reversibility after washout are tissue-selective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Jung Lin; Mei-Hwan Wu; Yu-Mei Hsueh; Selma Siu-Man Sun; Ann-Lii Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Parenteral administration of arsenic trioxide has recently been recognized as an effective antineoplastic therapy, especially for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Its efficacy and toxicity are concentration-dependent and are related to the fractions of different arsenic species and the degree of methylation. In this study, arsenic trioxide was given parenterally to rabbits as a single dose or as a

  11. Influence of GSTT1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Arsenic Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kile, Molly L; Houseman, E Andres; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Christiani, David C

    2013-08-01

    A repeated measures study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh to investigate factors that influence biomarkers of arsenic exposure. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary arsenic species [arsenite (As3), arsenate (As5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were detected using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HGAAS). Linear mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to evaluate the effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) on total urinary arsenic, primary methylation index [MMA/(As3+As5)], secondary methylation index (DMA/MMA), and total methylation index [(MMA+DMA)/(As3+As5)]. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were positively associated with total urinary arsenic concentrations and total methylation index. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between urinary arsenic exposure in drinking water GSTT1 but not GSTM1 where GSTT1 null individuals had a slightly higher excretion rate of arsenic compared to GSTT1 wildtypes after adjusting for other factors. Additionally, individuals with GSTT1 null genotypes had a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index compared to GSTT1 wildtype after adjusting for other factors. This data suggests that GSTT1 contributes to the observed variability in arsenic metabolism. Since individuals with a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index are more susceptible to arsenic related disease, these results suggest that GSTT1 null individuals may be more susceptible to arsenic-related toxicity. No significant associations were observed between GSTM1 and any of the arsenic methylation indices. PMID:24511153

  12. Phytoremediation of Arsenic by Macroalga: Implication in Natural Contaminated Water, Northeast Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereshteh, Ghassemzadeh; Yassaman, Babaee; Reza, Alavi Moghaddam Mohammad; Zavar, Arbab; Hossein, Mohammad

    This research has been accomplished in two separated phases. The aim of the first phase was to evaluate arsenic concentration in the surface water and plants in Chelpo area in different seasons. In addition, pH and DO in water samples were measured. The aim of this study at second phase was to investigate the efficiency of arsenic removal from surface water using macro-alga; Chara vulgaris. Four reactors were used in this study with the initial arsenic concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 300 µg LG1. Arsenic concentration in water and algae, pH of the media, initial and final weight of Chara vulgaris were measured during the experiment. High concentrations of arsenic were found in surface water of Chelpo area. The maximum contamination of arsenic (150 µg LG1) was observed in winter. It was found that the arsenic concentration in algae was high due to high affinity of the algae for arsenic uptake. The results of the second phase showed that Chara vulgaris could significantly remove arsenic from polluted water. The arsenic content of alga increased approximately to about 62.7 mg kgG1 dry weight in 19 days of exposure in the reactor with initial concentration of 300 µg LG1. The high arsenic accumulation ability of Chara vulgaris could reduce arsenic by averagely 66.25% in the contaminated water of the reactors.

  13. Arsenic management in shale oil upgrading.

    PubMed

    Sikonia, J G

    1985-06-01

    Although the timing remains uncertain, the production of synthetic crude from oil shale seems to be a likely response to diminishing petroleum reserves. Although not unique to shale oil, the presence of arsenic, ranging in concentration from a few to over 100 parts per million, poses a special concern.Arsenic is typically removed from the shale oil by a hydro-processing technique and is concentrated on a catalyst as thermally stable metal arsenides and metal arsenous sulfides. Because this arsenic is still slightly soluble in water, making the spent catalyst a hazardous material, passivation and extraction techniques were investigated to make the catalyst safe for disposal. Passivation techniques were not successful. While extraction procedures were capable of removing over 75% of the arsenic, treated material may still be acceptable. PMID:24221743

  14. Thermal effects on the accumulation of arsenic in green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, E M

    1976-01-01

    The pattern of arsenic concentration in several tissues of Lepomis cyanellus was measured (by neutron activation analysis) as a function of exposure time at 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees C and 0, 30, 60 ppm of arsenic as sodium arsenate. Individual variability of aresenic uptake did not override trends of greater uptake with increasing exposure time, temperature, and arsenic concentration. The mean temperature coefficient of 4.5 for arsenic uptake in livers was higher than O'Hara's (1968) metabolic figures of 1.6 to 3.0 for Lepomis species. The biological half-life of arsenic in liver and gut of live specimens exposed to 30 and 60 ppm of arsenic at 10 degrees C was about one week. Percentage survival decreased and mean arsenic uptake increased slightly as temperature and arsenic concentration increased. PMID:1267485

  15. Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Amini, Manouchehr; Abbaspour, Karim C; Berg, Michael; Winkel, Lenny; Hug, Stephan J; Hoehn, Eduard; Yang, Hong; Johnson, C Annette

    2008-05-15

    Contamination of groundwaters with geogenic arsenic poses a major health risk to millions of people. Although the main geochemical mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are well understood, the worldwide scale of affected regions is still unknown. In this study we used a large database of measured arsenic concentration in groundwaters (around 20,000 data points) from around the world as well as digital maps of physical characteristics such as soil, geology, climate, and elevation to model probability maps of global arsenic contamination. A novel rule-based statistical procedure was used to combine the physical data and expert knowledge to delineate two process regions for arsenic mobilization: "reducing" and "high-pH/ oxidizing". Arsenic concentrations were modeled in each region using regression analysis and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inferencing followed by Latin hypercube sampling for uncertainty propagation to produce probability maps. The derived global arsenic models could benefit from more accurate geologic information and aquifer chemical/physical information. Using some proxy surface information, however, the models explained 77% of arsenic variation in reducing regions and 68% of arsenic variation in high-pH/oxidizing regions. The probability maps based on the above models correspond well with the known contaminated regions around the world and delineate new untested areas that have a high probability of arsenic contamination. Notable among these regions are South East and North West of China in Asia, Central Australia, New Zealand, Northern Afghanistan, and Northern Mali and Zambia in Africa. PMID:18546706

  16. Substantial contribution of biomethylation to aquifer arsenic cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguffin, Scott C.; Kirk, Matthew F.; Daigle, Ashley R.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Jin, Qusheng

    2015-04-01

    Microbes play a prominent role in transforming arsenic to and from immobile forms in aquifers. Much of this cycling involves inorganic forms of arsenic, but microbes can also generate organic forms through methylation, although this process is often considered insignificant in aquifers. Here we identify the presence of dimethylarsinate and other methylated arsenic species in an aquifer hosted in volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. We find that dimethylarsinate is widespread in the aquifer and its concentration correlates strongly with arsenite concentration. We use laboratory incubation experiments and an aquifer injection test to show that aquifer microbes can produce dimethylarsinate at rates of about 0.1% of total dissolved arsenic per day, comparable to rates of dimethylarsinate production in surface environments. Based on these results, we estimate that globally, biomethylation in aquifers has the potential to transform 100 tons of inorganic arsenic to methylated arsenic species per year, compared with the 420-1,250 tons of inorganic arsenic that undergoes biomethylation in soils. We therefore conclude that biomethylation could contribute significantly to aquifer arsenic cycling. Because biomethylation yields arsine and methylarsines, which are more volatile and prone to diffusion than other arsenic species, we further suggest that biomethylation may serve as a link between surface and subsurface arsenic cycling.

  17. Arsenic loads in Spearfish Creek, western South Dakota, water years 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous small tributaries on the eastern flank of Spearfish Creek originate within a mineralized area with a long history of gold-mining activity. Some streams draining this area are known to have elevated concentrations of arsenic. One such tributary is Annie Creek, where arsenic concentrations regularly approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 mg/L (micrograms per liter) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A site on Annie Creek was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1991. This report presents information about arsenic loads and concentrations in Spearfish Creek and its tributaries, including Annie Creek. Stream types were classified according to geologic characteris- tics and in-stream arsenic concentrations. The first type includes streams that lack significant arsenic sources and have low in-stream arsenic concentra- tions. The second type has abundant arsenic sources and high in-stream concentrations. The third type has abundant arsenic sources but only moderate in-stream concentrations. The fourth type is a mixture of the first three types. Annual loads of dissolved arsenic were calculated for two reaches of Spearfish Creek to quantify arsenic loads at selected gaging stations during water years 1989-91. Mass-balance calculations also were performed to estimate arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows to Spearfish Creek. The drainage area of the upstream reach includes significant mineralized areas, whereas the drainage area of the downstream reach generally is without known arsenic sources. The average load of dissolved arsenic transported from the upstream reach of Spearfish Creek, which is representative of a type 4 stream, was 158 kilograms per year, calculated for station 06430900, Spearfish Creek above Spearfish. Gaged headwater tributaries draining unmineralized areas (type 1) contributed only 16 percent of the arsenic load in 63 percent of the discharge. Annie Creek (type 2), which has the highest measured arsenic concentra- tions in the Spearfish Creek drainage, contributed about 15 percent of the arsenic load in about 2 percent of the discharge of the upstream reach. Squaw Creek, which drains another mineralized area, but has only moderate in-stream concentrations (type 3), contributed 4 percent of the arsenic load in 5 percent of the discharge. Ungaged inflows to the reach contributed the remaining 65 percent of the arsenic load in 30 percent of the discharge. The calculated loads from ungaged inflows include all arsenic contributed by surface- and ground-water sources, as well as any additions of arsenic from dissolution of arsenic-bearing solid phases, or from desorption of arsenic from solid surfaces, within the streambed of the upstream reach. Mass-balance calculations indicate that dissolved arsenic concentrations of the ungaged inflows in the upstream reach averaged about 9 mg/L. In-stream arsenic concentrations of ungaged inflows from the unmineralized western flank of Spearfish Creek probably are generally low (type 1). Thus, in-stream arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows draining the mineralized eastern flank of Spearfish probably average almost twice that level, or about 18 mg/L. Some ungaged, eastern-flank inflows probably are derived from type 3 drainages, with only moderate arsenic concentrations. If so, other ungaged, eastern-flank inflows could have in-stream arsenic concentrations similar to those of Annie Creek. No significant arsenic sources were apparent in the downstream reach of Spearfish Creek. Over the course of the downstream reach, arsenic concentrations decreased somewhat, probably resulting from dilution, as well as from possible chemical adsorption to sediment surfaces or arsenic-phase precipitation. A decrease in arsenic loads resulted from various diversions from the creek and from the potential chemical removal processes. Because of a large margin of error associated with calculation o

  18. Arsenic and lead in an orchard environment

    SciTech Connect

    Aten, C.F.; Bourke, J.B.; Martini, J.H.; Walton, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of arsenic and lead in soil and plants taken from a New York State orchard was determined. High lead concentrations of 20 ppM at 25 cm depth in the orchard soil were traced to application of lead arsenate on orchard trees from 1929-65. Lead and arsenic levels in apples taken from the orchard were comparable to levels found in commercial fresh foods. (17 references, 3 tables)

  19. Arsenic speciation and transport in Pteris vittata L. and the effects on phosphorus in the xylem sap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Kertulis; L. Q. Ma; G. E. MacDonald; R. Chen; J. D. Winefordner; Y. Cai

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of arsenic (As) transport in Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern), the first known arsenic-hyperaccumulating plant, is important to understand how arsenic is detoxified in the fern. The effects of arsenic concentration and form on arsenic and phosphorus in xylem sap were investigated using hydroponics systems. Ferns were subjected to 0, 10 or 50mgAsl?1 as As(III), As(V), DMA

  20. Arsenic speciation based on ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with hydride generation atomic fluorescence and on-line UV photo oxidation.

    PubMed

    He, B; Jiang, G B; Xu, X

    2000-12-01

    An on-line method capable of the separation of arsenic species was developed for the speciation of arsenite As(III), arsenate As(V), monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) in biological samples. The method is based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) for separation, UV photo oxidation for sample digestion and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS) for sensitive detection. The best separation results were obtained with an anion-exchange AS11 column protected by an AG11 guard column, and gradient elution with NaH2PO4 and water as mobile phase. The on-line UV photo oxidation with 1.5% K2S2O8 in 0.2 mol L(-1) NaOH in an 8 m PTFE coil for 40 s ensures the digestion of organoarsenic compounds. Detection limits for the four species were in the range of 0.11-0.15 ng (20 microL injected). Procedures were validated by analysis of the certified reference materials GBW09103 freeze-dried human urine and the results were in good agreement with the certified values of total arsenic concentration. The method has been successfully applied to speciation studies of blood arsenic species with no need of sample pretreatment. Speciation of arsenic in blood samples collected from two patients after the ingestion of realgar-containing drug reveals slight increase of arsenite and DMA, resulting from the digestion of realgar. PMID:11227567

  1. Arsenic Mobilization from Contaminated Sediments: A Full-scale Experiment in Progress

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, P A; Campbell, K; Dixit, S; Hering, J G

    2004-02-03

    The mobilization of arsenic was examined in a system where the deposition of iron and arsenic have been substantially modified by large-scale manipulations. This engineering practice was designed to decrease arsenic concentrations in water supplied to the City of Los Angeles. Accomplishing this objective, however, has resulted in significant accumulation of arsenic and iron in the sediments of a reservoir on the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Arsenic and iron are released into the porewater at depth in the sediment, consistent with reductive dissolution of iron(III) oxyhydroxides. Factors influencing the possible re-sorption of arsenic onto residual iron(III) oxyhydroxides solids have been examined. Reduction of As(V) to As(III) alone cannot account for arsenic mobilization since arsenic occurs in the solid phase as As(III) well above the depth at which it is released into the porewater. Competition from other porewater constituents could suppress re-sorption of arsenic released by reductive dissolution.

  2. Arsenic compounds accumulated in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Katano; Yuka Matsuo; Ken’ichi Hanaoka

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the water-soluble arsenic compounds present in the soft tissues of both the pearl-free and the pearl-containing pearl oysters. After dividing the soft tissue into five parts, i.e., adductor muscle, foot, mantle, viscera and gill, each part was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the arsenic compounds accumulated in it.Arsenic concentration of each tissue part

  3. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  4. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning in the North of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariano E. Cebrian; Arnulfo Albores; Manuel Aguilar; Enrique Blakely

    1983-01-01

    1 We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations.2 The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg\\/l, and 0.007 mg\\/l in the control population.3 The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form.4 The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic

  5. Arsenic and Manganese Alter Lead Deposition in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, V; Mateus, ML; Santos, D; Aschner, M; Batoreu, MC; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) continues to be a major toxic metal in the environment. Pb exposure frequently occurs in the presence of other metals, such as arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn). Continued exposure to low levels of these metals may lead to long-term toxic effects due to their accumulation in several organs. Despite the recognition that metals in a mixture may alter each other’s toxicity by affecting deposition, there is dearth of information on their interactions in vivo. In this work, we investigated the effect of As and Mn on Pb tissue deposition, focusing on the kidney, brain and liver. Wistar rats were treated with 8 doses of each single metal, Pb (5 mg/Kg bw), As (60 mg/L) and Mn mg/Kg bw), or the same doses in a triple metal mixture. Kidney, brain, liver, blood and urine Pb, As and Mn concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pb kidney, brain and liver concentrations in the metal mixture-treated group were significantly increased compared to the Pb alone treated group, being more pronounced in the kidney (5.4 fold), brain (2.5 fold) and liver (1.6 fold). Urinary excretion of Pb in the metal mixture-treated rats significantly increased compared with the Pb treated group, although blood Pb concentrations were analogous to the Pb treated group. Co-treatment with As, Mn and Pb alters Pb deposition compared to Pb alone treatment, increasing Pb accumulation predominantly in kidney and brain. Blood Pb levels, unlike urine, do not reflect the increased Pb deposition in the kidney and brain. Taken together, the results suggest that the nephro- and neurotoxicity of “real-life” Pb exposure scenarios should be considered within the context of metal mixture exposures. PMID:24715659

  6. Arsenic speciation patterns in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Slejkovec, Zdenka; Bajc, Zlatka; Doganoc, Darinka Z

    2004-04-19

    Muscle of 16 freshwater fish (9 different species belonging to 4 different families) was analysed for arsenic species using HPLC separation (anion and cation exchange) followed by on-line UV-decomposition, hydride generation and AFS detection. The main arsenic compounds found in the extracts were arsenobetaine (AsB), which accounted for 92-100% of extractable arsenic in species of salmonids (Salmo marmoratus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta m. fario), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), which accounted for 75% of extractable arsenic in burbot (Lota lota). AsB was also found in lower concentrations in almost all other fish species analysed (Silurus glanis, L. lota, Barbus barbus, Rutilus pigus virgo, Chondrostoma nasus). Arsenite (As(III)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were detected in low concentrations in some representatives of Cyprinidae only (R. pigus virgo, C. nasus). Except in salmonids, an unknown cationic compound was present in most of the samples in relatively low concentrations. Cluster analysis of the generated data seems to indicate that there is a correlation between fish family and the arsenic speciation pattern. This is especially clear for the salmonids which show a completely separate cluster and thus a very distinct arsenic speciation pattern. PMID:18969382

  7. Reverse Osmosis Filter Use and High Arsenic Levels in Private Well Water

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine M.; Smith, Allan H.; Kalman, David A.; Steinmaus, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic causes cancer, and millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. Regulatory standards for arsenic levels in drinking water generally do not apply to private domestic wells. Reverse osmosis (RO) units commonly are used by well owners to reduce arsenic concentrations, but may not always be effective. In a survey of 102 homes in Nevada, 19 used RO devices. Pre- and post-RO filtration arsenic concentrations averaged 443 ?g/l and 87 ?g/l, respectively. The average absolute and percent reductions in arsenic concentrations after filtration were 356 ?g/l and 79%, respectively. Postfiltration concentrations were higher than 10 ?g/l in 10 homes and higher than 100 ?g/l in 4 homes. These findings provide evidence that RO filters do not guarantee safe drinking water and, despite regulatory standards, some people continue to be exposed to very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:17867571

  8. ARSENIC RESEARCH AT GWERD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - The presentation will summarize the arsenic research program at the Ground Water & Ecosystems Restoration Division of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of USEPA. Topics include use of permeable reactive barriers for in situ arsenic remediation in ground...

  9. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Arsenic in benthic bivalves of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johns, C.; Luoma, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were determined in fine-grained, oxidized, surface sediments and in two benthic bivalves, Corbicula sp. and Macoma balthica, within San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta, and selected rivers not influenced by urban or industrial activity. Arsenic concentrations in all samples were characteristic of values reported for uncontaminated estuaries. Small temporal fluctuations and low arsenic concentrations in bivalves and sediments suggest that most inputs of arsenic are likely to be minor and arsenic contamination is not widespread in the Bay.

  11. Arsenic in benthic bivalves of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

    PubMed

    Johns, C; Luoma, S N

    1990-11-01

    Arsenic concentrations were determined in fine-grained, oxidized, surface sediments and in two benthic bivalves, Corbicula sp. and Macoma balthica, within San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta, and selected rivers not influenced by urban or industrial activity. Arsenic concentrations in all samples were characteristic of values reported for uncontaminated estuaries. Small temporal fluctuations and low arsenic concentrations in bivalves and sediments suggest that most inputs of arsenic are likely to be minor and arsenic contamination is not widespread in the Bay. PMID:2084842

  12. Vanadium in the blood and urine of workers in a ferroalloy plant.

    PubMed

    Gylseth, B; Leira, H L; Steinnes, E; Thomassen, Y

    1979-09-01

    The concentration of vanadium in the blood and urine of both nonexposed and occupationally exposed workers have been determined by neutron activation analysis. A comparison of the exposure data and the corresponding blood and urine values shows that the urine vanadium concentration adjusted for creatinine concentration is the most reliable exposure indicator. The normal levels of vanadium in blood are less than 20 nmol/l. The corresponding urine values are less than 3.5 nmol/mmol of creatinine. PMID:20120566

  13. Soil redox-pH stability of arsenic species and its influence on arsenic uptake by rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Marin; P. H. Masscheleyn; W. H. Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Arsenic absorption by rice (Oryza sativa, L.) in relation to As chemical form present in soil solution was examined. Rice plants were grown in soil suspensions equilibrated under selected conditions of redox and pH, affecting arsenic solubility and speciation. A decrease in pH led to higher dissolved arsenic concentrations. When the soil redox potential dropped below 0 mV, most of

  14. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

  15. Contribution of arsenic species in unicellular algae to the cycling of arsenic in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    This review investigates the arsenic species produced by and found in marine unicellular algae to determine if unicellular algae contribute to the formation of arsenobetaine (AB) in higher marine organisms. A wide variety of arsenic species have been found in marine unicellular algae including inorganic species (mainly arsenate--As(V)), methylated species (mainly dimethylarsenate (DMA)), arsenoribosides (glycerol, phosphate, and sulfate) and metabolites (dimethylarsenoethanol (DMAE)). Subtle differences in arsenic species distributions exist between chlorophyte and heterokontophyte species with As(V) commonly found in water-soluble cell fractions of chlorophyte species, while DMA is more common in heterokontophyte species. Additionally, different arsenoriboside species are found in each phyla with glycerol and phosphate arsenoribosides produced by chlorophytes, whereas glycerol, phosphate, and sulfate arsenoribosides are produced by heterokontophytes, which is similar to existing data for marine macro-algae. Although arsenoribosides are the major arsenic species in many marine unicellular algal species, AB has not been detected in unicellular algae which supports the hypothesis that AB is formed in marine animals via the ingestion and further metabolism of arsenoribosides. The observation of significant DMAE concentrations in some unicellular algal cultures suggests that unicellular algae-based detritus contains arsenic species that can be further metabolized to form AB in higher marine organisms. Future research establishing how environmental variability influences the production of arsenic species by marine unicellular algae and what effect this has on arsenic cycling within marine food webs is essential to clarify the role of these organisms in marine arsenic cycling. PMID:25443092

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  17. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  18. ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-the-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation also includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research st...

  19. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  20. NEVADA ARSENIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to arsenic in U.S. drinking water at low levels are difficult to assess. In particular, studies of sufficient sample size on US populations exposed to arsenic in drinking water are few. Churchill County, NV (population 25000) has arsenic levels in drinki...

  1. HUMAN CARCINOGENESIS BY ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is one of the few human carcinogens for which there is not yet a reliable animal cancer model. s such, the classification of arsenic as a carcinogen is based upon data derived from human epidemiologic studies. Although the mechanisms of action of arsenic as a toxic agent ...

  2. ARSENIC SOURCES AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has identified a number of potential and current links between environmental arsenic releases and the management of operational and abandoned landfills. Many landfills will receive an increasing arsenic load due to the disposal of arsenic-bearing solid residuals ...

  3. Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608

  4. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    PubMed Central

    An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnosed based on skin lesions and urinary arsenic excretion. Non-cancerous toxicities and malignancies were much more common and severe in these patients than in other arsenic-affected populations around the world. The high incidence of cancer and arsenic-related mortality in this cohort is alarming. Chelation therapy was performed but the long-term therapeutic effects are not satisfactory. The best prevention strategy is to eliminate arsenic exposure. Funds from the Chinese Government are currently available to solve this arsenic exposure problem. Strategies include the installation of vented stoves, the use of marsh gas to replace coal, health education, the improvement of nutritional status, and the use of various therapies to treat arsenic-induced skin and liver diseases. PMID:17366768

  5. Iron and aluminium based adsorption strategies for removing arsenic from water.

    PubMed

    Giles, Dion E; Mohapatra, Mamata; Issa, Touma B; Anand, Shashi; Singh, Pritam

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic is a commonly occurring toxic metal in natural systems and is the root cause of many diseases and disorders. Occurrence of arsenic contaminated water is reported from several countries all over the world. A great deal of research over recent decades has been motivated by the requirement to lower the concentration of arsenic in drinking water and the need to develop low cost techniques which can be widely applied for arsenic removal from contaminated water. This review briefly presents iron and aluminium based adsorbents for arsenic removal. Studies carried out on oxidation of arsenic(III) to arsenic(V) employing various oxidising agents to facilitate arsenic removal are briefly mentioned. Effects of competing ions, As:Fe ratios, arsenic(V) vs. arsenic(III) removal using ferrihydrite as the adsorbent have been discussed. Recent efforts made for investigating arsenic adsorption on iron hydroxides/oxyhydroxides/oxides such as granular ferric hydroxide, goethite, akaganeite, magnetite and haematite have been reviewed. The adsorption behaviours of activated alumina, gibbsite, bauxite, activated bauxite, layered double hydroxides are discussed. Point-of-use adsorptive remediation methods indicate that Sono Arsenic filter and Kanchan™ Arsenic filter are in operation at various locations of Bangladesh and Nepal. The relative merits and demerits of such filters have been discussed. Evaluation of kits used for at-site arsenic estimation by various researchers also forms a part of this review. PMID:21871703

  6. Measurement of arsenic and gallium content of gallium arsenide semiconductor waste streams by ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith W. Torrance; Helen E. Keenan; Andrew S. Hursthouse; David Stirling

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of semiconductor wafer processing liquid waste, contaminated by heavy metals, was investigated to determine arsenic content. Arsenic and gallium concentrations were determined for waste slurries collected from gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer processing at three industrial sources and compared to slurries prepared under laboratory conditions. The arsenic and gallium content of waste slurries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma

  7. Arsenic removal by coagulation and filtration: comparison of groundwaters from the United States and Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Wickramasinghe; Binbing Han; J. Zimbron; Z. Shen; M. N. Karim

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a concern in many parts of the world. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency recently reduced the maximum contaminant level of arsenic in drinking water from 50 to 10 ?\\/L (ppb). In Bangladesh the arsenic concentration in drinking water can be as high as hundreds of parts per billion while the maximum

  8. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Precipitation, Adsorption or Cementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Robins; Tadahisa Nishimura; Pritam Singh

    The removal of arsenic from process solutions and effluents has been practised by the mineral process industries for many years. More recently, because of the recognition that arsenic at low concentrations in drinking water causes severe health effects, the technologies that have been used in the mineral industry are being applied to that situation. Removal of arsenic in process solutions

  9. Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater: A Global Perspective with Emphasis on the Asian Scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitava Mukherjee; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; M. Amir Hossain; Sad Ahamed; Bhaskar Das; Bishwajit Nayak; Dilip Lodh; Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman; Dipankar Chakraborti

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water has emerged as a major public- health problem. With newer-affected sites discovered during the last decade, a significant change has been observed in the global scenario of arsenic contamination, especially in Asian countries. This communication presents an overview of the current scenario of arsenic contamination in countries across the globe with

  10. MODELING DIETARY CONTRIBUTIONS TO ARSENIC DOSE AND METHYLATION: ELUCIDATING PREDICTIVE LINKAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will generate and validate arsenic exposure indicators based on diet over a range of drinking water arsenic concentrations and a health outcome indicator modeling the effect of diet on arsenic methylation. These indicators will provide a means of assessing the impac...

  11. Effect of arsenic doping on ^311 defect dissolution in silicon Richard Brindos,a)

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Effect of arsenic doping on ^311 defect dissolution in silicon Richard Brindos,a) Patrick Keys into silicon wafers with background concentrations of arsenic ranging from 1 1017 to 3 1019 cm 3 to study the interaction between arsenic atoms and excess self-interstitials. Samples were then annealed at 750 °C

  12. INFLUENCE DE SUBSTRATS ORGANIQUES SUR LA CINETIQUE BACTERIENNE D'OXYDATION DE L'ARSENIC III

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INFLUENCE DE SUBSTRATS ORGANIQUES SUR LA CINETIQUE BACTERIENNE D'OXYDATION DE L'ARSENIC III'objectif de ce travail a été d'estimer l'influence d'un apport d'extrait de levure sur la spéciation de l'arsenic concentrations originales en matičre organique. INTRODUCTION L'arsenic (As) est un métalloďde appartenant au

  13. Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debendra N Guha; Reina Haque; Allan H Smith

    1998-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional survey was conducted between April 1995 and March 1996 to investigate arsenic-associated skin lesions of keratosis and hyperpigmentation in West Bengal, India, and to determine their relationship to arsenic water levels. Methods In all, 7683 participants were examined and interviewed, and the arsenic levels in their drinking water measured. Results Although water concentrations ranged up to 3400

  14. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W. [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Thomas, David J. [Pharmacokinetics Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711 (United States); Styblo, Miroslav, E-mail: styblo@med.unc.ed [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-2774 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to the interspecies differences in the hepatocyte capacity to methylate iAs.

  15. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:2986442

  16. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1984-11-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration through the lung or gastrointestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:6095633

  17. Associations between Arsenic Species in Exfoliated Urothelial Cells and Prevalence of Diabetes among Residents of Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Cerón, Roberto Hernández; Morales, Damián Viniegra; Terrazas, Francisco A. Baeza; Del Razo, Luz M.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Fry, Rebecca C.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Buse, John B.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing number of studies link chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with the risk of diabetes. Many of these studies assessed iAs exposure by measuring arsenic (As) species in urine. However, this approach has been criticized because of uncertainties associated with renal function and urine dilution in diabetic individuals. Objectives: Our goal was to examine associations between the prevalence of diabetes and concentrations of As species in exfoliated urothelial cells (EUC) as an alternative to the measures of As in urine. Methods: We measured concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent iAs methyl-As (MAs) and dimethyl-As (DMAs) species in EUC from 374 residents of Chihuahua, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We used fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported diabetes diagnoses or medication to identify diabetic participants. Associations between As species in EUC and diabetes were estimated using logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Results: Interquartile-range increases in trivalent, but not pentavalent, As species in EUC were positively and significantly associated with diabetes, with ORs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.07) for iAsIII, 1.63 (1.24, 2.15) for MAsIII, and 1.31 (0.96, 1.84) for DMAsIII. DMAs/MAs and DMAs/iAs ratios were negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.83 and OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.96, respectively). Conclusions: Our data suggest that uncertainties associated with measures of As species in urine may be avoided by using As species in EUC as markers of iAs exposure and metabolism. Our results provide additional support to previous findings suggesting that trivalent As species may be responsible for associations between diabetes and chronic iAs exposure. Citation: Currier JM, Ishida MC, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutiérrez-Torres DS, Hernández Cerón R, Viniegra Morales D, Baeza Terrazas FA, Del Razo LM, García-Vargas GG, Saunders RJ, Drobná Z, Fry RC, Matoušek T, Buse JB, Mendez MA, Loomis D, Stýblo M. 2014. Associations between arsenic species in exfoliated urothelial cells and prevalence of diabetes among residents of Chihuahua, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:1088–1094;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307756 PMID:25000461

  18. Earthworms Produce phytochelatins in Response to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Alan J.; Bennett, Mark H.; Morris, Ceri A.; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations. PMID:24278409

  19. Environmental assessment of arsenic released from potential pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Bignoli, G; Sabbioni, E

    1984-03-01

    An assessment study of the environmental pathways of arsenic released from a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) or introduced into soil as a contaminant by phosphatic fertilizers has been carried out using a time-dependent forecasting model.The long-term predictions indicate that arsenic can be taken up by plants and that it can migrate into the groundwater system through soil layers. However, arsenic exhibits such a high degree of mobility that its retention and accumulation in biota should remain low. This fact may explain the relatively low concentrations of arsenic in environmental media as well as in groundwater systems. PMID:24259146

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reina Haque; D. N. Guha Mazumder; Sambit Samanta; Nilima Ghosh; David Kalman; Meera M. Smith; Soma Mitra; Amal Santra; Sarbari Lahiri; Binay K. De; Allan H. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Background. Over 6 million people live in areas of West Bengal, India, where groundwater sources are contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-re- sponse relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin keratoses and hyperpigmentation. Methods. We selected cases (persons with arsenic-induced skin lesions) and age-

  1. Arsenic in ground-water under oxidizing conditions, south-west United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick N. Robertson

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved arsenic in ground-water in alluvial basins of Arizona commonly exceed 50 µg L-1 and reach values as large as 1,300 µg L-1. Arsenic speciation analyses show that arsenic occurs in the fully oxidized state of plus 5 (As+5), most likely in the form of HAsO4~2, under existing oxidizing and pH conditions. Arsenic in source areas presumably is

  2. Arsenic removal from flowing irrigation water in bangladesh: impacts of channel properties.

    PubMed

    Lineberger, Ethan M; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2013-11-01

    Across Bangladesh, dry-season irrigation with arsenic-contaminated well water is loading arsenic onto rice paddies, leading to increased arsenic concentrations in plants, diminished crop yields, and increased human health risks. As irrigation water flows through conveyance channels between wells and rice fields, arsenic concentrations change over space and time, indicating that channels may provide a location for removing arsenic from solution. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the processes controlling arsenic concentrations in irrigation channels, limiting the ability to manipulate these systems and enhance arsenic removal from solution. The central goal of this study was to quantify how channel design affected removal of dissolved arsenic from flowing irrigation water. Field experiments were conducted in Bangladesh using a chemically constant source of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water and an array of constructed channels with varying geometries. The resulting hydraulic conditions affected the quantity of arsenic removed from solution within the channels by promoting known hydrogeochemical processes. Channels three times the width of control channels removed ?3 times the mass of arsenic over 32 min of flowing conditions, whereas negligible arsenic removal was observed in tarp-lined channels, which prevented soil-water contact. Arsenic removal from solution was ?7 times higher in a winding, 200-m-long channel than in the straight, 45-m-long control channels. Arsenic concentrations were governed by oxidative iron-arsenic coprecipitation within the water column, sorption to soils, and phosphate competition. Collectively, these results suggest that better design and management of irrigation channels may play a part in arsenic mitigation strategies for rice fields in Southern Asia. PMID:25602413

  3. The effect of arsenic contamination on amino acids metabolism in Spinacia oleracea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Pavlík; Daniela Pavlíková; Ludmila Staszková; Marek Neuberg; Regina Kaliszová; Ji?ina Száková; Pavel Tlustoš

    2010-01-01

    Changes of amino acid concentrations (proline, glutamate, asparagine, aspartate, alanine) and glutamate kinase activity (GKA) in plants under arsenic chronic stress reported here reveal their role in plant arsenic stress adaptation. Results of the pot experiment confirmed the toxic effect of arsenic at tested levels (As1=25mgAskg?1 soil, As2=50mgAskg?1 soil, As3=75mgAskg?1 soil) for spinach. Growing available arsenic contents in soil were

  4. Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences Lab., Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Arsenic has a complex marine biogeochemistry that has important implications for its toxicity to marine organisms and their consumers. The average concentration of total arsenic in the ocean is about 1.7 {micro}g/L, about two orders of magnitude higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency`s human health criterion value of 0.0175 {micro}g/L. The dominant form of arsenic in oxygenated marine and brackish waters in arsenate (As V). The more toxic and potentially carcinogenic arsenite (As III) rarely accounts for more than 20% of total arsenic in seawater. Uncontaminated marine sediments contain from 5 to about 40 {micro}g/g dry weight total arsenic. Arsenate dominates in oxidized sediments and is associated primarily with iron oxyhydroxides. In reducing marine sediments, arsenate is reduced to arsenite and is associated primarily with sulfide minerals. Marine algae accumulate arsenate from seawater, reduce it to arsenite, and then oxidize the arsenite to a large number of organoarsenic compounds. The algae release arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid to seawater. Dissolved arsenite and arsenate are more toxic to marine phytoplankton than to marine invertebrates and fish. This may be due to the fact that marine animals have a limited ability to bioconcentrate inorganic arsenic from seawater but can bioaccumulate organoarsenic compounds from their food. Tissues of marine invertebrates and fish contain high concentrations of arsenic, usually in the range of about 1 to 100 {micro}g/g dry weight, most of it in the form of organoarsenic compounds, particularly arsenobetaine. Organoarsenic compounds are bioaccumulated by human consumers of seafood products, but the arsenic is excreted rapidly, mostly as organoarsenic compounds. Arsenobetaine, the most abundant organoarsenic compound in seafoods, is not toxic or carcinogenic to mammals. Little of the organoarsenic accumulated by humans from seafood is converted to toxic inorganic arsenite.

  5. Excretion of corticosteroid metabolites in urine and faeces of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bamberg; R. Palme; J. G. Meingassner

    2001-01-01

    Summary Stress enhances the production of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, resulting in the increased excretion of their metabolites in urine and faeces. An intraperitoneal injection of radioactive corticosterone was applied to adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats to monitor the route and delay of excreted metabolites in urine and faeces. Peak concentrations appeared in urine after 3.2 1.9 h and in

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  7. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yu [Departments of Environmental Medicine and Medicine and New York University Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin [Columbia University Arsenic Research Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Argos, Maria [Departments of Health Studies, Medicine and Human Genetics and Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Ahsan, Habibul [Departments of Health Studies, Medicine and Human Genetics and Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)], E-mail: habib@uchicago.edu

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 {mu}g/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 {mu}g/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 {mu}g/L, mean 99 {mu}g/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  8. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy J. Alaerts; Nadim Khouri

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no

  9. RELEASE OF ARSENIC FROM MINERALS TO THE WATER PHASE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Hong Con; Nguyen Thi Hanh; Michael Berg; Pham Hung Viet

    Severe and widespread contamination by arsenic in groundwater and drinking water has been recently revealed in rural and sub-urban areas of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi with similar magnitude as observed in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. This fact has prompted the need to investigate the possible mechanisms for such widespread contamination and develop suitable techniques for lowering arsenic concentrations

  10. Mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic in an abandoned mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Otones; E. Álvarez-Ayuso; A. García-Sánchez; I. Santa Regina; A. Murciego

    2011-01-01

    The mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic in an area affected by the abandoned exploitation of an arsenical tungsten–tin deposit was studied to establish the current and eventual environmental risks and to propose possible remediation practices. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analyzed for their As content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations

  11. ARSENIC SEDIMENTATION ALONG THE SLOPE OF A LAKE BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Lansing, Michigan was treated with sodium arsenite for macrophyte control in 1957. even 1.5-m sediment cores were taken along a line through the littoral zone to the deepest portion of the lake and analyzed for arsenic. n each core, arsenic concentrations going from the surf...

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR DRINKING WATER IN VIETNAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Hung Viet; Tran Hong Con; Nguyen Van Tin; Michael Berg; Walter Giger; Roland Schertenleib

    Severe and widespread contamination by arsenic in groundwater and drinking water has been recently revealed in rural and sub-urban areas of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi with similar magnitudes as observed in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. This fact has prompted the need to develop simple, rapid and low-cost techniques for lowering arsenic concentrations in supplied water. In the present

  13. Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwaters of the midwestern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nic Korte

    1991-01-01

    High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic are present in alluvial groundwater systems in the midwestern United States. These occurrences tend to be sporadic because the arsenic is mobilized only under a narrow range of redox conditions. The reducing conditions must be sufficient to reduce and dissolve iron and manganese but not to produce sulfide. Typically, the affected aquifers are relatively

  14. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  15. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. An approach to the arsenic status in cardiovascular tissues of patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Román, D A; Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Cámara, C; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M M; Solar, C

    2011-09-01

    Among non-cancer effects of arsenic, cardiovascular diseases have been well documented; however, few are known about the arsenic fate in cardiovascular tissues. We studied the analytic bioinorganic arsenic behaviour in cardiovascular tissues from an arsenic exposure coronary heart disease patient group from Antofagasta-Chile against a small unexposed arsenic coronary heart patient group. Total arsenic concentrations were measured in pieces of cardiovascular tissues of the arsenic-exposed and unexposed coronary heart patient groups by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS); speciation analysis was made by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Pieces of auricle (AU), mammary artery (MAM), saphenous vein (SAP) and fat residuals (FAT) were considered in this study. The arsenic concentrations in AU and MAM tissues were significantly different between both groups of patients. Also, it was demonstrated that the AU is an 'As(3+) target tissue.' Otherwise, linking of the total concentrations of arsenic with conditional variables and variables related to medical geology factors allowed us to infer that the latter are more important for the cardiovascular risk of arsenic exposure in the Antofagasta region. Knowledge of total arsenic and the prevalence of the trivalent ion (As(3+)) in the AU of patients could contribute to understanding the effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21088065

  17. Effects of abomasal infusion of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil on microbial ?-glucuronidase activity and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo; Zeoula, Lucia M; Gagnon, N; Petit, Hélčne V

    2013-02-14

    Ruminal microbiota plays an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into mammalian lignans. The main mammalian lignan present in the milk of dairy cows fed flax products is enterolactone (EL). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of flax oil on the metabolism of flax lignans and concentrations of EL in biological fluids of dairy cows. A total of six rumen-cannulated dairy cows were assigned within a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of six treatments utilising flax hulls (0 and 15·9 % of DM) and abomasal infusion of flax oil (0, 250 and 500 g/d). There were six periods of 21 d each. Samples were collected during the last 7 d of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. Flax hull supplementation increased concentrations of EL in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk, while flax oil infusion had no effect. Post-feeding, ?-glucuronidase activity in the ruminal fluid of cows infused with 250 g flax oil was significantly lower for cows fed hulls than for those fed the control diet. The present study demonstrated that the presence of a rich source of n-3 fatty acids such as flax oil in the small intestine does not interfere with the absorption of the mammalian lignan EL and that lower ruminal ?-glucuronidase activity had no effect on the conversion of flax lignans into EL in the rumen of dairy cows. PMID:22717302

  18. Arsenic mobilization in the critical zone: Oxidation by hydrous manganese oxide Jason S. Fischel, fischjs06@juniata.edu1

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Arsenic mobilization in the critical zone: Oxidation by hydrous manganese oxide GEOC 112 Jason S manganese (Mn) oxides, even in low concentrations, to oxidize trace metals such as arsenic from arsenite [As

  19. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN EDIBLE BIOTA TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE SOURCE CONTRIBUTION FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development has designated the study of arsenic as a high priority research area because of the health risk associated from exposure to this element. Present monitoring efforts are primarily focused on total concentration of arsenic in drinking water. ...

  20. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  1. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  2. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a "clean-catch" (midstream) urine sample: Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean ... the health care provider or assistant. Wash your hands again with soap and water. The sample is then taken to ...

  3. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the ureter joins the kidney, only the kidney swells. The ureter remains a normal size. UPJ obstruction ... urine backs up and causes the ureters to swell, called hydroureter, and hydronephrosis. Swelling in the kidney ...

  4. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  5. Seasonal concentrations, contamination levels, and health risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in the suspended particulate matter from an urban household environment in a metropolitan city, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Y; Liu, L Y; Guo, L L; Lv, Y L; Zhang, G M; Lei, J; Liu, W T; Xiong, Y Y; Wen, H M

    2015-07-01

    The levels and health risks of arsenic and heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from an urban household environment in Beijing of China for 12 months were investigated. The mean concentrations of the studied toxic elements were higher and lower than crustal abundance and PM2.5 in the urban outdoors of Beijing. The concentrations of the studied elements displayed significant seasonality. The highest concentrations of the total elements occurred in winter, followed by autumn, while the lowest concentrations were recorded in summer. Based on the calculated values of enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), the levels for As and Cu were heavily contaminated, while those for Cd, Pb, and Zn were extremely contaminated. As and Pb might pose risks to children and adults via ingestion exposure. The accumulative risks of multi-elements resulted from dermal contact and inhalation exposures were not negligible. More attention should be paid to reducing the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed by the toxic elements bound to urban household SPM particles via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure. PMID:26048587

  6. CZE for the speciation of arsenic in aqueous soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Kristin; Schmidt, Anne-Christine; Köhler, Stefan; Otto, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    We developed two separation methods using CZE with UV detection for the determination of the most common inorganic and methylated arsenic species and some phenylarsenic compounds. Based on the separation method for anions using hydrodynamic sample injection the detection limits were 0.52, 0.25, 0.27, 0.12, 0.37, 0.6, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.0 mg As/L for phenylarsine oxide (PAO), p-aminophenylarsonic acid (p-APAA), o-aminophenylarsonic (o-APAA), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid (roxarsone), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenite or arsenious acid (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), respectively. These detection limits were improved by large-volume sample stacking with polarity switching to 32, 28, 14, 42, 22, 27, 26 and 27 microg As/L for p-APAA, o-APAA, PAA, roxarsone, MMA, DMA, As(III) and As(V), respectively. We have applied both methods to the analysis of the arsenic species distribution in aqueous soil extracts. The identification of the arsenic species was validated by means of both standard addition and comparison with standard UV spectra. The comparison of the arsenic species concentrations in the extracts determined by CZE with the total arsenic concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) indicated that CZE is suited for the speciation of arsenic in environmental samples with a high arsenic content. The extraction yield of phenylarsenic compounds from soil was derived from the arsenic concentrations of the aqueous soil extracts and the total arsenic content of the soil determined by ICP-AES after microwave digestion. We found that 6-32% of the total amount of arsenic in the soil was extractable by a one-step extraction with water in dependence on the type of arsenic species. PMID:17847131

  7. Arsenic in Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

  8. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC. Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast, there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis. Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  9. Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can contribute to skin, bladder, and other cancers (National Research Council, 1999). Recently, the National Research Council (1999) recommended lowering the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed for arsenic in drinking water of 50 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), citing risks for developing bladder and other cancers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) will propose a new, and likely lower, arsenic MCL during 2000 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). This fact sheet provides information on where and to what extent natural concentrations of arsenic in ground water exceed possible new standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and analyzed arsenic in potable (drinkable) water from 18,850 wells in 595 counties across the United States during the past two decades. These wells are used for irrigation, industrial purposes, and research, as well as for public and private water supply. Arsenic concentrations in samples from these wells are similar to those found in nearby public supplies (see Focazio and others, 1999). The large number of samples, broad geographic coverage, and consistency of methods produce a more accurate and detailed picture of arsenic concentrations than provided by any previous studies.

  10. Detection of hydatid antigen in urine by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Parija, S C; Ravinder, P T; Rao, K S

    1997-01-01

    Hydatid antigen was demonstrated for the first time in the urine of patients with hydatid disease by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). The antigen was detected in the concentrated urine of 7 of 16 (43.75% positive) patients with surgically confirmed hydatid disease, 4 of 10 (40% positive) patients with ultrasound-proven hydatid disease (daughter cysts or prominent septation and hydatid sands demonstrated by ultrasound), and 8 of 14 (57.14% positive) patients with clinically diagnosed (presumptive) hydatid disease. No antigen was detected in the concentrated urine from 24 patients with parasitic diseases other than hydatid disease. However, antigen was detected in 2 (8% false positive) of 25 concentrated urine samples collected from healthy control subjects (blood donors and students). These result suggest that the detection of hydatid antigen in the urine by CIEP is a simple, rapid, and noninvasive method of diagnosis of hydatid disease. PMID:9163484

  11. Arsenic trioxide binding to serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Shooshtary, Sara; Behtash, Sima; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) also known as Trisenox, is an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug which has been used in treating diagnosed and relapsed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Serum albumin is the most abundant of the proteins in blood plasma and is the major transporter for delivering several drugs in vivo. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential ability of human and bovine serum albumin for delivering arsenic trioxide. Therefore, interaction of arsenic trioxide with HSA and BSA was investigated in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to analyze arsenic trioxide and protein binding modes, the binding constants and the effect of drug complexation on HSA and BSA stability and conformation. Results of this study showed that drug complexation altered protein conformation by major reduction of ?-helix and increase of turn structure which is indicative of a partial protein destabilization. Structural analysis revealed that arsenic trioxide bind HSA and BSA with overall binding constants of KATO-HSA=1.07 (±0.01)×10(4)M(-1) and KATO-BSA=1.27(±0.02)×10(4)M(-1). It could be concluded that serum albumins can be considered as good carriers for delivering arsenic trioxide to target tissue. PMID:25863441

  12. Determining the solid phases hosting arsenic in Mekong Delta sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wucher, M.; Stuckey, J. W.; McCurdy, S.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The major river systems originating from the Himalaya deposit arsenic bearing sediment into the deltas of South and Southeast Asia. High rates of sediment and organic carbon deposition combined with frequent flooding leads to anaerobic processes that release arsenic into the pore-water. Arsenic concentrations in the groundwater of these sedimentary basins are often above the World Health Organization drinking water standard of 10 ?g As L-1. As a result, 150 million people are at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning through water and rice consumption. The composition of the iron bearing phases hosting the arsenic in these deltaic sediments is poorly understood. Here we implemented a suite of selective chemical extractions to help constrain the types of arsenic bearing solid phases, which were complimented with synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses to define the arsenic and iron mineralogy of the system. Sediment cores were collected in triplicate from a seasonally-inundated wetland in Cambodia at depths of 10, 50, 100, and 150 centimeters. We hypothesize that (i) arsenic will be predominantly associated with iron oxides, and (ii) the ratio of crystalline to amorphous iron oxides will increase with sediment depth (and age). We performed four selective extractions in parallel to quantify the various pools of arsenic. First, 1 M MgCl2 was used to extract electrostatically-bound arsenic (labile forms) from the sediment. Second, 1 M NaH2PO4 targeted strongly adsorbed arsenic. Third, 1 M HCl was used to liberated arsenic coprecipitated with amorphous Fe/Mn oxides, carbonates, and acid-volatile sulfides. Finally, a dithionite extraction was used to account for arsenic associated with reducible Fe/Mn oxides. Through this work, we identified the composition of the phases hosting arsenic at various depths through the soil profile, improving our understanding of how arsenic persists in the aquifer. In addition, defining the arsenic and iron mineralogy of the sediments will support more accurate modeling of arsenic reactivity, fate, and transport in deltaic systems.

  13. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Laila N.; Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Nabi, A. H. M. Nurun; Hossain, Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4 ± 5.3?yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216 ± 211 and 223 ± 302??g/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P < 0.01), but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56?g/L, and C4 was 0.29?g/L compared to 1.68?g/L and 0.25?g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3?g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P = 0.014). Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity. PMID:22545044

  14. Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposures in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    High arsenic exposures, prevalent through dietary and non-dietary sources in Bangladesh, present a major health risk to the public. A quantitative human health risk assessment is described as a result of arsenic exposure through food and water intake, tea intake, accidental soil ingestion, and chewing of betel quid, while people meet their desirable dietary intake requirements throughout their lifetime. In evaluating the contribution of each intake pathway to average daily arsenic intake, the results show that food and water intake combined, makes up approximately 98% of the daily arsenic intake with the balance contributed to by intake pathways such as tea consumption, soil ingestion, and quid consumption. Under an exposure scenario where arsenic concentration in water is at the WHO guideline (0.01mg/L), food intake is the major arsenic intake pathway ranging from 67% to 80% of the average daily arsenic intake. However, the contribution from food drops to a range of 29% to 45% for an exposure scenario where arsenic in water is at the Bangladesh standard (0.05mg/L). The lifetime excess risk of cancer occurrence from chronic arsenic exposure, considering a population of 160 million people, based on an exposure scenario with 85 million people at the WHO guideline value and 75 million people at the Bangladesh standard, and assuming that 35 million people are associated with a heavy activity level, is estimated as 1.15 million cases. PMID:26006052

  15. Characterization of an ecotype of brake-fern, Pteris vittata, for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, B K; Chakrabarti, T

    2008-01-01

    An ecotype of brake fern (Pteris vittata) was assessed for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in its biomass under in vivo and in vitro condition; using soil, and agar-gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of arsenic. The plants were raised in soil amended with 100-1000 mg arsenic kg(-1) soil, and MS medium was supplemented with 10-300 mg arsenic L(-1) medium using Na2HAsO4 x x 7H2O. The spores and haploid gametophytic-prothalli were raised in vitro on MS medium supplemented with arsenic. The field plants showed normal growth and biomass formation in arsenic amended soil, and accumulated 1908-4700 mg arsenic kg(-1) dry aerial biomass after 10 weeks of growth. Arsenic toxicity was observed above > 200 mg arsenic kg(-1) soil. The concentrations of arsenic accumulated in the plant biomass were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Normal plants were developed from spores and gametophyte prothalli on the MS media supplemented with 50-200 mg arsenic L(-1) medium. The in vitro raised plants were tolerant to 300 mg arsenic kg(-1) of soil and accumulated up to 3232 mg arsenic kg(-1) dry aerial biomass that showed better growth performance, biomass generation and arsenic accumulation in comparison to the field plants. PMID:19140437

  16. Arsenic evolution in fractured bedrock wells in central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Culbertson, C.; Schalk, C.; Nielsen, M. G.; Marvinney, R.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in fractured bedrock wells has emerged as an important and challenging health problem, especially in rural areas without public water supply and mandatory monitoring of private wells. This has posed risks of skin, bladder, prostate diseases and cancers to private well users. In central Maine, including the study site, 31% of bedrock wells in meta-sedimentary formations have been reported of elevated arsenic concentrations of > 10 µg/L. Geophysical logging and fracture specific water sampling in high arsenic wells have been conducted to understand how water flowing through the aquifers enters the boreholes and how arsenic evolves in the fracture bedrock wells. Two domestic wells in Manchester, Maine, located 50 meter apart with 38 µg/L and 73 µg/L of arsenic in unfiltered water, were investigated to characterize fractures by geophysical logging and to determine flow rates by pumping test. Water samples, representing the bore hole and the fractures, were collected and analyzed for arsenic under ambient and pumping conditions. Transmissivity of the fractures was estimated at 0.23-10.6 m2/day. Water with high dissolved arsenic was supplied primarily by high yielding fractures near the bottom of the borehole. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in borehole water increased as fracture water with high arsenic was replacing borehole water with initially low dissolved arsenic in response to pumping. The precipitation of iron particulates enriched in arsenic was common during and after pumping. Laboratory experiment on well water samples over a period of 16 days suggested that in the borehole arsenic was mainly settled with iron enriched particles, likely amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides, with possibly minor adsorption on the iron minerals. Another bedrock well in Litchfield, Maine, with 478 µg/L of arsenic in the unfiltered well water, is being investigated to quantify and reconstruct of the groundwater flow under ambient and pumping conditions, as well as to model the arsenic flux and mobilization from the fractures into the borehole by collecting fracture specific samples using inflatable packers and to differentiate the arsenic in dissolved, colloidal, and particulate forms using filtration methods.

  17. Determination of urinary beryllium, arsenic, and selenium in steel production workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Horng; P. H. Horng; S. C. Lin; J. L. Tsai; S. R. Lin; C. C. Tzeng

    2002-01-01

    Some of the most pernicious dangers of pollution arise from the presence of traces of toxic elements in the environment. In\\u000a this work, we report on the determination of beryllium, arsenic, and selenium in the urine of steel production and steel quality\\u000a control (QC) workers, in comparison to healthy control subjects. The urine samples were digested by a microwave system.

  18. Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

  19. Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

  20. [Structural changes in mineral phases and environmental release behavior of arsenic during sintering of arsenic-containing waste].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Run; Nong, Ze-Xi; Wang, Qi

    2012-12-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on arsenic volatility, arsenic leaching of the sinter and structural changes in mineral phases of arsenic in the sinter. The raw materials were shaped under the pressure of 10 MPa and sintered at 1 000-1 350 degrees C for 60 min with the air flow rate of 2 000 mL x min(-1). The results showed that there was little impact between the volatilization of arsenic before and after sintering, and arsenic fixed-rate remained above 90%, however, the sintering temperature had an important influence on the leaching concentration of arsenic. When sintering temperature was lower than 1 000 degrees C, FeAsS was oxidized into calcium arsenate, aluminum arsenate, and iron-arsenate. Ca3 (AsO4)2 was the main compound, and the release of arsenic leaching was high. When sintering temperature was up to 1 200 degrees C, the arsenic was surrounded by a glass matrix and became chemically bonded inside the matrix. Arsenates can be converted into silicoarsenates during sintering, which led to the leaching of arsenic was significantly lower. Considering the product's environmental safety, the best sintering temperature was 1 200 degrees C. PMID:23379173

  1. Mopping up arsenic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Naomi Lubick

    This Geotimes article focuses on arsenic and discusses the problem of ground water laden with arsenic compounds, and how remediation of these waters can be done using various methods including microbes. The article explores one instance where microbial communities are fed different resources to indirectly bioremediate arsenic. One microbe that is mentioned as a potential candidate is Geobater. The web site also contains links to the Geotimes' home page, the American Geological Institute (AGI) home, and other useful AGI links.

  2. Response to the Commentary on "Arsenic mobility in the arsenic-contaminated Yangzonghai Lake in China".

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyu; Yang, Changliang; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    This is the response to "Commentary on 'Arsenic mobility in the arsenic-contaminated Yangzonghai Lake in China' by Changliang Yang et al. [Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 107(2014)321-327]" (by Jing Chen et al.). To doubts and questions raised by Chen et al., we give further explanations and provide more relevant evidences. The water temperature stratification existed in Lake Yangzonghai in summer, and affected by which arsenic concentration with water depth was uneven and peaked in the bottom layer in summer. In the case of adding carbon source (glucose) and maintaining anerobic state, enhanced microbial activity promoted the release of arsenic from sediment to water which was observed in the laboratory experiments. Errors might exist in sampling, determination and calculation, but they would not change the main conclusions of the article. PMID:26122750

  3. HG\\/LT-GC\\/ICP-MS coupling for identification of metal(loid) species in human urine after fish consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kresimon; U. M. Grüter; A. V. Hirner

    2001-01-01

    Human urine samples after fish consumption have been investigated by low-temperature gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection after sample derivatization by hydride generation (HG\\/LT-GC\\/ICP-MS). This analytical technique enabled the identification of organometal(loid) compounds in human urine; species of the six elements germanium, arsenic, selenium, tin, antimony, and mercury were determined. Three different organic selenium species, two germanium

  4. Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  5. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic Species in Rays from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Stajnko, Anja; Falnoga, Ingrid; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-01-01

    The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila) and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste) in relation to their size (age) was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g?1 of total arsenic). This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila. PMID:25470025

  6. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Yan, Xiulan; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wen, Yi; Chong, Zhongyi; Liang, Tao

    2011-12-01

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level (? 10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. PMID:21924806

  7. Spatial modeling for groundwater arsenic levels in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Tootoo, Joshua; Bradley, Phil; Gelfand, Alan E

    2011-06-01

    To examine environmental and geologic determinants of arsenic in groundwater, detailed geologic data were integrated with well water arsenic concentration data and well construction data for 471 private wells in Orange County, NC, via a geographic information system. For the statistical analysis, the geologic units were simplified into four generalized categories based on rock type and interpreted mode of deposition/emplacement. The geologic transitions from rocks of a primary pyroclastic origin to rocks of volcaniclastic sedimentary origin were designated as polylines. The data were fitted to a left-censored regression model to identify key determinants of arsenic levels in groundwater. A Bayesian spatial random effects model was then developed to capture any spatial patterns in groundwater arsenic residuals into model estimation. Statistical model results indicate (1) wells close to a transition zone or fault are more likely to contain detectible arsenic; (2) welded tuffs and hydrothermal quartz bodies are associated with relatively higher groundwater arsenic concentrations and even higher for those proximal to a pluton; and (3) wells of greater depth are more likely to contain elevated arsenic. This modeling effort informs policy intervention by creating three-dimensional maps of predicted arsenic levels in groundwater for any location and depth in the area. PMID:21528844

  8. Spatial modeling for groundwater arsenic levels in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, D.; Miranda, M.L.; Tootoo, J.; Bradley, P.; Gelfand, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    To examine environmental and geologic determinants of arsenic in groundwater, detailed geologic data were integrated with well water arsenic concentration data and well construction data for 471 private wells in Orange County, NC, via a geographic information system. For the statistical analysis, the geologic units were simplified into four generalized categories based on rock type and interpreted mode of deposition/emplacement. The geologic transitions from rocks of a primary pyroclastic origin to rocks of volcaniclastic sedimentary origin were designated as polylines. The data were fitted to a left-censored regression model to identify key determinants of arsenic levels in groundwater. A Bayesian spatial random effects model was then developed to capture any spatial patterns in groundwater arsenic residuals into model estimation. Statistical model results indicate (1) wells close to a transition zone or fault are more likely to contain detectible arsenic; (2) welded tuffs and hydrothermal quartz bodies are associated with relatively higher groundwater arsenic concentrations and even higher for those proximal to a pluton; and (3) wells of greater depth are more likely to contain elevated arsenic. This modeling effort informs policy intervention by creating three-dimensional maps of predicted arsenic levels in groundwater for any location and depth in the area. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Source of arsenic in licorice confectionery products.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel Antonio; Aracil, Pedro; García, Elena; Burló, Francisco; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2003-03-12

    Spanish legislation sets a maximum level for total arsenic (As) in confectionery products at 0.1 microg g(-)(1). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration limitations for glycyrrhizic acid in hard and soft candies are 160 and 31 mg g(-)(1), respectively. Arsenic and glycyrrhizic acid were determined in 22 different confectionery products: 9 throat pearls, 4 hard candies, and 9 soft candies. Arsenic and glycyrrhizic acid were quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Levels of glycyrrhizic acid were always below the maximum limits established by the U.S. FDA; however, the As concentration in seven of nine throat pearls (0.55 +/- 0.15 microg g(-)(1)) were above the Spanish maximum limit. A clear empirical relationship between the arsenic and glycyrrhizic acid concentrations was observed (R (2) = 0.9357), implying that to avoid high levels of potentially toxic arsenic in licorice confections high-quality licorice extract should be used. PMID:12617618

  10. Low-cost struvite production using source-separated urine in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Etter; E. Tilley; R. Khadka; K. M. Udert

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated the possibility of transferring phosphorus from human urine into a concentrated form that can be used as fertilizer in agriculture. The community of Siddhipur in Nepal was chosen as a research site, because there is a strong presence and acceptance of the urine-diverting dry toilets needed to collect urine separately at the source. Furthermore, because the mainly

  11. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  12. Carbonate ions and arsenic dissolution by groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.The role of bicarbonate in leaching arsenic into groundwater was investigated by conducting batch experiments using core samples of Marshall Sandstone from southeast Michigan and different bicarbonate solutions. The effects of pH and redox conditions on As dissolution were examined. Results showed that As was not leached significantly out of the Marshall Sandstone samples after 3 d using either deionized water or groundwater, but As was leached efficiently by sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and ferric chloride solutions. The leaching rate with sodium bicarbonate was about 25% higher than that with potassium bicarbonate. The data indicated that bicarbonate ion was involved primarily in As dissolution and that hydroxyl radical ion did not affect As dissolution to any significant degree. The amount of As leached was dependent upon the sodium bicarbonate concentration, increasing with reaction time for each concentration. Significant As leaching was found in the extreme pH ranges of <1.9 and 8.0-10.4. The resulting arseno-carbonate complexes formed were stable in groundwater.

  13. Arsenic removal by liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration. PMID:25826756

  14. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration. PMID:25826756

  15. Influence of phosphate and iron ions in selective uptake of arsenic species by water fern ( Salvinia natans L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Azizur Rahman; H. Hasegawa; K. Ueda; T. Maki; M. Mahfuzur Rahman

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phosphate ion and iron hydroxides (Fe-plaques) on the selective uptake of arsenic species by water fern (Salvinia natans L.) was investigated. The plants were grown for 5 days in aqueous Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture media modified in arsenic and phosphate concentrations. Arsenic accumulations in S. natans L. increased with the increase of

  16. Determination of Arsenic and Other Heavy Metals in Hand Pump and Tube-Well Ground Water of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mushatque Ali Jakhrani; Abdul Jabbar Chaudhray; Khan Muhammad Malik; Muhammad Qasim Mazari; Ashfaque Ahmed Jakhrani; Mukhtar Ul-hassan

    2009-01-01

    An exclusive study has been carried out for determination of arsenic and other toxic metals in drinking water of Khairpur, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of arsenic and other heavy metals in ground water. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-ASS) was used for analysis of arsenic in water samples with detection limit 0.02 żg

  17. Environmental Health Perspectives VOLUME 110 | NUMBER 7 | July 2002 729 Family Correlations of Arsenic Methylation Patterns in Children and Parents

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Chiu's drinking water was piped in and until only recently had high arsenic content (750­800 µg of Arsenic Methylation Patterns in Children and Parents Exposed to High Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water Joyce S. Chung,1 David A. Kalman,2 Lee E. Moore,1 Michael J. Kosnett,3 Alex P. Arroyo,4 Martin

  18. A MASS BALANCE APPROACH TO DETERMINE ARSENIC ABSORPTION RATES FROM CONTAMINATED WATER BY RICE DURING THE FOOD PREPARATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rice represents a unique set of arsenic exposure assessment challenges in that it does contain a relatively high concentration of arsenic and it does absorb about 100% of its dry weight during food preparation. Arsenic exposure from consumption of rice can conceptually be divide...

  19. HEALTH RISKS FROM CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER: FINDINGS FROM THE CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS DATA IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies have reported a large number of arsenicism cases in the Mongolia Autonomous Region of China due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations up to 1.8 mg/L. However, the endemic health risks from chronic exposure to arsenic in this population have not...

  20. SOURCE, TRANSPORT, AND FATE OF ARSENIC IN THE POCOMOKE RIVER BASIN, A POULTRY DOMINATED CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Hancock; J. M. Denver; G. F. Riedel; C. V. Miller

    The source, transport, and fate of several arsenic compounds are being investigated in water, soil, and sediment of the Pocomoke River Basin in Maryland and Delaware, an area in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed that has a high concentration of poultry-feeding operations and where arsenic feed amendments are used extensively. Organic arsenic compounds are commonly added to the feed of animals,

  1. Arsenite Is a Cocarcinogen with Solar Ultraviolet Radiation for Mouse Skin: An Animal Model for Arsenic Carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby G. Rossman; Ahmed N. Uddin; Fredric J. Burns; Maarten C. Bosland

    2001-01-01

    Although epidemiological evidence shows an association between arsenic in drinking water and increased risk of skin, lung, and bladder cancers, arsenic compounds are not animal carcinogens. The lack of animal models has hindered mechanistic studies of arsenic carcinogenesis. Previously, this laboratory found that low concentrations of arsenite (the likely environmental carcinogen) which are not mutagenic can enhance the mutagenicity of

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water will likely consider adsorption technology as a reasonable approach to remove arsenic. Adsorptio...

  3. ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water will likely consider adsorption technology as a reasonable approach to remove arsenic. Adsorptio...

  4. Is secondary wavelength always necessary in turbidimetric urine protein measurements?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Meriç Y?lmaz; Gülsen Y?lmaz; Do?an Yücel

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesTurbidimetric urine protein methods like Benzethonium Chloride (BTC) and Benzalkonium Chloride (BC) are previously reported to give falsely low protein results in very high protein concentrations (>2000 mg\\/L).

  5. Dependence of particle concentration effect on pH and redox for arsenic removal by FeS-coated sand under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Soo; Demond, Avery H; Gallegos, Tanya J; Hayes, Kim F

    2015-09-01

    FeS has been recognized as a good scavenger for arsenic under anoxic conditions. To create a suitable adsorbent for flow-through reactors such as permeable reactive barriers, it has been suggested that this material may be coated onto sand. However, previous work on FeS-coated sand has focused on batch reactors, while flow-through reactors usually have higher solid-solution ratios. To ascertain whether differences in the solid-solution ratio (SSR) are important in this system, batch sorption experiments were conducted as a function of pH using As(III) and FeS-coated sands at various solid-solution ratios. The results showed little variation in the distribution coefficient with SSR at pH 7 and 9. However, at pH 5, the results showed lower values of the distribution coefficient at lower SSRs, the reverse of typically reported SSR effects. Measured pe values showed a dependence on SSR, which, when coupled with chemical modeling of the Fe-As-S-H2O system, suggested a change in the removal mechanism with SSR, from adsorption to a reduced Fe(II) oxyhydroxide phase (represented by Fe2(OH)5) to precipitation as As2S3 or AsS. On the other hand, at pH 7 and 9, arsenite adsorption is the most probable removal mechanism regardless of the pe. Thus, this study identified variations in pH and redox conditions, and the removal mechanisms that these parameters govern, as the reason for the apparent SSR effect. PMID:25553897

  6. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25231213

  7. ARSENIC AND OHIO UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems that are likely to be used in Ohio for arsenic removal. Because most Ohio ground water contain significant amounts of iron, iron removal processes will play a major role in treating Ohio gro...

  8. An update on arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Malachowski, M.E. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Arsenic poisoning is more than just a medical curiosity. Cases of acute and chronic intoxication continue to occur in the United States. Much is now known about the biochemical mechanisms of injury, which has led to a rational basis for therapy. Most importantly, however, the clinician must stay alert to correctly diagnose and treat cases of arsenic poisoning.23 references.

  9. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  10. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  11. Electroadsorption of Arsenic from natural water in granular activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beralus, Jean-Mackson; Ruiz Rosas, Ramiro; Cazorla-Amoros, Diego; Morallon, Emilia

    2014-11-01

    The adsorption and electroadsorption of arsenic from a natural water has been studied in a filter-press electrochemical cell using a commercial granular activated carbon as adsorbent and Pt/Ti and graphite as electrodes. A significant reduction of the arsenic concentration is achieved when current is imposed between the electrodes, especially when the activated carbon was located in the vicinity of the anode. This enhancement can be explained in terms of the presence of electrostatic interactions between the polarized carbon surface and the arsenic ions, and changes in the distribution of most stable species of arsenic in solution due to As(III) to As(V) oxidation. In summary, electrochemical adsorption on a filter press cell can be used for enhancement the arsenic remediation with activated carbon in the treatment of a real groundwater.

  12. Laboratory Investigations of Enhanced Sulfate Reduction as a Groundwater Arsenic Remediation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    KEIMOWITZ, A. R.; MAILLOUX, B. J.; COLE, P.; STUTE, M.; SIMPSON, H. J.; CHILLRUD, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Landfills have the potential to mobilize arsenic via induction of reducing conditions in groundwater and subsequent desorption from or dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted with materials from a landfill where such processes are occurring. These experiments explored the potential for induced sulfate reduction to immobilize dissolved arsenic in situ. The native microbial community at this site reduced sulfate in the presence of added acetate. Acetate respiration and sulfate reduction were observed concurrent with dissolved iron concentrations initially increasing from 0.6 ?M (0.03 mg L?1) to a maximum of 111 ?M (6.1 mg L?1) and subsequently decreasing to 0.74 ?M (0.04 mg L?1). Dissolved arsenic concentrations initially covaried with iron but subsequently increased again as sulfide accumulated, consistent with the formation of soluble thioarsenite complexes. Dissolved arsenic concentrations subsequently decreased again from a maximum of 2 ?M (148 ?g L?1) to 0.3 ?M (22 ?g L?1), consistent with formation of sulfide mineral phases or increased arsenic sorption at higher pH values. Disequilibrium processes may also explain this second arsenic peak. The maximum iron and arsenic concentrations observed in the lab represent conditions most equivalent to the in situ conditions. These findings indicate that enhanced sulfate reduction merits further study as a potential in situ groundwater arsenic remediation strategy at landfills and other sites with elevated arsenic in reducing groundwater. PMID:17969686

  13. Arsenic contamination of ground and pond water and water purification system using pond water in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Yokota; K Tanabe; M Sezaki; Y Akiyoshi; T Miyata; K Kawahara; S Tsushima; H Hironaka; H Takafuji; M Rahman; Sk. A Ahmad; M. H. S. U Sayed; M. H Faruquee

    2001-01-01

    This paper, firstly, shows the distribution of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Samta village. This village, which is in Jessore district in Bangladesh, was chosen as a model village for investigating the mechanism of groundwater contamination. 90% of the tube wells in this village had arsenic concentrations above the Bangladesh standard of 0.05mg\\/l. Tube wells with arsenic concentrations of over 0.50mg\\/l were

  14. Speciation of volatile arsenic at geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Britta Planer-Friedrich; Corinne Lehr; Jörg Matschullat; Broder J. Merkel; Darrell Kirk Nordstrom; Mark W. Sandstrom

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal features in the Yellowstone National Park contain up to several milligram per liter of aqueous arsenic. Part of this arsenic is volatilized and released into the atmosphere. Total volatile arsenic concentrations of 0.5–200mg\\/m3 at the surface of the hot springs were found to exceed the previously assumed nanogram per cubic meter range of background concentrations by orders of magnitude.

  15. Advanced Urine Toxicology Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Tenore

    2010-01-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond

  16. Arsenic mitigation and social mobilisation in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crelis F. Rammelt; Jan Boes

    2004-01-01

    For the people of Bangladesh, mostly in rural areas, a new disaster is emerging. Two-thirds of the deep tube wells installed over the last three decades – roughly 3 million in total – contain arsenic concentrations above the permissible levels set by the WHO. These wells were installed to contribute to a secure and reliable drinking water supply, and put

  17. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more effectively as an integrated part of whole patient care. PMID:20924879

  18. Effects of Soil Composition and Mineralogy on the Bioaccessibility of Arsenic from Tailings and Soil in Gold Mine Districts of Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Louise; Walker, Stephen R.; Wragg, Joanna; Parsons, Michael B.; Koch, Iris; Jamieson, Heather E.; Reimer, Kenneth J. (Queens); (Brit. Geo.); (Royal); (NRC)

    2010-10-20

    Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analyses were performed on arsenic-contaminated tailings and soils from gold mine districts of Nova Scotia, Canada, to examine the links between soil composition, mineralogy, and arsenic bioaccessibility. Arsenic bioaccessibility ranges from 0.1% to 49%. A weak correlation was observed between total and bioaccessible arsenic concentrations, and the arsenic bioaccessibility was not correlated with other elements. Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows arsenic in these near-surface samples is mainly in the pentavalent form, indicating that most of the arsenopyrite (As{sup 1-}) originally present in the tailings and soils has been oxidized during weathering reactions. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples have identified up to seven arsenic species, the relative proportions of which appear to affect arsenic bioaccessibility. The highest arsenic bioaccessibility (up to 49%) is associated with the presence of calcium-iron arsenate. Samples containing arsenic predominantly as arsenopyrite or scorodite have the lowest bioaccessibility (<1%). Other arsenic species identified (predominantly amorphous iron arsenates and arsenic-bearing iron(oxy)hydroxides) are associated with intermediate bioaccessibility (1 to 10%). The presence of a more soluble arsenic phase, even at low concentrations, results in increased arsenic bioaccessibility from the mixed arsenic phases associated with tailings and mine-impacted soils.

  19. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND MINING COMMUNITIES FROM NHEXAS ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), metals were evaluated in the air, soil, dust, water, food, beverages, and urine of a single respondent. Potential doses were calculated for five metals including arsenic. In this paper, we seek to val...

  20. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  1. A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ishida, María C.; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela; Zacarias, Olga L.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F?) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F? in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F? concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F?/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F? (U-F?) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F?/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F? concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F? concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F?, raising questions about possible contribution of F? exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F? exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention. PMID:25918912

  2. A concurrent exposure to arsenic and fluoride from drinking water in chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ishida, María C; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela; Zacarias, Olga L; Saunders, R Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F-) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F- in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F- concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F-/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F- (U-F-) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F-/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F- concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F- concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F-, raising questions about possible contribution of F- exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F- exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention. PMID:25918912

  3. Arsenic in midwestern glacial deposits? Occurrence and relation to selected hydrogeologic and geochemical factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water-quality data collected as part of 12 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment studies during 1996-2001 were analyzed to (1) document arsenic occurrence in four types of gla-cial deposits that occur in large areas of the Midwest, (2) identify hydrogeologic or geochemical factors asso-ciated with elevated arsenic concentrations, and (3) search for clues as to arsenic source(s) or mechanism(s) of mobilization that could be useful for designing future studies. Arsenic and other water-quality constituents were sampled in 342 monitor and domestic wells in parts of Illinois Indiana Ohio Michigan and Wisconsin. Arsenic was detected (at a concentration >1 ?g/L) in one-third of the samples. The maximum concentration was 84 ?g/L, and the median was less than 1 ?g/L. Eight percent of samples had arsenic concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10?g/L. Samples were from four aquifer types?confined valley fill, unconfined valley fill, outwash plain, and till with sand lenses. Highest arsenic concentrations were found in reducing waters from valley-fill depos-its. In confined valley fill, all waters were reducing and old (recharged before 1953), and almost half of sam-ples had arsenic concentrations greater than the MCL. In unconfined valley fill, redox conditions and ages were varied, and elevated arsenic concentrations were sporadic. In both types of valley fill, elevated arsenic concentrations are linked to the underlying bedrock on the basis of spatial relations and geochemical correla-tions. In shallow (150 ft), all deep wells were from a distinctive aquifer type (confined valley fill). It is not known whether wells at similar depths in other aquifer types would produce waters with simi-larly high arsenic concentrations. Correlations of arsenic with fluoride, strontium, and barium suggest that arsenic might be related to epi-genetic (Mississippi Valley-type) sulfide deposits in Paleozoic bedrock. Arsenic is typically released from sulfides by oxidation, but in the current study, the highest arsenic concentrations in glacial deposits were detected in reducing waters. Therefore, a link between epigenetic sulfides and elevated arsenic concentrations in glacial deposits would probably require a multi-step process.

  4. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_151843.html Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

  5. 62 FR 45292 - Urine Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-26

    ...28 CFR Part 550 Urine Surveillance; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...BOP-1072-F] RIN 1120-AA68 Urine Surveillance AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...its regulations on the use of urine surveillance to detect and deter illegal drug...

  6. Electrochemical quantification of iodide ions in synthetic urine using silver nanoparticles: a proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Toh, Her Shuang; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2014-08-21

    Typical urinary iodide concentrations range from 0.3 ?M to 6.0 ?M. The conventional analytical method is based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. It involves the toxic reagent, arsenic acid, and a waiting time of 30 minutes for the iodide ions to reduce the cerium(iv) ions. In the presented work, an alternative fast electrochemical method based on a silver nanoparticle modified electrode is proposed. Cyclic voltammetry was performed with a freshly modified electrode in presence of iodide ions and the voltammetric peaks corresponding to the oxidation of silver to silver iodide and the reverse reaction were recorded. The peak height of the reduction signal of silver iodide was used to plot a calibration line for the iodide ions. Two calibration plots for the iodide ions were obtained, one in 0.1 M sodium nitrate (a chloride-ion free environment to circumvent any interference from the other halides) and another in synthetic urine (which contains 0.2 M KCl). In both of the calibration plots, linear relationships were found between the reduction peak height and the iodide ion concentration of 0.3 ?M to 6.0 ?M. A slope of 1.46 × 10(-2) A M(-1) and a R(2) value of 0.999 were obtained for the iodide detection in sodium nitrate. For the synthetic urine experiments, a slope of 3.58 × 10(-3) A M(-1) and a R(2) value of 0.942 were measured. A robust iodide sensor with the potential to be developed into a point-of-care system has been validated. PMID:24921222

  7. Concentration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-15

    This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

  8. Fate of arsenicals in different environmental substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Woolson, E A

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge of arsenic (As) transformations in the environment, as well as some gaps in this knowledge, are reviewed. These transformations involve As chemical and biochemical transformations in air, waters, sediments, and soils. Arsenic moves in a dispersive manner through air and water and is in physical and chemical equilibrium in many substrates. It is oxidized, reduced, methylated, volatilized, incorporated into biotic tissues, excreted, adsorbed, and desorbed. Oceanic sediments become the eventual sink for As. The rates of As movement and transformation vary with environmental conditions. Besides inorganic As, various methylated arsenicals are found naturally at environmentally sensitive equilibrium concentrations, which are probably maintained biotically. An As-transformation model has been constructed from rate constants derived from field observations. The environmental factors affecting these rate constants are discussed. PMID:908316

  9. Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Kutz; Brion T. Cook; Debra Brody; Robert S. Murphy

    1992-01-01

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophos?phorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was penta?chlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in

  10. Economic evaluation of the new U.S. arsenic standard for drinking water: A disaggregate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yongsung; Easter, K. William; Konishi, Yoshifumi

    2010-10-01

    We evaluate the welfare consequences of the new U.S. arsenic standard for drinking water, using contingent valuation survey and recent cost data for the small rural community water systems in Minnesota that have had arsenic levels above the new standard prior to its implementation. Using variation in actual arsenic levels and an elicitation method that recognizes the dependence of welfare values on both ambient arsenic concentrations and self-protection levels, the welfare values of the new arsenic rule are estimated at 6-23 per household per year for communities with less than 10 ?g/L of arsenic currently in their water and 31-78 for communities with more than 10 ?g/L of arsenic. Given cost estimates of 230-2,006 and the fact that a substantial portion of the cost needs to be internally financed, the new rule may have substantially negative welfare consequences for a number of small communities.

  11. Baseline arsenic levels in marine and terrestrial resources from a pristine environment: Isabel Island, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Grinham, Alistair; Kvennefors, Charlotte; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Albert, Simon

    2014-11-15

    Baseline records are crucial in understanding how chemicals of concern impact on the receiving environment. We analysed terrestrial and marine resources from a pristine site on Isabel Island, Solomon Islands, to provide environmental baseline levels for total arsenic and arsenic species composition for commonly consumed marine resources. Our data show that levels of the more toxic inorganic arsenic species were very low or below detectable limits, with the exception of the seaweed Sargassum sp. that contained pentavalent inorganic arsenic levels of 4.63 ?g g(-1). Total arsenic concentrations in the majority of marine and terrestrial samples collected were below 2 ?g g(-1). The less toxic arsenobetaine was the predominant arsenic species present in all marine fauna samples analysed. This work highlights the need for arsenic speciation analysis to accurately assess potential toxicity of marine resources and provides a crucial baseline to assess the impact of future development within this region. PMID:25199709

  12. BEHAVIOR OF ARSENIC AND OTHER REDOX-SENSITIVE ELEMENTS IN CROWLEY LAKE, CA: A RESERVOIR IN THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT SYSTEM. (R826202)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated arsenic concentrations in Crowley Lake derive from upstream geothermal inputs. We examined the water column of Crowley Lake under stratified and unstratified conditions, seeking evidence for algal uptake and transformation of arsenic and its deposition to and release fro...

  13. Distribution of arsenic(III), arsenic(V) and total inorganic arsenic in porewaters from a thick till and clay-rich aquitard sequence, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Ping Yan; Robert Kerrich; M. Jim Hendry

    2000-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic species were measured in the porewaters collected from eighteen piezometers installed between 3 and 91.4 m below ground in a thick till and clay-rich aquitard sequence located in southern Saskatchewan to investigate the distribution of, and controls on arsenic speciation in the sequence. Aqueous concentrations of As(V), As(III) and total As are in the range of 0.31-97, 0.71-21

  14. Arsenic speciation in plankton organisms from contaminated lakes: transformations at the base of the freshwater food chain.

    PubMed

    Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Estrada, Esteban; Reimer, Ken J

    2011-12-01

    The two complementary techniques high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis were used to assess arsenic speciation in freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton collected from arsenic-contaminated lakes in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada). Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 7 ?g L(-1) in a noncontaminated lake to 250 ?g L(-1) in mine-contaminated lakes, which resulted in arsenic concentrations ranging from 7 to 340 mg kg(-1) d.w. in zooplankton organisms (Cyclops sp.) and from 154 to 894 mg kg(-1) d.w. in phytoplankton. The main arsenic compounds identified by HPLC-ICP-MS in all plankton were inorganic arsenic (from 38% to 98% of total arsenic). No other arsenic compounds were found in phytoplankton, but zooplankton organisms showed the presence of organoarsenic compounds, the most common being the sulfate arsenosugar, up to 47% of total arsenic, with traces of phosphate sugar, glycerol sugar, methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). In the uncontaminated Grace Lake, zooplankton also contained arsenobetaine (AB). XANES characterization of arsenic in the whole plankton samples showed As(V)-O as the only arsenic compound in phytoplankton, and As(III)-S and As(V)-O compounds as the two major inorganic arsenic species in zooplankton. The proportion of organoarsenicals and inorganic arsenic in zooplankton depends upon the arsenic concentration in lakes and shows the impact of arsenic contamination: zooplankton from uncontaminated lake has higher proportions of organoarsenic compounds and contains arsenobetaine, while zooplankton from contaminated area contains mostly inorganic arsenic. PMID:22017302

  15. Arsenic Speciation in Plankton Organisms from Contaminated Lakes: Transformations at the Base of the Freshwater Food Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Estrada, Esteban; Reimer, Ken J. (Royal)

    2012-02-06

    The two complementary techniques high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis were used to assess arsenic speciation in freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton collected from arsenic-contaminated lakes in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada). Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 7 {micro}g L{sup -1} in a noncontaminated lake to 250 {micro}g L{sup -1} in mine-contaminated lakes, which resulted in arsenic concentrations ranging from 7 to 340 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in zooplankton organisms (Cyclops sp.) and from 154 to 894 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in phytoplankton. The main arsenic compounds identified by HPLC-ICP-MS in all plankton were inorganic arsenic (from 38% to 98% of total arsenic). No other arsenic compounds were found in phytoplankton, but zooplankton organisms showed the presence of organoarsenic compounds, the most common being the sulfate arsenosugar, up to 47% of total arsenic, with traces of phosphate sugar, glycerol sugar, methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). In the uncontaminated Grace Lake, zooplankton also contained arsenobetaine (AB). XANES characterization of arsenic in the whole plankton samples showed AsV-O as the only arsenic compound in phytoplankton, and AsIII-S and AsV-O compounds as the two major inorganic arsenic species in zooplankton. The proportion of organoarsenicals and inorganic arsenic in zooplankton depends upon the arsenic concentration in lakes and shows the impact of arsenic contamination: zooplankton from uncontaminated lake has higher proportions of organoarsenic compounds and contains arsenobetaine, while zooplankton from contaminated area contains mostly inorganic arsenic.

  16. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. PMID:23557676

  17. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 ?g As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 ?g As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  18. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

  19. Arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer: A systematic review

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Ismail [Department of Medical Oncology, Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology, Ankara (Turkey); Gallicchio, Lisa [Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Boyd, Kristina; Lam, Tram K.; Matanoski, Genevieve [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Tao Xuguang [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Shiels, Meredith; Hammond, Edward [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Robinson, Karen A. [Department of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Caulfield, Laura E. [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Herman, James G. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Guallar, Eliseo [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Alberg, Anthony J. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Hollings Cancer Center, and Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina (United States)], E-mail: alberg@musc.edu

    2008-09-15

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic via drinking water is a growing public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the association between arsenic in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer in humans. Towards this aim, we searched electronic databases for articles published through April 2006. Nine ecological studies, two case-control studies, and six cohort studies were identified. The majority of the studies were conducted in areas of high arsenic exposure (100 {mu}g/L) such as southwestern Taiwan, the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and Northern Chile. Most of the studies reported markedly higher risks of lung cancer mortality or incidence in high arsenic areas compared to the general population or a low arsenic exposed reference group. The quality assessment showed that, among the studies identified, only four assessed arsenic exposure at the individual level. Further, only one of the ecological studies presented results adjusted for potential confounders other than age; of the cohort and case-control studies, only one-half adjusted for cigarette smoking status in the analysis. Despite these methodologic limitations, the consistent observation of strong, statistically significant associations from different study designs carried out in different regions provide support for a causal association between ingesting drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk at lower exposure concentrations remains uncertain.

  20. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Van Halem; S. A. Bakker; G. L. Amy; J. C. Van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations