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Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population  

PubMed Central

Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake.

Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo



Elevated urine arsenic: un-speciated results lead to unnecessary concern and further evaluations.  


The consumption of seafood within two to three days of testing can increase total urine arsenic concentrations. Few clinicians are familiar with this fact and often misinterpret elevated results. A retrospective chart review of all cases with arsenic testing seen between 1991 and 2004 at an occupational and environmental medicine referral clinic was performed. Urine arsenic results were classified as follows: total arsenic levels; speciated results (inorganic, ionic arsenic); and whether the patient abstained from seafood prior to the collection. Laboratory detection limits for total and for ionic arsenic were < or = 2 microg/L. Fifty-four patients with urine arsenic testing were identified. The total urine arsenic concentration exceeded 40 microg/L for 28 patients. On paired, speciated testing (n = 21), mean total arsenic was 122 +/- 227 microg/L, and ionic arsenic was not detected in any of these same samples (p = 0.023). On paired testing, before and after seafood abstention (n = 12), total urine arsenic without abstention was 291 +/- 267 microg/L, and it was only 9 +/- 12 microg/L after seafood abstention (p = 0.004). The total urine arsenic elevations observed in our series were due to benign organic arsenic compounds commonly found in seafood. Laboratories should reflexively perform speciation on most samples with elevated total arsenic concentrations prior to reporting the results. Reflexive speciation could reduce unnecessary referrals, further testing, and patient anxiety. PMID:16620536

Kales, Stefanos N; Huyck, Karen L; Goldman, Rose H



Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))



Heritability and Preliminary Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis of Arsenic Metabolites in Urine  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic (III) methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been related to urine arsenic metabolites in association studies. Other genes might also play roles in arsenic metabolism and excretion. Objective: We evaluated genetic determinants of urine arsenic metabolites in American Indian adults from the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods: We evaluated heritability of urine arsenic metabolites [percent inorganic arsenic (%iAs), percent monomethylarsonate (%MMA), and percent dimethylarsinate (%DMA)] in 2,907 SHS participants with urine arsenic measurements and at least one relative within the cohort. We conducted a preliminary linkage analysis in a subset of 487 participants with available genotypes on approximately 400 short tandem repeat markers using a general pedigree variance component approach for localizing quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results: The medians (interquartile ranges) for %iAs, %MMA, and %DMA were 7.7% (5.4–10.7%), 13.6% (10.5–17.1%), and 78.4% (72.5–83.1%), respectively. The estimated heritability was 53% for %iAs, 50% for %MMA, and 59% for %DMA. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, region, and total urine arsenic concentrations, LOD [logarithm (to the base of 10) of the odds] scores indicated suggestive evidence for genetic linkage with QTLs influencing urine arsenic metabolites on chromosomes 5 (LOD = 2.03 for %iAs), 9 (LOD = 2.05 for %iAs and 2.10 for %MMA), and 11 (LOD = 1.94 for %iAs). A peak for %DMA on chromosome 10 within 2 Mb of AS3MT had an LOD of 1.80. Conclusions: This population-based family study in American Indian communities supports a genetic contribution to variation in the distribution of arsenic metabolites in urine and, potentially, the involvement of genes other than AS3MT.

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Gribble, Matthew O.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Umans, Jason G.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo; Franceschini, Nora; Kao, Wen H.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Cole, Shelley A.



Urine Arsenic and Hypertension in U.S. Adults: the 2003-2008 NHANES  

PubMed Central

Background High chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may contribute to the development of hypertension. Limited information is available, however, on the association of low to moderate exposure to inorganic arsenic with blood pressure levels and hypertension. We investigated the association of exposure to inorganic arsenic (as measured in urine) with systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension in U.S. adults. Methods We studied 4167 adults 20 years of age or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 through 2008 and for whom total arsenic, dimethylarsinate (DMA) and arsenobetaine had been assessed in urine. Results The median (inter-quartile range) urine concentrations were 8.3 ?g/L (4.2– 17.1) for total arsenic, 3.6 ?g/L (2.0– 6.0) for DMA and 1.4 ?g/L (0.3– 6.3) for arsenobetaine. The weighted prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 36%. After multivariable adjustment, a 2-fold increase in total arsenic was associated with a hypertension odds ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.86 to 1.11). A doubling of total arsenic minus arsenobetaine was associated with a hypertension OR of 1.03 (0.94 to 1.14) and a doubling of DMA concentrations was associated with a hypertension OR of 1.11 (0.99 to 1.24). Total arsenic, total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, or DMA levels were not associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions At the low to moderate levels typical of the U.S. population, total arsenic, total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, and DMA concentrations in urine were not associated with the prevalence of hypertension or with systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels. A weak association of DMA with hypertension could not be ruled out.

Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Sharrett, A. Richey; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana



Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.  


The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun



Arsenic Metabolites in Human Urine after Ingestion of an Arsenosugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Arsenic-containing carbohydrates (arsen- osugars) are common constituents of marine algae, in- cluding those species used as human food. The toxicol- ogy of these compounds has not been fully evaluated. Methods: Arsenic metabolites in human urine were monitored over a 4-day period after ingestion of a synthetic specimen of arsenosugar. The metabolites were determined by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,

Kevin A. Francesconi; Christine J. McKenzie; Walter Goessler



Hair and toenail arsenic concentrations of residents living in areas with high environmental arsenic concentrations.  

PubMed Central

Surface soil and groundwater in Australia have been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. The relative importance of long-term human exposure to these sources has not been established. Several studies have investigated long-term exposure to environmental arsenic concentrations using hair and toenails as the measure of exposure. Few have compared the difference in these measures of environmental sources of exposure. In this study we aimed to investigate risk factors for elevated hair and toenail arsenic concentrations in populations exposed to a range of environmental arsenic concentrations in both drinking water and soil as well as in a control population with low arsenic concentrations in both drinking water and soil. In this study, we recruited 153 participants from areas with elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water and residential soil, as well as a control population with no anticipated arsenic exposures. The median drinking water arsenic concentrations in the exposed population were 43.8 micro g/L (range, 16.0-73 micro g/L) and median soil arsenic concentrations were 92.0 mg/kg (range, 9.1-9,900 mg/kg). In the control group, the median drinking water arsenic concentration was below the limit of detection, and the median soil arsenic concentration was 3.3 mg/kg. Participants were categorized based on household drinking water and residential soil arsenic concentrations. The geometric mean hair arsenic concentrations were 5.52 mg/kg for the drinking water exposure group and 3.31 mg/kg for the soil exposure group. The geometric mean toenail arsenic concentrations were 21.7 mg/kg for the drinking water exposure group and 32.1 mg/kg for the high-soil exposure group. Toenail arsenic concentrations were more strongly correlated with both drinking water and soil arsenic concentrations; however, there is a strong likelihood of significant external contamination. Measures of residential exposure were better predictors of hair and toenail arsenic concentrations than were local environmental concentrations.

Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H



Porphyrin profiles in blood and urine as a biomarker for exposure to various arsenic species.  


A sensitive method using HPLC with fluorescence detection has been established for the measurement of porphyrins in biological materials. The assay recoveries were 88.0+/-1.8% for protoporphyrin IX in the blood, and ranged from 98.3+/-2.7% to 111.1+/-7.4% for various porphyrins in the urine. This method was employed to investigate the altered porphyrin profiles in rats after a single dose of various arsenicals including soluble sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite, and the relatively insoluble calcium arsenite, calcium arsenate and arsenic-contaminated soils at dose rates of 5 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Porphyrin concentrations increased within 2448 hr after the arsenic treatment in blood and urine. Protoporphyrin IX is the predominant porphyrin in the blood. In rats administered 5 mg As(III)/kg body weight, protoporphyrin IX concentration elevated to 123% of the control values in rats, 24 hr after the treatment. Higher increases were recorded in the urinary protoporphyrin IX (253% at 24 hr; 397% on day 2), uroporphyrin (121% at 24 hr; 208% on day 2) and coproporphyrin III (391% at 24 hr; 304% on day 2), while there was no significant increase (109% on day 3) observed in the urinary coproporphyrin I excretion. In rats administered 5 mg As(V)/kg, urinary excretion of protoporphyrin LX, uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin III and coproporphyrin I elevated to the maximum levels by 48 hr with the corresponding percentage values compared to the control being 177%, 158%, 224% and 143%, respectively. In rats dosed with 5 mg As(III)/kg, the increases (expressed as % of the control values) of protoporphyrin IX in the blood were in the order: sodium arsenite (144%) > sodium arsenate (125%) > calcium arsenite (123%) > calcium arsenate. In contrast, there was no significant increase of protoporphyrin IX, when the six arsenic-contaminated cattle dip soils and nine copper chrome arsenate (CCA-contaminated) soils were administered to the rats. Probable explanations are discussed. PMID:11929043

Ng, Jack C; Qi, Lixia; Moore, Michael R



Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs{sup III}, MAs{sup V}, DMAs{sup III}, DMAs{sup V}). This study examines the relationship between TGF-{alpha} concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-{alpha} in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-{alpha} levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-{alpha} than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-{alpha} in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas.

Valenzuela, Olga L. [Seccion de Toxicologia, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, CP 07300, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Germolec, Dori R. [Environmental Immunology and Neurobiology Section, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Borja-Aburto, Victor H. [Salud en el Trabajo, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico DF (Mexico); Contreras-Ruiz, Jose [Division de Dermatologia, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Razo, Luz M. del [Seccion de Toxicologia, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. Zacatenco, CP 07300, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:



Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P<0.0001) positive regressions were seen between the TAs concentration in toenails and in drinking water (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine.

Adair, Blakely M. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)]. E-mail:; Hudgens, Edward E. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Schmitt, Michael T. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Calderon, Rebecca L. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Thomas, David J. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)



Association of urinary monomethylated arsenic concentration and risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from arsenic contaminated areas in northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Background Although some studies mainly from Taiwan, Bangladesh and the United States, have suggested a consistent dose–response increase in the prevalence of hypertension with increasing arsenic exposure, the association between chronic environmental arsenic exposure and the risk of hypertension is still inconclusive. Most of the studies discussed the association from the point of view of arsenic concentration in drinking water or cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE), few involved arsenic speciation into the discussion. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the potential association between environmental arsenic exposure through drinking water and the prevalence of hypertension by analyzing not only CAE but also urinary arsenic speciation, and provided data on arsenic exposure and hypertension from mainland of China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the arsenic contaminated areas in the northwest of China. Among a total of 1005 residents who voluntarily participated in the study, 604 of eligible subjects were confirmed and interviewed door to door. Standing height, body weight, and blood pressure were measured. First void urine was collected and measured for the concentration of urinary arsenic speciation. CAE was calculated in a subpopulation of 360 subjects with detailed water consumption history. The association between urinary arsenic speciation, CAE and the risk of hypertension were analyzed by multiple logistic regressions. Results We found that the levels of urinary arsenic species of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), dimethylated arsenic (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) were significantly correlated with systolic or pulse blood pressure. A positive relationship was found between the highest tertile of CAE and hypertension in a dose-dependent manner. Subjects with higher concentration of urinary MMA or lower percentage of DMA tended to be liable to suffer from hypertension. A significant increasing trend of the risk of hypertension with increasing tertiles of MMA concentration was also observed in the logistic regression models both before and after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Our findings suggested that arsenic exposure, especially high level of CAE, was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension, and that higher concentration of urinary MMA might be related to the increased susceptibility to hypertension.



Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect

Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

Brima, Eid I. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Jenkins, Richard O. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Polya, Dave A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gault, Andrew G. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harrington, Chris F. [University of Leicester, Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)



Zeeman Effect Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with Matrix Modification for the Determination of Arsenic in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic was determined in urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Zeeman Effect background correction and after matrix modification with 5% nickel nitrate. Mean recovery of urine samples spiked with 100?g.L dimethylarsinic acid was 97.9?g.L. Within-run CV was 2.4%, between-run CV was 7.3% and the detection limit was determined to be 10.0?g.L. The method can be used for the rapid

Duart G. Edgar; Ken R. Lum



Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater quality assessment programme over a period of 3 years. We found increased arsenic levels in the drinking water of an area in Cyprus. Inter-laboratory comparison of total arsenic showing statistical agreement. We used a novel field based arsenic speciation separation technique. Predominant species in the water were found to be arsenate.

Christodoulidou, M.; Charalambous, C.; Aletrari, M.; Nicolaidou Kanari, P.; Petronda, A.; Ward, N. I.



Urinary arsenic concentrations and speciation in residents living in an area with naturally contaminated soils.  


A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure of residents living in an area with a soil naturally rich in arsenic (As), through urinary measurements. During the summer of 2007, 322 people aged over 7 years and resident in the study area for at least 4 days prior to the investigation were recruited. The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA) and speciation were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Geometric means levels of iAs+MMA+DMA were 3.6 microg/L or 4.4 microg/g creatinine. The percent of DMA, As(III) and MMA contribution to urinary arsenic concentrations was respectively 84.2%, 12% and 3.7%. We found significant associations between urinary arsenic concentrations and the consumption of seafood (p=0.03), the consumption of wine (p=0.03) and beer (p=0.001), respectively 3 and 4 days before the investigation. When we focus on the various species, As(V) was rarely detected and DMA is the predominant metabolite composing the majority of measurable inorganic-related As in the urine. Considering the percent of DMA contribution to iAs+MMA+DMA urinary concentrations, almost half of the subjects had 100% of DMA contribution whatever the concentration of urinary As whereas the others had a lower DMA contribution, between 39 and 90%. Arsenic levels reported in this original study in France were between 2 and 4 times lower than in other studies dealing with iAs+MMA+DMA levels associated with soil arsenic exposure. Arsenic levels were similar to those observed in unexposed individuals in European countries, although 10% were above the French guideline values for the general population. PMID:20004003

Fillol, Clémence; Dor, Frédéric; Labat, Laurence; Boltz, Patricia; Le Bouard, Jérôme; Mantey, Karine; Mannschott, Christian; Puskarczyk, Emmanuel; Viller, Frédérique; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie



Pelvic urine composition as a determinant of inner medullary solute concentration and urine osmolarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the question whether solute and water fluxes between pelvic urine and the renal papilla contribute to the medullary accumulation of osmotically active substances and thus to final urine concentration, we measured the osmolarity of urine samples from the papillary tip of rat kidneys during superfusion of the exposed papillae with solutions of widely varying osmotic concentrations. When the

W. Schütz; J. Schnermann



Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?  


A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p<0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p=0.02), and beer (p=0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels (?g/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration (?g/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior. PMID:20863552

Fillol, Clémence; Dor, Frédéric; Clozel, Blandine; Goria, Sarah; Seta, Nathalie



Nondestructive determination of arsenic in urine by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression.  


Epithermal neutron activation analysis, in conjunction with Compton suppression, has been employed to determine arsenic levels in artificially doped urine samples. Typical detection limits were of the order of 10 ng/g. Replicate determinations gave precision values between 2 and 12%, whereas accuracy measurements were between +/- 1 and +/- 20%. Biological and geological reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were also analyzed for arsenic content. Typically, the precision achieved again was between 2 and 12%, whereas the accuracy measurements were in excellent agreement with the certified values. PMID:1704729

Landsberger, S; Swift, G; Neuhoff, J


Bacterial Communities in Bangladesh Aquifers Differing in Aqueous Arsenic Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Titas, Bangladesh, two aquifers of different arsenic concentrations and redox conditions were investigated to link variations in geochemistry to in situ bacterial diversity characterized by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and clone library analysis. While the shallow aquifer was characterized by reduced gray sediments with a higher share of easily mobilized sedimentary arsenic (2.6% was easily mobilized from

Munawar Sultana; Cornelia Härtig; Britta Planer-Friedrich; Jana Seifert; Michael Schlömann



Nondestructive determination of arsenic in urine by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithermal neutron activation analysis, in conjunction with Compton suppression, has been employed to determine arsenic levels\\u000a in artificially doped urine samples. Typical detection limits were of the order of 10 ng\\/g. Replicate determinations gave\\u000a precision values between 2 and 12%, whereas accuracy measurements were between ±1 and ±20%. Biological and geological reference\\u000a materials from the National Institute of Standards and

Sheldon Landsberger; Gary Swift; Jon Neuhoff



Speciation of arsenic in urine following intravenous administration of arsthinol in mice.  


Recent investigations have shown that arsthinol, a trivalent organoarsenic compound (dithiarsolane), has been active in vitro on leukemia cell lines and offers a better therapeutic index than arsenic trioxide, as estimated by the ratio LD50/IC50. To complete our understanding of its urinary excretion, a sensitive method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used. Mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of arsthinol at 0.2 mmol/kg of body weight. The amount of total arsenic in tissues and body fluids was determined by a colorimetric method and urine metabolites were analyzed on a C18 Acclaim PepMap 100 A column by LC-MS. Our results showed that only three arsenic species (acetarsol, acetarsol oxide and arsthinol) were detected in the first 24-h urine. Overall, this study confirms that the hydrolysis of dithiarsolanes to arsenoxides (i.e. acetarsol oxide) can be followed by an oxidation in arsonic acids (i.e. acetarsol). All these compounds are excreted in the urine. PMID:21495268

Ajana, Imane; Astier, Alain; Gibaud, Stéphane



Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts. Detection of inorganic arsenic can be explained by the conversion of inorganic arsenic to organic arsenic compounds in digestion system in the body may be occurring.

Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.



Protocol Development for Assessing Arsenic Background Concentrations in Florida Urban Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of arsenic background concentrations in urban soils is important for making remediation decisions. The soil cleanup target level (SCTL) for arsenic in Florida lies within the range of arsenic background concentrations. The residential SCTL is also near the practical quantification limits using analytical procedures. Currently no standard protocols are available for determining arsenic background concentrations in urban soils, apart

Tait Chirenje; L. Q. Ma; A. G. Hornsby; K. Portier; W. Harris; S. Latimer; E. J. Zillioux



Mean Total Arsenic Concentrations in Chicken 1989-2000 and Estimated Exposures for Consumers of Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in

Tamar Lasky; Wenyu Sun; Abdel Kadry; Michael K. Hoffman



Anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of dissolved arsenic in the Ganges Delta has puzzled researchers ever since the report of widespread arsenic poisoning two decades ago. Today, microbially mediated oxidation of organic carbon is thought to drive the geochemical transformations that release arsenic from sediments, but the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. At a typical site in Bangladesh, where groundwater-irrigated rice fields and constructed ponds are the main sources of groundwater recharge, we combine hydrologic and biogeochemical analyses to trace the origin of contaminated groundwater. Incubation experiments indicate that recharge from ponds contains biologically degradable organic carbon, whereas recharge from rice fields contains mainly recalcitrant organic carbon. Chemical and isotopic indicators as well as groundwater simulations suggest that recharge from ponds carries this degradable organic carbon into the shallow aquifer, and that groundwater flow, drawn by irrigation pumping, transports pond water to the depth where dissolved arsenic concentrations are greatest. Results also indicate that arsenic concentrations are low in groundwater originating from rice fields. Furthermore, solute composition in arsenic-contaminated water is consistent with that predicted using geochemical models of pond-water-aquifer-sediment interactions. We therefore suggest that the construction of ponds has influenced aquifer biogeochemistry, and that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer result from variations in the source of water, and the complex three-dimensional patterns of groundwater flow.

Neumann, Rebecca B.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ashraf Ali, M.; Shoemaker, Julie K.; Harvey, Charles F.



Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith



Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.  


Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers. PMID:655606

Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W


Attempt to correlate urine arsenic excretion with clinical course during melarsoprol therapy of patients with Rhodesian trypanosomiasis.  


This study enrolled 28 CNS-involved patients with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense at the Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (Alupe, Kenya) to examine treatment efficacy and toxicity of melarsoprol in relation to renal excretion/dose relationships. This study complied with World Health Organization treatment recommendations, initially treating with suramin followed by three courses of melarsoprol. Traced study patients had a relapse rate of 4.1%. The toxicity and crude death rate was 7.1%. Total urine arsenic output was measured between 24 and 48 hr after the last dose for each course. The range of means of total urine arsenic output between the three treatment courses was 356-511 micrograms. There was no correlation comparing melarsoprol dose, estimated creatine clearance, or urine arsenic output. Urinary pharmacokinetic parameters are not predictive of toxicity or therapeutic efficacy. PMID:9230794

Harrison, S M; Harris, R W; Bales, J D



Blood and urine catecholamine concentrations after implantation of artificial heart.  


Plasma and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were measured before and after implantation of an artificial heart in 20 calves and before and after thoracotomy in 3 control calves. All animals had similar preoperative plasma and urine catecholamine concentrations. During the first 4 postoperative days, plasma and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were markedly elevated in all animals. However, calves with an artificial heart had significantly higher concentrations than control calves. Thereafter, catecholamine levels in control animals returned to preoperative levels, whereas epinephrine concentrations in artificial heart recipients remained elevated for 2 weeks and norepinephrine concentrations remained elevated for over a month. Two artifical heart recipeints survived longer than 2 months and had normal plasma and urine catecholamine concentrations from day 32 until a few days before being put to death. Although the mechanism in unclear, these findings suggest that early artificial heart function is associated with a significant metabolic stress which slowly disappears or becomes tolerable after one month. PMID:1263555

Stanley, T H; Kennard, L; Isern-Amaral, J; Olsen, D; Lunn, J



Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental

Clémence Fillol; Frédéric Dor; Blandine Clozel; Sarah Goria; Nathalie Seta



Evaluation of two new arsenic field test kits capable of detecting arsenic water concentrations close to 10 microg/L.  


Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Arsenic field test kits may offer a cost-effective approach for measuring these exposures in the field, although the accuracy of some kits used in the past has been poor. In this study, arsenic concentrations were measured in 136 water sources in western Nevada using two relatively new arsenic test kits and compared to laboratory measurements using atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the Quick Arsenic and Hach EZ kits to laboratory measurements were 0.96 (p < 0.001) and 0.95 (p < 0.001), respectively. When analyzed in seven exposure categories (0-9, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499, and > or = 500 microg/L), test kit and AFS measurements were in the same category in 71% (Quick Arsenic) and 62% (Hach EZ) of samples, and within one category of each other in 99% (Quick Arsenic) and 97% (Hach EZ) of samples. Both kits identified all water samples with high arsenic concentrations (> 15 microg/L) as being above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard and the World Health Organization's guideline value for arsenic of 10 microg/L. These results suggestthatthese easily portable kits can be used to identify water sources with high arsenic concentrations and may provide an important tool for arsenic surveillance and remediation programs. PMID:16749706

Steinmaus, Craig M; George, Christine M; Kalman, David A; Smith, Allan H



The Mammalian Urine Concentrating Mechanism: Hypotheses and Uncertainties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney, which can produce a urine that is substantially more concentrated than blood plasma during periods of water deprivation, is one of the enduring mysteries in traditional physiology. Owing to the complex lateral and axial relationships of tubules and vessels, in both the outer and inner medulla, the urine concentrating mechanism may only be fully understood in terms of the kidneyÃÂs three-dimensional functional architecture and its implications for preferential interactions among tubules and vessels.

Anita Layton (Duke University Mathematics); PhD William H. Dantzler (University of Arizona College of Medicine Department of Physiology)



Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in Soil Increases Urinary Inorganic Arsenic Concentrations of Residents Living in Old Mining Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate

Andrea L. Hinwood; Malcolm R. Sim; Damien Jolley; Nick de Klerk; Elisa B. Bastone; Jim Gerostamoulos; Olaf H. Drummer




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arsenic is a solid, brittle metalloid and thus has both metallic and nonmetallic properties. The most common stable form of arsenic at room temperature is metallic or gray arsenic. Another form of elemental arsenic, yellow arsenic, occurs when arsenic vapors are cooled suddenly to below 0o C (Stoepp...


Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline.  


We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral terbutaline on 2 study days. Further, 10 healthy subjects were administrated 1 mg inhaled terbutaline in 4 repetive doses with total 4 mg. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline and during 12 h after the first inhalations. Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between therapeutic and prohibited use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples. PMID:22782385

Elers, J; Hostrup, M; Pedersen, L; Henninge, J; Hemmersbach, P; Dalhoff, K; Backer, V



Arsenic Background Concentrations in Florida, U.S.A. Surface Soils: Determination and Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background concentrations of soil arsenic have been used as an alternative soil cleanup criterion in many states in the U.S. This research addresses issues related to the interpretation of background concentrations of arsenic in near pristine soils in Florida. Total arsenic was measured in 448 taxonomic and geographic representative surface soil samples using USEPA Method 3052 (HCl-HNO 3 -HF, microwave

Ming Chen; Lena Q. Ma; C. G. Hoogeweg; W. G. Harris



Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice.  


Rice consumption is a major source of cadmium and arsenic for the population of Asia. We investigated the effects of water management in rice paddy on levels of cadmium and arsenic in Japanese rice grains. Flooding increased arsenic concentrations in rice grains, whereas aerobic treatment increased the concentration of cadmium. Flooding for 3 weeks before and after heading was most effective in reducing grain cadmium concentrations, but this treatment increased the arsenic concentration considerably, whereas aerobic treatment during the same period was effective in reducing arsenic concentrations but increased the cadmium concentration markedly. Flooding treatment after heading was found to be more effective than flooding treatment before heading in reducing rice grain cadmium without a concomitant increase in total arsenic levels, although it increased inorganic arsenic levels. Concentrations of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain were very low under aerobic conditions but increased under flooded conditions. DMA accounted for 3-52% of the total arsenic concentration in grain grown in soil with a lower arsenic concentration and 10-80% in soil with a higher arsenic concentration. A possible explanation for the accumulation of DMA in rice grains is that DMA translocates from shoots/roots to the grains more readily than does inorganic arsenic. PMID:20000530

Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Mori, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Shingo




EPA Science Inventory



Biological and behavioral factors modify biomarkers of arsenic exposure in a U.S. population.  


Although consumption of drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is usually considered the primary exposure route, aggregate exposure to arsenic depends on direct consumption of water, use of water in food preparation, and the presence in arsenicals in foods. To gain insight into the effects of biological and behavioral factors on arsenic exposure, we determined arsenic concentrations in urine and toenails in a U.S. population that uses public or private water supplies containing inorganic arsenic. Study participants were 904 adult residents of Churchill County, Nevada, whose home tap water supplies contained <3 to about 1200µg of arsenic per liter. Biomarkers of exposure for this study were summed urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites (speciated arsenical), of all urinary arsenicals (total arsenical), and of all toenail arsenicals (total arsenical). Increased tap water arsenic concentration and consumption were associated with significant upward trends for urinary speciated and total and toenail total arsenical concentrations. Significant gender differences in concentrations of speciated and total arsenicals in urine and toenails reflected male-female difference in water intake. Both recent and higher habitual seafood consumption significantly increased urinary total but not speciated arsenical concentration. In a stepwise general linear model, seafood consumption significantly predicted urinary total arsenical but not urinary speciated or toenail total arsenical concentrations. Smoking behavior significantly predicted urinary speciated or total arsenical concentration. Gender, tap water arsenic concentration, and primary drinking water source significantly predicted urinary speciated and total concentrations and toenail total arsenical concentrations. These findings confirm the primacy of home tap water as a determinant of arsenic concentration in urine and toenails. However, biological and behavioral factors can modify exposure-response relations for these biomarkers. Refining estimates of the influence of these factors will permit better models of dose-response relations for this important environmental contaminant. PMID:23777639

Calderon, Rebecca L; Hudgens, Edward E; Carty, Cara; He, Bin; Le, X Chris; Rogers, John; Thomas, David J



Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic arsenic, we then applied the estimates to national chicken consumption data to calculate inorganic, organic, and total arsenic ingested by eating chicken. The mean concentration of total arsenic in young chickens was 0.39 ppm, 3- to 4-fold higher than in other poultry and meat. At mean levels of chicken consumption (60 g/person/day), people may ingest 1.38-5.24 microg/day of inorganic arsenic from chicken alone. At the 99th percentile of chicken consumption (350 g chicken/day), people may ingest 21.13-30.59 microg inorganic arsenic/day and 32.50-47.07 microg total arsenic/day from chicken. These concentrations are higher than previously recognized in chicken, which may necessitate adjustments to estimates of arsenic ingested through diet and may need to be considered when estimating overall exposure to arsenic.

Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K



Correlation between Amalgam Restorations and Mercury Concentrations in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creatinine-adjusted urinary concentration of mercury in 73 schoolchildren with a mean age of 12 years was determined. In addition, the number of amalgam restorations and their size, prevalence of allergy, and days absent from school due to illness were recorded for each individual. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.55) was found between urine Hg and extent of amalgam

M. L. Olstad; R. I. Holland; N. Wandel; A. Hensten Pettersen



Spatial and Temporal Variations in Arsenic Exposure via Drinking-water in Northern Argentina  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the spatial, temporal and inter-individual variations in exposure to arsenic via drinking-water in Northern Argentina, based on measurements of arsenic in water, urine, and hair. Arsenic concentrations in drinking-water varied markedly among locations, from <1 to about 200 ?g/L. Over a 10-year period, water from the same source in San Antonio de los Cobres fluctuated within 140 and 220 ?g/L, with no trend of decreasing concentration. Arsenic concentrations in women's urine (3–900 ?g/L, specific weight 1.018 g/mL) highly correlated with concentrations in water on a group level, but showed marked variations between individuals. Arsenic concentrations in hair (range 20–1,500 ?g/kg) rather poorly correlated with urinary arsenic, possibly due to external contamination. Thus, arsenic concentration in urine seems to be a better marker of individual arsenic exposure than concentrations in drinking-water and hair.

Concha, Gabriela; Nermell, Barbro



Direct and simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, cobalt and nickel in urine with a multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method was developed for the direct and simultaneous determination of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) in urine by a multi-element graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin–Elmer SIMAA 6000) equipped with the transversely heated graphite atomizer and longitudinal Zeeman-effect background correction. Pd was used as the chemical modifier along with either the internal furnace gas

Man-Ching Hsiang; Yu-Hsiang Sung; Shang-Da Huang



Adjusting for Urinary Creatinine Overestimates Arsenic Concentrations in Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Arsenic (As) is linked to insulin resistance in animal studies, but the effect of low-level As exposure on the prevalence of diabetes in humans is uncertain. An optimal method to report inorganic As in humans has not been established. Measurements of As in spot urine are usually adjusted to creatinine (Cr). However, urinary Cr is an independent variable in diabetes. Our aims are to optimize reporting of urinary As in the setting of diabetes and insulin resistance. Methods Urinary inorganic As was measured in 24-hour or first-void spot urine from diabetic (n = 31) and non-diabetic (n = 12) subjects and normalized to Cr or specific gravity (SG). The relation of normalized urinary inorganic As to glycemia and surrogate measures of insulin resistance was investigated. Blood pressure, waist circumference, and glycated hemoglobin were also assessed. Homeostasis model assessment was used to determine insulin resistance. Results A strong correlation was found between spot urinary As adjusted to Cr (R2 = 0.82) or SG (R2 = 0.61) to 24-hour urinary As (p < 0.001), while non-adjusted urinary As did not correlate well (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.46). Adjusting for Cr revealed significant differences in total 24-hour urinary As when comparing diabetic to normal subjects. In contrast, no differences were found when As was adjusted to SG using either 24-hour or spot urine. Moreover, adjusted urinary spot or 24-hour As measures did not correlate with measures of glycemia or insulin resistance. Conclusions: Urinary Cr is an independent variable in diabetes, therefore adjusting spot As for SG is preferred.

Yassine, Hussein; Kimzey, Michael J.; Galligan, Michael A.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Stump, Craig S.; Lau, Serrine S.



Associations between toenail arsenic concentration and dietary factors in a New Hampshire population  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water. However, the effects of dietary factors on toenail arsenic concentrations in well-nourished populations exposed to relatively low levels of water arsenic are unknown. Methods As part of a population-based case–control study of skin and bladder cancer from the USA, we evaluated relationships between consumption of dietary factors and arsenic concentrations in toenail clippings. Consumption of each dietary factor was determined from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used general linear models to examine the associations between toenail arsenic and each dietary factor, taking into account potentially confounding effects. Results As expected, we found an inverse association between ln-transformed toenail arsenic and consumption of vitamin B12 (excluding supplements) and animal protein. Unexpectedly, there were also inverse associations with numerous dietary lipids (e.g., total fat, total animal fat, total vegetable fat, total monounsaturated fat, total polyunsaturated fat, and total saturated fat). Finally, increased toenail arsenic concentrations were associated with increased consumption of long chain n-3 fatty acids. Conclusion In a relatively well-nourished population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic via water, consumption of certain dietary lipids may decrease toenail arsenic concentration, while long chain n-3 fatty acids may increase toenail arsenic concentration, possibly due to their association with arsenolipids in fish tissue.



Predicting arsenic concentrations in porewaters of buried uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The proposed JEB Tailings Management Facility (TMF) to be emplaced below the groundwater table in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, will contain uranium mill tailings from McClean Lake, Midwest and Cigar Lake ore bodies, which are high in arsenic (up to 10%) and nickel (up to 5%). A serious concern is the possibility that high arsenic and nickel concentrations may be released from the buried tailings, contaminating adjacent groundwaters and a nearby lake. Laboratory tests and geochemical modeling were performed to examine ways to reduce the arsenic and nickel concentrations in TMF porewaters so as to minimize such contamination from tailings buried for 50 years and longer. The tests were designed to mimic conditions in the mill neutralization circuit (3 hr tests at 25 C), and in the TMF after burial (5--49 day aging tests). The aging tests were run at 50, 25 and 4 C (the temperature in the TMF). In order to optimize the removal of arsenic by adsorption and precipitation, ferric sulfate was added to tailings raffinates having Fe/As ratios of less than 3--5. The acid raffinates were then neutralized by addition of slaked lime to nominal pH values of 7, 8, or 9. Analysis and modeling of the test results showed that with slaked lime addition to acid tailings raffinates, relatively amorphous scorodite (ferric arsenate) precipitates near pH 1, and is the dominant form of arsenate in slake limed tailings solids except those high in Ni and As and low in Fe, in which cabrerite-annabergite (Ni, Mg, Fe(II) arsenate) may also precipitate near pH 5--6. In addition to the arsenate precipitates, smaller amounts of arsenate are also adsorbed onto tailings solids. The aging tests showed that after burial of the tailings, arsenic concentrations may increase with time from the breakdown of the arsenate phases (chiefly scorodite). However, the tests indicate that the rate of change decreases and approaches zero after 72 hrs at 25 C, and may equal zero at all times in the TMF at 4 C. Consistent with a kinetic model that describes the rate of breakdown of scorodite to form hydrous ferric oxide, the rate of release of dissolved arsenate to tailings porewaters from slake limed tailings: (1) is proportional to pH above pH 6--7; (2) decreases exponentially as the total molar Fe/As ratio of tailings raffinates is increased from 1/1 to greater than 5/1; and (3) is proportional to temperature with an average Arrhenius activation energy of 13.4 {+-} 4.2 kcal/mol. Study results suggest that if ferric sulfate and slaked lime are added in the tailings neutralization circuit to give a raffinate Fe/As molar ratio of at least 3--5 and a nominal (initial) pH of 8 (final pH of 7--8), arsenic and nickel concentrations of 2 mg/L or less, are probable in porewaters of individual tailings in the TMF for 50 to 10,000 yrs after tailings disposal. However, the tailings will be mixed in the TMF, which will contain about 35% tailings with Fe/As = 3.0, and 65% tailings with Fe/As = 5.0--7.7. Thus, it seems likely that average arsenic pore water concentrations in the TMF may not exceed 1 mg/L.

Langmuir, D.; Mahoney, J.; MacDonald, A.; Rowson, J.



Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk and infant urine at 3 months of age and compared them with detailed information on breast-feeding practices and maternal arsenic exposure, as measured by concentrations in blood, urine, and saliva. Results Arsenic concentrations in breast-milk samples were low (median, 1 ?g/kg; range, 0.25–19 ?g/kg), despite high arsenic exposures via drinking water (10–1,100 ?g/L in urine and 2–40 ?g/L in red blood cells). Accordingly, the arsenic concentrations in urine of infants whose mothers reported exclusive breast-feeding were low (median, 1.1 ?g/L; range, 0.3–29 ?g/L), whereas concentrations for those whose mothers reported partial breast-feeding ranged from 0.4 to 1,520 ?g/L (median 1.9 ?g/L). The major part of arsenic in milk was inorganic. Still, the infants had a high fraction (median, 87%) of the dimethylated arsenic metabolite in urine. Arsenic in breast milk was associated with arsenic in maternal blood, urine, and saliva. Conclusion Very little arsenic is excreted in breast milk, even in women with high exposure from drinking water. Thus, exclusive breast-feeding protects the infant from exposure to arsenic.

Fangstrom, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grander, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie





... people exposed to arsenic exceeding the Bangladesh drinking-water quality standard has decreased by approximately 40%. Despite these ... value for arsenic in its Guidelines for drinking-water quality . The Guidelines are intended for use as the ...


Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine. Citation: Hall MN, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper KN, Alam S, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Levy D, Siddique AB, Parvez F, Mey JL, van Geen A, Graziano J, Gamble MV. 2013. Chronic arsenic exposure and blood glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentrations in Bangladeshi adults. Environ Health Perspect 121:1068–1074;

Hall, Megan N.; Niedzwiecki, Megan; Liu, Xinhua; Harper, Kristin N.; Alam, Shafiul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu B.; Parvez, Faruque; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph



Arsenic Background Concentrations in Surface Soils of Kavala Area, Northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 65 surface (0–20 cm) soil samples were collected in an effort to estimate the arsenic background values in Kavala\\u000a area, Northern Greece. Arsenic was extracted by HNO3 from the <200?µm grain size fraction, and its concentrations were determined in all samples by inductively coupled plasma–mass\\u000a spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations were log-transformed, and log-normal probability plots (Q–Q plots) were generated.

Georgios Papastergios; Jose-Luis Fernandez-Turiel; Andreas Georgakopoulos; Domingo Gimeno



Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De


Background Versus Risk-Based Screening Levels - An Examination of Arsenic Background Soil Concentrations in Seven States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is often present in soils naturally or from historical anthropogenic activities. Arsenic is commonly a constituent of potential concern at environmental remediation sites, even where there is no reason to suspect a release. Site risks are frequently driven by arsenic, and risk-based screening levels below background are not uncommon. However, determining whether arsenic concentrations are consistent with background typically

Kelly A. S. Vosnakis; Elizabeth Perry



Background Versus Risk-Based Screening Levels - An Examination Of Arsenic Background Soil Concentrations In Seven States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is often present in soils naturally or from historical anthropogenic activities. Arsenic is commonly a constituent of potential concern at environmental remediation sites, even where there is no reason to suspect a release. Site risks are frequently driven by arsenic, and risk-based screening levels below background are not uncommon. However, determining whether arsenic concentrations are consistent with background typically

Kelly A. S. Vosnakis; Elizabeth Perry; Karen Madsen; Lisa J. N. Bradley



Elevated Urine Zinc Concentration Reduces the Detection of Methamphetamine, Cocaine, THC and Opiates in Urine by EMIT.  


Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G



Effect of silver on oxidative leaching of an arsenical copper sulfide concentrate  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes Bureau pof Mines investigation of a silver-catalyzed oxidative procedure for leaching an arsenical copper sulfide concentrate containing 10 pct As and 32 pct Cu. Leaching was conducted in a 2-L autoclave reactor. A conceptual process was proposed for treating arsenical copper sulfide concentrates.

Lei, K.P.V.; Carnahan, T.G.



Comparison between background concentrations of arsenic in urban and non-urban areas of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination is of great environmental concern due to its toxic effects as a carcinogen. Knowledge of arsenic background concentrations is important for land application of wastes and for making remediation decisions. The soil clean-up target level for arsenic in Florida (0.8 and 3.7 mgkg?1 for residential and commercial areas, respectively) lies within the range of both background and analytical

Tait Chirenje; Lena Q. Ma; Ming Chen; Edward J. Zillioux



Urine concentration and dilution in hypokalemic and hypercalcemic dogs  

PubMed Central

The urine-concentrating mechanism was studied in chronic hypokalemia (seven dogs given a low K+, high NaCl diet plus injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate [DOCA]) and chronic hypercalcemia (seven dogs given vitamin D). In the potassium-depleted dogs, muscle, serum, and urine K+ fell markedly, but glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and body weight varied little. Maximum urine osmolality fell in all dogs (mean decrease = 45%); however, solute-free water reabsorption (TCH2O) at high rates of solute excretion remained normal in three of four dogs. Free water excretion (CH2O) increased normally or supranormally as a function of increasing Na+ delivery to Henle's loop in six dogs so tested. Hypercalcemia of several weeks duration caused a decrease in both GFR (mean 36%) as well as in maximum urine osmolality (mean 57%). Maximum TCH2O was not invariably depressed; in fact, when the values were adjusted for the reduced number of functioning nephrons (TCH2O/CIn), four of seven studies were normal. CH20/CIn increased normally (or supranormally) with increasing fractional Na delivery to Henle's loop in four of five dogs. I conclude that the lowered maximum urine osmolality in these hypokalemic and hypercalcemic dogs was not related to abnormal water reabsorption from the collecting ducts. Although not specifically measured in this study, it is very likely that solute accumulation in the renal medulla was reduced. This probably was not caused by abnormal delivery of sodium to, nor reabsorption of sodium from Henle's loop. It is likely that a more subtle defect exists in the countercurrent mechanisms for establishing a steep concentration gradient in the renal medulla. In the few hypercalcemic dogs in whom GFR was very low, I believe that injury to, and blockage of medullary tubules could account for most of the reduction in maximum UOsm. Although not specifically ruled out, there is no evidence here to suggest that high serum Ca+ or low serum K+ per se causes a defect in sodium and water reabsorption in the mammalian nephron.

Bennett, Cleaves M.




EPA Science Inventory

The report is an in-depth study that attempts to assemble, organize, and interpret present-day information on arsenic and its compounds, and the effects of these substances on man, animals, and plants. Emphasis is given to the effects of arsenic on man, conclusions are drawn from...


Comparison of Arsenic Concentrations in Carcass and Viscera of Swim-up Rainbow Trout Exposed to Dietary and Waterborne Arsenic  

EPA Science Inventory

Rainbow trout fry were exposed to arsenic in water only, diet only, or both diet and water in 28-d studies evaluating survival and growth. Diets consisted of Lumbriculus variegatus that were exposed to multiple concentrations of waterborne arsenate for 7d and then fed to test fi...


Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland.  

PubMed Central

We assessed the levels of arsenic in drilled wells in Finland and studied the association of arsenic exposure with the risk of bladder and kidney cancers. The study persons were selected from a register-based cohort of all Finns who had lived at an address outside the municipal drinking-water system during 1967-1980 (n = 144,627). The final study population consisted of 61 bladder cancer cases and 49 kidney cancer cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1995, as well as an age- and sex-balanced random sample of 275 subjects (reference cohort). Water samples were obtained from the wells used by the study population at least during 1967-1980. The total arsenic concentrations in the wells of the reference cohort were low (median = 0.1 microg/L; maximum = 64 microg/L), and 1% exceeded 10 microg/L. Arsenic exposure was estimated as arsenic concentration in the well, daily dose, and cumulative dose of arsenic. None of the exposure indicators was statistically significantly associated with the risk of kidney cancer. Bladder cancer tended to be associated with arsenic concentration and daily dose during the third to ninth years prior to the cancer diagnosis; the risk ratios for arsenic concentration categories 0.1-0.5 and [Greater/equal to] 0.5 microg/L relative to the category with < 0.1 microg/L were 1.53 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-3.09] and 2.44 (CI, 1.11-5.37), respectively. In spite of very low exposure levels, we found some evidence of an association between arsenic and bladder cancer risk. More studies are needed to confirm the possible association between arsenic and bladder cancer risk at such low exposure levels.

Kurttio, P; Pukkala, E; Kahelin, H; Auvinen, A; Pekkanen, J




Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The agency also monitors toxic elements, including arsenic, in a variety of domestic and imported foods under the Toxic Elements Program, with ... More results from


Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning  

SciTech Connect

Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

Faengstroem, Britta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Hamadani, Jena [ICDDR-B: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (Bangladesh); Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail:



Correlation Between Arsenic Concentration in Fish and Human Scalp Hair of People Living in Arsenic-Contaminated and Noncontaminated Areas of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of arsenic (As) toxicity due to frequent consumption of arsenic-contaminated fish was estimated by the analysis\\u000a of scalp hair of adult males, living near arsenic-contaminated area of Pakistan. For comparison purposes, scalp hair samples\\u000a were also collected from the inhabitants of Hyderabad city consuming fish species with low levels of As, collected from Indus\\u000a River. Concentration of As

Abdul Qadir Shah; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Jameel Ahmad Baig; Hassan Imran Afridi


Urine Processing for Water Recovery via Freeze Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource recovery, including that of urine water extraction, is one of the most crucial aspects of long-term life support in interplanetary space travel. This paper will consequently examine an innovative approach to processing raw, undiluted urine based on low-temperature freezing. This strategy is uniquely different from NASA's current emphasis on either 'integrated' (co-treatment of mixed urine, grey, and condensate waters)

Jeffrey M. Schmidt; James E. Alleman



Biomonitoring equivalents for inorganic arsenic.  


This paper presents Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for inorganic arsenic. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline, and are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for arsenic based on recent evaluations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and Health Canada (HC). BE values corresponding to the Reference Dose (RfD) or risk-specific doses for cancer endpoints from these agencies were derived based on kinetic data (urinary excretion) from controlled dosing studies in humans. The BE values presented here provide estimates of the sum of inorganic arsenic-derived urinary biomarkers (inorganic arsenic, monomethylated arsenic, and dimethylated arsenic). The BE associated with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Reference Dose and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's Minimal Risk Level is 6.4 microg arsenic/L urine. The BEs associated with the various cancer risk assessments are significantly lower. These BE values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of biomonitoring data for inorganic arsenic in a public health risk context. PMID:20547195

Hays, Sean M; Aylward, Lesa L; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Krishnan, Kannan



Effect of arsenic concentration on microbial iron reduction and arsenic speciation in an iron-rich freshwater sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depth profiles in the sediment porewaters of the Chattahoochee River (Georgia, USA) show that iron oxides scavenge arsenate in the water column and settle to the sediment-water interface (SWI) where they are reduced by iron-reducing bacteria. During their reduction, these particles seem to release arsenic to the porewaters in the form of arsenate only. Sediment slurry incubations were conducted to determine the effect of low concentrations of arsenic (?10 ?M) on biogeochemical processes in these sediments. Experiments confirm that any arsenate (As(V)) added to these sediments is immediately adsorbed in oxic conditions and released in anoxic conditions during the microbial reduction of authigenic iron oxides. Incubations in the presence of ?1 ?M As(V) reveal that arsenate is released but not concomitantly reduced during this process. Simultaneously, microbial iron reduction is enhanced significantly, spurring the simultaneous release of arsenate into porewaters and secondary formation of crystalline iron oxides. Above 1 ?M As(V), however, the microbial reductive dissolution of iron oxides appears inhibited by arsenate, and arsenite is produced in excess in the porewaters. These incubations show that even low inputs of arsenic to riverine sediments may affect microbial processes, the stability of iron oxides and, indirectly, the cycling of arsenic. Possible mechanisms for such effects on iron reduction are proposed.

Chow, Stephanie S.; Taillefert, Martial



Biomonitoring Equivalents for inorganic arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for inorganic arsenic. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline, and are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This

Sean M. Hays; Lesa L. Aylward; Michelle Gagné; Andy Nong; Kannan Krishnan



Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter.  


A nationwide survey of heavy-metal exposure in children living near primary nonferrous metal smelters demonstrated high urine arsenic levels in children living near a copper smelter in Ajo, Arizona. Airborne smelter emissions and drinking water were the apparent sources of exposure. To determine whether increased arsenic absorption had produced adverse health effects, we conducted an evaluation of 132 Ajo children 5 to 18 years old and compared results with those of 47 children from a comparison town with low arsenic exposure. Environmental testing showed that Ajo's municipal water supply contained arsenic in concentrations of 0.09 mg/l (the EPA standard is 0.05 mg/l); arsenic concentrations in dust averaged 342.2 microgram/g. Urine arsenic levels in Ajo children correlated positively with amount of tap-water consumed (r = .32, p less than. 0002) and with distance of residence from the smelter (r = .20, p less than .02). Tap-water drinkers had significantly higher urine arsenic levels than bottled water drinkers (t = 4.21 p less than .001). Mean urine arsenic levels were significantly higher for children in Ajo (4.75 microgram/100 ml) than for children in the comparison town (1.17 microgram/100 ml). Hair arsenic levels correlated poorly with arsenic exposure. Despite the study population's chronic exposure to elevated environmental levels of arsenic, no clinical or hematologic abnormalities attributable to arsenic were found. PMID:466981

Morse, D L; Harrington, J M; Housworth, J; Landrigan, P J; Kelter, A



Integrating Mechanisms that Control the Concentration and Distribution of Groundwater Arsenic in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of the deltaic regions of southeastern Asia affects as many as one hundred million people. In these areas, the dominant mechanism for arsenic release into solution is the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron (hydr)oxides. What continues to confound researchers, however, is the heterogeneous nature of arsenic in groundwater. Recent evidence suggests that specific geomorphic environments are linked to regions of elevated groundwater arsenic. Moreover, waters from actively cycling surficial environments represent important sources of groundwater As in many environments. Here, we examine the mechanistic link between the localized expression of iron reduction and the large scale distribution of arsenic in groundwater along the Mekong River in Cambodia in a region impacted by widespread but heterogeneous arsenic contamination. In this region, arsenic levels in groundwater were correlated to sulfate levels, and both were strongly influenced by the extent of local surface water flooding (as quantified by remote sensing). Concentrations of arsenic ranged from 0 to 2100 micrograms/L, and were always found in groundwaters with significant dissolved iron and a sulfate concentration less than 1 mg/L. This indicates that the delivery of As and S was influenced by active redox processes in near-surface environments. In many, but not all, high As regions, groundwater concentrations of conservative halide anions also were similar to those of surficial environments, indicating that they were likely derived from the same locations. Low As regions, however, had widely variable halide concentrations in groundwater that may reflect additional groundwater sources. Thus, the expression of As contamination is strongly influenced by the hydrological connectivity of the aquifer with the surface. The isotopic composition of groundwater (hydrogen and oxygen) of high As areas also is similar to that of surface waters. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of waters is more complex, with As-impacted groundwaters having distinct isotopic signatures characteristic of either extensive or relatively limited organic matter decomposition. Regional correlations of As with dissolved organic carbon are also not uniform, suggesting that sedimentary carbon is also important in generating reducing conditions. These data indicate that the distribution of organic carbon helps determine the distribution of arsenic in the environment. Moreover, these data indicate that heterogeneity in arsenic concentrations results from the interplay of variable organic matter content and reactivity within complex hydrological systems that can at least in part be explained regionally based on depositional environment.

Bostick, B. C.; Rosen, E. L.; Nguyen, H. M.; Sampson, M. L.



Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China  

PubMed Central

In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China), were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs) [arsenite (iAsIII) and arsenate (iAsV)], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs) and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

Gao, Jianwei; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng



Adult polycystic kidney disease: Studies of the defect in urine concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult polycystic kidney disease: Studies of the defect in urine concentration. Patients with adult polycystic kidney disease with and without renal insufficiency and some of their family members in whom cysts were not demonstrable by radiography underwent tests of maximal urine concentrating ability (Umax). Ten of the twelve family members without demonstrable cysts (Group I) had Umax exceeding 900 mOsm\\/kg.

Manuel Martinez-Maldonado; Jackson J Yium; Garabed Eknoyan; Wadi N Suki



Uranium associations with kidney outcomes vary by urine concentration adjustment method.  


Uranium is a ubiquitous metal that is nephrotoxic at high doses. Few epidemiologic studies have examined the kidney filtration impact of chronic environmental exposure. In 684 lead workers environmentally exposed to uranium, multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of uranium measured in a 4-h urine collection with measured creatinine clearance, serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Three methods were utilized, in separate models, to adjust uranium levels for urine concentration-?g uranium/g creatinine; ?g uranium/l and urine creatinine as separate covariates; and ?g uranium/4?h. Median urine uranium levels were 0.07??g/g creatinine and 0.02??g/4?h and were highly correlated (rs=0.95). After adjustment, higher ln-urine uranium was associated with lower measured creatinine clearance and higher NAG in models that used urine creatinine to adjust for urine concentration but not in models that used total uranium excreted (?g/4?h). These results suggest that, in some instances, associations between urine toxicants and kidney outcomes may be statistical, due to the use of urine creatinine in both exposure and outcome metrics, rather than nephrotoxic. These findings support consideration of non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration in nephrotoxicant research.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 17 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.18. PMID:23591699

Shelley, Rebecca; Kim, Nam-Soo; Parsons, Patrick J; Lee, Byung-Kook; Agnew, Jacqueline; Jaar, Bernard G; Steuerwald, Amy J; Matanoski, Genevieve; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Brian S; Todd, Andrew C; Simon, David; Weaver, Virginia M



Reduction of arsenic content in a complex galena concentrate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans  

PubMed Central

Background Bioleaching is a process that has been used in the past in mineral pretreatment of refractory sulfides, mainly in the gold, copper and uranium benefit. This technology has been proved to be cheaper, more efficient and environmentally friendly than roasting and high pressure moisture heating processes. So far the most studied microorganism in bioleaching is Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. There are a few studies about the benefit of metals of low value through bioleaching. From all of these, there are almost no studies dealing with complex minerals containing arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Reduction and/or elimination of arsenic in these ores increase their value and allows the exploitation of a vast variety of minerals that today are being underexploited. Results Arsenopyrite was totally oxidized. The sum of arsenic remaining in solution and removed by sampling represents from 22 to 33% in weight (yield) of the original content in the mineral. The rest of the biooxidized arsenic form amorphous compounds that precipitate. Galena (PbS) was totally oxidized too, anglesite (PbSO4) formed is virtually insoluble and remains in the solids. The influence of seven factors in a batch process was studied. The maximum rate of arsenic dissolution in the concentrate was found using the following levels of factors: small surface area of particle exposure, low pulp density, injecting air and adding 9 K medium to the system. It was also found that ferric chloride and carbon dioxide decreased the arsenic dissolution rate. Bioleaching kinetic data of arsenic solubilization were used to estimate the dilution rate for a continuous culture. Calculated dilution rates were relatively small (0.088–0.103 day-1). Conclusion Proper conditions of solubilization of arsenic during bioleaching are key features to improve the percentage (22 to 33% in weight) of arsenic removal. Further studies are needed to determine other factors that influence specifically the solubilization of arsenic in the bioleaching system such as: pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, redox potentials, nature of concentrate and temperature among others. At. ferrooxidans was able to completely oxidize the minerals present during the arsenic bioleaching. Other elements present originally in the concentrate such as Zn, Sb, and Cu were also solubilized. The process of bioleaching is expected to be influenced by mechanisms that still need to be established due to the diversity of the minerals involved and by the presence of traces of metals in the concentrate. The increase in pulp density generates a decrease in the dissolved arsenic concentration. This decrease is greater in runs where air was not injected to the system. The maximum rate of arsenic dissolution in the concentrate was found using; small surface area of particle exposure, low pulp density, injecting air and adding 9 K medium to the system. The effect of addition of ferric chloride during the arsenic bioleaching resulted in a decrease of the solubilized arsenic in the system. The presence of CO2 is associated to the decrease in arsenic dissolution.

Makita, Mario; Esperon, Margarita; Pereyra, Benito; Lopez, Alejandro; Orrantia, Erasmo



Validity of Spatial Models of Arsenic Concentrations in Private Well Water  

PubMed Central

Objective Arsenic is a pervasive contaminant in underground aquifers worldwide, yet documentation of health effects associated with low-to-moderate concentrations (<100 ?g/L) has been stymied by uncertainties in assessing long-term exposure. A critical component of assessing exposure to arsenic in drinking water is the development of models for predicting arsenic concentrations in private well water in the past; however, these models are seldom validated. The objective of this paper is to validate alternative spatial models of arsenic concentrations in private well water in southeastern Michigan. Methods From 1993?2002 the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality analyzed arsenic concentrations in water from 6,050 private wells. This dataset was used to develop several spatial models of arsenic concentrations in well water: proxy wells based on nearest neighbor relationships, averages across geographic regions, and geostatistically-derived estimates based on spatial correlation and geologic factors. Output from these models was validated using arsenic concentrations measured in 371 private wells from 2003?2006. Results The geostatisical model and nearest neighbor approach outperformed the models based on geographic averages. The geostatistical model produced the highest degree of correlation using continuous data (Pearson's r=0.61; Spearman's rank ?=0.46) while the nearest neighbor approach produced the strongest correlation (?weighted=0.58) using an a priori categorization of arsenic concentrations (<5, 5?9.99, 10?19.99, ?20 ?g/L). When the maximum contaminant level was used as a cut-off in a two-category classification (<10, ?10 ?g/L), the nearest neighbor approach and geostatistical model had similar values for sensitivity (0.62?0.63), specificity (0.80), negative predictive value (0.85), positive predictive value (0.53), and percent agreement (75%). Discussion This validation study reveals that geostatistical modeling and nearest neighbor approaches are effective spatial models for predicting arsenic concentrations in private well water. Further validation analyses in other regions are necessary to indicate how widely these findings may be generalized.

Meliker, Jaymie R.; AvRuskin, Gillian A.; Slotnick, Melissa J.; Goovaerts, Pierre; Schottenfeld, David; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Nriagu, Jerome O.



Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine.  


Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules should be expressed as amounts excreted per time unit per kg body-weight, rather than being expressed as concentrations in samples. Urine and feces excretion varies significantly within and between animals over time, which may render simple concentration measures of molecules of little biological relevance. PMID:19508615

Hau, Jann; Royo, F



Serum and urine concentrations of trypsinogen-activation peptide as markers for acute pancreatitis in cats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical utility of the serum concentration of feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI), the plasma and urine concentrations of trypsinogen-activation peptide (TAP), and the ratio of the urine TAP and creatinine concentrations (TAP:Cr) in the diagnosis of feline acute pancreatitis. We used 13 healthy cats and 10 cats with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The mean serum fTLI and plasma TAP concentrations were significantly higher in the cats with acute pancreatitis than in the healthy cats (P < 0.05); the mean urine TAP concentrations and the median urine TAP:Cr ratios were not significantly different. Among the cats examined in this study, there was no benefit of plasma TAP over serum fTLI in the evaluation of suspected acute pancreatitis.

Allen, Heidi S.; Steiner, Jorg; Broussard, John; Mansfield, Caroline; Williams, David A.; Jones, Boyd



[A study of urine concentrating mechanism--a molecular biological approach].  


Human urine can be concentrated up to four times higher than that of the plasma. Urine concentrating mechanism has attracted for a long time. However, studies in the field are now picking up momentum due to recent breakthrough discoveries using molecular biology techniques. Vasopressin-regulated water channel in the apical membrane of the collecting duct and water channel in the basolateral side of the membrane were cloned. cloned. Osmolality-dependent chloride channel in the thin ascending limb of Henle was also cloned. In addition, vasopressin-regulated urea transporter was found in the collecting duct. These newly discovered channels and transporter should be playing important physiological roles in urine concentrating mechanism. Furthermore, recent findings on osmolytes and their transporters also add to the list of urine concentrating mechanisms. PMID:8072215

Marumo, F



A Pilot Study on the Urinary Excretion of Porphyrins in Human Populations Chronically Exposed to Arsenic in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if the porphyrinuria produced by arsenic in rodents was present in humans chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water.2 The concentrations of uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin and total arsenic in urine were compared between 21 individuals exposed to arsenic in their drinking water (0.390 mg 1-1) and 19 controls exposed to 0.012

Gonzalo G. García-Vargas; Adalberto García-Rangel; Manuel Aguilar-Romo; Javier García-Salcedo; Luz Maria del Razo; Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman; Cristina Cortinas de Nava; Mariano E. Cebrián



Arsenic concentrations in soils impacted by dam failure of coal-ash pond in Zemianske Kostolany, Slovakia.  


In this study, the concentrations of arsenic were determined in the soils around old coal-ash pond. The soils in the study area were severely contaminated with arsenic after dam failure of the coal-ash pond. The mean concentrations of arsenic in soils collected from three sampling depths of 0-20, 20-40 and >40 cm were 173, 155 and 426 ?g/g, respectively, exceeding greatly the Dutch intervention threshold for this element. Arsenic concentrations were positively correlated with total iron and aluminium contents in the soils (r = 0.73, p < 0.001 and r = 0.72, p < 0.001, respectively), indicating that oxyhydroxides of iron and aluminium may control the distribution of arsenic in these soils. Ammonium nitrate extractant was used to mimic availability of arsenic for plant uptake from the soils. Between 0.05 and 6.21% of the total soil arsenic were extracted using a single extraction test and a significant positive correlation between soil leachate pH and arsenic extractability (r = 0.70, p < 0.01) was observed. This suggested that soil pH might play a role in the bioavailability of arsenic. PMID:21331534

Jurkovi?, L'ubomír; Hiller, Edgar; Veselská, Veronika; Pet'ková, Katarína



Cancer incidence and pattern of arsenic concentration in drinking water wells in Córdoba, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer occurrence is associated with Arsenic (As) in drinking water. In Argentina, there are high As concentrations in groundwater but there is no published evidence yet of an association between geographic patterns of cancer incidence and the distribution of As in groundwater supplies. The purpose of this study is to assess the association between cancer incidence patterns and As in

Laura Rosana Aballay; Marìa del Pilar Dìaz; Franco Matías Francisca; Sonia Edith Muñoz



Cancer incidence and pattern of arsenic concentration in drinking water wells in Córdoba, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer occurrence is associated with Arsenic (As) in drinking water. In Argentina, there are high As concentrations in groundwater but there is no published evidence yet of an association between geographic patterns of cancer incidence and the distribution of As in groundwater supplies. The purpose of this study is to assess the association between cancer incidence patterns and As in

Laura Rosana Aballay; María del Pilar Díaz; Franco Matías Francisca; Sonia Edith Muñoz



The influence of arsenite concentration on arsenic accumulation in tomato and bean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) absorption by tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as affected by arsenite concentration in nutrient solution was examined. The processes of As uptake and accumulation among roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were studied. Tomato and bean plants were grown in nutrient solution containing four levels of arsenite: 0, 2, 5, and 10 mg As 1?1.

A. A. Carbonell-Barrachina; F. Burló; A. Burgos-Hernández; E. López; J. Mataix



Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.  


To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 ?g day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food. PMID:23728998

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung



Determining the normal concentration of uranium in urine and application of the data to its biokinetics  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed to determine the concentration of uranium (238U) in urine. This method involved preconcentration of uranium from urine with calcium phosphate neutron activation followed by simple radiochemical separation. Using this method, it was possible to detect 0.2 ng of 238U. The average and geometric mean concentration of uranium found in urine of subjects from a normal background environment was 12.8 and 9.4 ng L-1, respectively. The concentration of uranium in the urine and the daily intake of uranium by the same population was used to arrive at the gastrointestinal absorption factor (f1) for uranium incorporated in the diet. The f1 factor was estimated to be 1.6%.

Dang, H.S.; Pullat, V.R.; Pillai, K.C. (Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))




EPA Science Inventory

Elevated arsenic concentrations are coincident with enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in bedrock ground water within Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the lack of correlations between sulfate concentrations an...


Relation between bloodand urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphetamine undergoes extensive renal excretion and significant amounts are present in urine as the unchanged parent drug. This prompted us to investigate whether a quantitative relationship existed between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine in the body fluids of drug-impaired drivers apprehended in Sweden, where this stimulant is the major drug of abuse. The relationship between blood and urine concentrations

A W Jones; L Karlsson



Contributions of Pesticide use to Urban Background Concentrations of Arsenic in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil investigations near a former smelter have revealed that historic use of arsenical pesticides has contributed significantly to anthropogenic background concentrations of arsenic on certain residential properties in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. Remedial investigation data, based on samples collected in relatively undisturbed locations, had previously indicated that the \\

David J. Folkes; Theodore E. Kuehster; Robert A. Litle



Variation in Arsenic Concentration Relative to Ammonium Nitrogen and Oxidation Reduction Potential in Surface and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As), ammonium?nitrogen (N), nitrate?N concentrations, and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) in the water samples from the river, pond, dug well, and shallow and deep tube wells (TW) were investigated in a farming village of southwestern Bangladesh. Concentrations of As and ammonium?N were the highest, whereas ORP was the lowest in the shallow TW water among the water sources. The ammonium?N

Kiyoshi Kurosawa; Kazuhiko Egashira; Masakazu Tani; M. Jahiruddin; Abu Zofar M. Moslehuddin; M. Zulfikar Rahman



Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health



Ion exchange chromatography as a selective pre-concentration method for PIXE analysis of urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cation exchange resin, Chelex 100, has been used to separate and preconcentrate trace metal ions in urine. The separation from macro-elements is good and the concentration factor for trace metals is about 50. The detection limits are decreased by a factor between 20 and 40 compared to direct analysis of urine which enables the analysis of metals with low level of natural occurrence.

Pakarinen, Pirjo; Pallon, Jan; Akselsson, Roland



Urine concentrations of ecgonine from specimens with low benzoylecgonine levels using a new ecgonine assay.  


A new approach to detecting drug positives for cocaine in urine having benzoylecgonine concentrations below the Department of Defense (DoD) cutoffs was examined by measuring the concentrations of the metabolite ecgonine. The DoD cutoff concentrations for determining a positive for cocaine are 150 and 100 ng/mL for radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. To facilitate this approach, a new assay was developed for ecgonine using only 1 mL urine. The urine was passed through an anion-exchange cartridge, and the eluant was evaporated to dryness in a water bath under nitrogen. The residue was subjected to nonylation and a standard back extraction procedure before a second derivatization with propionic anhydride. A total of 139 urine specimens were analyzed in this manner, and 104 yielded ecgonine concentrations greater than 50 ng/mL. The average ecgonine concentration in the latter specimens was approximately 5 times the comparable benzoylecgonine concentration. By monitoring ecgonine alone or in conjunction with benzoylecgonine, the number of cocaine positives detected in urine could be dramatically increased. PMID:7564289

Hornbeck, C L; Barton, K M; Czarny, R J


Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women  

PubMed Central

Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ? 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk.

Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.



Effects of low-level arsenic exposure on urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity.  


This study was aimed to evaluate whether renal tubular function is impaired by exposure to relatively low concentrations of arsenic. Mean urinary arsenic concentrations and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities were compared among 365 and 502 Korean men and women, respectively, in relation to gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and recent seafood consumption. The study subjects were divided into 4 groups according to urinary NAG activity and seafood consumption prior to urine sampling, and the correlation between arsenic concentration and urinary NAG activity was tested for each group. The mean urinary arsenic level was higher in women, non-smokers, and non-drinkers in comparison to men, smokers, and drinkers, respectively. Individuals who consumed seafood within 3 days prior to urine sampling showed a higher mean urinary arsenic level than those who did not. The correlation between urinary arsenic concentration and NAG activity in urine was significant only in subjects who did not consume seafood within 3 days prior to urine sampling and whose urinary NAG activity was 7.44 U/g creatinine (75th percentile) or higher. The urinary arsenic concentration was a significant determinant of urinary NAG activity in subjects with NAG activity higher than 7.44 U/g creatinine and especially in those who had not consumed seafood recently. These facts suggest that a relatively low-level exposure to inorganic arsenic produces renal tubular damage in humans. PMID:21622483

Eom, S-Y; Lee, Y-C; Yim, D-H; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-D; Choi, B-S; Park, C-H; Yu, S-D; Kim, D-S; Park, J-D; Kim, H



Combined Effect of Arsenic and Phosphorus on Mineral Element Concentrations of Sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the combined effect of soil?applied phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) on P, As, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), lantanium (La), and cerium (Ce) concentrations of sunflower plants under glasshouse conditions determined by polarized?energy?dispersive x?ray fluorescence

Aydin Gunes; Ali Inal; Esra G. Bagci; Yusuf K. Kadioglu



Spatial distributions of arsenic exposure and mining communities from NHEXAS Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), metals were evaluated in the air, soil, dust, water, food, beverages, and urine of a single respondent. Potential doses were calculated for five metals including arsenic. In this paper, we seek to validate the potential dose calculations through spatial analysis of the data. Others report elevated arsenic concentrations in




Spatial variability of arsenic concentration in soils and plants, and its relationship with iron, manganese and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution of arsenic (As) concentrations of irrigation water, soil and plant (rice) in a shallow tube-well (STW) command area (8ha), and their relationship with Fe, Mn and P were studied. Arsenic concentrations of water in the 110m long irrigation channel clearly decreased with distance from the STW point, the range being 68–136?gL?1. Such decreasing trend was also noticed with

M. B. Hossain; M. Jahiruddin; G. M. Panaullah; R. H. Loeppert; M. R. Islam; J. M. Duxbury



Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport.

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah



Occurrence of arsenic in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), nature of organo-arsenic compound present and its excretion by man.  

PubMed Central

The arsenic content in 255 samples of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) varied between 3 and 166 mg/kg. About 65% of the samples had an arsenic content above 10 mg/kg. High (low) arsenic concentration in the fillet corresponds with a high (low) concentration in milt or roe. An excretion experiment with eight human volunteers showed that after the consumption of plaice, 69-85% of the ingested arsenic was excreted in the urine within five days. The organo-arsenic compound present in plaice was isolated by means of extraction, ion-exchange and thin-layer chromatography. Field desorption mass spectrometry of the isolate showed that arsenic was present as arsenobetaine, (CH3)3AsCH2C00-.

Luten, J B; Riekwel-Booy, G; Rauchbaar, A



Biomarkers of Exposure: A Case Study with Inorganic Arsenic  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminant inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Most mammals metabolize iAs by reducing it to trivalency, followed by oxidative methylation to pentavalency. iAs and its methylated metabolites are primarily excreted in urine within 4–5 days by most species and have a relatively low rate of bioaccumulation. Intra- and interindividual differences in the methylation of iAs may affect the adverse health effects of arsenic. Both inorganic and organic trivalent arsenicals are more potent toxicants than pentavalent forms. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed for arsenic-induced toxicity, but a scientific consensus has not been achieved. Biomarkers of exposure may be used to quantify exposure to iAs. The most common biomarker of exposure for iAs is the measurement of total urinary arsenic. However, consumption of seafood containing high concentrations of organic arsenic can confound estimation of iAs exposure. Because these organic species are thought to be relatively nontoxic, their presence in urine may not represent increased risk. Speciation of urinary arsenic into inorganic and organic forms, and even oxidation state, gives a more definitive indication of the exposure to iAs. Questions still remain, however, as to how reliably the measurement of urinary arsenic, either total or speciated, may predict arsenic concentrations at target tissues as well as how this measurement could be used to assess chronic exposures to iAs.

Hughes, Michael F.



Resveratrol protects against arsenic trioxide-induced nephrotoxicity by facilitating arsenic metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress.  


Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an environmental toxicant and a potent antineoplastic agent. Exposure to arsenic causes renal cancer. Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenolic compound that is reported to reduce As(2)O(3)-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on As(2)O(3)-induced nephrotoxicity and arsenic metabolism. Chinese Dragon-Li cats were injected with 1 mg/kg As(2)O(3) on alternate days; resveratrol (3 mg/kg) was administered via the forearm vein 1 h before the As(2)O(3) treatment. On the sixth day, the cats were killed to determine the histological renal damage, renal function, the accumulation of arsenic, and antioxidant activities in the kidney. Urine samples were taken for arsenic speciation. In the resveratrol + As(2)O(3)-treated group, activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, the total arsenic concentrations, and the percentage of methylated arsenic in urine were significantly increased. The concentrations of renal malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and renal arsenic accumulation were significantly decreased and reduced renal morphologic injury was observed compared with the As(2)O(3)-treated group. These results demonstrate that resveratrol could significantly scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibit As(2)O(3)-induced oxidative damage, and significantly attenuate the accumulation of arsenic in renal tissues by facilitating As(2)O(3) metabolism. These data suggest that use of resveratrol as postremission therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia as well as adjunctive therapy in patients with exposure to arsenic may decrease arsenic nephrotoxicity. PMID:23471352

Yu, Meiling; Xue, Jiangdong; Li, Yijing; Zhang, Weiqian; Ma, Dexing; Liu, Lian; Zhang, Zhigang



A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.  


Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ?50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3) to 5×10(8) copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6), 14×10(6), and 8×10(6) copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR. PMID:23861895

Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R



Maple syrup urine disease: Branchedchain amino acid concentrations and metabolism in cultured human lymphoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular concentration of free leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their metabolism were studied in lymphoblast cultures established from peripheral blood of an individual with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a control subject. Branched-chain a-keto acid decarboxylase activity in the MSUD cells was 10% or less of the control value as measured by the ability of the cells to

Stephen D. Skaper; Daniel P. Molden; J. Edwin Seegmiller



Concentration of urine in a central core model of the renal counterflow system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of urine in a central core model of the renal counterflow system. In this model descending Henle's limbs (DHL), ascending Henle's limbs (AHL) and collecting ducts (CD) exchange with a central vascular core (VC) formed by vasa recta loops—assumed so highly permeable that the core functions as a single tube, open at the cortical end and closed at the

John L Stephenson



Nickel concentrations in serum and urine of patients with nickel eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of the Biological Risk Assessment of Human Metal Sensitisation (BRAHMS) project with the aim of elucidating clinical and physiological effects of repeated exposures to low concentrations of metal allergens. Nickel allergic individuals (n=35) with hand eczema and healthy controls (n=30) were included in the study. Both groups had similar levels of nickel in urine, while

J. M Christensen; J Kristiansen; N. H Nielsen; T Menné; K Byrialsen




Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that is not legally regulated. Moreover, it is found in various forms of foodstuff. This study aimed to investigate caffeine intake and knowledge concerning caffeine health effects in a community of Thailand, Nakhonnayok province. A questionnaire was used to survey how people consumed caffeine-containing foodstuff daily. Urine caffeine concentrations analyzed by GC\\/NPD method were used


Pesticide Residues in Urine of Adults Living in the United States: Reference Range Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured 12 analytes in urine of 1000 adults living in the United States to establish reference range concentrations for pesticide residues. We frequently found six of these analytes: 2,5-dichlorophenol (in 98% of adults); 2,4-dichlorophenol (in 64%); 1-naphthol (in 86%); 2-naphthol (in 81%); 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (in 82%); and pentachlorophenol (in 64%). The 95th percentile concentration (95thPC) for 2,5-dichlorophenol (indicative of p-dichlorobenzene

R. H. Hill; S. L. Head; S. Baker; M. Gregg; D. B. Shealy; S. L. Bailey; C. C. Williams; E. J. Sampson; L. L. Needham



Family correlations of arsenic methylation patterns in children and parents exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the evidence of a familial contribution to urinary methylation patterns in families ingesting arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic methylation can be assessed by measuring urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (InAs) and its methylated metabolites, monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Methylation activity is reflected in the ratios: InAs/methylated arsenic (InAs/metAs) and MMA/DMA. Eleven families from Chile were selected because of their long-term exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water (735-762 microg/L). Each family consisted of a father, a mother, and two children. We measured urinary arsenic and its methylated metabolites for each participant (n = 44). The intraclass correlation coefficients showed that 13-52% of the variations in the methylation patterns were from being a member of a specific family. Family correlations were calculated for father-mother, parent-child, and sibling-sibling pairs. Methylation patterns correlated strongly between siblings [r = 0.78 for InAs/metAs, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.94; r = 0.82 for MMA/DMA, 95%CI, 0.43-0.95] compared to lower correlations in father-mother pairs (r = 0.18, r = -0.01, respectively), after adjustment for total urinary arsenic, age, and sex. Family correlations were not notably altered when adjustments were made for specific blood micronutrients (methionine, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6, selenium, and vitamin B12 potentially related to methylation. We also report on a family pedigree with high prevalence of arsenic-induced effects. Participants from this family had low InAs/metAs values, which is consistent with increased toxicity of trivalent methylated arsenic species. Despite our small sample size, we observed that methylation patterns aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Larger studies with more extensive pedigrees will need to be conducted to confirm these findings.

Chung, Joyce S; Kalman, David A; Moore, Lee E; Kosnett, Michael J; Arroyo, Alex P; Beeris, Martin; Mazumder, D N Guha; Hernandez, Alexandra L; Smith, Allan H



Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.  


Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 ?g/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 ?g/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 ?g/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 ?g/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia



Elk exposure to arsenic in geothermal watersheds of Yellowstone National Park, USA.  


Geothermal activity in Yellowstone National Park (WY, USA) (YNP) results in elevated levels of arsenic in surface waters, aquatic vegetation, and sediments in the Upper Madison River Basin. This study was conducted to determine concentrations of arsenic in the tissues, feces, and rumen contents of elk (Cervus elaphus) residing in the Madison-Firehole (MF) River basin, and to evaluate potential arsenic exposure pathways. Concentrations of total arsenic in MF elk were significantly higher than in control elk populations, and analysis of arsenic in surface waters, elk forage, sediments, and soils suggests that the predominant arsenic exposure pathways are forage species found in aquatic and riparian habitats. Analysis of arsenic species in selected plant and elk samples indicated that the ingested forms of arsenic are predominantly inorganic, while the appearance of dimethylarsonate in elk rumen and feces suggests that arsenic is subject to methylation reactions after ingestion, potentially contributing to arsenic detoxification. Arsenic:creatinine ratios of elk urine samples analyzed across three different winters increased during winter progression and were correlated with total snow water equivalent as an index of winter severity. Exposure to arsenic and other trace elements (fluorine) may contribute to the previously observed decreased life expectancy of MF elk relative to control populations. PMID:15095895

Kocar, Benjamin D; Garrott, Robert A; Inskeep, William P



Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Razo, Luz Maria del [Toxicology Departament, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo [School of Medicine, Durango State Juarez University, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca [Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:



Trihalomethane Concentrations in Swimmers' and Bath Attendants' Blood and Urine after Swimming or Working in Indoor Swimming Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of working or swimming in indoor swimming pools on the concentrations of four trihalomethanes (haloforms) in blood and urine was investigated. Different groups (bath attendants, agonistic swimmers, normal swimmers, sampling person) were compared. The proportions of trihalomethanes in blood and urine correlated roughly with those in water and ambient air. Higher levels of physical activity were correlated with

Karl Cammann; Karl Hübner




EPA Science Inventory

A remarkable aspect of the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans is its conversion to methylated metabolites. These metabolites account for most of the arsenic found in urine after exposure to inorganic arsenic. At least some of the adverse health effects attributed to inor...


Blood Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis.  


Background: In India, there is a rising burden of chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. It has been estimated that 25-40% of these patients are likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD), with a significant percentage requiring renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis is the most common method which is used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure. Derangements in the metabolism of several toxic and trace elements such as antimony, arsenic cadmium, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium have been reported for several decades in patients with chronically reduced renal functions. Overall, the available literature suggests that the blood levels of some elements such as cadmium, chromium, fluorine, iodine, lead, or vanadium are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Aim and Objectives: Our aim was to study the levels of blood arsenic and cadmium in ESRD patients who were on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), and to study whether there was any relationship between their concentrations and the duration of the MHD. Methods: The blood lead levels were determined in 50 healthy subjects with normal renal functions and in 50 patients with ESRD, who were on MHD. None of them had any history of smoking or any industrial exposure. Results: The results of the study revealed that the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were higher in the ESRD patients who were on MHD than in the healthy adults. The blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were found to increase with the duration of the MHD. Conclusion: The mild increase in the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations, with an increase in the duration of the MHD in the study population, may be viewed in the wider context, that a prolonged exposure to arsenic and cadmium, even at low levels, may result in renal damage and/or progression of an already existing CKD. PMID:23814716

Palaneeswari M, Subha; Rajan, P M Abraham Sam; Silambanan, Santhi; Jothimalar



Fluoride in workplace air and in urine of workers concentrating fluorspar  

SciTech Connect

The urinary fluoride concentrations of workers exposed to calcium fluoride (CaF2) during fluorspar processing were measured. Personal dust measurement showed that the mean occupational exposure to fluoride for 12 workers in the most dusty environment was 24.3 mg/m3, which is 9.7 times the threshold limit value (TLV) of 2.5 mg/m3. Exposure was below the TLV for the remaining 23 workers. Urinary fluoride concentrations were measured pre- and postshift. The heavily exposed workers had a mean preshift concentration of 3.3 mg/liter (range 1.4-8.5 mg/liter), only slightly higher than the mean of 2.8 mg/liter (range 1.3-4.2 mg/liter) in the workers with fluoride exposure below the TLV. Four of the preshift concentrations exceeded the recommended upper limit of 4 mg/liter. The mean postshift concentration for workers exposed above the TLV was 4.4 mg/liter (range 2.4-7.1 mg/liter) and the difference between pre- and postshift concentrations was significant (p less than 0.05). Only one urinary concentration exceeded the recommended upper limit of 7 mg/liter. There was poor correlation between intensity of environmental exposure to fluorspar and postshift fluoride concentration in the urine. Eighteen workers provided a urine sample 7-14 hr after the end of a shift. The mean fluoride concentration was 4.7 mg/liter (range 2.4-11.7 mg/liter), which exceeded their postshift concentration by 0.2 mg/liter. These results indicate that the low aqueous solubility of fluorspar reduced the biologic availability of the fluoride ion but that this did not prevent excessive fluoride absorption in some workers.

Rees, D.; Rama, D.B.; Yousefi, V. (National Centre for Occupational Health, Johannesburg (South Africa))



Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-?) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition

Olga L. Valenzuela; Dori R. Germolec; Víctor H. Borja-Aburto; José Contreras-Ruiz; Gonzalo G. García-Vargas; Luz M. Del Razo



Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values. Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of the study area-about 93 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers was less than one-half the standard for nitrate as N (5.0 milligrams per liter), and 50 percent was less than one-half the standard for arsenic (5.0 micrograms per liter). The predicted concentrations and the improved understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of southwestern basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment can be used by water managers as a qualitative tool to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources in the Southwest.

Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.



Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation.  


Inorganic arsenic, a documented human carcinogen, is methylated in the body by alternating reduction of pentavalent arsenic to trivalent and addition of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. Glutathione, and possibly other thiols, serve as reducing agents. The liver is the most important site of arsenic methylation, but most organs show arsenic methylating activity. The end metabolites are methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). These are less reactive with tissue constituents than inorganic arsenic and readily excreted in the urine. However, reactive intermediates may be formed. Absorbed arsenate (As(V)) is fairly rapidly reduced in blood to As(III), which implies increased toxicity. Also, intermediate reduced forms of the methylated metabolites, MMA(III) and DMA(III), have been detected in human urine. In particular MMA(III) is highly toxic. To what extent MMA(III) and DMA(III) contribute to the observed toxicity following exposure to inorganic arsenic remains to be elucidated. There are marked differences in the metabolism of arsenic between mammalian species, population groups and individuals. There are indications that subjects with low MMA in urine have faster elimination of ingested arsenic, compared to those with more MMA in urine. PMID:12505313

Vahter, Marie



Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.  


We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul



Multivariate statistical analysis of arsenic and selenium concentrations in groundwaters from south-central Nevada and Death Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic and selenium concentrations along with the major solutes were measured in ground-waters sampled from springs in Pahranagat Valley and Ash Meadows, Nevada, Death Valley, California, and from wells from the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The multivariate statistical technique correspondence analysis was applied to the data to determine relationships between the groundwaters from these areas, the aquifer

Kevin H. Johannesson; Klaus J. Stetzenbach; David K. Kreamer; Vernon F. Hodge



Association of arsenic levels in soil and water with urinary arsenic concentration of residents in the vicinity of closed metal mines.  


Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious health problems, in particular cancer. Health hazard attributed to As in contaminated soil and water in the vicinity of closed or abandoned metal mines may be high. Little is known about how environmental exposure to As has affected the health of resident near closed metal mines. The objectives of this study were to compare the urinary level of As for those living near closed metal mines (the exposed group) with that of non-exposed group; and to investigate the correlation between As levels in soil (SoilAs) and water (WaterAs) and the urinary levels (UrineAs) of residents in the exposed group. Data for SoilAs and WaterAs were obtained from the national environmental survey performed between 2003 and 2005 by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. To measure UrineAs, 2674 and 237 subjects were selected from 67 closed metal mines (exposed areas) and two rural areas (non-exposed areas), respectively. Five milliliters of urine samples were taken, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze UrineAs. Of all the exposed areas, high SoilAs and WaterAs areas that exceed the Korean standards of As in soil (6 mg/kg-soil) and stream or groundwater (0.05 mg/l-water) were classified to evaluate the health risks in high polluted areas. Also, high UrineAs group was defined as 20 ?g/g creatinine or more. Student's t-test was performed to compare the UrineAs level between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by a logistic analysis to evaluate the risk for high UrineAs level from high SoilAs and WaterAs areas. The mean of urinary As were 8.90 ± 8.34 ?g/g-creatinine for the exposed group and 7.68 ± 4.98 ?g/g creatinine for the non-exposed group, respectively; and the significant difference of urinary As level was observed between both groups (p<0.05). Moreover, the means for urinary As of people in areas with high As level in soil and water were significantly higher than that for the control areas (p<0.001), and these differences were more pronounced for the As level in water. The odds of subjects with high UrineAs were positively and significantly associated with living in the areas with high As level in soil (OR=1.62; 95% C.I.=1.13-2.31). These associations were much stronger for the areas with high WaterAs (OR=3.79; 95% C.I.=2.32-6.19). These results indicate that the high level of As in environment may increase the risk of having high urinary As level of people in the exposed areas. PMID:22704486

Cho, YongMin; Seo, SungChul; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Lee, SeungKil; Kim, KyungHee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook



Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.



Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).  


Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 ?g L(-1)-2000 ?g L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 ?g kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils. PMID:23583727

Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson



Dietary and sociodemographic determinants of bisphenol A urine concentrations in pregnant women and children.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may have endocrine-disrupting effects, but the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy and childhood remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between, and sociodemographic and dietary predictors of, serial urinary BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy and childhood in a Spanish birth cohort study. BPA was measured in two spot urine samples collected from 479 women during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and in one urine sample from their 4-year old children (n=130). Average dietary intakes were reported in food frequency questionnaires during the first and third pregnancy trimester and at age 4years. Multivariate mixed models and linear regression models were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and dietary factors and BPA concentrations. A small, but statistically significant correlation was found between serial maternal BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy (r=0.17). Pregnant women who were younger, less-educated, smoked, and who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) had higher BPA concentrations than others. BPA concentrations were also higher in children exposed to SHS. High consumption of canned fish during pregnancy was associated with 21% [GM ratio=1.21; 95%CI 1.02, 1.44] and 25% [GM ratio=1.25; 95%CI 1.05, 1.49] higher urinary BPA concentrations in the first and third pregnancy trimester, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. This study suggests that canned fish may be a major source of BPA during pregnancy in Spain, a country of high canned fish consumption. Further evaluation of specific BPA exposure sources in the sociodemographic group of younger women who smoke, are exposed to SHS, and have a low educational level is needed. Studies identifying sources of exposure would benefit from repeat BPA measurements and questionnaires specifically focused on dietary and packaging sources. PMID:23542682

Casas, Maribel; Valvi, Damaskini; Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gomez, Ana; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernandez, Marieta F; Koch, Holger M; Mendez, Michelle A; Sunyer, Jordi; Rubio, Soledad; Vrijheid, Martine



Arsenic is cytotoxic at micromolar concentration, but does not inhibit purified human DNA repair enzymes at less than millimolar concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen, but not a mutagen. However it can act as a co-mutagen with UV and alkylating agents, and has been shown to inhibit DNA repair. The activities of several purified human enzymes involved in DNA repair have been tested in the presence of inorganic arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. We have not found that both As(III) and As(V) stimulated the activity of DNA polymerase {beta} (pol {beta}), O{sup 6}methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and DNA ligase III. The activity of pol {beta} was increased up to 3.5-fold in the presence of 50 mM As (III), and 2-fold in the presence of 20 mM As(V). Inhibition of enzyme activity was only observed with concentrations of As(III) and As(V) higher than 100 mM. Terminal deoxynucleotidal transferase (TdT), an enzyme with homology to pol {beta}, is also stimulated 3-fold by 50 mM As(III). Unlike pol {beta} and TdT, MGMT was preferentially activated by millimolar As(V), rather than As(III). Similar concentrations of inorganic phosphate also increased the activity of MGMT. The activity of DNA ligase I was inhibited by 1 to 5 mM As(III). However, both DNA ligase I and DNA ligase III were significantly activated by As(V). In contrast to these results, human keratinocyte cells exhibit significant cytotoxicity when exposed to 10 {mu}M As(III) and 200 {mu}M AS(V). Cell survival was decreased by over 50% at these concentrations, as measured by neutral red uptake, LDH release, and MTT uptake. Interestingly, both As(III) and As(V) produced increased cell proliferation at submicromolar concentrations. These results suggest that arsenic compounds do not exert their toxic effects by direct inhibition of DNA repair enzymes, but by other mechanisms.

Su, Lin; Hu, Yu; Dunlop, B. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States)] [and others



Determination of arsenic in chicken feed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pre-concentration procedure with solid-phase extraction was developed for the determination of arsenic (As) in chicken feed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The procedure was based on the sorption of As(III) ions as complexes with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate onto a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam. After pre-concentration, the As was removed from the mini-column by acid solution, and

A. S. Dos Passos; T. S. Néri; M. V. Maciel; I. L. da Silva Romão; V. A. Lemos



PCB, DDT, arsenic, and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in chameleon ( Chamaeleo chamaeleon) eggs from Southwest Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the concentrations of twenty PCB congeners, p,p?-DDT, and its two main metabolites, p,p?-DDE, p,p?-TDE, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn found in common chameleon eggs from nine different nests located in Southwest Spain. Of the heavy metals and arsenic, Zn and Cu exhibited the highest concentrations in egg contents (ranging from 10100 to 12950 and from 567

B. Gómara; G. Gómez; C. Díaz-Paniagua; A. Marco; M. J. González



Determinants of Arsenic Metabolism: Blood Arsenic Metabolites, Plasma Folate, Cobalamin and Homocysteine Concentrations in Maternal-Newborn Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

0.80, p < 0.0001), arsenite (As+3) (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), and arsenate (As+5 )( r = 0.89, p < 0.0001). Maternal homocysteine was a strong predictor of %DMA in maternal urine, maternal blood, and cord blood (? = -6.2, p < 0.02; ? = -10.9, p < 0.04; and ? = -13.7, p < 0.04, respec- tively). Maternal

Marni Hall; Mary Gamble; Vesna Slavkovich; Xinhua Liu; Diane Levy; Zhongqi Cheng; Alexander van Geen; Mahammad Yunus; Mahfuzar Rahman; J. Richard Pilsner; Joseph Graziano



Spatial and temporal patterns of arsenic concentration in the High Plains Aquifer of Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved arsenic in groundwater were documented from samples collected at 987 water wells in the High Plains (Ogallala) Aquifer of Texas, USA. Sampled wells had a median depth of 73 m. Historic pesticide and defoliant applications to cotton fields are potential sources of arsenic in the study area. From a survey of samples collected between

Paul F. Hudak




EPA Science Inventory

Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenic speciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no single technique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complex e...


Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana.  


To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature. PMID:22446112

Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Biney, Charles Augustus; Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed; Otsuka, Masanari; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke



Assessment of in vivo bioaccessibility of arsenic in dietary rice by a mass balance approach.  


A pilot dietary experiment was conducted over 10 days to evaluate whether a simple yet often underutilized approach of constructing mass balance of arsenic metabolites can be used to assess in vivo bioaccessibility of arsenic in cooked rice. Two volunteers were involved in this study. The quantity of drinking water, food and urine samples, together with arsenic concentration and speciation of these samples was monitored to construct a mass balance of arsenic intake and excretion. In the first five days, the two volunteers on a wheat diet had an average arsenic daily intake of 15.4+/-2.6microg and 9.6+/-0.7microg, respectively. In the next five days, these volunteers switched to a rice diet, increasing the average arsenic daily intake to 36.4+/-2.8microg and 34.1+/-7.7microg, respectively. Daily excretion of urinary arsenic, mostly as dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), doubled from 9.8+/-0.3microg to 21.0+/-3.0microg, and from 6.5+/-0.8microg to 11.6+/-4.5microg, respectively. The percentage of ingested arsenic excreted in urine remained constant at approximately 58% for one volunteer before and after the rice diet, and was approximately 69% for another. Mass balance established during a controlled dietary experiment over 10 days is shown to be a useful approach to evaluate in vivo bioaccessibility and metabolism of arsenic uptake from diet and is applicable to study with more subjects. PMID:20071009

He, Yi; Zheng, Yan



Measurement of vanadium, nickel, and arsenic in seawater and urine reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation  

SciTech Connect

Addition of a small dose (2%) of H[sub 2] to the aerosol gas flow enhanced analyte signals by a factor of 2-3, which compensated for the loss of analyte signal that accompanied earlier efforts at cryogenic desolvation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vanadium, nickel, and arsenic at microgram per liter levels in urine, river, and seawater reference materials were determined. The polyatomic ions ClO[sup +], CaO[sup +], and ArCl[sup +], which normally cause severe overlap interferences for these elements, were attenuated to manageable levels by cryogenic desolvation. The samples were simply diluted with 1% HNO[sub 2] so that the chloride could be removed as HCl. The analytical results obtained for these standard reference materials agreed closely with the certified or recommended values. The detection limit ranges (3[sigma]) obtained were 10-1000 ng L[sup [minus]1] for V, 0.03-20 [mu]g L[sup [minus]1] for Ni, and 4-7000 ng L[sup [minus]1] for As in the original samples. The samples were introduced by flow injection to minimize clogging of the sampling orifice. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Alves, L.C.; Allen, L.A.; Houk, R.S. (Ames Lab.-U.S. Department of Energy, IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))



Urothelial cell intracytoplasmic inclusions after treatment of promyelocytic leukemia with arsenic trioxide.  


Intramitochondrial inclusions containing arsenite that occur within urothelial cells have been previously described in mice exposed to high concentrations of arsenic but not in rats. In epidemiology studies, similar urothelial cell inclusions have also been observed in the urine of humans exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water; however, these inclusions were mistakenly identified as micronuclei. To further examine the urothelial cell inclusions that occur in inorganic arsenic-exposed humans, we evaluated two patients with a history of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated for disease relapse with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide. Posttreatment examination of the patients' urine cytology specimens by light and electron microscopy demonstrated cytoplasmic inclusions in exfoliated superficial urothelial cells similar to those seen in mice. The inclusions were present in decreasing quantities at 3 and 7 months after completion of treatment. No comparable inclusions were detected in exfoliated urothelial cells in urine from six individuals not treated with arsenic trioxide. Based on the results of the examination by light and electron microscopy, we have determined that urothelial cell inclusions in the urine of humans previously identified as micronuclei are instead intracytoplasmic inclusions similar to those found in arsenic-treated mice. PMID:23744094

Wedel, Whitney R; Muirhead, David E; Arnold, Lora L; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Lele, Subodh M; Maness-Harris, Lori; Hoyt, Rose; Cohen, Samuel M



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

PubMed Central

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis.

Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G



When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID.

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew



The Use of Hydrogel Microparticles to Sequester and Concentrate Bacterial Antigens in a Urine Test for Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) – acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine.

Douglas, Temple; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin; Lepene, Benjamin S.; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra



Developmental arrest in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to sublethal concentrations of atrazine and arsenic trioxide.  


Embryos of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to serial concentrations of atrazine (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) and arsenic trioxide (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 ppm) until hatching. Stasis of circulation, blood islands, titanic convulsions, tube heart and mortality were observed in atrazine-treated embryos. Each endpoint exhibited a concentration-response relationship. Only 4% of the embryos hatched in the 25 ppm, and none in the 50 and 100 ppm, probably due to cell death attributed to the embryos' inability to break from the chorion. With arsenic exposure, hatching was inversely correlated to chemical concentration: 86%, 75% and 54% for 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, respectively. Hatching periods were also reduced from 7-13 days in controls to 7-11 days in arsenic-treated embryos. This observation was more pronounced with the 0.05 ppm concentration, showing a reduction of about 4 days. Despite this shortage in hatching time, there were no observable morphological abnormalities, as seen with atrazine. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of sublethal toxicity tests using Japanese medaka embryos are important. PMID:15303697

Ishaque, Ali B; Tchounwou, Paul B; Wilson, Barbara A; Washington, Teresa



A brief history of theories concerning the mammalian urine concentrating mechanism.  


The mechanism by which the mammalian kidney creates the osmotic gradient necessary for urine concentration remains an open question. We present a brief survey of the give-and-take between theory and experiment on this question over the last half century. We start with the introduction of the countercurrent multiplier paradigm in 1951. We finish with a description of a recent suggestion that the explanation for the enigmatic inner medullary osmotic gradient may reside in the very metabolism of the inner medullary cells, which are required by the region's hypoxia to obtain their ATP largely from anaerobic glycolysis and which thus, by the same token, furnish net osmoles to the medullary interstitium by converting glucose to lactate. PMID:11804242

Thomas, S R



Nickel concentrations in serum and urine of patients with nickel eczema.  


This study is a part of the Biological Risk Assessment of Human Metal Sensitisation (BRAHMS) project with the aim of elucidating clinical and physiological effects of repeated exposures to low concentrations of metal allergens. Nickel allergic individuals (n = 35) with hand eczema and healthy controls (n = 30) were included in the study. Both groups had similar levels of nickel in urine, while the level of nickel in serum was significantly lower in nickel allergic individuals compared to controls. Nickel allergic individuals had a significantly lower intake of nickel-rich food items (chocolate, nuts, beans, porridge oats). Serum nickel levels correlated with intake of these foods, suggesting that the difference in serum nickel levels was caused by differences in dietary nickel intake. PMID:10511261

Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Byrialsen, K



Low concentration of arsenic could induce caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage apoptosis with JNK-p38 activation in Clarias batrachus  

SciTech Connect

We had earlier demonstrated that chronic exposure (30 days) to micro-molar concentration (0.50 muM) of arsenic induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) death in Clarias batrachus. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of HKM death induced by arsenic and elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in the process. Arsenic-induced HKM death was apoptotic in nature as evident from DNA gel, Annexin V-propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Inhibitor studies and immunoblot analyses further demonstrated that arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Preincubation with antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethyl sulfoxide significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arsenic-treated HKM and prevented caspase activation, malondialdehyde formation and HKM apoptosis. Arsenic induced membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47{sup phox}. Preincubation with apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, both selective inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, prevented p47{sup phox} translocation, ROS production and HKM death. Exposure of HKM to arsenic induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) proteins including c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Preincubation of HKM with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 protected the HKM against arsenic-induced apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to micro-molar concentration of arsenic induces ROS generation through the activation of NADPH oxidases, which in turn causes caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. In addition, the study also indicates a role of p38-JNK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath, E-mail: [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Ghosh, Debabrata; Dey, Saibal [Department of Biochemistry, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)



Regional and Local Control of Arsenic Concentrations in Shallow Aquifers by the Permeability of Surface Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the bewildering aspects of the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh and other South Asian countries is the extreme degree of spatial variability of groundwater As concentrations. This presentation focuses on the origin of this variability in the top 20 meters of shallow aquifers by combining surface geophysical measurements (EM31) with groundwater and sediment properties obtained by modifying a local hand-drilling method in three contrasting areas of Bangladesh: (1) Birganj, in northwestern Bangladesh, where groundwater As concentrations rarely exceed 50 ug/L, (2) Araihazar, a central portion of the country where shallow groundwater As concentrations are highly variable, and (3) Lakshmipur, where essentially all shallow wells are elevated in As. Comparison with a series of auger cores collected in Araihazar indicates that the EM31 signal combines contributions related to the ionic strength of soil water as well as the proportion of fine-grained sediment. The combined set of observations shows a rather consistent relation between the conductivity of surface soils measured by induction and shallow groundwater As. In Birganj, EM31 conductivities rarely exceed 10 mS/m and can be below the detection limit of the instrument (~0.1 mS/m) over distances of 100s of meters. In Araihazar, areas with EM31 conductivities ranging form 10-15 mS/m are intermixed with regions with EM31 readings of 20-30 mS/m. The lower and higher EM31 conductivity ranges are generally associated with low and elevated As concentrations, respectively. In contrast, EM31 readings in the portion of Lakshmipur that was surveyed are consistently high and range from 30-50 mS/m. Overall, therefore, it appears that high groundwater As concentrations are typically associated with aquifers capped by fine-grained sediment whereas low groundwater As concentrations prevail in aquifers overlain by sandy deposits. This association, combined with gradual downstream fining of surface deposits of the Ganges-Brahmputra-Meghna delta, helps explain the spatial variability of shallow groundwater As variations down to the ~1 km scale (i.e. within Araihazar) as well as broader patterns throughout the country at the ~100 km scale.

van Geen, A.; Aziz, Z.; Goodbred, S. L.; Zheng, Y.; Horneman, A.; Dhar, R.; Weinman, B.; Cheng, Z.; Stute, M.; Hoque, M. A.; Seddique, A. A.; Ahmed, K. M.



Biomonitoring of urine mutagenicity with the Ames test: improvement of the extraction\\/concentration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative extraction efficiency of the pre-packed Bakerbond®-spe-SDB-1 resin and of Amberlite®-AD2 (XAD-2) resin, for the preparation of urine extracts in biomonitoring studies. Urine extracts were prepared in parallel with the Bakerbond® column and with the classical XAD-2 resin from urines (1) spiked with mutagenic chemicals, (2) collected from patients after chemotherapy, and (3) from smokers. Mutagenic activities were evaluated on

Véronique Andre; Pierre Lebailly; Edwige Deslandes; Michel Henry-Amar; Pascal Gauduchon



Pyrophosphate does not influence calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate crystal formation in concentrated whole human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

1) Low pyrophosphate urine was generated by passage through a nylon coil bearing immobilised inorganic pyrophosphatase. High pyrophosphate urine was made by addition of inorganic pyrophosphate. 2) Urine samples of low, normal, and high pyrophosphate content were rapidly evaporated at 37°C to 1,050 or 1,250 mosmol\\/L and the crystals formed studied by microscope, isotope and chemical methods. 3) Urinary pyrophosphate

P. C. Hallson; G. A. Rose; S. Sulaiman



Arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland.  


Cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an ICP-MS and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenocholine (AsC), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). The arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in the urine and blood serum of seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland. The sheep eat 2-4 kg of seaweed daily which is washed ashore on the most northern Island of Orkney. The urine, blood and wool of 20 North Ronaldsay sheep and kidney, liver and muscle from 11 sheep were sampled and analysed for their arsenic species. In addition five Dorset Finn sheep, which lived entirely on grass, were used as a control group. The sheep have a body burden of approximately 45-90 mg arsenic daily. Since the metabolism of arsenic species varies with the arsenite and arsenate being the most toxic, and organoarsenic compounds such as arsenobetaine the least toxic compounds, the determination of the arsenic species in the diet and their body fluids are important. The major arsenic species in their diet are arsenoribosides. The major metabolite excreted into urine and blood is DMAA (95 +/- 4.1%) with minor amounts of MMAA, riboside X, TMA and an unidentified species. The occurrence of MMAA is assumed to be a precursor of the exposure to inorganic arsenic, since demethylation of dimethylated or trimethylated organoarsenic compounds is not known (max. MMAA concentration 259 microg/L). The concentrations in the urine (3179 +/- 2667 microg/L) and blood (44 +/- 19 microg/kg) are at least two orders of magnitude higher than the level of arsenic in the urine of the control sheep or literature levels of blood for the unexposed sheep. The tissue samples (liver: 292 +/- 99 microg/kg, kidney: 565 +/- 193 microg/kg, muscle: 680 +/- 224 microg/kg) and wool samples (10470 +/- 5690 microg/kg) show elevated levels which are also 100 times higher than the levels for the unexposed sheep. PMID:11220824

Feldmann, J; John, K; Pengprecha, P



Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine

Maeve M. Moriarty; Iris Koch; Robert A. Gordon; Kenneth J. Reimer



Increased neurotoxicity of arsenic in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.  


A 16-year-old girl from Surinam presented with mental deterioration and severe paraparesis with areflexia and bilateral Babinski signs. Laboratory examination showed a hyperhomocysteinemia that was caused by 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency. In addition, urine samples contained large amounts of arsenic. An open bag with the pesticide copper acetate arsenite was found to be the source of exposure. In remethylation defects such as MTHFR deficiency, the concentration of methyldonors is severely reduced. As arsenic is detoxified by methylation, we suggest that the MTHFR deficiency in this girl might explain the fact that of all family members exposed to arsenic, only she developed severe clinical signs and symptoms of arsenic poisoning. PMID:1335858

Brouwer, O F; Onkenhout, W; Edelbroek, P M; de Kom, J F; de Wolff, F A; Peters, A C



Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants could cause contamination of the human food-chain, being beans a low-cost proteins source and a staple food in many Countries. Moreover, the compost application has allowed to reduce the As concentration in all tissues of the amended plants than those non-amended. The concentration of the As free-fraction in soil decreased significantly by increasing level of compost application, whereas the higher the compost application the higher was the concentration of specifically sorbed As by soil colloidal particles. The results of this study suggest that the growth of bean plants and their own As uptake were substantially affected by the mobility of As in soils and the plant management. Higher mobility of As in soil resulted in higher As uptake by bean plants. The use of compost, in addition to improve bean plants growth and their nutritional status, has allowed to limit the As uptake by biomasses, through the immobilization of the metalloid, derived by irrigation water, on/in their humified organic macromolecules. Furthermore, the supply of nutrients through the compost falls within the context of the organic farming, eco-friendly production system, which ensures the sustainability of the soil, improving its fertility.

Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.



Plasma and urine dimercaptopropanesulfonate concentrations after dermal application of transdermal DMPS (TD-DMPS).  


2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) is a metal chelator approved in Europe for oral or intravenous use for heavy metal poisoning. Transdermally applied DMPS (TD-DMPS) is used by some alternative practitioners to treat autism, despite the absence of evidence for its efficacy. We found no literature evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the transdermal route of delivery or the ability of TD-DMPS to enhance urinary mercury elimination. We hypothesized that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. Eight adult volunteers underwent application of 1.5-3 drops/kg of TD-DMPS. Subjects provided 12-h urine collections the day before and day of application. Subjects underwent blood draws at 0, 30, 60,90, 120, and 240 min after TD-DMPS application. Plasma and urine were assayed for the presence of DMPS. Urine was assayed for any change in urinary mercury excretion after DMPS. One control subject ingested 250 mg of oral DMPS and underwent the same urine and blood collections and analyses. No subject had detectable urine DMPS or increased urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. One subject had detectable levels of DMPS in the 30-min plasma sample, suspected to be contamination. All other samples for that subject and the other seven subjects showed no detectable plasma DMPS. The control subject had detectable urine and plasma DMPS levels and increased urine mercury excretion. These results indicate that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. There was no increase in urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. Our results argue that TD-DMPS is an ineffective metal chelator. PMID:23143832

Cohen, Jennifer P; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Curry, Steven C; Biswas, Kallol; Westenberger, Benjamin; Ye, Wei; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Lovecchio, Frank; Burkhart, Keith; Samia, Nasr



Spatial variability of arsenic concentration in soils and plants, and its relationship with iron, manganese and phosphorus.  


Spatial distribution of arsenic (As) concentrations of irrigation water, soil and plant (rice) in a shallow tube-well (STW) command area (8 ha), and their relationship with Fe, Mn and P were studied. Arsenic concentrations of water in the 110 m long irrigation channel clearly decreased with distance from the STW point, the range being 68-136 microg L(-1). Such decreasing trend was also noticed with Fe and P concentrations, but the trend for Mn concentrations was not remarkable. Concerning soil As, the concentration showed a decreasing tendency with distance from the pump. The NH(4)-oxalate extractable As contributed 36% of total As and this amount of As was associated with poorly crystalline Fe-oxides. Furthermore only 22% of total As was phosphate extractable so that most of the As was tightly retained by soil constituents and was not readily exchangeable by phosphate. Soil As (both total and extractable As) was significantly and positively correlated with rice grain As (0.296+/-0.063 microg g(-1), n=56). Next to drinking water, rice could be a potential source of As exposure of the people living in the As affected areas of Bangladesh. PMID:18644665

Hossain, M B; Jahiruddin, M; Panaullah, G M; Loeppert, R H; Islam, M R; Duxbury, J M



Evaluation of Dietary Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows Based on Urea Concentrations in Blood, Urine and Milk, and on Urinary Concentration of Purine Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on urea in blood, urine and milk, and on the urinary purine derivatives and creatinine in dairy cows, were studied. Diurnal variation in urinary concentration of urea, allantoin and creatinine was also studied. A total of 24 multiparous lactating dairy cows were selected from a production experiment and divided into two

Horacio Leandro Gonda; Jan Erik Lindberg



[Progesterone and pregnanediol-glucuronid concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas and their application in pregnancy diagnosis].  


The objective of the present study was the measurement of the pregnancy associated hormones progesterone (P4) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) in saliva, milk and urine of alpacas and their potential use in pregnancy diagnosis. Sample of blood, saliva, milk and urine were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and throughout the pregnancy. Concentrations of P4 and PdG were determined using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Pregnancy was checked by ultrasonography at any sampling time. The milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm progesterone kit which was designed for dairy cattle. EIA-Concentrations of P4 in blood, milk and urine and urine PdG concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in not pregnant alpacas. There was no difference in concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The accuracy of the progesterone kit was 90% for diagnosis of pregnancy and 69% for non-pregnancy. However, 70% of the false positive results also showed relatively high P4 milk concentrations in the EIA. Values of P4 in blood and PdG in urine are comparable to previous reports in alpacas and therefore can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. Saliva seems unsuitable in pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas milk seems to be an adequate alternative. The use of milk and urine would simplify the pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas since in contrast to the current methods (e. g. blood progesterone) the owners can take the samples. The avoidance of blood sampling results in a considerable stress reduction for the animals. P4 measurement in milk and PdG measurement in urine are good alternatives in pregnancy diagnosis during the first month of pregnancy, when a trans-abdominal ultrasonographic examination is not yet reliable. However, since high values of P4 and PdG only show the presence of active luteal tissue and therefore are indirect markers of pregnancy the diagnosis should be confirmed using ultrasound later in pregnancy. PMID:21141281

Volkery, Janine; Wittek, Thomas; Sobiraj, Axel; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almuth


Arsenic pollution sources.  


Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia



Highly sensitive and rapid method for determination of fluoride ion concentrations in serum and urine using flow injection analysis with a fluoride ion-selective electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for flow injection analysis (FIA) was developed to measure very low fluoride ion concentrations (<1 ?mol\\/l). The analytical conditions of the apparatus were investigated, and the instrument was used to determine fluoride ion concentrations in serum and urine. All interferences caused by serum and urine matrices were eliminated using the proposed method. The recovery was almost 100.0% for

Kazuyoshi Itai; Humio Tsunoda



Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23⁻¹, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may



The concentration of bisphenol A in urine is affected by specimen collection, a preservative, and handling.  


In urine specimens that were collected from pregnant women in a large cohort, 24% contained more than 10ng/ml of total bisphenol A (BPA), suggesting external contamination. Therefore, we conducted an investigation of the source(s) of extraneous BPA in the specimens. We found that under the conditions used to collect urine specimens in the epidemiologic study, contamination with BPA occurred, and by two separate mechanisms. PMID:23899777

Longnecker, M P; Harbak, K; Kissling, G E; Hoppin, J A; Eggesbo, M; Jusko, T A; Eide, J; Koch, H M



The carcinogenicity of arsenic.  

PubMed Central

A carcinogenic role of inorganic arsenic has been suspected for nearly a century. Exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds occurs in some occupational groups, e.g., among smelter workers and workers engaged in the production and use of arsenic containing pesticides. Substantial exposure can also result from drinking water in certain areas and the use of some drugs. Tobacco and wine have had high As concentrations due to the use of arsenic containing pesticides. Inorganic arsenic compounds interfere with DNA repair mechanisms and an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations have been observed among exposed workers and patients. Epidemiological data show that inorganic arsenic exposure can cause cancer of the lung and skin. The evidence of an etiologic role of arsenic for angiosarcoma of the liver is highly suggestive; however, the association between arsenic and cancer of other sites needs further investigation. No epidemiological data are available on exposure to organic arsenic compounds and cancer. Animal carcinogenicity studies involving exposure to various inorganic and organic arsenic compounds by different routes have been negative, with the possible exception of some preliminary data regarding lung cancer and leukemia. Some studies have indicated an increased mortality from lung cancer in populations living near point emission sources of arsenic into the air. The role of arsenic cannot be evaluated due to lack of exposure data. Epidemiological data suggest that the present WHO standard for drinking water (50 micrograms As/l.) provides only a small safety margin with regard to skin cancer.

Pershagen, G



Arsenic metabolism and thioarsenicals.  


Arsenic has received considerable attention in the world, since it can lead to a multitude of toxic effects and has been recognized as a human carcinogen causing cancers. Here, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the proposed mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation, with a little about cellular uptake, toxicity and clinical utilization of arsenicals. Since pentavalent methylated metabolites were found in animal urine after exposure to iAs(III), methylation was considered to be a detoxification process, but the discovery of methylated trivalent intermediates and thioarsenicals in urine has diverted the view and gained much interest regarding arsenic biotransformation. To further investigate the partially understood phenomena relating to arsenic toxicity and the uses of arsenic as a drug, it is important to elucidate the exact pathways involved in metabolism of this metalloid, as the toxicity and the clinical uses of arsenic can be best recognized in context of its biotransformation. Thereby, in this perspective, we have focused on arsenic metabolic pathways including three proposed mechanisms: a classic pathway by Challenger in 1945, followed by a new metabolic pathway proposed by Hayakawa in 2005 involving arsenic-glutathione complexes, while the third is a new reductive methylation pathway that is proposed by our group involving As-protein complexes. According to previous and present in vivo and in vitro experiments, we conclude that the methylation reaction takes place with simultaneous reductive rather than stepwise oxidative methylation. In addition, production of pentavalent methylated arsenic metabolites are suggested to be as the end product of metabolism, rather than intermediates. PMID:22358131

Rehman, Kanwal; Naranmandura, Hua



The evolutionary origin of the vasopressin/V2-type receptor/aquaporin axis and the urine-concentrating mechanism.  


In this mini-review, current evidence for how the vasopressin/V2-type receptor/aquaporin axis developed co-evolutionary as a crucial part of the urine-concentrating mechanism will be presented. The present-day human kidney, allowing the concentration of urine up to a maximal osmolality around 1200 mosmol kg(-1)-or urine to plasma osmolality ratio around 4-with essentially no sodium secreted is the result of up to 3 billion years evolution. Moving from aquatic to terrestrial habitats required profound changes in kidney morphology, most notable the loops of Henle modifying the kidneys from basically a water excretory system to a water conserving system. Vasopressin-like molecules has during the evolution played a significant role in body fluid homeostasis, more specifically, the osmolality of body liquids by controlling the elimination/reabsorption of fluid trough stimulating V2-type receptors to mobilize aquaporin water channels in the renal collector tubules. Recent evidence supports that all components of the vasopressin/V2-type receptor/aquaporin axis can be traced back to early precursors in evolutionary history. The potential clinical and pharmacological implications of a better phylogenetic understanding of these biological systems so essential for body fluid homeostasis relates to any pathological aspects of the urine-concentrating mechanism, in particular deficiencies of any part of the vasopressin-V2R-AQP2 axis causing central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus-and for broader patient populations also in preventing and treating disturbances in human circadian regulation of urine volume and osmolality that may lead to enuresis and nocturia. PMID:22374125

Juul, Kristian Vinter



Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds  

PubMed Central

The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction, and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The “cleaned” urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers.

Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D.; Danish, Robert K.; Neuman, Michael R.; Toth, Blanka; Horvath, Viola; Lindner, Erno



Arsenic accumulation, transformation and tolerance on freshwater daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic compounds by freshwater Daphnia magna (D. magna) including its tolerance against arsenicals were investigated. When D. magna was exposed to a medium containing arsenicals, total arsenic metabolite in cell increased with an increase in the arsenic concentration in the medium. D. magna accumulated total arsenic in their cells higher from the medium containing arsenate

Suhendrayatna; Akira Ohki; Shigeru Maeda



Identifying New Cannabis Use with Urine Creatinine-Normalized THCCOOH Concentrations and Time Intervals Between Specimen Collections*  

PubMed Central

A previously recommended a method for detecting new cannabis use with creatinine-normalized 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) urine concentrations in periodically collected specimens for treatment, workplace and judicial drug testing applications is refined by considering the time interval between urine collections. All urine specimens were collected from six less-than-daily cannabis users who smoked placebo, 1.75%, and 3.55% THC cigarettes in randomized order, each separated by one week. Ratios (n = 24,322) were calculated by dividing each creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentration (U2) by that of a previously collected specimen (U1). Maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios with 15 and 6 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentrations, with and without new use between specimens, were calculated for each 24-h interval after smoking up to 168 h and are included in tables. These ratios decreased with increasing interval between collections providing improved decision values for determining new cannabis use. For example, with a 15 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentration and no new use between specimens, the maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios were 3.05, 1.59, and 0.686, respectively, when the collection interval was ? 24 h and 0.215, 0.135, and 0.085 when it was 96–119.9 h.

Smith, Michael L.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.



Determining the concentration and distribution of arsenic deposits in rock matrices and porous media by X-ray difference microtomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray microtomography was used to characterize arsenic (As) deposits within porous media. The distribution of arsenic was determined using difference tomography, where the X-rays used to image the sample were selected to be just above and below the As absorption edge at 11,853 eV. The difference tomograms have background noise from other minerals contained in the sample, local variation of X-ray beam intensity, and electronic noise associated with the data acquisition process. Image processing filters, such as windowing or adaptive filters derived from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, were employed to reduce background noise in the tomograms and enhance information on the arsenic deposits. These errors are generally larger in difference tomography than in conventional X-ray microtomography because this method requires operating at very specific X-ray energies (i.e., an edge of the element of interest), and this constraint makes it very difficult to obtain optimal contrast for tomographic reconstruction. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio is often low in difference tomograms of geological samples having high background X-ray absorption. The relationship between As concentration and difference image intensity was evaluated using well defined As samples prepared in the laboratory, along with As-rich sinter deposits from El Tatio hydrothermal field and fluvial sediments from the Loa River downstream of El Tatio. This relationship is non-linear because of interactions between the different sources of error in the construction of the difference tomograms. As a result, the difference tomography method is relatively insensitive to bulk As concentrations, and instead primarily provides information on the distribution of regions of the sample that have high As concentrations, such as As-rich particles, precipitates, or evaporite deposits. Tomographic 3D reconstructions of the porous media and of the aggregate structure thus provide an unique opportunity to observe the distribution and morphology of arsenic deposits within primary source formations and mixed fluvial sediments. This approach provides a useful method for obtaining 3D microstructural and chemical information in rock matrices, for investigating contaminant distributions within sedimentary deposits, and for assessing distributions of different mineral phases within biofilms and other organic material.

Peng, D.; Alsina, M.; Chen, C.; Keane, D.; Packman, A. I.; Gaillard, J.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.



Arsenic concentrations and bacterial contamination in a pilot shallow dugwell program in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Well has developed a pilot self-supporting community-based mitigation program to provide arsenic-safe water to the villagers of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Shallow concrete dugwells, less than 25 feet deep, that tap into an unconfined aquifer are constructed following stipulated guidelines. The design differs from the traditional dugwell in two major ways: (i) there is a layer of

Meera M. Hira-Smith; Yan Yuan; Xavier Savarimuthu; Jane Liaw; Alpana Hira; Cynthia Green; Timir Hore; Protap Chakraborty; Ondine S. von Ehrenstein; Allan H. Smith



Predicting the phenylalanine blood concentration from urine analyses. An approach to noninvasive monitoring of patients with phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The need for regular blood-drawing in the management of chronic metabolic disorders may negatively influence the compliance\\u000a of patients and their parents; noninvasive analytical procedures could well alleviate this burden. Using data obtained in\\u000a six adult probands with phenylketonuria, we evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive prediction of phenylalanine blood concentrations\\u000a from analysis of phenylalanine and creatinine in urine. Cross-validated regression

U. Langenbeck; F. Baum; A. Mench-Hoinowski; H. Luthe; A. W. Behbehani



Metabolites of arsenic and increased DNA damage of p53 gene in arsenic plant workers  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have shown that monomethylarsonous acid is more cytotoxic and genotoxic than arsenate and arsenite, which may attribute to the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we used hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to determine three arsenic species in urine of workers who had been working in arsenic plants,and calculated primary and secondary methylation indexes. The damages of exon 5, 6, 8 of p53 gene were determined by the method developed by Sikorsky, et al. Results show that the concentrations of each urinary arsenic species,and damage indexes of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene in the exposed population were significantly higher, but SMI was significantly lower than in the control group. The closely positive correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and PMI,MMA, DMA were found, but there was closely negative correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and SMI. Those findings suggested that DNA damage of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene existed in the population occupationally exposed to arsenic. For exon 5, the important factors may include the model of arsenic metabolic transformation, the concentrations of MMA and DMA, and the MMA may be of great importance. - Research Highlights: > In our study, the mean SMI for workers came from arsenic plants is 4.06, so they may be in danger. > There are more MMA, there are more damage of exon 5 of p53 gene. > MMA and damage of exon 5 of p53 gene may be useful biomarkers to assess adverse health effects caused by arsenic.

Wen Weihua, E-mail: [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Public Health College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13, Hangkong Road, Wuhan City, Hubei, 430030 (China); Wen Jinghua [Guizhou College of Finance and Economics, No. 276, Chongguan Road, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550004 (China); Lu Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Liu Hua [The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, No. 295 Xichang Road, Kunming, Yunnan, 650032 (China); Yang Jun; Cheng Huirong [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Che Wangjun [The First Division of Public Health, Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 4, Ziyun Road, Xishan District, Kunming, Yunnan 650228 (China); Li Liang [Honghe Zhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 1, Guannan Road, Mengzi City, Yunnan, 661100 (China); Zhang Guanbei [Yunnan Institute for Drug Abuse, Kunming, 650028 (China)



Concentration of Wear Products in Hair, Blood, and Urine after Total Hip Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised levels of cobalt and chromium are found in the blood and urine of patients with metallic total hip replacements. When one of the hip components is made of polyethylene much less metal seems to be released from the joint. The long-term effects of the accumulation of chromium in the body need to be studied further.

R. F. Coleman; J. Herrington; John T. Scales



Chronic use of chloroquine disrupts the urine concentration mechanism by lowering cAMP levels in the inner medulla  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine, a widely used anti-malaria drug, has gained popularity for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unfortunately, chloroquine may also negatively impact renal function for patients whose fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is already compromised by diseases. Chronic administration of chloroquine also results in polyuria, which may be explained by suppression of the antidiuretic response of vasopressin. Several of the transporters responsible for concentrating urine are vasopressin-sensitive including the urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3, the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and the Na+-K+-2Cl? cotransporter (NKCC2). To examine the effect of chloroquine on these transporters, Sprague-Dawley rats received daily subcutaneous injections of 80 mg·kg?1·day?1 of chloroquine for 4 days. Twenty-four hour urine output was twofold higher, and urine osmolality was decreased by twofold in chloroquine-treated rats compared with controls. Urine analysis of treated rats detected the presence chloroquine as well as decreased urine urea and cAMP levels compared with control rats. Western blot analysis showed a downregulation of AQP2 and NKCC2 transporters; however, UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundances were unaffected by chloroquine treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed a marked reduction of UT-A1 and AQP2 in the apical membrane in inner medullary collecting ducts of chloroquine-treated rats. In conclusion, chloroquine-induced polyuria likely occurs as a result of lowered cAMP production. These findings suggest that chronic chloroquine treatment would exacerbate the already compromised fluid homeostasis observed in diseases like chronic kidney disease.

von Bergen, Tobias N.



Effect of the Volume of Fluid Ingested on Urine Concentrating Ability During Prolonged Heavy Exercise in a Hot Environment  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of the volume of fluid ingested on urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Seven healthy males performed 105 min of intermittent cycle exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (32°C, 60% relative humidity) while receiving no fluid ingestion (NF), voluntary fluid ingestion (VF), partial fluid ingestion equivalent to one-half of body mass loss (PF), and full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss (FF). Fluid (5°C, 3.4% carbohydrate, 10.5 mmol·L-1 sodium) was ingested just before commencing exercise and at 15, 33, 51, 69, and 87 min of exercise, and the total amount of fluid ingested in PF and FF was divided into six equal volumes. During exercise, body mass loss was 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.2, and 0.1 ± 0.2% in NF, VF, PF, and FF, respectively, whereas total sweat loss was about 2% of body mass in each trial. Subjects in VF ingested 719 ± 240 ml of fluid during exercise; the volume of fluid ingested was 1.1 ± 0.4% of body mass. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and free water clearance was significantly lower in FF than in NF during exercise. Urine flow rate during exercise decreased significantly in NF. There were significant decreases in creatinine and osmolar clearance and was a significant increase in free water clearance during exercise in NF and VF. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly and free water clearance increased significantly during exercise in PF. There was no statistical change in urinary indices of renal function during exercise in FF. The findings suggest that full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss has attenuated the decline in urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Key points During prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration, fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss results in no changes in urinary indices of renal function. Fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss can attenuate the decline in urine concentrating ability during exercise. Ad libitum or voluntary fluid ingestion is ineffective in reducing the decline in urine concentrating ability during exercise.

Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tsujita, Junzo



Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables are compound- and class-specific correlates of urine phytoestrogen concentrations in the U.S. population.  


Isoflavones and lignans are plant-derived dietary compounds generally believed to be beneficial to human health. We investigated the extent to which sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and dietary supplement use) were correlates of spot urine concentration for daidzein, genistein, O-desmethylangolensin (DMA), equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone in the U.S. population aged ? 20 y (NHANES 2003-2006). We performed correlation analyses with continuous variables and calculated stratified unadjusted geometric means for each sociodemographic and lifestyle variable. We used bivariate significance testing and covariate adjustment by use of multiple regression models to identify influential variables and used ? coefficients to estimate relative effects. Urine creatinine was also included in our analyses because of its use in correcting for variable dilution in spot urine samples. We observed many significant (P < 0.05) associations with the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that withstood covariate adjustment. Smoking was a significant correlate of urine DMA and enterolactone, with concentrations at least 25% lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers. Consumers of 1 daily alcoholic drink vs. none were estimated to have 18-21% lower urine equol and DMA concentrations. A 25% increase in BMI was associated with a 21% lower urine enterolactone concentration, and increasing physical activity was associated with a >6% higher urine enterolactone concentration. Dietary supplement use was not significantly associated with any of the urine phytoestrogens. Overall, we found that relationships between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and urine phytoestrogen concentration were highly compound and class specific. PMID:23596167

Rybak, Michael E; Sternberg, Maya R; Pfeiffer, Christine M



The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.  


Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2 and 8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.48 ?g/L for controls, P<0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of "yam, sweet potato, or dasheen", "carrot or pumpkin", "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi", cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.65 ?g/L for controls, P=0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi" was significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P<0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A; Dickerson, Aisha S; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric



Glutathione-S-transferase-omega [MMA(V) reductase] knockout mice: Enzyme and arsenic species concentrations in tissues after arsenate administration  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed via their naturally contaminated drinking water. Its molecular mechanisms of carcinogenicity have remained an enigma, perhaps because arsenate is biochemically transformed to at least five other arsenic-containing metabolites. In the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic, GSTO1 catalyzes the reduction of arsenate, MMA(V), and DMA(V) to the more toxic + 3 arsenic species. MMA(V) reductase and human (hGSTO1-1) are identical proteins. The hypothesis that GST-Omega knockout mice biotransformed inorganic arsenic differently than wild-type mice has been tested. The livers of male knockout (KO) mice, in which 222 bp of Exon 3 of the GSTO1 gene were eliminated, were analyzed by PCR for mRNA. The level of transcripts of the GSTO1 gene in KO mice was 3.3-fold less than in DBA/1lacJ wild-type (WT) mice. The GSTO2 transcripts were about two-fold less in the KO mouse. When KO and WT mice were injected intramuscularly with Na arsenate (4.16 mg As/kg body weight); tissues removed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after arsenate injection; and the arsenic species measured by HPLC-ICP-MS, the results indicated that the highest concentration of the recently discovered and very toxic MMA(III), a key biotransformant, was in the kidneys of both KO and WT mice. The highest concentration of DMA(III) was in the urinary bladder tissue for both the KO and WT mice. The MMA(V) reducing activity of the liver cytosol of KO mice was only 20% of that found in wild-type mice. There appears to be another enzyme(s) other than GST-O able to reduce arsenic(V) species but to a lesser extent. This and other studies suggest that each step of the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic has an alternative enzyme to biotransform the arsenic substrate.

Chowdhury, Uttam K. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721-0106 (United States); Zakharyan, Robert A. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721-0106 (United States); Hernandez, Alba [Grup de Mutagenesi, Department of Genetica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Avram, Mihaela D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721-0106 (United States); Kopplin, Michael J. [College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721-0106 (United States); Aposhian, H. Vasken [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721-0106 (United States) and College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721-0106 (United States)]. E-mail:



Relationship Between 2,5-Hexanedione Concentrations in Nerve, Serum, and Urine Alone or Under Co-Treatment With Different Doses of Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Acetone, and Toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain the relationship among 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) concentrations in nerve, serum and urine, rats were injected subcutaneously with 2.6 mmol\\/kg 2,5-HD alone, or together with 2.6 or 13.0 mmol\\/kg of methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and toluene. 2,5-HD concentrations in sciatic nerve (NC), serum (SC) and urine (UC) were determined, and the linear regression between each two of NC, SC, and

Wenyuan Zhao; Junichi Misumi; Takato Yasui; Kazuo Aoki; Takashi Kimura



National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh



Pax transactivation-domain interacting protein is required for urine concentration and osmotolerance in collecting duct epithelia.  


Pax transactivation-domain interacting protein (PTIP) is a widely expressed nuclear protein that is essential for early embryonic development. PTIP was first identified on the basis of its interactions with the developmental regulator Pax2 but can also bind to other nuclear transcription factors. The Pax2 protein is essential for development of the renal epithelia and for regulating the response of mature collecting ducts to hyperosmotic stress. For determination of whether PTIP also functions in more differentiated cell types, the Cre-LoxP system was used to delete the ptip gene in the renal collecting ducts using Ksp-Cre driver mice. Collecting duct-specific ptip knockout mice were viable with little discernible phenotype under normal physiologic conditions. However, collecting duct-specific ptip mutants were unable to concentrate urine after the treatment of desamino-cis, D-arginine vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone. Furthermore, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the inner medulla of the ptip knockout mice was decreased approximately 10-fold compared with that of wild-type littermates. Expression level of tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein, a transcription factor of AQP2, is not altered in the mutant mice, but its nuclear localization in the inner medulla is unresponsive after treatment with vasopressin agonists. This was due, at least in part, to decreased expression of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 in ptip mutants. Furthermore, ptip null inner medullary collecting duct cells were sensitive to hyperosmolality in vitro. Thus, ptip is required for the urine concentration mechanism by modulating arginine vasopressin receptor 2 and AQP2 expression in the inner medulla. The data suggest an essential role for ptip in regulating urine concentration and in controlling survival of collecting duct epithelial cells in high osmolality. PMID:17429055

Kim, Doyeob; Wang, Min; Cai, Qi; Brooks, Heddwen; Dressler, Gregory R



Pax Transactivation-Domain Interacting Protein Is Required for Urine Concentration and Osmotolerance in Collecting Duct Epithelia  

PubMed Central

Pax transactivation-domain interacting protein (PTIP) is a widely expressed nuclear protein that is essential for early embryonic development. PTIP was first identified on the basis of its interactions with the developmental regulator Pax2 but can also bind to other nuclear transcription factors. The Pax2 protein is essential for development of the renal epithelia and for regulating the response of mature collecting ducts to hyperosmotic stress. For determination of whether PTIP also functions in more differentiated cell types, the Cre-LoxP system was used to delete the ptip gene in the renal collecting ducts using Ksp-Cre driver mice. Collecting duct–specific ptip knockout mice were viable with little discernible phenotype under normal physiologic conditions. However, collecting duct–specific ptip mutants were unable to concentrate urine after the treatment of desamino-cis, D-arginine vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone. Furthermore, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the inner medulla of the ptip knockout mice was decreased approximately 10-fold compared with that of wild-type littermates. Expression level of tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein, a transcription factor of AQP2, is not altered in the mutant mice, but its nuclear localization in the inner medulla is unresponsive after treatment with vasopressin agonists. This was due, at least in part, to decreased expression of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 in ptip mutants. Furthermore, ptip null inner medullary collecting duct cells were sensitive to hyperosmolality in vitro. Thus, ptip is required for the urine concentration mechanism by modulating arginine vasopressin receptor 2 and AQP2 expression in the inner medulla. The data suggest an essential role for ptip in regulating urine concentration and in controlling survival of collecting duct epithelial cells in high osmolality.

Kim, Doyeob; Wang, Min; Cai, Qi; Brooks, Heddwen; Dressler, Gregory R.



Role of metabolism in arsenic toxicity.  


In humans, as in most mammalian species, inorganic arsenic is methylated to methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by alternating reduction of pentavalent arsenic to trivalent and addition of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. The methylation of inorganic arsenic may be considered a detoxification mechanism, as the end metabolites, MMA and DMA, are less reactive with tissue constituents, less toxic, and more readily excreted in the urine than is inorganic arsenic, especially the trivalent form (AsIII, arsenite). The latter is highly reactive with tissue components, due to its strong affinity for sulfhydryl groups. Thus, following exposure to AsV the first step in the biotransformation, i.e. the reduction to AsIII, may be considered a bioactivation. Also, reactive intermediate metabolites of high toxicity, mainly MMAIII, may be formed and distributed to tissues. Low levels of MMAIII and DMAIII have been detected in urine of individuals chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. However, the contribution of MMAIIIand DMAIII to the toxicity observed after intake of inorganic arsenic by humans remains to be elucidated. The major route of excretion of arsenic is via the kidneys. Evaluation of the methylation of arsenic is mainly based on the relative amounts of the different metabolites in urine. On average human urine contains 10-30% inorganic arsenic, 10-20% MMA and 60-80% DMA. PMID:11484904

Vahter, M; Concha, G



Interactions Between Arsenic Species and Marine Algae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 exp -1 , with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic ...

J. G. Sanders



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.  


The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W



Arsenic concentrations in dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and laboratory experiments were performed in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area near Las Vegas, NV, USA to evaluate arsenic concentrations associated with dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles. Soil samples were collected from 17 types of desert surfaces and five unpaved parking lot locations for analyses. The surface units are based on surficial characteristics that affect dust emissions. Arsenic concentrations were also measured in dust emitted from each surface unit using a Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). Emissions were measured from ORV trails and undisturbed terrain. Concentrations of As in the soil and parking lot samples ranged from 3.49 to 83.02 ?g g-1 and from 16.13 to 312 ?g g-1 in the PI-SWERL samples. The lower concentrations in the soil samples are expected because of the larger particle sizes (<2 mm) as compared to the PI-SWERL samples (<10 and 10-60 ?m). Soluble As in the PI-SWERL samples was as high as 14.7 ?g g-1. In the Nellis Dunes area the emission rates for As for wind-induced emissions (wind erosion) are highest for the surfaces with significant amounts of sand. Surfaces rich in silt and clay, on the other hand, produce nearly no arsenic during wind erosion but can emit substantial arsenic concentrations when driven on by off-road vehicles. The elevated arsenic emissions from the Nellis Dunes area are of great concern because the site is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Las Vegas, and utilized by over 300,000 visitors annually.

Soukup, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Ulery, April; McLaurin, Brett T.; Baron, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin



Arsenic-induced health crisis in peri-urban Moyna and Ardebok villages, West Bengal, India: an exposure assessment study.  


Drinking of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater has adverse effects on health of millions of people worldwide. This study aimed to determine the degree of severity of As exposure from drinking water in peri-urban Moyna and Ardebok villages, West Bengal, India. Arsenic concentrations in hair, nail and urine samp les of the individuals were determined. Arsenical dermatosis, keratosis and melanosis were investigated through medical evaluation. We have evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water, and keratosis and melanosis outcomes. The results showed that 82.7 % of the sampled tube wells contain As concentrations above 10 ?g/L, while 57.7 % contain As concentrations above 50 ?g/L. The hair, nail and urine As concentrations were positively correlated with As concentrations in drinking water. In our study population, we observed a strong association between As concentrations ranging 51-99 ?g/L and keratosis and melanosis outcomes, although the probability decreases at higher concentration ranges perhaps due to switching away from the use of As-contaminated tube wells for drinking and cooking purposes. High As concentrations in hair, nail and urine were observed to be associated with the age of the study population. The level of As concentrations in hair, nail and urine samples of the study population indicated the degree of severity of As exposure in the study region. PMID:22580621

Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Kar, Sandeep; Chen, Chien-Yen; Banerjee, Satabdi; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Ming-Yie; Centeno, José A; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chang, Christina L; Santra, Subhas Chandra



Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences the association. Design Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells and urine. Setting General population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Participants 11?746 men and women who provided urine samples in 2000 and were followed up for an average of 6.6 years. Main outcome measure Death from cardiovascular disease. Results 198 people died from diseases of circulatory system, accounting for 43% of total mortality in the population. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease was 214.3 per 100?000 person years in people drinking water containing <12.0 µg/L arsenic, compared with 271.1 per 100?000 person years in people drinking water with ?12.0 µg/L arsenic. There was a dose-response relation between exposure to arsenic in well water assessed at baseline and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other heart disease; the hazard ratios in increasing quarters of arsenic concentration in well water (0.1-12.0, 12.1-62.0, 62.1-148.0, and 148.1-864.0 µg/L) were 1.00 (reference), 1.22 (0.65 to 2.32), 1.35 (0.71 to 2.57), and 1.92 (1.07 to 3.43) (P=0.0019 for trend), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, smoking status, educational attainment, body mass index (BMI), and changes in urinary arsenic concentration since baseline. Similar associations were observed when baseline total urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable and for mortality from ischaemic heart disease specifically. The data indicate a significant synergistic interaction between arsenic exposure and cigarette smoking in mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other heart disease. In particular, the hazard ratio for the joint effect of a moderate level of arsenic exposure (middle third of well arsenic concentration 25.3-114.0 µg/L, mean 63.5 µg/L) and cigarette smoking on mortality from heart disease was greater than the sum of the hazard ratios associated with their individual effect (relative excess risk for interaction 1.56, 0.05 to 3.14; P=0.010). Conclusions Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is adversely associated with mortality from heart disease, especially among smokers.



Interaction between vasopressin and angiotensin II in vivo and in vitro: effect on aquaporins and urine concentration.  


The study was undertaken to examine the potential cross talk between vasopressin and angiotensin II (ANG II) intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated in vivo and in vitro whether vasopressin-induced water reabsorption could be attenuated by ANG II AT1 receptor blockade (losartan). On a low-sodium diet (0.5 meq/day) dDAVP-treated animals with or without losartan exhibited comparable renal function [creatinine clearance 1.2 +/- 0.1 in dDAVP+losartan (LSDL) vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 ml.100 g(-1).day(-1) in dDAVP alone (LSD), P > 0.05] and renal blood flow (6.3 +/- 0.5 in LSDL vs. 6.8 +/- 0.5 ml/min in LSD, P > 0.05). The urine output, however, was significantly increased in LSDL (2.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2 ml.100 g(-1).day(-1), P < 0.05) in association with decreased urine osmolality (2,600 +/- 83 vs. 3,256 +/- 110 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0.001) compared with rats in LSD. Immunoblotting revealed significantly decreased expression of medullary AQP2 (146 +/- 6 vs. 176 +/- 10% in LSD, P < 0.01), p-AQP2 (177 +/- 13 vs. 214 +/- 12% in LSD, P < 0.05), and AQP3 (134 +/- 14 vs. 177 +/- 11% in LSD, P < 0.05) in LSDL compared with LSD. The expressions of AQP1, the alpha(1)- and gamma-subunits of Na-K-ATPase, and the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter were not different among groups. In vitro studies showed that ANG II or dDAVP treatment was associated with increased AQP2 expression and cAMP levels, which were potentiated by cotreatment with ANG II and dDAVP and were inhibited by AT1 blockade. In conclusion, ANG II AT1 receptor blockade in dDAVP-treated rats on a low-salt diet was associated with decreased urine concentration and decreased inner medullary AQP2, p-AQP2, and AQP3 expression, suggesting that AT1 receptor activation plays a significant role in regulating aquaporin expression and modulating urine concentration in vivo. Studies in collecting duct cells were confirmatory. PMID:20576679

Wang, Weidong; Li, Chunling; Summer, Sandra; Falk, Sandor; Schrier, Robert W



Concentration of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish ( Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta sp.) from the Kor River (Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of heavy metals in aquatic animals mainly occurs due to industrial contamination. In this study, the concentrations\\u000a of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish and in water collected from three\\u000a sections of the Kor River, Iran were determined using the inductively coupled plasma method. Pathological and hormonal changes\\u000a due to metal

Mansour Ebrahimi; Mahnaz Taherianfard



Arsenic concentration in porewater of an alkaline coal ash disposal site: Roles of siderite precipitation/dissolution and soil cover.  


The geochemical behavior of As in porewaters of an alkaline coal ash disposal site was investigated using multilevel samplers. The disposal site was in operation from 1983 until 1994 and was covered with 0.3-0.5m thick soils in 2001 when this study was initiated. Sequential extraction analyses and batch leaching experiments were also performed using the coal ash samples collected from the disposal site. The results suggest the important roles of siderite (FeCO(3)) precipitation/dissolution and soil cover, which have been ignored previously. Arsenic levels in the porewater were very low (average of 10microgL(-1)) when the site was covered with soil due to coprecipitation with siderite. The soil cover enabled the creation of anoxic conditions, which raised the Fe concentration by the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides. Because of the high alkalinity generated from the alkaline coal ash, even a small increase in the Fe concentration (0.66mgL(-1) on average) could cause siderite precipitation. When the soil cover was removed, however, an oxidizing condition was created and triggered the precipitation of dissolved Fe as (hydr)oxides. As a result, the dissolution of previously precipitated As-rich siderite caused higher As concentration in the porewater (average of 345microgL(-1)). PMID:19682722

Kim, Kangjoo; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Jinsam; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Moon, Jeong-Tae; Hwang, Gab-Soo; Cha, Wang-Seog



Arsenic species in an arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos: a potential phytoremediator of arsenic-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fern Pityrogramma calomelanos is a hyperaccumulator of arsenic that grows readily on arsenic-contaminated soils in the Ron Phibun district of southern Thailand. P. calomelanos accumulates arsenic mostly in the fronds (up to 8350 ?g As g?1 dry mass) while the rhizoids contain the lowest concentrations of arsenic (88–310 ?g As g?1 dry mass). The arsenic species in aqueous extracts

Kevin Francesconi; Pornsawan Visoottiviseth; Weeraphan Sridokchan; Walter Goessler



Quantitative mass spectrometric determination of methylphenidate concentration in urine using an electrospray ionization source integrated with a polymer microchip.  


We have demonstrated the use of a simple microfabricated electrospray ionization source for coupling microfluidic chips to mass spectrometry (MS). A polymer-based microchip, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, has been employed for direct infusion quantitative bioanalysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) extracted from human urine samples. The approach used a microfabricated polymer electrospray emitter to couple a microfluidic channel to a stable electrospray ionization source. The microchip was fabricated from cycloolefin plastic plate by hot embossing and thermal bonding. This microfluidic chip contained two independent microfluidic channels, integrated with two corresponding electrospray emitters and an internal gold electrode. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to prepare urine samples, spiked with methylphenidate. A trideuterated analogue of methylphenidate (methylphenidate-d(3)) was used as the internal standard for the analysis. The system showed good electrospray stability and reproducibility with different spray tips. Four different electrospray tips were used to analyze the same sample, and the results showed very small variation with a relative standard deviation of 1.4%. A standard curve prepared for methylphenidate in urine (R(2) = 0.999) was linear over the range of 0.4-800 ng/mL. The precision of the quality control samples for three different concentrations ranged from 19.1% at 20 ng/mL, 3.2% at 200 ng/mL, to 3.5% at 667 ng/mL while the accuracy was 96.3% at 20 ng/mL, 101.2% at 200 ng/mL, and 101.6% at 667 ng/mL. No system carryover was detected even when the same device was used for sequential analysis. These results suggest the potential of this microdevice for MS-based quantitative analysis in drug discovery and development. PMID:15117199

Yang, Yanou; Kameoka, Jun; Wachs, Timothy; Henion, Jack D; Craighead, H G




EPA Science Inventory

Accumulated total body exposure to arsenic was correlated with the urinary arsenic concentration. Exposure to arsenic of all workers was lower than the short-term no-effect level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency....


Relative Bioavailability of Arsenic in Soils from Butte, Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gastrointestinal absorption of arsenic from soil samples collected from residential properties at the Butte Arsenic Superfund site was measured using young swine. Test materials include composite soil with arsenic concentrations of 234 ppm (TM1) and 3...

S. Morris S. W. Casteel T. J. Evans W. J. Brattin



Arsenic in the soils of Zimapán, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapán Valley range from 4 to 14?700mgAskg?1. Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400mgkg?1 only within 500m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to

Lois K. Ongley; Leslie Sherman; Aurora Armienta; Amy Concilio; Carrie Ferguson Salinas



Non-analytic problems in detecting arsenic and cadmium in children living near a cadmium refinery in Denver, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to determine urinary arsenic (N = 322) and cadmium (N = 366) levels in children aged six months to six years who live near a working cadmium refinery and to compare their values with those of children from comparison neighborhoods. A questionnaire designed to identify exposure pathways was administered to the parents. There were unexpected problems in the study. Eighty-four percent of the arsenic samples were below the detection limit of 10 micrograms/l and summary statistics could not be calculated. Urinary arsenic and cadmium values could not be standardized for volume and concentration of urine because a large proportion of the samples had very low creatinine values. The original round of cadmium testing was afflicted with contamination problems, possibly due to the mishandling of pediatric urine bags by the parents during the collection procedure. A retest for cadmium levels under clinical conditions showed lower cadmium levels, all but two were below the detection limit. While biological monitoring of exposure to metals can be undertaken indirectly by measuring the concentration of the metals in urine, the analyses in this study were complicated by (1) not using more sensitive analytical tests for arsenic and cadmium determination, (2) not being able to standardize children's urinary values with creatinine, and (3) allowing in-home urine collection.

Gottlieb, K.; Koehler, J.R.; Tessari, J. (Colorado Department of Health, Denver (United States))



Metabolism of inorganic arsenic in children with chronic high arsenic exposure in northern Argentina.  


This study concerns the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (As) in children in three villages in northern Argentina: San Antonio de los Cobres and Taco Pozo, each with about 200 microg As/l in the drinking water, and Rosario de Lerma, with 0.65 microg As/l. Findings show that the concentrations of As in the blood and urine of the children in the two As-rich villages were on average 9 and 380 microg/l, respectively, the highest ever recorded for children. The concentrations were about 10 and 30 times higher for blood and urine, respectively, than in Rosario de Lerma. Total As in urine was only slightly higher than the sum of metabolites of inorganic As (U-Asmet), i.e., inorganic As, methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA); this shows that inorganic As was the main form of As ingested. In contrast to previous studies on urinary metabolites of inorganic As in various population groups, the children and women in the present study excreted very little MMA. Thus, there seems to be a polymorphism for the enzymes (methyltransferases) involved in the methylation of As. Interestingly, the children had a significantly higher percentage of inorganic As in urine than the women, about 50% versus 32%. Also, the percentage of inorganic As in the children is considerably higher than in previous studies on children (about 13% in the two studies available) and adults (about 15-25%) in other population groups. This may indicate that children are more sensitive to As-induced toxicity than adults, as the methylated metabolites bind less to tissue constituents than inorganic As. In the children, the percentage inorganic arsenic in urine decreased, and the percentage of DMA increased with increasing U-Asmet, indicating an induction of As methylation with increasing exposure. PMID:9618352

Concha, G; Nermell, B; Vahter, M V



Comparative physiology and architecture associated with the mammalian urine concentrating mechanism: role of inner medullary water and urea transport pathways in the rodent medulla.  


Comparative studies of renal structure and function have potential to provide insights into the urine-concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. This review focuses on the tubular transport pathways for water and urea that play key roles in fluid and solute movements between various compartments of the rodent renal inner medulla. Information on aquaporin water channel and urea transporter expression has increased our understanding of functional segmentation of medullary thin limbs of Henle's loops, collecting ducts, and vasa recta. A more complete understanding of membrane transporters and medullary architecture has identified new and potentially significant interactions between these structures and the interstitium. These interactions are now being introduced into our concept of how the inner medullary urine-concentrating mechanism works. A variety of regulatory pathways lead directly or indirectly to variable patterns of fluid and solute movements among the interstitial and tissue compartments. Animals with the ability to produce highly concentrated urine, such as desert species, are considered to exemplify tubular structure and function that optimize urine concentration. These species may provide unique insights into the urine-concentrating process.(1) PMID:23364530

Pannabecker, Thomas L



Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble

G. Bombach; A. Pierra; W. Klemm



Environmental exposure to arsenic, AS3MT polymorphism and prevalence of diabetes in Mexico.  


Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes. We previously reported an association of diabetes and urinary concentration of dimethylarsinite (DMAs(III)), a toxic product of arsenic methylation by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). Here we examine associations between AS3MT polymorphism, arsenic metabolism and diabetes. Fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance and self-reported diagnoses were used to identify diabetic individuals. Inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were measured in urine. Genotyping analysis focused on six polymorphic sites of AS3MT. Individuals with M287T and G4965C polymorphisms had higher levels of urinary DMAs(III) and were more frequently diabetic than the respective wild-type carriers, although the excess was not statistically significant. Odds ratios were 11.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-58.8) and 8.8 (95% CI 1.6-47.3) for the combined effects of arsenic exposure >75th percentile and 287T and 4965C genotypes, respectively. Carriers of 287T and 4965C may produce more DMAs(III) and be more likely to develop diabetes when exposed to arsenic. PMID:23093101

Drobná, Zuzana; Del Razo, Luz M; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Sánchez-Peña, Luz C; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Stýblo, Miroslav; Loomis, Dana




Microsoft Academic Search

In its normal medium of sea water the blood of Pachygrapsus may be slightly hypo-osmotic (Jones, 1941 ; Robertson, 1953) . In a dilute sea water the blood concentration declines somewhat but is maintained higher than the concentration of the medium (Jones, 1941 ) and this hyper-osmotic regulation permits the crab to enter regions of brackish water. In a more



Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults  

SciTech Connect

Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China); Sun Xiance [Hygiene Department, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Sun Guifan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China)], E-mail:



Investigating concentration distributions of arsenic, gold and antimony in grain-size fractions of gold ore using instrumental neutron activation analysis.  


Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to quantify concentrations of arsenic (As), gold (Au) and antimony (Sb) in grain-size fractions of a gold ore. The ore, which was taken from the Ahafo project site of Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd., was fractionated into 14 grain-size fractions using state-of-the-art analytical sieve machine. The minimum sieve mesh size used was 36mum and grains >2000mum were not considered for analysis. Result of the sieving was analysed with easysieve(R) software. The<36mum subfraction was found to be the optimum, hosting bulk of all three elements. Arsenic was found to be highly concentrated in<36-100mum size fractions and erratically distributed in from 150mum fraction and above. For gold, with the exception of the subfraction <36mum which had exceptionally high concentration, the element was found to be approximately equally distributed in all the size fractions but slightly "played out" in 150-400mum size fractions. Antimony occurrence in the sample was relatively high in <36mum size fraction followed by 600, 800, 400 and 36mum size fractions in that order. Gold content in the sample was comparatively far greater than arsenic and antimony; this is indicative of level of gold mineralization in the concession where the sample ore was taken. The concentration of gold in the composite sample was in the range 564-8420ppm as compared to 14.33-186.92ppm for arsenic and 1.09-9.48ppm for antimony. Elemental concentrations were correlated with each other and with grain-size fractions and the relationships between these descriptive parameters were established. PMID:19896855

Nyarku, M; Nyarko, B J B; Serfor-Armah, Y; Osae, S



Concentrations of Gatifloxacin in Plasma and Urine and Penetration into Prostatic and Seminal Fluid, Ejaculate, and Sperm Cells after Single Oral Administrations of 400 Milligrams to Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate,




Arsenic speciation in plants growing in arsenic-contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total arsenic and of arsenic species were determined by ICPMS and HPLC–ICPMS in terrestrial plant samples. The arsenic concentration in plant samples from the contaminated sites ranged from 1.14 to 98.5mgkg?1 (dry mass). However, a very high value, exceeding largely this range was found in a moss sample growing in the contaminated area (1750mgkg?1). Plants growing in a

Maria José Ruiz-Chancho; José Fermín López-Sánchez; Ernst Schmeisser; Walter Goessler; Kevin A. Francesconi; R. Rubio



Renal Manifestations of Leprosy: Impaired Acidification and Concentration of Urine in Patients with Leprosy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of diseases, sharing only hypergammaglobulinemia in common, are associated with impaired urinary-concentrating ability and with impaired acidification after acid-loading. Forty-seven patients with leprosy were studied to determine whether or not...

R. A. Gutman W. H. Lu D. J. Drutz



Optimal transport parameters of the inner medullary collecting duct in interaction between urine concentrating and urea excreting mechanisms: a computer simulation study.  


Although the accumulation of urea in the renal medulla is essential for the formation of concentrated urine, it is also necessary for the kidney to excrete considerable amounts of urea into the urine as a waste product of protein degradation. Thus, the urine concentrating capacity is attained by the interaction with the efficiency of urea excretion. To seek the best condition for this phenomenon, we developed an objective function for evaluating urea excreting capacity relative to urine concentrating capacity by using a mathematical model consisting of components of the countercurrent multiplication system: the ascending thin limb, capillary network, and inner medullary collecting duct. The values of the objective functions were calculated as three-dimensional functions of transport parameters for the inner medullary collecting duct, including hydraulic conductivity, urea permeability, and reflection coefficient for urea. The results of the computer analysis revealed that the maximum value of the objective function was attained when values for transport parameters of the inner medullary collecting duct corresponded to those experimentally obtained values reported previously. We conclude that the maximum urine concentrating capacity is limited by the efficiency of urea excreting capacity of the kidney, and vice versa. PMID:8938688

Hamada, Y; Taniguchi, J; Imai, M



Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))



Comparison of Trace Level Concentrations for Silver, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, and Lead in Drinking Waters Obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and Electrothermal-Vaporization Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors compared the data obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrothermal-vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETVAA), for concentration values of silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead in drinking wate...

R. Robinson M. Bell C. Burns D. Knab



Pre-oxidation of high-sulfur and high-arsenic refractory gold concentrate by ozone and ferric ions in acidic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to precious metals and hazardous elements contained in high-sulfur and high-arsenic refractory gold concentrate (HGC), effective treatment of HGC can have both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, pre-oxidation HGC by ozone and Fe (III) in acidic media and subsequent cyanide leaching of the pretreated ores were investigated. An L9 (four factors in three levels) standard orthogonal array

Qingcui Li; Dengxin Li; Fangjun Qian



Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.  


Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R


Iodine concentrations in porcine blood, urine, and tissues after a single dose of iodised oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental groups of pigs were treated orally with 120 mg (Group O 120), or 480 mg (Group O 480) of iodine per animal, or intramuscularly with 240 mg (Group I 240) of iodine per animal. Iodine was administered in the form of iodised fatty acid esters (IFAE). The treatment resulted in significantly increased iodine concentrations in tissues and a single




Is citrate an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal growth in high concentrations of urine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of citrate on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth was studied in a system in which series of samples containing [45Ca]calcium chloride were brought to different levels of supersaturation with various concentrations of oxalate. The crystallization was assessed by measuring the amount of isotope remaining in solution 30 min after the addition of CaOx seed crystals to samples containing

H. Bek-Jensen; A.-M. Fornander; M.-A. Nilsson; H.-G. Tiselius



Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.  


Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (?500 ?g/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ? 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 ?g h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 ?g/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood, but taken up rapidly by the liver and white muscle. Urinary elimination of Se is form dependent and peaks between 3 and 12 h post intubation. A basic understanding of the overall Se absorption, distribution, and elimination is provided through monitoring tissue Se concentrations, however, conclusions regarding to the dynamics and the specific processes of Se metabolism can only be inferred, in the absence of kinetic information. PMID:22226619

Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Wang, Wei-Fang; Deng, Dong-Fang; Fadel, James G; Hung, Silas S O



Mercury, arsenic and selenium concentrations in water and fish from sub-Saharan semi-arid freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso).  


Despite intensive mining activities in Burkina Faso, little is known on the environmental impacts of metals and metalloids potentially released from these activities. Water samples and 334 fish from 10 reservoirs were taken in order to evaluate the extent of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contamination in aquatic systems and their potential health risk for humans and wildlife, taking into account their antagonistic interactions. Water and fish levels of these elements were relatively low and did not reveal an important impact of gold mining activities. Water temperature and conductivity were the key factors associated with higher levels of MeHg. Higher sulfate content was reported in sites with more particulate Hg, As and Se, suggesting anthropogenic origin of metal(loid) inputs in water reservoirs. Metal(loid) concentrations in fish were low and ranged from 0.002 to 0.607 ?g/g wet weight (w.w.) for Hg, 0.023 to 0.672 for Se and 0.039 to 0.42 for As. These levels are similar or slightly higher than those reported in many other studies from Africa. Nevertheless, more than 70% of piscivore fish exceeded the threshold for wildlife protection for MeHg. Further, a traditional risk analysis performed ignoring Se antagonism indicated that these piscivores should be consumed by humans with caution. However, when taking into account the antagonistic effect of Se on Hg toxicity, up to 99% of all fish could be protected from Hg toxicity by their Se content. When considering both As/Se and Se/Hg antagonism, 83% instead the 99% of fish should be considered safe for consumption. Fish Se and As concentrations did not pose potential risk for both animals and humans. Overall, these reservoirs were relatively unaffected by As, Se and Hg contamination despite the rising gold mining activities. Further, considering antagonistic effects of As, Se and Hg may help refine consumption advisories. PMID:23274243

Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Amyot, Marc



Urine electrolytes and the urine anion and osmolar gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine ammonia concentration is crucial to understanding and quantifying the kidney's response to metabolic acidosis. This test is generally not performed by clinical laboratories. The urine anion gap and osmolar gaps have been proposed as surrogate measures of urine ammonia in patients with hyperchloremic acidosis. We measured ammonium and other electrolytes in the urine of patients attending our renal disease

Barry Kirschbaum; Domenic Sica; F. Phillip Anderson



Population variability of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A concentrations in spot urine samples versus 24- or 48-h collections.  


Human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed through urinary biomonitoring, but methods to infer daily intakes assume that spot sample concentrations are comparable to daily average concentrations. We evaluate this assumption using human biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States (US). The German data comprised three regional studies with spot samples and one with full-day samples analyzed for phthalate metabolites. The US data included: a study on DEHP metabolites and BPA involving eight persons supplying all urine voids (from which 24-h samples were constructed) for seven consecutive days; NHANES spot sample data on DEHP metabolites and BPA; and a regional study of children with 48-h samples analyzed for BPA. In the German data, measures of central tendency differed, but spot and 24-h samples showed generally comparable variance including 95th percentiles and maxima equidistant from central tendency measures. In contrast, the US adult data from the eight-person study showed similar central tendencies for phthalate metabolites and BPA, but generally greater variability for the spot samples, including higher 95th percentiles and maxima. When comparing children's BPA concentrations in NHANES spot and 48-h samples, distributions showed similar central tendency and variability. Overall, spot urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA have variability roughly comparable with corresponding 24-h average concentrations obtained from a comparable population, suggesting that spot samples can be used to characterize population distributions of intakes. However, the analysis also suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting the high end of spot sample data sets. PMID:22669498

Christensen, Krista L Yorita; Lorber, Matthew; Koch, Holger M; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Morgan, Marsha K



Modification of screening immunoassays to detect sub-threshold concentrations of cocaine, cannabinoids, and opiates in urine: use for detecting maternal and neonatal drug exposures.  


Testing for drugs of abuse in urine is commonplace in emergency departments and neonatal units. However, the clinical sensitivity of immunochemical screening methods is limited by the threshold concentrations used to distinguish between positive and negative specimens. Immunochemical screening methods for cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, and opiates in urine were recalibrated to detect drugs at lower threshold concentrations. The precision and linearity of the signals at the modified thresholds were verified by diluting drug-positive urine specimens to concentrations below the conventional cutoff concentration and measuring the rate signals in triplicate. To assess the clinical performance of the modified methods, specimens that tested negative using the unmodified assays were re-screened at the lower threshold, and specimens that re-screened positive were submitted for gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) confirmation. Reproducibility of sub-threshold measurements was comparable to the unmodified assays, and rate separations between successive dilutions were sufficient to give semi-quantitative results. Using the lower thresholds, drugs were detected in 4-5% of the subjects that had screened negative at the conventional threshold concentration. GC/MS analysis confirmed the presence of cannabinoids and cocaine metabolite in 74% and 84%, respectively, of urine specimens that re-screened positive. Morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, or hydrocodone was detected by GC/MS analysis in 31% of opiate-positive re-screens. PMID:10678589

Hattab, E M; Goldberger, B A; Johannsen, L M; Kindland, P W; Ticino, F; Chronister, C W; Bertholf, R L



Arsenic in rain and the Atmospheric mass balance of arsenic  

SciTech Connect

An attempt to construct a mass balance of arsenic in the world atmosphere showed that the published data on arsenic concentrations in rain were not compatible with measured values of atmospheric concentrations at remote sites and with estimates of arsenic fluxes into the atmosphere. To resolve this problem, samples of rainwater and snow from eight sites in California, Washington, and Hawaii were analyzed for arsenite, arsenate, and methylated forms of arsenic. The inorganic species were detectable in most samples, but no methylated forms were present above the detection limit of 0.2 ppt. By using the data from this study, a mass balance can be constructed for arsenic in the atmosphere which does not require biogenic methylation or hitherto unknown processes as a source for atmospheric arsenic.

Andreae, M.O.



Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.  


The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range <0.7-88.3 microg L(-1) in groundwater, 41.1-90.7 microg L(-1) in thermal spring water and 0.4-13.2 microg L(-1) in stream water, whereas As concentrations in stream sediments varied between 2.0-21.9 mg kg(-1). Four out of 31 groundwater samples exceeded the EC standard of 10 microg L(-1). The survey revealed an enrichment in both surface and groundwater hydrological systems in the northern part of the area (average concentrations of As in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 8.0 microg L(-1), 8.8 microg L(-1) and 15.0 mg kg(-1) respectively), in association with the volcanic bedrocks, while lower As concentrations were found in the eastern part (average concentrations in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 2.9 microg L(-1), 1.7 microg L(-1) and 5.9 mg kg(-1) respectively), which is dominated by ophiolitic ultramafic formations. The variation of As levels between the different parts of the study area suggests that local geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams. PMID:18437513

Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P



Oxyanion Concentrations in Eastern Sierra Nevada Rivers – 2. Arsenic and Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected from the Truckee River-Pyramid Lake system, the Walker River-Walker Lake system, and the Carson River, all located in eastern California and western Nevada, U.S.A., at three different times (i.e., summer 1991, spring 1992, and autumn 1992) over a two year period. The concentrations of As, Na, Cl, SPO4, and pH were measured in these river samples

Kevin H. Johannesson; W. Berry Lyons; Suey Huey; Georgia a. Doyle; Eric E. Swanson; Ed Hackett



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium

T. Hew-Butler; T. D. Noakes; S. J. Soldin; J. G. Verbalis



Blood and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children, adults, and pregnant women from china: partitioning between blood and urine and maternal and fetal cord blood.  


Limited information exists on exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) by children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In the present study, we determined BPA concentrations in whole blood collected from 10 children (1-5 years), 40 women (30 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant), and 30 fetuses (i.e., cord blood). Further, to evaluate the relationship between urinary and blood BPA concentrations, paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 50 pairs) were collected from an adult population. BPA was found in 46% of all blood samples analyzed, with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 0.19 ng/mL. BPA was found in 84% of urine samples from adults, with a GM concentration of 1.01 ng/mL [0.48 ?g/g creatinine (Cr)]. Gender and age were not good predictors of blood BPA concentrations. However, we did find that the creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentrations in females were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentrations found in males and that the blood BPA concentrations in children were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentrations found in adults. Among all adults, unadjusted urinary BPA concentrations (i.e., volume-based) were inversely (r = -0.312, p < 0.05) correlated with age when an outlier value (8.70 ng/mL) was excluded from analysis. Concentrations of BPA in urine (creatinine-adjusted) and blood were significantly correlated (r = 0.571, p < 0.01), with concentrations measured in urine approximately an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations found in blood. The mean and GM values for ratios of concentration of BPA between blood and urine were 0.109 and 0.057, respectively. The ratio of mean concentrations of BPA between cord blood and maternal blood was 0.108. On the basis of urinary BPA levels, we estimated the total daily intake (EDI) of BPA by Chinese adults. The mean (range) EDIs of BPA by adult males and females in China were 0.041 (<0.005-0.224) and 0.048 (<0.005-0.151) ug/kg bw/day, respectively. The pregnant women who underwent intravenous drug administration immediately before delivery had significantly higher concentrations of BPA in their blood than did those who did not receive intravenous drug administration. This is the first study to document the occurrence of and human exposure to BPA by pregnant women and fetuses from China. PMID:23506159

Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam




EPA Science Inventory

Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...


Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.  


A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values. PMID:23994963

Llorens, Esther; Obradors, Joshua; Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Poch, Manel



Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.  


Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:20465865

Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R



Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation  

PubMed Central

Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9??g dm?3 and 2.7??g dm?3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300??g dm?3 for sample volumes of 4?mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60?g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

Cacho, Frantisek; Lauko, Lukas; Manova, Alena; Dzurov, Jan; Beinrohr, Ernest



Differential DNA Methylation in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants Exposed to Low Levels of Arsenic in Utero  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero, even at low levels found throughout much of the world, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. Animal models, in vitro studies, and human cancer data suggest that arsenic may induce epigenetic alterations, specifically by altering patterns of DNA methylation. Objectives: In this study we aimed to identify differences in DNA methylation in cord blood samples of infants with in utero, low-level arsenic exposure. Methods: DNA methylation of cord-blood derived DNA from 134 infants involved in a prospective birth cohort in New Hampshire was profiled using the Illumina Infinium Methylation450K array. In utero arsenic exposure was estimated using maternal urine samples collected at 24–28 weeks gestation. We used a novel cell mixture deconvolution methodology for examining the association between inferred white blood cell mixtures in infant cord blood and in utero arsenic exposure; we also examined the association between methylation at individual CpG loci and arsenic exposure levels. Results: We found an association between urinary inorganic arsenic concentration and the estimated proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes (1.18; 95% CI: 0.12, 2.23). Among the top 100 CpG loci with the lowest p-values based on their association with urinary arsenic levels, there was a statistically significant enrichment of these loci in CpG islands (p = 0.009). Of those in CpG islands (n = 44), most (75%) exhibited higher methylation levels in the highest exposed group compared with the lowest exposed group. Also, several CpG loci exhibited a linear dose-dependent relationship between methylation and arsenic exposure. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in utero exposure to low levels of arsenic may affect the epigenome. Long-term follow-up is planned to determine whether the observed changes are associated with health outcomes.

Koestler, Devin C.; Avissar-Whiting, Michele; Houseman, E. Andres; Karagas, Margaret R.



Chemical speciation of arsenic in the livers of higher trophic marine animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in livers of cetaceans (Dall's porpoise and short-finned pilot whale), pinnipeds (harp and ringed seals), sirenian (dugong), and sea turtles (green and loggerhead turtles) to characterize arsenic accumulation profiles in higher trophic marine animals. Hepatic arsenic concentrations in sea turtles were highest among the species examined. Chemical speciation of arsenic

Reiji Kubota; Takashi Kunito; Shinsuke Tanabe



Association Between Arsenic Exposure and a Measure of Subclinical Sensory Neuropathy in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We examined the association between arsenic exposure and peripheral neuropathy in Bangladesh, where the population has been chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 137 subjects derived from a larger cohort. Exposure measures included individual water arsenic concentration, cumulative arsenic index, and urinary arsenic concentration taken at two time points (2001 and

Danella M. Hafeman; Habibul Ahsan; Elan D. Louis; Abu B. Siddique; MBBS Vesna Slavkovich; Zhongqi Cheng; Alexander van Geen; Joseph H. Graziano



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lead arsenate was used as an insecticide in the U.S. from 1900 to 1950 to control Codling moth in apple orchards. As a result, these soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Concerns have been raised about conversion of land use of such Pb and As rich soils, either for vegetable crops...


Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.  


A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation. PMID:21922285

Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.  


Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy



Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine



Arsenic in the soils of Zimapán, Mexico.  


Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapán Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg(-1). Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg(-1) only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. PMID:16872728

Ongley, Lois K; Sherman, Leslie; Armienta, Aurora; Concilio, Amy; Salinas, Carrie Ferguson



Abnormal function of the vasopressin-cyclic-AMP-aquaporin2 axis during urine concentrating and diluting in patients with reduced renal function. A case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The kidneys ability to concentrate and dilute urine is deteriorated during progressive renal insufficiency. We wanted to test the hypothesis that these phenomena could be attributed to an abnormal function of the principal cells in the distal part of the nephron. Methods Healthy control subjects and patients with chronic kidney diseases were studied. Group 1 comprised healthy subjects, n = 10. Groups 2-4 comprised patients with chronic kidney disease (Group 2, n = 14, e-GFR ? 90 m1/min; Group 3, n = 11, 60 m1/min ? e-GFR < 90 ml/min; and Group 4, n = 16, 15 ml/min ? e-GFR < 60 ml/min). The subjects collected urine during 24 hours. A urine concentrating test was done by thirsting during the following 12 hours. Thereafter, a urine diluting test was performed with a water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), cyclic-AMP (u-c-AMP), urine volume (UV), free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolarity (u-Osm), and plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP). Results After fluid deprivation, u-Osm increased. In all groups, UV and CH2O decreased and u-AQP2 and u-c-AMP increased in Groups 1 and 2, but were unchanged in Group 3 and 4. P-AVP was significantly higher in Group 4 than in the other groups. During urine diluting, UV and CH2O reached significantly higher levels in Groups 1-3 than Group 4. Both before and after water loading, u-AQP2 and p-AVP were significantly higher and u-c-AMP was significantly lower in Group 4 than the other groups. Estimated-GFR was correlated negatively to p-AVP and positively to u-c-AMP. Conclusions Patients with moderately severe chronic kidney disease have a reduced renal concentrating and diluting capacity compared to both patients with milder chronic kidney disease and healthy control subjects. These phenomena can be attributed, at least partly, to an abnormally decreased response in the AVP-c-AMP-AQP2 axis. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00313430



AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice.  


It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT(1a)) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that AT(1a) receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a(-/-) mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a(-/-) mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 ± 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 5.9 ± 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 ± 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 843 ± 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion. These responses in Agtr1a(-/-) mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 ± 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 67 ± 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 ± 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 ± 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that AT(1a) receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V(2) receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla. PMID:22739536

Li, Xiao C; Shao, Yuan; Zhuo, Jia L



Speciation of Arsenic in Exfoliated Urinary Bladder Epithelial Cells from Individuals Exposed to Arsenic in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Background The concentration of arsenic in urine has been used as a marker of exposure to inorganic As (iAs). Relative proportions of urinary metabolites of iAs have been identified as potential biomarkers of susceptibility to iAs toxicity. However, the adverse effects of iAs exposure are ultimately determined by the concentrations of iAs metabolites in target tissues. Objective In this study we examined the feasibility of analyzing As species in cells that originate in the urinary bladder, a target organ for As-induced cancer in humans. Methods Exfoliated bladder epithelial cells (BECs) were collected from urine of 21 residents of Zimapan, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We determined concentrations of iAs, methyl-As (MAs), and dimethyl-As (DMAs) in urine using conventional hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-CT-AAS). We used an optimized HG-CT-AAS technique with detection limits of 12–17 pg As for analysis of As species in BECs. Results All urine samples and 20 of 21 BEC samples contained detectable concentrations of iAs, MAs, and DMAs. Sums of concentrations of these As species in BECs ranged from 0.18 to 11.4 ng As/mg protein and in urine from 4.8 to 1,947 ng As/mL. We found no correlations between the concentrations or ratios of As species in BECs and in urine. Conclusion These results suggest that urinary levels of iAs metabolites do not necessarily reflect levels of these metabolites in the bladder epithelium. Thus, analysis of As species in BECs may provide a more effective tool for risk assessment of bladder cancer and other urothelial diseases associated with exposures to iAs.

Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Valenzuela, Olga L.; Matousek, Tomas; Drobna, Zuzana; Dedina, Jiri; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Thomas, David J.; Del Razo, Luz M.; Styblo, Miroslav



Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance.  


The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small intracellular protein that specifically binds and transports medium to long-chain acyl-CoA esters. Previous studies have shown that ACBP is ubiquitously expressed but found at particularly high levels in lipogenic cell types as well as in many epithelial cells. Here we show that ACBP is widely expressed in human and mouse kidney epithelium, with the highest expression in the proximal convoluted tubules. To elucidate the role of ACBP in the renal epithelium, mice with targeted disruption of the ACBP gene (ACBP(-/-)) were used to study water and NaCl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Interestingly, however, water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared with that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20-h water deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit, and higher relative weight loss compared with (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone, and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. After water deprivation, renal medullary interstitial fluid osmolality and concentrations of Na(+), K(+), and urea did not differ between genotypes and cAMP excretion was similar. Renal aquaporin-1 (AQP1), -2, and -4 protein abundances did not differ between water-deprived (+/+) and ACBP(-/-) mice; however, ACBP(-/-) mice displayed increased apical targeting of pS256-AQP2. AQP3 abundance was lower in ACBP(-/-) mice than in (+/+) control animals. Thus we conclude that ACBP is necessary for intact urine concentrating ability. Our data suggest that the deficiency in urine concentrating ability in the ACBP(-/-) may be caused by reduced AQP3, leading to impaired efflux over the basolateral membrane of the collecting duct. PMID:22237802

Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe; Neess, Ditte; Nørregaard, Rikke; Hansen, Pernille B L; Marcher, Ann Britt; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Mandrup, Susanne; Jensen, Boye L



Arsenic uptake and depuration by red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed to various concentrations of monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) herbicide  

SciTech Connect

Like many other heavy metals, arsenic is known to accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms including crayfish. One of the earliest reports on red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, reported the bioaccumulation factor (BF) ratios for radioactive sodium methanearsonate to range from 80-480. Other heavy metals, i.e., Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg have also been reported to accumulate experimentally in P. clarkii tissues. This study was conducted to evaluate in the laboratory the bio-accumulative potential of As by the American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, which is abundant in Louisiana; and also to assess the level of arsenic present in the tissues of fieldcollected individuals. Total revenues from the sales of this crayfish exceeds $143 million annually.

Naqvi, S.M.; Flagge, C.T.; Hawkins, R.L. (Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (USA))



Assessing the Measurement Precision of Various Arsenic Forms and Arsenic Exposure in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)  

PubMed Central

Archived samples collected from 1995 to 1997 in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 (R5) and the Children’s Study (CS) in Minnesota were analyzed for total arsenic, arsenate [As(V)], arsenite, dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA), monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine. Samples for the CS included drinking water, urine, hair, and dust; both studies included food (duplicate plate, composited 4-day food samples from participants). Except for AsB and As(V), the levels for As species measured in the food and drinking water samples were very low or nonexistent. The analytical methods used for measuring As species were sensitive to < 1 ppb. During the analysis of food and drinking water samples, chromatographic peaks appeared that contained As, but they did not correspond to those being quantified. Thus, in some samples, the sum of the individual As species levels was less than the total As level measured because the unknown forms of As were not quantified. On the other hand, total As was detectable in almost all samples (>90%) except for hair (47%), indicating that the analytical method was sufficiently sensitive. Population distributions of As concentrations measured in drinking water, food (duplicate plate), dust, urine, and hair were estimated. Exposures to total As in food for children in the CS were about twice as high as in the general R5 population (medians of 17.5 ppb and 7.72 ppb, respectively). In addition, AsB was the most frequently detected form of As in food eaten by the participants, while As(V) was only rarely detected. Thus, the predominant dietary exposure was from an organic form of As. The major form of As in drinking water was As(V). Spearman (rank) correlations and Pearson (log-concentration scale) correlations between the biomarkers (urine, hair) and the other measures (food, drinking water, dust) and urine versus hair were performed. In the NHEXAS CS, total As and AsB in the food eaten were significantly correlated with their levels in urine. Also, levels of As(V) in drinking water correlated with DMA and MMA in urine. Arsenic levels in dust did not show a relationship with urine or hair levels, and no relationship was observed for food, drinking water, and dust with hair. Urine samples were collected on days 3, 5, and 7 of participants’ monitoring periods. Total As levels in urine were significantly associated across the three pairwise combinations—i.e., day 3 versus day 5, day 3 versus day 7, and day 5 versus day 7. Because the half-life of As in the body is approximately 3 days, this suggests that some exposure occurred continually from day to day. This trend was also observed for AsB, suggesting that food is primarily responsible for the continual exposure. DMA and MMA in urine were also significantly correlated but not in all combinations.

Pellizzari, Edo D.; Clayton, C. Andrew



Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H2O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences.

Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B.; Dantzler, William H.



A comparison of elementary schoolchildren's exposure to arsenic and lead.  


One hundred fifty seven fifth-grade students (aged 10-12 years) from three elementary schools in three different towns in Taichung County, Taiwan were chosen as study subjects for the present arsenic and lead exposure study. The three towns--Longgang, Shalach, and Shuntain--are known to be highly, moderately, and lightly (control) polluted by As and Pb, respectively. Spot morning urine samples of students were collected and analyzed for arsenic and lead. The levels of As in the urine of Longgang schoolchildren showed the highest value among the three schools, while those of the control group (Shuntain) had the lowest values. In addition, the levels of Pb in the urine of the schoolchildren in Shuntain were significantly lower than those in Longgang and Shalach, while the levels of Pb in the urine of the schoolchildren in Longgang and Shalach showed no significant difference. Results of daily intake of metals from the different exposure pathways (i.e., ingestion from drinking water, household dust and food, and inhalation from airborne particles) showed that the Longgang area had the highest daily intake of As and Pb among the three areas, while the lowest daily intake of As and Pb occurred in the control area (Shuntain). A significant correlation between the doses of daily intake and urinary concentrations of As (p = 0.002) and Pb (p = 0.020) was observed. This correlation suggests that the increase of unit dose of the daily intake for As resulted in an increase of 0.953 microg g(-1) creatinine of As, whereas the increase of unit dose of the daily intake for Pb led to an increase of 0.053 microg g(-1) creatinine of Pb. These data indicate that the level of As in urine increased about 18 times higher than that of Pb for the same amount of increase in daily intake. PMID:18781537

Chiang, Wan-Fu; Yang, Hao-Jan; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Huang, Shuai; Chiu, Chih-Yuan; Liu, I-Ling; Tsai, Ching-Ling; Kuo, Chung-Yih


Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi



Pentavalent methylated arsenicals are substrates of human AQP9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver aquaglyceroporin AQP9 facilitates movement of trivalent inorganic arsenite (AsIII) and organic monomethylarsonous acid (MAsIII). However, the transport pathway for the two major pentavalent arsenic cellular metabolites, MAsV and DMAsV, remains unknown in mammals. These products of arsenic metabolism, in particular DMAsV, are the major arsenicals excreted in the urine of mammals. In this study, we examined the uptake of

Joseph R. McDermott; Xuan Jiang; Lauren C. Beene; Barry P. Rosen; Zijuan Liu



Crystal Chemical Company, Arsenic Exposure Study, Houston, Texas, Region 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A human exposure study was conducted to determine if adults or children living near an abandoned arsenic production site frequented the on-site or off-site contaminated areas, to measure recent exposure to arsenic through analysis of urine samples, and to...



Remediation of arsenic in soil by Aspergillus nidulans isolated from an arsenic?contaminated site  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of heavy metals, such as arsenic, in soils have potential long?term environmental and health consequences due to their persistence in the environment and their associated toxicity to biological organisms. Aspergillus nidulans isolated from arsenic?contaminated soil has the potential to remove arsenic from soil. The isolated resistant strain showed resistance up to 500 ppm and the mean weight was

S. Maheswari; A. G. Murugesan



Urinary Arsenic Excretion as a Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary arsenic concentration has been used generally for the determination of exposure, but much concern has been raised over the most appropriate expression for urinary arsenic levels. In this study, we examined the influence of various adjustments of expressing urinary arsenic data. All children who were less than 72 mo of age and who were potty trained were invited to

Yaw-Huei Hwang; Robert L. Bornschein; Joann Grote; William Menrath; Sandy Roda



Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article, elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study

Badal K. Mandal; Kazuo T. Suzuki; Kazunori Anzai



Urination - painful  


... such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ... in the urine ? Are there any rashes or itching in the genital area? What medications are you ...


Sodium - urine  


The sodium urine test measures the amount of salt (sodium) in a urine sample. Sodium can also ... L/day), depending on how much fluid and salt you consume. The examples above are common measurements ...


Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg


Concentrations of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and its metabolites in plasma and urine following oral administration of NMP to rats.  


The primary aims were to study the metabolism in rats and to determine the biological levels after one oral developmentally toxic dose of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a widely used industrial chemical. Non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an oral single dose of either a non-toxic dose of 125 mg NMP/kg (group 1) by gavage or a developmentally toxic dose of 500 mg/kg (group 2). Blood plasma (7 rats per time point) and urine (10 rats per time point) were sampled up to 72 h after administration and analyzed using mass spectrometry. In both plasma and urine NMP, 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP), N-methylsuccinimide and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) and 2-pyrrolidone (2-P) were identified. In urine 48% of the administered dose was recovered as 5-HNMP and 2-5% as 2-HMSI. The total recovery in urine was 53-59%. The peak concentrations for NMP in plasma were 1.2 and 6.9 mmol/l, 0.42 and 0.76 mmol/l for 5-HNMP, 0.07 and 0.31 mmol/l for MSI and for 2-HMSI the concentrations were 0.02 and 0.05 mmol/l for groups 1 and 2, respectively. In summary, the same metabolites were found in rats as in humans and the biological levels were reported for NMP and its metabolites after oral exposure to a developmentally toxic dose and one non-toxic dose of NMP. PMID:15951091

Carnerup, Martin A; Saillenfait, Anne Marie; Jönsson, Bo A G



Occurrence of trivalent monomethyl arsenic and other urinary arsenic species in a highly exposed juvenile population in Bangladesh.  


Following reports of high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of monomethyl arsonous acid (MMA(III)) and early reports of urinary MMA(III) in arsenic-exposed individuals, MMA(III) has often been included in population studies. Use of urinary MMA(III) as an indicator of exposure and/or health risk is challenged by inconsistent results from field studies and stability studies, which indicate potential artifacts. We measured urinary arsenic species in children chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water, using collection, storage, and analysis methods shown to conserve MMA(III). MMA(III) was easily oxidized in sample storage and processing, but recoveries of 80% or better in spiked urine samples were achieved. Attempts to preserve the distribution of MMA between trivalent and pentavalent forms using complexing agents were unsuccessful and MMA(III) spiked into treated urine samples actually showed lower stability than in untreated samples. In 643 urine samples from a highly exposed population from the Matlab district in Bangladesh stored for 3-6 months at ?-70?°C, MMA(III) was detected in 41 samples, with an estimated median value of 0.3??g/l, and levels of MMA(III) above 1??g/l in only two samples. The low urinary concentrations in highly exposed individuals and known difficulties in preserving sample oxidation state indicate that urinary MMA(III) is not suitable for use as an epidemiological biomarker.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 3 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.14. PMID:23549402

Kalman, David A; Dills, Russell L; Steinmaus, Craig; Yunus, Md; Khan, Al Fazal; Prodhan, Md Mofijuddin; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Allan H



Differences in Urinary Arsenic Metabolites between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is considered to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus. In order to clarify the possible differences in the metabolism in diabetics, we measured urinary iAs metabolites in diabetic cases and non-diabetic control subjects in Faridpur, an arsenic-contaminated area in Bangladesh. Physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetic cases (140 persons) and non-diabetic controls (180 persons) were recruited. Drinking water and spot urine samples were collected. Mean concentrations of total arsenic in drinking water did not differ between cases (85.1 ?g/L) and controls (85.8 ?g/L). The percentage of urinary iAs (iAs%) was significantly lower in cases (8.6%) than in controls (10.4%), while that of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) was higher in cases (82.6%) than in controls (79.9%). This may have been due to the higher secondary methylation index (SMI) in the former (11.6) rather than the latter (10.0). Adjusting for matching factors (sex and unions), and the additional other covariates (age and water arsenic) significantly attenuated the differences in iAs%, SMI, and DMA%, respectively, though the difference in monomethylarsonic acid% was newly significant in the latter adjustment. Our study did not suggest any significant differences in urinary arsenic metabolites between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

Nizam, Saika; Kato, Masashi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Naito, Hisao; Nakajima, Tamie



Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual

Emmanuel Strahm; Pedro Marques-Vidal; François Pralong; Jiri Dvorak; Martial Saugy; Norbert Baume



Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.



A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic  

SciTech Connect

A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground. Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

Meagher, Richard B.



The Soluble Receptor for Vitamin B12 Uptake (sCD320) Increases during Pregnancy and Occurs in Higher Concentration in Urine than in Serum  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we present data on the occurrence of this soluble receptor in both serum and urine during pregnancy. Methods We examined serum from twenty-seven pregnant women (cohort 1) at gestational weeks 13, 24 and 36 and serum and urine samples from forty pregnant women (cohort 2) tested up to 8 times during gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. Results Median (range) of serum sCD320 increased from 125 (87-839) pmol/L (week 15) to reach a peak value of 199 (72-672) pmol/L (week 35) then dropped back to its baseline level just before birth (week 40). Around one third of sCD320 was precipitated with holoTC at all-time points studied. The urinary concentration of sCD320 was around two fold higher than in serum. Urinary sCD320/creatinine ratio correlated with serum sCD320 and reached a peak median level of 53 (30–101) pmol/mmol creatinine (week 35). sCD320 present in serum and urine showed the same elution pattern upon size exclusion chromatography. Conclusion We report for the first time that sCD320 is present in urine and in a higher concentration than in serum and that serum and urine sCD320 increase during pregnancy. The high urinary concentration and the strong correlation between urinary and serum sCD320 suggests that sCD320 is filtered in the kidney.

Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H.; Kronborg, Camilla; Vittinghus, Erik; Nexo, Ebba



Assessing the cancer risk associated with arsenic-contaminated seafood.  


Tens of millions of people worldwide ingest excessive amounts of arsenic (As) through drinking water and food. The dietary intake of seafood is the major As exposure route in humans and can cause As-related adverse health effects including cancers. The aim of this study was to quantify potential cancer risks of As exposure for children and adults through seafood consumption. By coupling the age-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and a Weibull-based dose-response function, a more accurate estimate of urinary arsenic metabolites could be achieved to better characterize potential cancer risks. The simulation results show that the proportion of inorganic As, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in human urine are estimated to total 6.7, 26.9, and 66.4% for children, and 6.2, 27.4, and 66.4% for adults, respectively. The estimated median cumulative cancer incidence ratios were respectively 2.67x10(-6) and 3.83x10(-6) for children and adults, indicating a low cancer risk for local residents exposed to As through the consumption of seafood. However, it is necessary to incorporate other exposure routes into the model to make it more realistic. The methodology proposed here can not only be applied to calculate the concentrations of As metabolites in urine, but also to provide a direct estimation of adverse health effects caused by the calculated internal concentrations. PMID:20546995

Chen, Bo-Ching; Chou, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min



Ruminal metabolism of flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum) lignans to the mammalian lignan enterolactone and its concentration in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows.  


Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside is the main flax (Linum usitatissimum) lignan that is converted to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) by gastrointestinal microbiota. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of ruminal microbiota and the effects of flax oil on in vivo metabolism of flax lignans and concentration of EL in biological fluids. Four rumen-cannulated dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. There were four periods of 21 d each and four treatments utilising flax hulls (1800 g/d) and oil (400 g/d) supplements. The treatments were: (1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water; (2) oil and hulls administered in the abomasum; (3) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen; (4) oil placed in the rumen and hulls administered in the abomasum. Samples were collected during the last week of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. The site of supplementation of oil and hulls had no effect on ruminal EL concentration. Supplementing flax oil in the rumen and the abomasum led to similar EL concentrations in urine, plasma and milk. Concentrations of EL were higher in the urine, plasma and milk of cows supplemented with hulls in the rumen than in those placed with hulls in the abomasum. The present study demonstrated that ruminal microbiota play an important role in the metabolism of flax lignans. PMID:19393113

Gagnon, Nathalie; Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo; Zeoula, Lucia; Petit, Hélène V



Industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment.  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is present in all copper, lead, and zinc sulfide ores and is carried along with those metals in the mining, milling and concentrating process. Separation, final concentration and refining of by-product arsenic as the trioxide is achieved at smelters. Arsenic is the essential consistent element of many compounds important and widely used in agriculture and wood preservation. Lesser amounts are used in metal alloys, glass-making, and feed additives. There is no significant recycling. Current levels of arsenic emissions to the atmosphere from smelters and power plants and ambient air concentrations are given as data of greatest environmental interest.

Nelson, K W



Arsenic metabolism, genetic susceptibility, and risk of premalignant skin lesions in Bangladesh.  


We conducted a case-control study to investigate interindividual variability in susceptibility to health effects of inorganic arsenic due to arsenic metabolism efficiency, genetic factors, and their interaction. A total of 594 cases of arsenic-induced skin lesions and 1,041 controls was selected from baseline participants in a large prospective cohort study in Bangladesh. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for skin lesions were estimated in relation to the polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase omega1 and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes, the percentage of monomethylarsonous acid (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (%DMA) in urine, and the ratios of MMA to inorganic arsenic and DMA to MMA. Water arsenic concentration was positively associated with %MMA and inversely associated with %DMA. The dose-response relationship of risk of skin lesion with %MMA was more apparent than those with other methylation indices; the ORs for skin lesions in relation to increasing %MMA quartiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.92-1.93], 1.68 (95% CI, 1.17-2.42), and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.10-2.26; P for trend = 0.01). The ORs for skin lesions in relation to the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT/1298AA and 677CT/1298AA diplotypes (compared with 677CC/1298CC diplotype) were 1.66 (95% CI, 1.00-2.77) and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.61-5.14), respectively. The OR for skin lesions in relation to the glutathione S-transferase omega1 diplotype containing all at-risk alleles was 3.91 (95% CI, 1.03-14.79). Analysis of joint effects of genotypes/diplotypes with water arsenic concentration and urinary %MMA suggests additivity of these factors. The findings suggest that arsenic metabolism, particularly the conversion of MMA to DMA, may be saturable and that differences in urinary arsenic metabolites, genetic factors related to arsenic metabolism, and their joint distributions modulate arsenic toxicity. PMID:17548696

Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Slavkovich, Vesna; Parvez, Faruque; Jasmine, Farzana; Gamble, Mary V; Graziano, Joseph H



Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel carboxylesterase-like protein that is physiologically present at high concentrations in the urine of domestic cats (Felis catus).  


Normal mammals generally excrete only small amounts of protein in the urine, thus avoiding major leakage of proteins from the body. Proteinuria is the most commonly recognized abnormality in renal disease. However, healthy domestic cats ( Felis catus ) excrete proteins at high concentrations (about 0.5 mg/ml) in their urine. We investigated the possible cause of proteinuria in healthy cats, and discovered a 70 kDa glycoprotein, which was excreted as a major urinary protein in cat urine, irrespective of gender. To elucidate the biochemical functions and the excretion mechanism of this protein, we cloned the cDNA for this protein from a cat kidney cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 47% identity with the rat liver carboxylesterase (EC, and both the serine hydrolase active site and the carboxylesterase-specific sequence were conserved. Therefore we named this protein cauxin (carboxylesterase-like urinary excreted protein). In contrast to the mammalian carboxylesterases, most of which are localized within the cells of various organs, cauxin was expressed specifically in the epithelial cells of the distal tubules, and was secreted efficiently into the urine, probably because it lacked the endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence (HDEL). Based on our finding that cauxin is not expressed in the immature cat kidney, we conclude that cauxin is involved in physiological functions that are specific for mature cats. Recently, cauxin-like cDNAs were found from human brain and teratocarcinoma cells. These data suggest that cauxin and cauxin-like human proteins are categorized as a novel group of carboxylesterase multigene family. PMID:12401131

Miyazaki, Masao; Kamiie, Katsuyoshi; Soeta, Satoshi; Taira, Hideharu; Yamashita, Tetsuro



Arsenic for the fool: an exponential connection.  


Anthropogenic arsenic is insidiously building up together with natural arsenic to a level unprecedented in the history of mankind. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) is the principal ore of arsenic and gold in hard rock mines; it is formed by a coupled substitution of sulphur by arsenic in the structure of pyrite (FeS(2)) - nicknamed "fool's gold". Other important sources of anthropogenic arsenic are fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Here I report on the first indication that the environmental concentration of total arsenic in topsoils - in the 7-18ppm range - is exponentially related to the prevalence and mortality of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in European countries. This evidence defies the imputed absence of verified cases of human morbidity or mortality resulting from exposure to low-level arsenic in topsoils. PMID:20123147

Dani, Sergio U



Arsenic speciation in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus.  


Two species of earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister and Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny) collected from an arsenic-contaminated mine spoil site and an uncontaminated site were investigated for total tissue arsenic concentrations and for arsenic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). For L. rubellus, whole-body total tissue arsenic concentrations were 7.0 to 17.0 mg arsenic/ kg dry weight in uncontaminated soil and 162 to 566 mg arsenic/kg dry weight in contaminated soil. For D. rubidus, whole-body tissue concentrations were 2.0 to 5.0 mg arsenic/kg dry weight and 97 to 321 mg arsenic/kg dry weight, respectively. Arsenobetaine was the only organic arsenic species detected in both species of earthworms, with the remainder of the extractable arsenic being arsenate and arsenite. There was an increase in the proportion of arsenic present as arsenobetaine in the total arsenic burden. Lumbricus rubellus and D. rubidus have similar life styles, both being surface living and litter feeding. Arsenic speciation was found to be similar in both species for both uncontaminated and contaminated sites, with dose-dependent formation of arsenobetaine. When L. rubellus and D. rabidus from contaminated sites were incubated in arsenic-free soils, the total tissue burden of arsenic diminished. Initially, L. rubellus from the tolerant populations (from the contaminated site) eliminated arsenic in the first 7 d of exposure before accumulating arsenic in tissues, whereas nontolerant populations (from the uncontaminated site) accumulated arsenic linearly. The tolerant and nontolerant L. rubellus eliminated tissue arsenic linearly over 21 d when incubated in uncontaminated soil. PMID:12785588

Langdon, Caroline J; Piearce, Trevor G; Feldmann, Jörg; Semple, Kirk T; Meharg, Andrew A



Arsenic distribution and speciation in Daphnia pulex.  


Rat Lake, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, is situated on arsenic-rich tailings from a historical gold mine. The abundant zooplankton species Daphnia pulex in this lake was used to study the impact of arsenic at the base of the freshwater food web; the speciation and distribution of arsenic in D. pulex and its food sources; and the origin of formation of organoarsenicals in freshwater systems. The arsenic concentration in lake water was measured as 0.25 mg L(-1), while the zooplankton organisms contained up to 35 mg kg(-1) d.w. arsenic. Plankton samples were analyzed for arsenic speciation, by using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) on the whole, dried samples and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) on water extracts. XANES data suggest that D. pulex mainly contain inorganic arsenicals with 56% of arsenic with +5 oxidation state and 10% of arsenic with +3 oxidation state, but also 34% of organoarsenic compounds that were identified with HPLC-ICP-MS as monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and arsenosugars. The most abundant of the organoarsenicals was the glycerol sugar (Sugar 1). X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) mapping of D. pulex for arsenic distribution showed that arsenic was mainly distributed in the gut of the animal, where its concentration was ten times higher than in the surrounding tissues. Moreover, the analysis of residues from extractions targeting water-soluble and lipid-soluble arsenicals suggested that part of the measured arsenic signal comes from ingested sediments, phytoplankton, or other food sources. These food sources contain inorganic arsenic only, with As(V)-O in phytoplankton and As(III)-S in sediments, suggesting the possibility that the organoarsenicals compounds detected in the tissues of the organism are created by the Daphnia. PMID:22750169

Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Moriarty, Maeve; Reimer, Kenneth J



Thermodynamic analysis of arsenic methylation.  


The Challenger mechanism for the methylation of arsenic is a repeating sequence of a two-electron reduction of pentavalent arsenic As(V) species to trivalent arsenic As(III) species followed by a methylation-oxidation reaction forming the successive methyl As(V) species. This unusual oxidation-reduction sequence prompted an examination of the thermodynamics of these reactions. Quantum chemical methods are employed to estimate the thermodynamic parameters for the methyl arsenic species. The sequence is thermodynamically favored at neutral pH for redox potentials with pe < 0 and methyl cation activities pCH3+ < -3 to -7 depending on the precise situation analyzed. The observed distribution of methyl arsenic species in human urine, which is remarkably constant across many studied populations, can be reproduced using an equilibrium model if the formation of TMA species is prevented. The estimated thermodynamic parameters are sufficiently accurate to evaluate questions of thermodynamic plausibility but not the precise details of speciation. PMID:15871252

Dombrowski, Paul M; Long, Wei; Farley, Kevin J; Mahony, John D; Capitani, Joseph F; Di Toro, Dominic M



Arsenic release from paddy soils during monsoon flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh relies heavily on groundwater for the irrigation of dry-season rice. However, the groundwater used for irrigation often contains high concentrations of arsenic, potentially jeopardizing the future of rice production in the country. In seasonally flooded fields, topsoil arsenic concentrations decrease during the monsoon season, suggesting that flooding attenuates arsenic accumulation in the soils. Here we examine the chemistry of

Linda C. Roberts; Stephan J. Hug; Jessica Dittmar; Andreas Voegelin; Ruben Kretzschmar; Bernhard Wehrli; Olaf A. Cirpka; Ganesh C. Saha; M. Ashraf Ali; A. Borhan M. Badruzzaman



Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...



Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of arsenic from water by a microfiltration?coagulation process was investigated. In general, arsenic removal was enhanced in the presence of a coagulant. Arsenic was removed (83% and 72%) from water containing 243–255?g\\/l arsenic, resulting in arsenic concentrations of 40?g\\/L and 68?g\\/L, using microfiltration?coagulation and microfiltration, respectively. Furthermore, arsenic removal increased with decreasing specific flux, in which an almost




Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.  


To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin. PMID:23472327

Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu



An evaluation of the DRI-ETG EIA method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in clinical and post-mortem urine.  


A commercial enzyme immunoassay for the qualitative and semi-quantitative measurement of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine was evaluated. Post-mortem (n=800), and clinical urine (n=200) samples were assayed using a Hitachi 902 analyzer. The determined concentrations were compared with those obtained using a previously published liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EtG and ethyl sulfate. Using a cut-off of 0.5?µg/ml and LC-MS/MS limit of reporting of 0.1?µg/ml, there was a sensitivity of 60.8% and a specificity of 100% for clinical samples. For post-mortem samples, sensitivity and specificity were 82.4% and 97.1%, respectively. When reducing the cut-off to 0.1?µg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 100% for clinical samples whereas for post-mortem samples the sensitivity and specificity were 90.3 % and 88.3 %, respectively. The best trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity for LC-MS/MS limits of reporting of 0.5 and 0.1?µg/ml were achieved when using immunoassay cut-offs of 0.3 and 0.092?µg/ml, respectively. There was good correlation between quantitative results obtained by both methods but analysis of samples by LC-MS/MS gave higher concentrations than by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with a statistically significant proportional bias (P<0.0001, Deming regression) for both sample types. The immunoassay is reliable for the qualitative and semi-quantitative presumptive detection of ethyl glucuronide in urine. PMID:22374825

Turfus, Sophie C; Vo, Tu; Niehaus, Nadia; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen



Arsenic removal from water\\/wastewater using adsorbents—A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th–21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan,

Dinesh Mohan; Charles U. Pittman



Arsenic accumulation in three species of sea turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic in the liver, kidney and muscle of three species of sea turtles, e.g., green turtles (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), were determined using HG-AAS, followed by arsenic speciation analysis using HPLC-ICP-MS. The order of arsenic concentration in tissues was muscle > kidney > liver. Unexpectedly, the arsenic concentrations in the hawksbill turtles feeding mainly on

Kazutoshi Saeki; Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Haruya Sakai; Takashi Kunito; Shinsuke Tanabe



Urination - difficulty with flow  


... urination, cloudy urine, and a sense of urgency (strong, sudden urge to urinate). Pay close attention to ... residual urine volume and to get urine for culture (a catheterized urine specimen ) Cystometrography Transrectal ultrasound of ...


Determination of 15N isotopic enrichment and concentrations of allantoin and uric acid in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


A method for the determination of 15N enrichment and concentration of allantoin and uric acid simultaneously in urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described. The urine samples contained [1,3-15N2] uric acid and its oxidation product allantoin. The uric acid and allantoin were isolated using an AG1-X8 (Cl-form) anion-exchange column and heated with a mixture containing 1:1 dimethylformamide and N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). The tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives of allantoin and uric acid formed were injected into a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass spectrometer operated under electron impact ionization conditions. Isotope ratio measurements were made from the abundance of the M-57 ions at m/z 398, 399 and 400 for allantoin and at m/z 567 and 569 for uric acid. 15N2 allantoin (99 at.%) was produced from [1,3-15N2] uric acid by treatment with uricase and used as a standard. Quantitation of allantoin and uric acid was based on isotopic dilution by spiking the urine sample with known quantities of 99 at.% [15N] uric acid and allantoin internal standards. The observed isotope ratio measurements from the prepared standards matched the theoretical values. Coefficients of variation in measurements of isotope ratio and concentration were 0.2 and 0.5%, respectively. The method was applied in a study to measure the urinary recovery of [1,3-15N2] uric acid continuously infused for 8-10 h into the blood of four sheep each on two occasions. Within 24 h, 65.9 +/- 9.1% of the tracer was excreted in the urine unchanged. Little was converted into allantoin (approximately 7% of the dose). The total recovery (5 days) of the infused tracer averaged 69.5 +/- 7.6% as uric acid and 76.8 +/- 9.3% as the sum of uric acid and allantoin. Uricase activities in plasma, liver and kidney of sheep were also measured using [1,3-15N2] uric acid as a substrate. Uricase activity was estimated to be 0.6 mU g-1 wet tissue in the liver and there appeared to be none in plasma and kidney. The low uricase activities in sheep tissues appeared to explain the limited conversion of the intravenously administered [15N] uric acid to allantoin but did not explain the large quantities of allantoin excreted in urine (8.96 +/- 0.86 and 1.36 +/- 0.25 mmol d-1 for allantoin and uric acid, respectively). The GC/MS method for the determination of 15N enrichment and concentration of allantoin and uric acid in urine is accurate and precise and provides a useful tool for studies on uric acid and allantoin metabolism. PMID:9487687

Chen, X B; Calder, A G; Prasitkusol, P; Kyle, D J; Jayasuriya, M C



Blackcurrant seed press residue increases tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool whilst biomarkers in stool and urine indicate increased oxidative stress in human subjects.  


Berry seeds are a tocopherol-rich by-product of fruit processing without specific commercial value. In a human intervention study, the physiological impact of blackcurrant seed press residue (PR) was tested. Thirty-six women (aged 24 +/- 3 years; twenty non-smokers, sixteen smokers) consumed 250 g bread/d containing 8% PR for a period of 4 weeks (period 3). Comparatively, a control bread without PR (250 g/d) was tested (period 2) and baseline data were obtained (period 1). Blood, stool and 24 h urine were collected during a 5 d standardised diet within each period. Tocopherol and Fe intakes were calculated from food intake. In serum, tocopherol concentration and Fe parameters were determined. In urine, oxidative stress markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2alpha and inflammatory response marker 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha were analysed. Stool tocopherol concentration, genotoxicity of faecal water (comet assay) and antioxidant capacity of stool (aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid) were determined. Fe and total tocopherol intake, total tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool, and genotoxicity of faecal water increased with PR bread consumption (P < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of stool decreased between baseline and intervention, expressed by increased formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in vitro (P < 0.05). In smokers, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine increased with PR consumption (P < 0.05). Prostane concentrations were unaffected by PR bread consumption. In summary, the intake of bread containing blackcurrant PR for 4 weeks increased serum and stool total tocopherol concentrations. However, various biomarkers indicated increased oxidative stress, suggesting that consumption of ground berry seed may not be of advantage. PMID:19302719

Helbig, Dorit; Wagner, Andreas; Glei, Michael; Basu, Samar; Schubert, Rainer; Jahreis, Gerhard



75 FR 7477 - Draft Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic: In Support of the Summary Information on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic. EPA has now...Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic, EPA intends...Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic: In Support...exposure to specific chemical substances found in...inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) for...



XRF analysis of arsenic uptaking in mice organs and tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an investigation on the levels of uptaken arsenic in different organs and tissues of mice was carried out. Mice were given water, doped with 100 ?g/ml of As2O3, during a period of a week. The Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique was used for the measurements; the external standard (calibration curve) and the internal standard (addition) methods were used to obtain concentrations. These methods were used in order to minimize matrix effects (which in many cases are complex and prone to errors) and to allow an easy calculation of As concentrations. The average concentrations obtained here were: 3.9 ?g/g for liver, 13 ?g/g for pre-stomach, 21 ?g/g for esophagus, 2.9 ?g/ml for blood, and 42 ?g/ml for urine.

Sánchez, H. J.; Pérez, C.; Pérez, R. D.



Perennial ponds are not an important source of water or dissolved organic matter to groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations in West Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) concentrations and stable hydrogen (?2H) and oxygen (?18O) isotope ratios of surface and groundwaters from a representative site in West Bengal, India, are reported. Shallow groundwaters (?35 m) from the study site have among the highest As concentrations measured in the entire Bengal Basin, reaching values in excess of 4600 ?g kg-1. Stable isotope ratios of waters from constructed, perennial ponds indicate the ponds are chiefly recharged during the summer monsoon, and subsequently undergo extensive evaporation during the dry (winter) season. In contrast, groundwaters with high As concentrations plot along the local meteoric water line (LMWL) near where the annual, volume-weighted mean precipitation values for ?2H and ?18O would plot. The stable isotope data demonstrate that groundwaters are directly recharged by local precipitation without significant evaporation, and thus are not recharged by, nor mixed with, the pond waters. Furthermore, reactive transport modeling indicates that dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from pond waters does not fuel microbial respiration and As mobilization at depth in the underlying aquifer because travel times for pond-derived DOM exceed groundwater ages by thousands of years. Instead, organic matter within the aquifer sediments must drive dissimilatory iron reduction and As release to groundwaters.

Datta, Saugata; Neal, Andrew W.; Mohajerin, T. Jade; Ocheltree, Troy; Rosenheim, Brad E.; White, Christopher D.; Johannesson, Karen H.



Bacterial sulfate reduction limits natural arsenic contamination in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater, increasingly recognized as a threat to human health worldwide, is characterized by arsenic concentrations that vary sharply over short distances. Variation in arsenic levels in the Mahomet aquifer system, a regional glacial aquifer in central Illinois, appears to arise from variable rates of bacterial sulfate reduction in the subsurface, not differences in arsenic supply. Where sulfate-reducing bacteria are active, the sulfide produced reacts to precipitate arsenic, or coprecipitate it with iron, leaving little in solution. In the absence of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis is the dominant type of microbial metabolism, and arsenic accumulates to high levels.

Kirk, Matthew F.; Holm, Thomas R.; Park, Jungho; Jin, Qusheng; Sanford, Robert A.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Bethke, Craig M.



Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Detected in Abnormally High Concentrations in Postmortem Blood and Urine from Two Persons Found Dead Inside a Car Containing a Gasoline Spill.  


Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. PMID:23879346

Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S



Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India--a review and commentary.  


Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 microg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 microg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 microg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement was evident with and without neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic studies proved helpful for the diagnosis of neurological involvement. Advanced neglected cases with many years of exposure presented with cancer of skin and of the lung, liver, kidney, and bladder. The diagnosis of subclinical arsenicosis was made in 83%, 93%, and 95% of hair, nail and urine samples, respectively, in Bangladesh; and 57%, 83%, and 89% of hair, nail, and urine samples, respectively in West Bengal. Approximately 90% of children below 11 years of age living in the affected areas show hair and nail arsenic above the normal level. Children appear to have a higher body burden than adults despite fewer dermatological manifestations. Limited trials of 4 arsenic chelators in the treatment of chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal over the last 2 decades do not provide any clinical, biochemical, or histopathological benefit except for the accompanying preliminary report of clinical benefit with dimercaptopropanesulfonate therapy. Extensive efforts are needed in both countries to combat the arsenic crisis including control of tube-wells, watershed management with effective use of the prodigious supplies of surface water, traditional water management, public awareness programs, and education concerning the apparent benefits of optimal nutrition. PMID:11778666

Rahman, M M; Chowdhury, U K; Mukherjee, S C; Mondal, B K; Paul, K; Lodh, D; Biswas, B K; Chanda, C R; Basu, G K; Saha, K C; Roy, S; Das, R; Palit, S K; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D



Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.  


This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs. PMID:22012303

Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M



Toxicity of inorganic and methylated arsenic to algal communities from lakes along an arsenic contamination gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of arsenate (As(V)), arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonic (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) to natural algal assemblages from lakes within the Aberjona watershed having different arsenic concentrations was determined by a short-term photosynthesis assay. Total arsenic concentrations in the studied lakes ranged from 1.5×10?8 to 1.9×10?7 M. The toxicity of the arsenic species generally decreased in the order of As(V)>As(III)>DMAA

Katja Knauer; Renata Behra; Harry Hemond



Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering



Effects of a Single Dose of Oral Iron on Hepcidin Concentrations in Human Urine and Serum Analyzed by a Robust LC-MS/MS Method  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The measurement of serum hepcidin, a peptide hormone that regulates iron metabolism, is clinically important to the understanding of iron homeostasis in health and disease. To date, the quantification of serum hepcidin levels by conventional immunological detection methods has proven problematic due to challenges in obtaining high quality antibodies which demonstrate good reproducibility. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) has been employed recently for more sensitive quantification of hepcidin; however, this method has high background levels and therefore less than optimal specificity. METHODS In order to increase the specificity of the mass spectrometry based assay, we developed a robust, ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) protocol using multiple selected reaction monitoring (mSRM) for quantification of hepcidin levels in urine and serum of human subjects. With this assay, we assessed levels of hepcidin before and for up to 8 h after oral ingestion of ferrous sulfate in ten adult human subjects without known disease. RESULTS The linear response of hepcidin quantitation on each instrument was measured, and the correlation coefficients of these calibrations were r2 = 0.9512 ± 0.0202 (n=5) for urine and r2 = 0.9709 ± 0.0291 (n=5) for serum [r2= mean ± SD]. Compared to baseline, the levels of urinary hepcidin between 2-4 h and 4-8 h of both women and men showed significant increases with p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively. The levels of serum hepcidin between 4 h and 8 h in both women and men showed significant increases, compared with baseline values, with both p < 0.01. Interestingly, we also observed some degree of oscillation of levels, occurring at later time points. CONCLUSIONS We have developed and validated a new method for measuring hepcidin concentrations in human serum and urine and used it to demonstrate early increases with iron supplement in both urinary and serum levels of hepcidin, which return to baseline levels, except in urine samples from men.

Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Yong-Yook; Park, Jung-Ok; Norton, H. James; Clemens, Elene; Schrum, Laura W.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.



Relation of a Seafood Diet to Mercury, Selenium, Arsenic, and Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Other Organochlorine Concentrations in Human Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human transition milk was sampled from 88 mothers at the Faroe Islands, where the seafood diet includes pilot whale meat and blubber. Milk mercury concentrations (median, 2.45 ?g\\/liter) were significantly associated with mercury concentrations in cord blood and with the frequency of pilot whale dinners during pregnancy. Milk selenium concentrations (mean, 19.1 ?g\\/liter) correlated significantly with concentrations in cord blood

P. Grandjean; P. Weihe; L. L. Needham; V. W. Burse; D. G. Patterson; E. J. Sampson; P. J. Jorgensen; M. Vahter



Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.  


A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900°C and 2300°C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6pgmL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650pgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68mgg(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples. PMID:24148451

Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh




EPA Science Inventory

A differential pulse polarographic method was developed for determining total arsenic concentrations in water samples from ash ponds at steam-electric generating plants. After digestion of the sample and isolation of arsenic by solvent extraction, the peak current for arsenic is ...


Mechanism of Arsenic Adsorption Using Wheat Biomass -- a spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is a trace element that is toxic to animals, humans included. Since the current Environmental Protection Agency guidelines regarding water quality standards indicate that arsenic concentrations in excess of 50 ppb are hazardous to welfare of humans, the search for new water remediation methods or improvements of previous methods have been a focus in environmental technology. Investigations of arsenic

Oscar Calvo; Felicia Manciu; Josefina Maldonado; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey




Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic has been well documented as the major risk factor for development of blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease that was once endemic to the southwestern coast of Taiwan, where residents imbibed artesian well water containing high concentrations of arsenic for more than 50yr. Long-term arsenic exposure has also been reported to be associated with increased incidence of

Hui-Fen Chiu; Shu-Chen Ho; Li-Yu Wang; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang



XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples.

Charnock, J. M.; Polya, D. A.; Gault, A. G.; Morgan, A. J.



XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples.

Charnock, J. M. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Polya, D. A.; Gault, A. G. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Morgan, A. J. [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3TL (United Kingdom)



Repeated surveillance of exposure to cadmium, manganese, and arsenic in school-age children living in rural, urban, and nonferrous smelter areas in Belgium  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of exposure to Cd, As, Mn in groups of school-age children living around a lead smelter was assessed. By comparison, groups of children living in an urban and a rural area were also examined. The metal content of blood, urine, hand-rinsing, air, dust, and dirt collected in the school-playground was compared. The urinary excretion of cadmium in children living around the lead smelter is greater than in those living in the urban and in the rural area. In the latter there seems to exist a time-dependent trend in the renal accumulation of cadmium. This suggests that the overall pollution of the environment by cadmium in Belgium is progressively increasing. In the smelter area, both the oral and pulmonary routes play a role in the children's exposure to cadmium. Their relative contribution to the amount of cadmium absorbed appears similar. The concentration of arsenic in urine of children living around the smelter is significantly higher than that of rural children. Speciation of the chemical forms of arsenic in urine indicates that the difference is not due to different dietary habits of the children examined but to different intensity of exposure to inorganic arsenic. The amount of arsenic on the hand of children living at less than 1 km from the smelter (anti X = 17.6 As/hand) was more than 10 times that found in children living at 2.5 km from the plant (anti X = 1.5 As/hand) whereas that found in children living in urban and rural areas was below 0.2 As/hand. The arsenic concentration of dust and dirt collected in the school-playground in the different areas follows the same trend.

Buchet, J.P. (Univ. of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium); Roels, H.; Lauwerys, R.; Bruaux, P.; Claeys-Thoreau, F.; Lafontaine, A.; Verduyn, G.



Speciation of arsenic in rice and estimation of daily intake of different arsenic species by Brazilians through rice consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is an important source of essential elements. However, rice may also contain toxic elements such as arsenic. Therefore, in the present study, the concentration of total arsenic and five main chemical species of arsenic (As3+, As5+, DMA, MMA and AsB) were evaluated in 44 different rice samples (white, parboiled white, brown, parboiled brown, parboiled organic and organic white) from

Bruno L. Batista; Juliana M. O. Souza; Samuel S. De Souza; Fernando Barbosa



Urine culture  


... lab to determine which, if any, bacteria or yeast are present in the urine. This takes 24 - ... positive" or abnormal test is when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means ...


Toxic epidermal necrolysis after extensive dermal use of realgar-containing (arsenic sulfide) herbal ointment.  


Abstract Background. Realgar (arsenic sulfide) is thought to be safe with few reports on toxicities or adverse effects and has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many centuries. Serious realgar poisoning is rare, and we report a fatal case resulted from short-term use of realgar-containing herbal medicine through dermal route. Case details. A 24-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had received 18 days of oral herbal medicine and realgar-containing herbal ointments over whole body from a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner. Seven days after the herbal use, he had diminished appetite, dizziness, abdomen discomfort, itching rash, and skin scaling. He later developed generalized edema, nausea, vomiting, decreased urine amount, diarrhea, vesico-edematous exanthems, malodorous perspiration, fever, and shortness of breath. He was taken to the hospital on Day 19 when the dyspnea became worse. Toxic epidermal necrolysis complicated with soft tissue infection and sepsis was noted, and he later died of septic shock and multiple organ failure. The post-mortem blood arsenic level was 1225 ?g/L. Herbal analysis yielded a very high concentration of arsenic in three unlabeled realgar-containing ointments (45427, 5512, and 4229 ppm). Conclusion. Realgar-containing herbal remedy may cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The arsenic in realgar can be absorbed systemically from repeated application to non-intact skin and thus should not be extensively used on compromised skin. PMID:24003889

Wu, M L; Deng, J F



Distribution of arsenic in the sediments and biota of Hilo Bay, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples collected from the Waiakea Mill Pond, Wailoa River, and Hilo Bay were analyzed for arsenic. Arsenic was detectable in 10 of 11 sediment samples, and ranged in concentration from 2 to 715 ppm. Two species of plant and seven species of animal were collected from the Waiakea Mill Pond and analyzed for arsenic. No arsenic was detected in

L. E. Hallacher; E. B. Kho; N. D. Bernard; A. M. Orcutt; W. C. Jr. Dudley; T. M. Hammond



Enzymatic Oxalate Determination in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methoddepending uponthe useof oxalicdecarboxylase isdescribed for the deter- minationofoxalic acidin urine. The urinaryoxalateexcretionof 25 healthypersons measured by this procedureis foundto average20.5 mg. (COOH)2\\/24 hr. In 70 patients with calculusdiseasethe oxalate titer of the urine was within the normal range. 1THE ACCURATE MEASUREMENT of oxalate concentration in urine pre- sents considerable difficulties. The methods available in the literature are based

Gerda G. Mayer; Deborah Markow; Frieda Karp


Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where

Charles F. Harvey; Christopher H. Swartz; A. B. M. Badruzzaman; Nicole Keon-Blute; Winston Yu; M. Ashraf Ali; Jenny Jay; Roger Beckie; Volker Niedan; Daniel Brabander; Peter M. Oates; Khandaker N. Ashfaque; Shafiqul Islam; Harold F. Hemond; M. Feroze Ahmed



Removal of arsenic from water by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study electrocoagulation (EC) has been evaluated as a treatment technology for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] removal from water. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted with three electrode materials namely, iron, aluminum and titanium to assess their efficiency. Arsenic removal obtained was highest with iron electrodes. EC was able to bring down aqueous phase arsenic concentration to less

P Ratna Kumar; Sanjeev Chaudhari; Kartic C Khilar; S. P Mahajan



Cost-effectiveness of Arsenic Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of effort has been devoted to the development of new arsenic removal technologies. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of different technologies based on literature reports from different studies. Assessing performance based on literature reports is challenging because (1) different studies use different levels of background ions, (2) different studies use different arsenic concentrations, and (3) low-cost, low

Arun Kumar; Robin H. Bucciarelli-Tieger; Patrick L. Gurian


Potential role of sodium-proton exchangers in the low concentration arsenic trioxide-increased intracellular pH and cell proliferation.  


Arsenic main inorganic compound is arsenic trioxide (ATO) presented in solution mainly as arsenite. ATO increases intracellular pH (pHi), cell proliferation and tumor growth. Sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs) modulate the pHi, with NHE1 playing significant roles. Whether ATO-increased cell proliferation results from altered NHEs expression and activity is unknown. We hypothesize that ATO increases cell proliferation by altering pHi due to increased NHEs-like transport activity. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in 5 mmol/L D-glucose-containing DMEM were exposed to ATO (0.05, 0.5 or 5 µmol/L, 0-48 hours) in the absence or presence of 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, 5-100 µmol/L, NHEs inhibitor), PD-98059 (30 µmol/L, MAPK1/2 inhibitor), Gö6976 (10 µmol/L, PKC?, ?I and ? inhibitor), or Schering 28080 (10 µmol/L, H(+)/K(+)ATPase inhibitor) plus concanamycin (0.1 µmol/L, V type ATPases inhibitor). Incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to estimate cell proliferation, and counting cells with a hemocytometer to determine the cell number. The pHi was measured by fluorometry in 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells. The Na(+)-dependent HMA-sensitive NHEs-like mediated proton transport kinetics, NHE1 protein abundance in the total, cytoplasm and plasma membrane protein fractions, and phosphorylated and total p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44(mapk)) were also determined. Lowest ATO (0.05 µmol/L, ~0.01 ppm) used in this study increased cell proliferation, pHi, NHEs-like transport and plasma membrane NHE1 protein abundance, effects blocked by HMA, PD-98059 or Gö6976. Cell-buffering capacity did not change by ATO. The results show that a low ATO concentration increases MDCK cells proliferation by NHEs (probably NHE1)-like transport dependent-increased pHi requiring p42/44(mapk) and PKC?, ?I and/or ? activity. This finding could be crucial in diseases where uncontrolled cell growth occurs, such as tumor growth, and in circumstances where ATO, likely arsenite, is available at the drinking-water at these levels. PMID:23236503

Aravena, Carmen; Beltrán, Ana R; Cornejo, Marcelo; Torres, Viviana; Díaz, Emilce S; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A



Ultrasonic extraction of arsenic and selenium from rocks associated with mountaintop removal\\/valley fills coal mining: Estimation of bioaccessible concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic extraction (UE) was used to estimate the total bioaccessible fractions of arsenic and selenium released from rocks associated with mountaintop removal\\/valley fill coal mining. The combined readily bioaccessible amounts of arsenic and selenium in water soluble, exchangeable and NaOH fractions can be extracted from the solid phase within a 20 or 25min application of 200Wcm?2 ultrasound energy in nanopure

I. Pumure; J. J. Renton; R. B. Smart



The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.



Altered profile of urinary arsenic metabolites in adults with chronic arsenicismA pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between alterations in the profile of urinary arsenic (As) species and the presence of cutaneous signs of arsenicism\\u000a were studied in Region Lagunera, Mexico. The use of urinary concentrations of putative substrates and products of the As metabolism\\u000a pathway, as indicators of metabolic efficiency is also discussed. Arsenic was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption\\u000a spectrophotometry and separation of

L. M. Del Razo; G. G. García-Vargas; A. Albores; H. Vargas; M. E. Gonsebatt; R. Montero; P. Ostrosky-Wegman; M. Kelsh; M. E. Cebrián



Plant Colonization and Arsenic Uptake on High Arsenic Mine Wastes, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrates associated with two historic gold mining sites in north Westland, New Zealand, have locally very high arsenic concentrations\\u000a (commonly 10–40 wt% As). The substrates consist of iron oxyhydroxide precipitates, and processing mill residues. Waters associated\\u000a with some of these substrates have high dissolved arsenic (commonly 10–50 mg\\/L As). Natural revegetation of these very high\\u000a arsenic sites has occurred over the past

Dave Craw; Cathy Rufaut; Laura Haffert; Lorraine Paterson



Phytoremediation of Arsenic and Lead in Contaminated Soil Using Chinese Brake Ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the performance of phytoremediation of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil at an EPA Superfund site (Barber Orchard). Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) were used to extract arsenic. On average, fern shoot arsenic concentrations were as high as 20 times the soil arsenic concentrations under field conditions. It was estimated that 8

Arthur L. Salido; Kelly L. Hasty; Jae-Min Lim; David J. Butcher



Sources and exposure of the New Hampshire population to arsenic in public and private drinking water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic concentrations in drinking water from 2273 households and in rock samples from 307 sites throughout the state of New Hampshire were studied to understand potential links between bedrock geology and arsenic concentration in drinking water, and to calculate arsenic exposure estimates for the New Hampshire population. Though it remains clear that most of the arsenic in New Hampshire drinking

Stephen C. Peters; Joel D. Blum; Margaret R. Karagas; C. Page Chamberlain; Derek J. Sjostrom



A Population-based Case-Control Study of Urinary Arsenic Species and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in New Hampshire, USA  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic high arsenic exposure is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, and inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolites may play an important role in this association. However, little is known about the carcinogenicity of arsenic at levels commonly observed in the United States. Objective: We estimated associations between total urinary arsenic and arsenic species and SCC in a U.S. population. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control SCC study (470 cases, 447 controls) in a U.S. region with moderate arsenic exposure through private well water and diet. We measured urinary iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and summed these arsenic species (?As). Because seafood contains arsenolipids and arsenosugars that metabolize into DMA through alternate pathways, participants who reported seafood consumption within 2 days before urine collection were excluded from the analyses. Results: In adjusted logistic regression analyses (323 cases, 319 controls), the SCC odds ratio (OR) was 1.37 for each ln-transformed microgram per liter increase in ln-transformed ?As concentration [ln(?As)] (95% CI: 1.04, 1.80). Urinary ln(MMA) and ln(DMA) also were positively associated with SCC (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.71 and OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.74, respectively). A similar trend was observed for ln(iAs) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.49). Percent iAs, MMA, and DMA were not associated with SCC. Conclusions: These results suggest that arsenic exposure at levels common in the United States relates to SCC and that arsenic metabolism ability does not modify the association. Citation: Gilbert-Diamond D, Li Z, Perry AE, Spencer SK, Gandolfi AJ, Karagas MR. 2013. A population-based case–control study of urinary arsenic species and squamous cell carcinoma in New Hampshire, USA. Environ Health Perspect 121:1154–1160;?

Li, Zhigang; Perry, Ann E.; Spencer, Steven K.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Karagas, Margaret R.



Impact of local recharge on arsenic concentrations in shallow aquifers inferred from the electromagnetic conductivity of soils in Araihazar, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-degree of spatial variability of dissolved As levels in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin has been well documented but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compare here As concentrations measured in groundwater pumped from 4700 wells <22 m (75 ft) deep across a 25 km2 area of Bangladesh with variations in the nature of surface soils inferred

Z. Aziz; A. van Geen; M. Stute; R. Versteeg; A. Horneman; Y. Zheng; S. Goodbred; M. Steckler; B. Weinman; I. Gavrieli; M. A. Hoque; M. Shamsudduha; K. M. Ahmed



Arsenic bioaccumulation in rice and edible plants and subsequent transmission through food chain in Bengal basin: a review of the perspectives for environmental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that poses serious environmental threats due to its behemoth toxicity and wide abundance. The use of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for irrigation purpose in crop fields elevates arsenic concentration in surface soil and in the plants. In many arsenic-affected countries, including Bangladesh and India, rice is reported to be one of the major sources of arsenic contamination.

Sayan Bhattacharya; Kaushik Gupta; Sushanta Debnath; Uday Chand Ghosh; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay; Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay



Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide variation of values needs critical evaluation and application of data. The choice of this indicator might be relevant also from a toxicological point of view. Trivalent arsenic is in fact the most active species and its measure in urine could be the best indicator of some critical effects of the element, such as cancer.  

Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.



Urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites after repeated ingestion of sodium metaarsenite by volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (125, 250, 500 or 1000 µg as NaAsO2) was administered orally once a day for five consecutive days to 4 volunteers who refrained from eating marine organisms during the experiment. Urine was collected during 24-h periods starting one day before the first administration and up to 14 days later. The following determinations were performed: total arsenic, inorganic arsenic (As;),

J. P. Buchet; R. Lauwerys; H. Roels



Urinary arsenic and porphyrin profile in C57BL/6J mice chronically exposed to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) for two years  

SciTech Connect

Arsenicals are proven carcinogens in humans and it imposes significant health impacts on both humans and animals. Recently monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), the toxic metabolite of arsenic has been identified in human urine and believed to be more acutely toxic than arsenite and arsenate. Arsenic also affects the activity of a number of haem biosynthesis enzymes. As a part of 2-year arsenic carcinogenicity study, young female C57BL/6J mice were given drinking water containing 0, 100, 250 and 500 {mu}g/L arsenic as MMA{sup III}ad libitum. 24 h urine samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks and every 8 weeks for up to 104 weeks. Urinary arsenic speciation and porphyrins were measured using HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC with fluorescence detection respectively. DMA{sup V} was a major urinary metabolite detected. Significant dose-response relationship was observed between control and treatment groups after 1, 4, 24, 32, 48, 56, 88, 96 and 104 weeks. The level of uroporphyrin in 250 and 500 {mu}g As/L group is significantly different from the control group after 4, 8, 16, 32, 56, 72, 80, 96 and 104 weeks. Coproporphyrin I level in 500 {mu}As/L group is significantly different from control group after 8, 24, 32, 40, 56, 72, 80, 88 and 104 weeks. After 4 weeks the level of coproporphyrin III concentration significantly increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control except week 16 and 48. Our results show urinary DMA{sup V} and porphyrin profile can be used as an early warning biomarker for chronic MMA{sup III} exposure before the onset of cancer.

Krishnamohan, Manonmanii; Qi, Lixia [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopersplains, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Moore, Michael R. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopersplains, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Ng, Jack C. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopersplains, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia)], E-mail:



Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Potential Mercury Transporters and Urine Mercury Concentrations in Populations Exposed to Mercury Vapor from Gold Mining  

PubMed Central

Background: Elemental mercury (Hg0) is widely used in small-scale gold mining. Persons working or living in mining areas have high urinary concentrations of Hg (U-Hg). Differences in genes encoding potential Hg-transporters may affect uptake and elimination of Hg. Objective: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Hg-transporter genes that modify U-Hg. Methods: Men and women (1,017) from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were classified either as controls (no Hg exposure from gold mining) or as having low (living in a gold-mining area) or high exposure (working as gold miners). U-Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Eighteen SNPs in eight Hg-transporter genes were analyzed. Results: U-Hg concentrations were higher among ABCC2/MRP2 rs1885301 A–allele carriers than among GG homozygotes in all populations, though differences were not statistically significant in most cases. MRP2 SNPs showed particularly strong associations with U-Hg in the subgroup with highest exposure (miners in Zimbabwe), whereas rs1885301 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes [geometric mean (GM): 36.4 µg/g creatinine vs. 21.9; p = 0.027], rs2273697 GG homozygotes had higher U-Hg than A–allele carriers (GM: 37.4 vs. 16.7; p = 0.001), and rs717620 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes (GM: 83 vs. 28; p = 0.084). The SLC7A5/LAT1 rs33916661 GG genotype was associated with higher U-Hg in all populations (statistically significant for all Tanzanians combined). SNPs in SLC22A6/OAT1 (rs4149170) and SLC22A8/OAT3 (rs4149182) were associated with U-Hg mainly in the Tanzanian study groups. Conclusions: SNPs in putative Hg-transporter genes may influence U-Hg concentrations.

Ameer, Shegufta; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Drasch, Gustav; Baeuml, Jennifer; Skerfving, Staffan; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Broberg, Karin



A Speciation Study focused on the Identification of Proximate Toxic Arsenic Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

umans are exposed daily to arsenic mostly in the forms of inorganic arsenite\\/arsenate and organic arsenosugars\\/arsenobetaines of marine products. The former inorganic forms are more toxic than the latter organic ones, and are metabolized by consecutive reduction and methylation reactions in humans and mammals to dimethylated arsenic (DMA) (Scheme 1), which is then excreted into urine. The methylation process leading

Kazuo T. Suzuki


Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic arsenic, a documented human carcinogen, is methylated in the body by alternating reduction of pentavalent arsenic to trivalent and addition of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. Glutathione, and possibly other thiols, serve as reducing agents. The liver is the most important site of arsenic methylation, but most organs show arsenic methylating activity. The end metabolites are methylarsonic acid (MMA)

Marie Vahter



Can arsenic occurrence rates in bedrock aquifers be predicted?  

PubMed Central

A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 µg L?1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 µg L?1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology.

Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan



Cotinine concentrations in follicular fluid as a measure of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: Inter-matrix comparisons with urine and temporal variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels

Merle D. Benedict; Stacey A. Missmer; Allison F. Vitonis; Daniel W. Cramer; John D. Meeker



Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified CCA as a restricted use product, for use only by certified pesticide applicators. Of the City of San Francisco's 142 play structures, 92 are constructed with CCA pressure-treated wood. Eighty-five were tested by the City of San Francisco and 34 play structures tested positive for As by wipe tests of the play structures themselves. The SF-ROCKS high school outreach program hypothesized that we would find significant levels of As and Cr, in the sand or clay below each structure due to the weathering and flaking off of the CCA-treated wood. We visited 18 of the playgrounds that showed the highest levels of As and sampled the sand and clay beneath the structures for the presence of transported As and Cr. We collected 2-3 samples from varying depth at each of the 11 playgrounds that had not yet been replaced by the City of San Francisco. Sand and clay samples were then extracted and analyzed for As and Cr totals. This study outlines the As and Cr concentrations present in the sand and clay below each CCA-treated wood play structure we visited in San Francisco.

Polly, J.; Delos Santos, D.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Santo, D.; Beier, J.



Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Mexican Children Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in adults, but there is little information on arsenic and early risk biomarkers for atherosclerosis in children. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an indicator of subclinical atherosclerotic burden that has been associated with plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of arsenic exposure with cIMT, ADMA, and endothelial adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1); soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)] in children who had been exposed to environmental inorganic arsenic (iAs). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 199 children 3–14 years of age who were residents of Zimapan, México. We evaluated cIMT using ultrasonography, and plasma lipid profiles by standard methods. We analyzed ADMA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 by ELISA, and measured the concentrations of total speciated arsenic (tAs) in urine using hydride generation cryotrapping atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: In the multiple linear regression model for cIMT, tAs categories were positively associated with cIMT increase. The estimated cIMT diameter was greater in 35- to 70-ng/mL and > 70-ng/mL groups (0.035 mm and 0.058 mm per 1-ng/mL increase in urinary tAs, respectively), compared with the < 35-ng/mL group. In addition to tAs level, plasma ADMA was a significant predictor of cIMT. In the adjusted regression model, cIMT, percent iAs, and plasma sVCAM-1 were significant predictors of ADMA levels (e.g., 0.419-?mol/L increase in ADMA per 1-mm increase in cIMT). Conclusions: Arsenic exposure and plasma ADMA levels were positively associated with cIMT in a population of Mexican children with environmental arsenic exposure through drinking water. Citation: Osorio-Yáñez C, Ayllon-Vergara JC, Aguilar-Madrid G, Arreola-Mendoza L, Hernández-Castellanos E, Barrera-Hernández A, De Vizcaya-Ruíz A, Del Razo LM. 2013. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine in Mexican children exposed to inorganic arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 121:1090–1096;?

Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Ayllon-Vergara, Julio C.; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Hernandez-Castellanos, Erika; Barrera-Hernandez, Angel; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea



Osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication.  


A 47-year-old woman consulted her dermatologist complaining whole body dermatitis, urticaria and irritating bullous eruptions on the plantar and side surfaces of her feet. She had had multiple hypopigmented spots on her skin since her early adulthood. The patient was treated with topical medication without significant improvement of symptoms. One year later she suffered a myocardial infarction, accompanied by refractory anaemia. At the age of 49, a breast cancer was diagnosed and shortly thereafter her last menstruation occurred. At age 50years, upon complaint of weight loss despite normal food intake, Hashimoto thyroiditis with latent hyperthyroidism, vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and poikilocytic anaemia with anisochromia, hypochromia, anisocytosis, elliptocytes, drepanocytes, dacryocytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, schizocytes, stomatocytes and target cells were diagnosed. The osteodensitometric and laboratory examinations revealed osteoporosis with sustained elevation of urinary Dipyridinolin-crosslinks (u-Dpd), and urinary arsenic (u-As) of 500?g/l (equivalent to 0.5 parts per million-ppm, 2.5?g/mg creatinine/dl, u-As: Phosphate of 26?g/mmol; the estimated bone As:P and As/kg body weight were 500?g/g and 11.3mg/kg, respectively). Thalassemia, immunoglobinopathy and iron deficiency were excluded. Supplementation with oral vitamin D and calcium, and antiresorptive therapy with intravenous zolendronate normalised the u-Dpd, significantly decreased the urinary arsenic concentration, and cured the anemia and the urticaria. A diagnosis of osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication (ORAI) was established. PMID:23337042

Dani, Sergio Ulhoa



Toenails as a Biomarker of Inorganic Arsenic Intake From Drinking Water and Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toenails were used recently in epidemiological and environmental health studies as a means of assessing exposure to arsenic from drinking water. While positive correlations between toenail and drinking-water arsenic concentrations were reported in the literature, a significant percentage of the variation in toenail arsenic concentration remains unexplained by drinking-water concentration alone. Here, the influence of water consumption at home and

Melissa J. Slotnick; Jaymie R. Meliker; Gillian A. AvRuskin; Debashis Ghosh; Jerome O. Nriagu



Concentration of Fluorine in the Urine of Individuals from the General Population and in Exposed Individual Workman. Techniques and Results; CONCENTRAZIONE DI FLUORO NELLE URINE DI INDIVIDUI DELLA COMUNE POPOLAZIONE E DI INDIVIDUI PROFESSIONALMENTE ESPOSTI. TECHNICHE E RISULTATI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colorimetric method for the determination of fluorine with zirconium-; eriochromocyanine R was modified to adapt it to the analyses of any type of ; material of toxicological importance. HClOâ and AgClOâ is added to ; urine brought to dryness in the presence of CaO; and then it is distilled until ; 70 to 100 cc of the liquid is

M. Giubileo; V. Camera



Maternal exposure to metals-Concentrations and predictors of exposure.  


A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07µg/L, range <0.01-0.25µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018µg/g creatinine, range <0.01-0.199µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. PMID:23896418

Callan, A C; Hinwood, A L; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; Heyworth, J; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø



Effect of thermal treatments on arsenic species contents in food.  


In arsenic-endemic and other areas, food is an important path of exposure to this contaminant. Food is generally consumed in processed form, after a preservation treatment or cooking, which may alter the concentrations and chemical forms of arsenic. This article summarizes and discusses the work so far published on the effect that thermal treatment used in the cooking or processing of food, including sterilization and preservation stages, has on total arsenic and arsenic species contents. It also reviews possible transformations in arsenic species. The studies included use model systems or food products of marine or vegetable origin. Processing may cause a considerable increase or decrease in the real arsenic intake from food. For example, traditional washing and soaking of Hizikia fusiforme seaweed, which has very high inorganic arsenic contents, may reduce the contents by up to 60%. On the other hand, all the arsenic present in cooking water may be retained during boiling of rice, increasing the contents of this metalloid to significant levels from a toxicological viewpoint. This calls for modifications in arsenic risk assessment, hitherto based on analysis of the raw product. It is necessary to consider the effect of processing on total arsenic and arsenical species in order to obtain a realistic view of the risk associated with intake in arsenic-endemic and other areas. PMID:17928121

Devesa, V; Vélez, D; Montoro, R



Blood arsenic as a biomarker of arsenic exposure: Results from a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water affects millions of people worldwide. Arsenic exposure is associated with skin lesions, skin, lung, kidney and liver cancers, neurologic and cardiovascular effects. Past studies involving biomarkers of As exposure have typically examined urinary As (UAs) (adjusted for urinary creatinine), hair or toenail As, but not blood As (BAs) since blood concentrations are exceedingly low

Marni Hall; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan; Vesna Slavkovich; Alexander van Geen; Faruque Parvez; Joseph Graziano



Arsenic distribution in soils and plants of an arsenic impacted former mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mining area affected by the abandoned exploitation of an arsenical tungsten deposit was studied in order to assess its arsenic pollution level and the feasibility of native plants for being used in phytoremediation approaches. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analysed for their As content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations

V. Otones; E. Álvarez-Ayuso; A. García-Sánchez; I. Santa Regina; A. Murciego



Arsenicals in maternal and fetal mouse tissues after gestational exposure to arsenite  

PubMed Central

Exposure of pregnant C3H/HeNCR mice to 42.5- or 85-ppm of arsenic as sodium arsenite in drinking water between days 8 and 18 of gestation markedly increases tumor incidence in their offspring. In the work reported here, distribution of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites, methyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic, were determined in maternal and fetal tissues collected on gestational day 18 of these exposure regimens. Tissues were collected from three females and from associated fetuses exposed to each dosage level. Concentrations of total speciated arsenic (sum of inorganic, methyl, and dimethyl arsenic) were higher in maternal tissues than in placenta and fetal tissues; total speciated arsenic concentration in placenta exceeded those in fetal tissues. Significant dosage-dependent (42.5 ppm versus 85 ppm of arsenite in drinking water) differences were found in total speciated arsenic concentrations in maternal lung (p < 0.01) and liver (p < 0.001). Total speciated arsenic concentrations did not differ significantly between dosage levels for maternal blood or for fetal lung, liver, and blood, or for placenta. Percentages of inorganic, methyl, or dimethyl arsenic in maternal or fetal tissues were not dosage-dependent. Over the range of total speciated arsenic concentrations in most maternal and fetal tissues, dimethyl arsenic was the most abundant arsenical. However, in maternal liver at the highest total speciated arsenic concentration, inorganic arsenic was the most abundant arsenical, suggesting that a high tissue burden of arsenic affected formation or retention of methylated species in this organ. Tissue concentration-dependent processes could affect kinetics of transfer of inorganic arsenic or its metabolites from mother to fetus.

Devesa, Vicenta; Adair, Blakely M.; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.



Occurrence and distribution of arsenic in soils and plants  

PubMed Central

Inorganic arsenicals have been used in agriculture as pesticides or defoliants for many years and, in localized areas, oxides of arsenic have contaminated soils as a result of fallout from ore-smelting operations and coal-fired power plants. Use of inorganic arsenicals is no longer permitted in most agricultural operations, and recent air pollution controls have markedly reduced contamination from smelters. Thus, this paper will concentrate on the effect of past applications on arsenic accumulation in soil, phytotoxicity to and uptake by plants as influenced by soil properties, and alleviation of the deleterious effects of arsenic. Once incorporated into the soil, inorganic arsenical pesticides and arsenic oxides revert to arsenates, except where the soil is under reducing conditions. The arsenate ion has properties similar to that of orthophosphate, and is readily sorbed by iron and aluminum components. This reaction greatly restricts the downward movement (leaching) of arsenic in soils and the availability of arsenic to plants. Several methods of estimating plant available arsenic in soils have been developed. They involve extraction of the soil with reagents used to estimate phosphorus availability. This extractable arsenic is reasonably well correlated with reduced plant growth by, and plant uptake of arsenic. For most plants, levels of arsenic in the edible portion of the plant are well below the critical concentration for animal or human consumption, even when severe phytotoxicity occurs. Alleviation of arsenic phytotoxicity has been attempted by increasing the soil pH, by use of iron or aluminum sulfate, by desorbing arsenate with phosphate and subsequent leaching, and by cultural practices such as deep plowing. Only limited benefits have accrued from these procedures the cost of which is often prohibitively high. Since attempts to reduce arsenic toxicity have not been very successful, its excessive accumulation in soils should be avoided.

Walsh, Leo M.; Sumner, Malcolm E.; Keeney, Dennis R.



Comparison of arsenic concentrations in simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer particles from Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, and Nepal  

PubMed Central

One of the reasons the processes resulting in As release to groundwater in southern Asia remain poorly understood is the high degree of spatial variability of physical and chemical properties in shallow aquifers. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, a simple device that collects groundwater and sediment as a slurry from precisely the same interval was developed in Bangladesh. Recently published results from Bangladesh and India relying on the needle-sampler are augmented here with new data from 37 intervals of grey aquifer material of likely Holocene age in Vietnam and Nepal. A total of 145 samples of filtered groundwater ranging in depth from 3 to 36 m that were analyzed for As (1–1000 ?g/L), Fe (0.01–40 mg/L), Mn (0.2–4 mg/L) and S (0.04–14 mg/L) are compared. The P-extractable (0.01–36 mg/kg) and HCl-extractable As (0.04–36 mg/kg) content of the particulate phase was determined in the same suite of samples, in addition to Fe(II)/Fe ratios (0.2–1.0) in the acid-leachable fraction of the particulate phase. Needle-sampler data from Bangladesh indicated a relationship between dissolved As in groundwater and P-extractable As in the particulate phase that was interpreted as an indication of adsorptive equilibrium, under sufficiently reducing conditions, across 3 orders of magnitude in concentrations according to a distribution coefficient of 4 mL/g. The more recent observations from India, Vietnam and Nepal show groundwater As concentrations that are often an order of magnitude lower at a given level of P-extractable As compared to Bangladesh, even if only the subset of particularly reducing intervals characterized by leachable Fe(II)/Fe >0.5 and dissolved Fe >0.2 mg/L are considered. Without attempting to explain why As appears to be particularly mobile in reducing aquifers of Bangladesh compared to the other regions, the consequences of increasing the distribution coefficient for As between the particulate and dissolved phase to 40 mL/g for the flushing of shallow aquifers of their initial As content are explored.

van Geen, A.; Radloff, K.; Aziz, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Huq, M.R.; Ahmed, K.M.; Weinman, B.; Goodbred, S.; Jung, H.B.; Zheng, Y.; Berg, M.; Trang, P.T.K.; Charlet, L.; Metral, J.; Tisserand, D.; Guillot, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Gajurel, A.P.; Upreti, B.N.



[Simultaneous speciation of arsenic and selenium by high performance liquid chromatography-double channel atomic fluorescence spectrometry].  


A comprehensive method for simultaneously detecting species of arsenic and selenium including arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenate (As(V)), selenocystine (SeCys), selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenate (Se(IV)) was developed with high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-double channel atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS). An anion-exchange column (PRP-X100) with eluent of 10 mmol/L NH4H2PO4 containing 2.5% (v/v) methanol was employed to separate these species within 12 min. The detection limits of As(III), DMA, MMA, As(V), SeCys, SeMet and Se(IV) were 1, 3, 2, 3, 4, 18 and 3 microg/L (200 microL of injection), respectively. The relative standard deviations in five independent determinations varied from 1.9% to 6.1% for arsenic and selenium species at the concentration levels of 100 and 300 microg/L. The proposed method was applied to analyze the selenium yeast tablet and human urine samples. The recoveries from spiked selenium yeast tablet and urine samples ranged from 88% to 105% and from 83% to 108%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used for determining arsenic and selenium species in urinary metabolites and drug samples in daily analysis conveniently. PMID:20073208

Wang, Zhenhua; He, Bin; Shi, Jianbo; Yin, Yongguang; Jiang, Guibin



Asian specific low mutation frequencies of the M287T polymorphism in the human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater pollution by arsenic is a serious worldwide problem, especially in Asian countries. Inter-individual variation in arsenic metabolism has been reported and recent studies demonstrate that 287T allele in human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) increase the percentage of monomethylated arsenic in urine. The objectives of the present study was to evaluate the ethnic difference in M287T (T\\/C) polymorphism

Junko Fujihara; Mikiko Soejima; Yoshiro Koda; Takashi Kunito; Haruo Takeshita



Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in homes. Large population studies in an area of Taiwan with high arsenic levels in well water (170-800 micrograms/L) were used to establish dose-response relationships between cancer risks and the concentration of inorganic arsenic naturally present in water supplies. It was estimated that at the current EPA standard of 50 micrograms/L, the lifetime risk of dying from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder from drinking 1 L/day of water could be as high as 13 per 1000 persons. It has been estimated that more than 350,000 people in the United States may be supplied with water containing more than 50 micrograms/L arsenic, and more than 2.5 million people may be supplied with water with levels above 25 micrograms/L. For average arsenic levels and water consumption patterns in the United States, the risk estimate was around 1/1000. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered.

Smith, A H; Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Bates, M N; Goeden, H M; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Duggan, H M; Wood, R; Kosnett, M J; Smith, M T



Bioaccessibility of arsenic in soils developed over Jurassic ironstones in eastern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jurassic ironstones outcropping over parts of eastern England give rise to soils with arsenic concentrations in excess of\\u000a the UK soil guideline value of 20 mg kg?1 for residential areas. Total arsenic concentrations were determined for 73 ironstone derived soils and bioaccessible arsenic\\u000a determined using an in vitro physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessible arsenic concentration for these soils was found

B. Palumbo-Roe; M. R. Cave; B. A. Klinck; J. Wragg; H. Taylor; K. E. O’Donnell; R. A. Shaw



Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)|

Sarquis, Mickey



Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax.

Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D



Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified

J. Polly; D. Delos Santos; R. Negrete; S. Orellana; D. Santo; J. Beier



Assessment of arsenic and heavy metal concentrations in water and sediments of the Rio Grande at El Paso–Juarez metroplex region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Grande located along the US–Mexico border is affected by anthropogenic activities along its geographical course. Runoff and wind deposition of smelting residues may contribute to the pollution of the Rio Grande in the El Paso–Ciudad Juarez area. Few studies have addressed the presence or impacts of heavy metals or arsenic in this ecosystem. This study reports a survey

J. V Rios-Arana; E. J Walsh; J. L Gardea-Torresdey



Urine 24-hour volume  


Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in ... urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container ...


Influence of earthworms (Nicodrilus giardi, S., Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on arsenic of geogenic origin in the Swiss Jura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic occurs naturally in the environment, but rarely in dangerous levels. However, industry and agriculture have greatly increased concentrations in certain areas. Arsenic may be released to water by natural weathering of arsenic bearing rocks, by dis- charge from industrial facilities, by leaching from landfills or soil, or by urban runoff. Most arsenic, about 80%, generated by man is released



Arsenic in the coals of eastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

An estimate has been made of the concentration of arsenic in the coals of a number of deposits of eastern Siberia, and the nature of its distribution has been established. In sulfur-rich coals, a correlation has been observed between the concentration of arsenic and the amount of pyrite sulfur. The development of the fuel and power industry and the intensification of demands on the protection of the environment are making it necessary to evaluate the presence and location of the forms of toxic elements, including arsenic, in coals. Information on arsenic in coals is inadequate and has been obtained only in recent years. According to Kler and Nenakhova, its concentration ranges from ''traces'' to 1 kg/tonne of coal.

Kryukova, V.N.; Kindeeva



Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes  

SciTech Connect

Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields} A case-control study was conducted to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. {yields} Arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate atherosclerosis risk in individuals with high levels of arsenic in well water.

Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China) [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)



Increased concentrations of genotype-interpreted Ca 19-9 in urine of bladder cancer patients mark diffuse atypia of the urothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of genotype-interpreted mea- surements of the tumor marker Ca 19-9 in the urine of bladder cancer patients as a marker of the extent of urothelial disease. Ca 19-9 in urine (sialyl-Lea\\/creatinine ratio) was measured in 81 bladder cancer patients and correlated to T-category, histologic grade, and presence of urothelial dysplasia. As reference group, Ca 19-9 ratio

Else Marie Vestergaard; Hans Wolf; Torben F. Ørntoft


The human urine metabolome.  


Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S



Arsenic speciation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a highly contaminated arsenic gradient.  


Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R(2) = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R(2) = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte. PMID:22329691

Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Moriarty, M; Reimer, K J



Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J. (Royal)



Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.  

PubMed Central

The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed.

Lindau, L



Microbial Mineral Weathering for Nutrient Acquisition Releases Arsenic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tens of millions of people in Southeast Asia drink groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The process of arsenic release from the sediment to the groundwater remains poorly understood. Experiments were performed to determine if microbial mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition can serve as a potential mechanism for arsenic mobilization. We performed microcosm experiments with Burkholderia fungorum, phosphate free artificial groundwater, and natural apatite. Controls included incubations with no cells and with killed cells. Additionally, samples were treated with two spikes - an arsenic spike, to show that arsenic release is independent of the initial arsenic concentration, and a phosphate spike to determine whether release occurs at field relevant phosphate conditions. We show in laboratory experiments that phosphate-limited cells of Burkholderia fungorum mobilize ancillary arsenic from apatite as a by-product of mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition. The released arsenic does not undergo a redox transformation but appears to be solubilized from the apatite mineral lattice as arsenate during weathering. Apatite has been shown to be commonly present in sediment samples from Bangladesh aquifers. Analysis of apatite purified from the Ganges, Brahamputra, Meghna drainage basin shows 210 mg/kg of arsenic, which is higher than the average crustal level. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of the microbial phenotype that releases arsenic from apatite in Bangladesh sediments. These results suggest that microbial weathering for nutrient acquisition could be an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization.

Mailloux, B. J.; Alexandrova, E.; Keimowitz, A.; Wovkulich, K.; Freyer, G.; Stolz, J.; Kenna, T.; Pichler, T.; Polizzotto, M.; Dong, H.; Radloff, K. A.; van Geen, A.



Mortality experience in relation to a measured arsenic trioxide exposure  

PubMed Central

This report examines the mortality experience of 527 men who retired from a copper smelter where they were exposed to airborne arsenic trioxide. Urinary arsenic values of all plant employees were determined in 1973, and the relative arsenic exposure in the various departments of the plant were determined. The relationship of airborne arsenic concentrations to urinary arsenic values was studied in a separate experiment, and the feasibility of using urinary arsenic values as a measure of arsenic exposure was established. The mortality experience of the cohort under study showed them to have a mortality 12.2% higher than was found for males of the same area at the same ages and in the same time period. The excess mortality was due chiefly to respiratory cancer. When the deaths were classified by total lifetime arsenic exposure, the respiratory cancer mortality was linearly related to the amount of exposure. The 1973 figures for arsenic exposure underestimated the exposure of the cohort group by a factor of possibly 10. Evidence was obtained which suggests that after removal from arsenic exposure, the risk of lung cancer declines. Certain of the data which are presented suggests there may be a threshold value for airborne arsenic trioxide exposure below which no adverse effects may be expected.

Pinto, Sherman S.; Enterline, Philip E.; Henderson, Vivian; Varner, Michael O.




EPA Science Inventory

Chronic human exposures to high arsenic concentrations are associated with lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Considerable controversy exists concerning arsenic mode of action and low dose extrapolation. This investigation was designed to identify dose-response changes in gene expre...


Design of a Rural Water Provision System to Decrease Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effecti...

J. L. Mathieu



Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...


Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.  


Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike. PMID:18198937

Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T



Unsaturated zone arsenic distribution and implications for groundwater contamination.  


Arsenic compounds have been applied at the land surface as pesticides in agricultural areas globally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fate of anthropogenic arsenic applications related to agriculture, using arsenic applications on cotton in the southern High Plains (SHP), Texas, as a case study and examining possible linkages with contamination of the underlying Ogallala aquifer in this region, where 36% of wells exceed the new EPA 10 microg/L standard. Unsaturated zone soil samples were collected from boreholes beneath natural ecosystems (grassland/ shrubland) to provide a control (no arsenic application) (5 profiles) and cotton cropland (20 profiles) for analyses of water-extractable arsenic, vanadium, phosphate, chloride, and nitrate. Natural ecosystem profiles have high arsenic concentrations at depth (maximum of 7.2-69.6 microg As/ kg dry soil at 5.9-21.4 m depth) that are attributed to a geologic source. Most profiles beneath cotton cropland have high arsenic concentrations within the upper meter (profile means 1.7 to 31.6 microg/kg) that correlate with phosphate (r = 0.70, p < 0.01) and are attributed to anthropogenic arsenic application associated with phosphate fertilizer application. High arsenic concentrations at >1 m depth (profile means < or =36.3 microg/kg) found in cropland profiles are attributed to a geologic source because of similarity with profiles beneath natural ecosystems, lack of correlation with phosphate, and pore-water ages that predate anthropogenic arsenic application in many profiles. GIS analyses showed poor correlations between groundwater arsenic and percent cultivated land (r = -0.15, p < 0.01), groundwater nitrate (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), and water table depth (r= -0.31, p < 0.01), further supporting the idea that anthropogenic-derived arsenic in the shallow subsurface is not linked to groundwater arsenic contamination in this region. PMID:17993128

Reedy, Robert C; Scanlon, Bridget R; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Tachovsky, J Andrew



Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000mug\\/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur

M. E. Schreiber; J. A. Simo; P. G. Freiberg



Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000 7g\\/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical

M. E. Schreiber; J. A. Simo; P. G. Freiberg




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - The presentation will summarize the arsenic research program at the Ground Water & Ecosystems Restoration Division of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of USEPA. Topics include use of permeable reactive barriers for in situ arsenic remediation in ground...


Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

Wajrak, Magdalena



Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

Wajrak, Magdalena



Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater at Zimapán, Mexiko  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been detected in the Zimapán Valley, Mexico. Concentrations as much as 1.097 mg/L were observed in water pumped from one of the most productive wells. Three sources of arsenic are known. The natural source is produced by the oxidation of arsenic-bearing minerals; polluted water pumped from the deepest wells is derived from this source and has the highest concentrations. Two anthropogenic sources pollute the shallow wells. These result from the leaching of mine tailings and from the percolation of smelter fumes containing arsenic and which settled on the soil until the 1940's. The identification and evaluation of multiple sources of pollutants in aquifers are needed to establish reliable aquifer-remediation programs, especially in many arid regions, where groundwater in commonly the main or only source of drinking water.

Armienta, M. A.; Rodriguez, R.; Aguayo, A.; Ceniceros, N.; Villaseñor, G.; Cruz, O.




EPA Science Inventory

Rice represents a unique set of arsenic exposure assessment challenges in that it contains relatively high concentrations of arsenic and it absorbs about 100% of its dry weight in water during cooking. The actual arsenic exposure from rice consumption becomes difficult to calcul...


Arsenic in North Carolina: Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS) database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7,712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806 ?g/L. Additionally, 1,436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

Sanders, Alison P.; Messier, Kyle P.; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L.; Fry, Rebecca C.



Bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from bog ore-containing soil in the dog.  

PubMed Central

In some parts of The Netherlands, bog ore-containing soils predominate, which have natural arsenic levels that exceed, by a factor of 10, existing standards for maximum allowable levels of inorganic arsenic in soil. These standards are based on the assumption that in humans the bioavailability of arsenic from ingested soil is equal to that from an aqueous solution. In view of the regulatory problem that the arsenic levels of these soils present, we questioned the validity of this assumption. To obtain a more realistic estimate, the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from soil in a suitable animal model was studied. In this report, a study performed in six dogs in a two-way cross-over design is presented. The dogs received orally, in random order, arsenic both as an intravenous solution and as arsenic-containing soil. During a 120-hr period after administration urine was collected in 24-hr fractions. Levels of arsenic were determined using a method of wet digestion, isolation and complexation of arsine, followed by molecule absorption spectrometry. Within 120 hr after intravenous administration, 88 +/- 16% of the dose was excreted renally. After oral administration of arsenic-containing soil, only 7.0 +/- 1.5% was excreted renally. From the urinary excretion data for these two routes of administration, the calculated bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from soil was 8.3 +/- 2.0%. The results from this study demonstrate the need to reconsider the present risk assessment for arsenic in soil. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Groen, K; Vaessen, H A; Kliest, J J; de Boer, J L; van Ooik, T; Timmerman, A; Vlug, R F



Arsenic and lead in an orchard environment  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of arsenic and lead in soil and plants taken from a New York State orchard was determined. High lead concentrations of 20 ppM at 25 cm depth in the orchard soil were traced to application of lead arsenate on orchard trees from 1929-65. Lead and arsenic levels in apples taken from the orchard were comparable to levels found in commercial fresh foods. (17 references, 3 tables)

Aten, C.F.; Bourke, J.B.; Martini, J.H.; Walton, J.C.




EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is one of the few human carcinogens for which there is not yet a reliable animal cancer model. s such, the classification of arsenic as a carcinogen is based upon data derived from human epidemiologic studies. Although the mechanisms of action of arsenic as a toxic agent ...



EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides information on the chemistry of arsenic in drinking water and the results of several pilot plant studies on the removal of arsenic from drinking water with emphasis on adsorptive media processes. Information is also being presented on the Arsenic Demon...


Microbial Volatilization of Arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is a dangerous toxin and can be volatilized by many organisms, of which bacteria is a major source. We evaluated whether three common bacteria can volatilize immobile arsenic as well as evaluated a method used for measuring volatile arsenic in fungi can be used for bacteria. Bacillus cereus, Staphlococcus aureus, and Psuedomonas aeruginosa were incubated in media containing 10ppm,

Prince Amoako; Danny Aylwin; Sean O'Connor


The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)



Arsenic speciation and transport in Pteris vittata L. and the effects on phosphorus in the xylem sap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of arsenic (As) transport in Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern), the first known arsenic-hyperaccumulating plant, is important to understand how arsenic is detoxified in the fern. The effects of arsenic concentration and form on arsenic and phosphorus in xylem sap were investigated using hydroponics systems. Ferns were subjected to 0, 10 or 50mgAsl?1 as As(III), As(V), DMA

G. M. Kertulis; L. Q. Ma; G. E. MacDonald; R. Chen; J. D. Winefordner; Y. Cai



Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

Nordstrom, D. Kirk



Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested\\u000a by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate\\u000a arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in\\u000a different hydrogeological regions, to define the

Franco M. Francisca; Magalí E. Carro Perez



Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis by using radioactive {sup 73}As labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the binding affinity and capacity of {sup 73}As arsenite to calf thymus DNA and Type 2A unfractionated histones, histone H3, H4 and horse spleen ferritin. Arsenicals are known to release redox active Fe from ferritin. At concentrations up to about 1 mM, neither DNA nor any of the three proteins studied, Type II-A histones, histone H3, H4 or ferritin, bound radioactive arsenite in a specific manner. Therefore, it appears highly unlikely that initial in situ binding of trivalent arsenicals, followed by in situ oxidative DNA damage, can account for arsenic's carcinogenicity. This experimental evidence (lack of arsenite binding to DNA, histone Type II-A and histone H3, H4) does not rule out other possible oxidative stress modes of action for arsenic such as (a) diffusion of longer lived oxidative stress molecules, such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the nucleus and ensuing oxidative damage, (b) redox chemistry by unbound arsenicals in the nucleus, or (c) arsenical-induced perturbations in Fe, Cu or other metals which are already known to oxidize DNA in vitro and in vivo.

Kitchin, Kirk T. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, Mail Drop B143-06, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail:; Wallace, Kathleen [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, Mail Drop B143-06, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)



Soil redox-pH stability of arsenic species and its influence on arsenic uptake by rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic absorption by rice (Oryza sativa, L.) in relation to As chemical form present in soil solution was examined. Rice plants were grown in soil suspensions equilibrated under selected conditions of redox and pH, affecting arsenic solubility and speciation. A decrease in pH led to higher dissolved arsenic concentrations. When the soil redox potential dropped below 0 mV, most of

A. R. Marin; P. H. Masscheleyn; W. H. Patrick



Arsenic management through well modification and simulation.  


Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 microg/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 microg/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulic-conductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 microg/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 microg/L over a 20-year period. PMID:20113363

Halford, Keith J; Stamos, Christina L; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter



Leaching Behaviors of Five Arsenic-Contaminated Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vadose zone is susceptible to anthropogenic arsenic contamination and may serve as a long-term source of arsenic to ground water. Understanding the processes governing the distribution of arsenic between the aqueous phase and the solid phase is crucial to minimizing the environmental impact of vadose zone contamination. Arsenic can be retained by several soil components through adsorption. The magnitude and controlling factors of arsenic adsorption by these individual components have been investigated by a number of researchers. The desorption behavior of arsenic in bulk soil from actual contaminated sites, however, is rarely reported. Soil samples were collected from five sites contaminated with herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The environmentally available element concentrations of each soil were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion (MWD) and ICP-AES analysis. A ferrous sulfate solution was applied to the contaminated soil to precipitate ferric hydroxide as an arsenic fixation method. Sequential leaching experiments were performed upon the treated and untreated soil samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment method. Supernatant leachate solutions were analyzed for total arsenic by ICP-AES. MWD results showed that the original soils contain 47 to 316 ppm arsenic, on a dry weight basis. The arsenic concentrations in the initial leachate ranged from 0.42 to 1.37 ppm for the untreated soils. Due to the high Kd values of the rainwater leachable portion of the soil arsenic, 500 to 4000 pore volumes of SPLP solution were required to bring the leachate arsenic concentration below the MCL for arsenic (50 ppb). In contrast, the ferrous sulfate treatment successfully transferred the loosely adsorbed portion of the soil arsenic to strongly bonded adsorption sites on ferric hydroxide. After treatment, the two soil samples with low calcium content lost their pH buffer capacity and their leachate maintained a pH value of 4.5. No arsenic was detected in the leachate of these two treated samples during three months of sequential leaching. For the other three soils with higher buffer capacity, the treated samples also showed significant decrease in both initial (56-86% decrease) and overall (43-62% decrease) release of arsenic.

Qi, Y.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.



Arsenic speciation in the freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark.  


Arsenic is a proven carcinogen that is found in the soil in gold mining regions at concentrations that can be thousands of times greater than gold. During mining arsenic is released into the environment, easily entering surrounding water bodies. The yabby (Cherax destructor) is a common freshwater crustacean native to Australia's central and eastern regions. Increasing aquaculture and export of these animals has led us to question the effects of mine contamination on the yabbies themselves and to assess any potential risks to consumers. This study determined the species of arsenic present in a number of organs from the yabby. Several arsenic contaminated dam sites in the goldfields of western Victoria were sampled for yabby populations. Yabbies from these sites were collected and analysed for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Results showed that type of exposure influenced which arsenic species was present in each organ, and that as arsenic exposure increased the prevalence of inorganic arsenic species, mostly As(V), within the tissues increased. The bioaccessibility of the arsenic present in the abdominal muscle (the edible portion for humans) of the yabbies was assessed. It was found that the majority of the bioaccessible arsenic was present as inorganic As(III) and As(V). PMID:19223061

Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J; Snow, Elizabeth T



Differences in trace metal concentrations (co, cu, fe, mn, zn, cd, and ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.  


High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard



Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration  

SciTech Connect

Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) is a rat bladder carcinogen and the major urinary metabolite of administered inorganic arsenic in most mammals. This study examined the disposition of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after acute oral administration. Adult female mice were administered [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) and sacrificed serially over 24 h. Tissues and excreta were collected for analysis of radioactivity. Other mice were administered unlabeled DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) or dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (0.6 mg As/kg) and sacrificed at 2 or 24 h. Tissues (2 h) and urine (24 h) were collected and analyzed for arsenicals. Absorption, distribution and excretion of [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) were rapid, as radioactivity was detected in tissues and urine at 0.25 h. For low dose DMA(V) mice, there was a greater fractional absorption of DMA(V) and significantly greater tissue concentrations of radioactivity at several time points. Radioactivity distributed greatest to the liver (1-2% of dose) and declined to less than 0.05% in all tissues examined at 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the 0.6 mg As/kg DMA(V) group. Conversely, fecal excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the high dose group. Urinary metabolites of DMA(V) included DMA(III), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. Urinary metabolites of DMA(III) included TMAO, dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. DMA(V) was also excreted by DMA(III)-treated mice, showing its sensitivity to oxidation. TMAO was detected in tissues of the high dose DMA(V) group. The low acute toxicity of DMA(V) in the mouse appears to be due in part to its minimal retention and rapid elimination.

Hughes, Michael F. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail:; Devesa, Vicenta [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Adair, Blakely M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Styblo, Miroslav [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)



Arsenic in benthic bivalves of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic concentrations were determined in fine-grained, oxidized, surface sediments and in two benthic bivalves, Corbicula sp. and Macoma balthica, within San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta, and selected rivers not influenced by urban or industrial activity. Arsenic concentrations in all samples were characteristic of values reported for uncontaminated estuaries. Small temporal fluctuations and low arsenic concentrations in bivalves and sediments suggest that most inputs of arsenic are likely to be minor and arsenic contamination is not widespread in the Bay.

Johns, C.; Luoma, S. N.



Microbial reduction of arsenic-doped schwertmannite by Geobacter sulfurreducens.  


The fate of As(V) during microbial reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens of Fe(III) in synthetic arsenic-bearing schwertmannites has been investigated. During incubation at pH7, the rate of biological Fe(III) reduction increased with increasing initial arsenic concentration. From schwertmannites with a relatively low arsenic content (<0.3 wt %), only magnetite was formed as a result of dissimilatory iron reduction. However, bioreduction of schwertmannites with higher initial arsenic concentrations (>0.79 wt %) resulted in the formation of goethite. At no stage during the bioreduction process did the concentration of arsenic in solution exceed 120 ?gL(1), even for a schwertmannite with an initial arsenic content of 4.13 wt %. This suggests that the majority of the arsenic is retained in the biominerals or by sorption at the surfaces of newly formed nanoparticles. Subtle differences in the As K-edge XANES spectra obtained from biotransformation products are clearly related to the initial arsenic content of the schwertmannite starting materials. For products obtained from schwertmannites with higher initial As concentrations, one dominant population of As(V) species bonded to only two Fe atoms was evident. By contrast, schwertmannites with relatively low arsenic concentrations gave biotransformation products in which two distinctly different populations of As(V) persisted. The first is the dominant population described above, the second is a minority population characterized by As(V) bonded to four Fe atoms. Both XAS and XMCD evidence suggest that the latter form of arsenic is that taken into the tetrahedral sites of the magnetite. We conclude that the majority population of As(V) is sorbed to the surface of the biotransformation products, whereas the minority population comprises As(V) incorporated into the tetrahedral sites of the biomagnetite. This suggests that microbial reduction of highly bioavailable As(V)-bearing Fe(III) mineral does not necessarily result in the mobilization of the arsenic. PMID:23043215

Cutting, Richard S; Coker, Victoria S; Telling, Neil D; Kimber, Richard L; van der Laan, Gerrit; Pattrick, Richard A D; Vaughan, David J; Arenholz, Elke; Lloyd, Jonathan R