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Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been reported that the analysis of foods for chemica! species of arsenic detects 4 chemical species: inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and trimethylarsenic compound (TMA) (Yamauchi and Yamamura 1980). It

Naohisa Yamato; Naohisa



Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population  

PubMed Central

Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo



Food sources of arsenic in pregnant Mediterranean women with high urine concentrations of this metalloid.  


Seafood consumption provides a significant amount of arsenic, although in its organic, nontoxic forms. Mediterranean populations may incorporate high levels of this metalloid as a consequence of seafood consumption. In the present study, the significance of this input among pregnant women from a Mediterranean city (Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain) is assessed. Total urinary arsenic was analyzed in 489 pairs of urine samples, corresponding to the 12th and 32th weeks of pregnancy. Association of arsenic content with seafood and other dietary items were studied. Geometric mean concentrations were 34 and 37 ?g/g creatinine during the first and third trimesters, respectively. The observed concentrations were similar to those reported in studies from other Mediterranean countries. The differences between both periods were not statistically significant. The only dietary factor significantly and positively associated with total urinary arsenic in both series of samples was seafood, particularly lean fish. Moreover, lean fish consumption during both periods was found to be the main determinant for differences in levels of arsenic between the first and third trimesters, which confirms the association between high levels of total urinary arsenic and seafood consumption. PMID:24557803

Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi



Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  


Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M



Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations  

PubMed Central

The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.



Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)  

SciTech Connect

Uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) in workers who applied the herbicide was followed during the spraying season. Urine, blood, and hair samples were collected and air samples were taken from the workers' breathing zone. Arsenic concentrations in air samples ranged from 0.001-1.086 micrograms/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0-0.2 mg/L and 0.002-1.725 mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean arsenic concentration in urine increased during the week but returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02-358.0 mg/kg, increased during the spraying season, and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Three workers had higher than normal pre-exposure hair values. However, only one of the three workers had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.

Abdelghani, A.A.; Anderson, A.C.; Jaghabir, M.; Mather, F.




EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...


Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.  


The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun



Thio-dimethylarsinate is a common metabolite in urine samples from arsenic-exposed women in Bangladesh  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 6 years, much work on arsenic species in urine samples has been directed toward the determination of the reduced dimethylated arsenic species, DMA(III), because of its high toxicity and perceived key role in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Recent work, however, has suggested that DMA(III) may at times have been misidentified because its chromatographic properties can be similar to those of thio-dimethylarsinate (thio-DMA). We analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) urine samples from 75 arsenic-exposed women from Bangladesh with total arsenic concentrations ranging from 8 to 1034 {mu}g As/L and found that thio-DMA was present in 44% of the samples at concentrations ranging mostly from trace amounts to 24 {mu}g As/L (one sample contained 123 {mu}g As/L). Cytotoxicity testing with HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocarcinoma indicated that thio-DMA was about 10-fold more cytotoxic than dimethylarsinate (DMA). The widespread occurrence of thio-DMA in urine from these arsenic-exposed women suggests that this arsenical may also be present in other urine samples and has so far escaped detection. The work highlights the need for analytical methods providing specific determinations of arsenic compounds in future studies on arsenic metabolism and toxicology.

Raml, Reingard; Rumpler, Alice; Goessler, Walter [Karl-Franzens University Graz, Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Vahter, Marie; Li Li [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, PO Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Ochi, Takafumi [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa 199-0195 (Japan); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Karl-Franzens University Graz, Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail:



The effect of variable environmental arsenic contamination on urinary concentrations of arsenic species  

SciTech Connect

Urinary arsenic species have been determined for approximately 3,000 urine samples obtained from residents of a community surrounding an arsenic-emitting copper smelter. Levels of inorganic, monomethylated and dimethylated arsenic species ranged from less than 1 {mu}g/L (the instrumental detection limit) to 180 {mu}g/L seen for dimethyl arsenic. Comparison of a subsample of this population that had the least environmental contamination with the subsample having highest environmental arsenic concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in urinary arsenic levels for all species except dimethylated arsenic. However, for children under 7 years of age living in areas with increased environmental arsenic contamination, there was a larger and equally significant increase in all urinary species. This effect was more pronounced and was observed as a weaker effect in the next higher age group (7-13 years of age). Reported consumption of seafood also was significantly related to increased urinary dimethyl arsenic, but changes in distribution among the urinary arsenic species detected was not a sensitive indicator of recent seafood consumption.

Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.; van Belle, G.; Mottet, N.K.; Polissar, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Bolgiano, D. (Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Coble, K. (Tacoma-Pierce County Health Dept., WA (USA))



Association between total ingested arsenic and toenail arsenic concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and toenail arsenic concentrations appears to be non-linear at low exposure levels. To investigate whether this observation is a result exposure misclassification, a dietary exposure assessment was conducted in a cohort of 47 women concurrently enrolled in a prospective longitudinal biomonitoring study in Pabna, Bangladesh. Arsenic intake was evaluated using a duplicate

Molly L. Kile; E. Andres Houseman; Carrie V. Breton; Quazi Quamruzzaman; Mahmuder Rahman; Golam Mahiuddin; David C. Christiani



Urinary Arsenic Concentrations and their Associated Factors in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and its dietary exposure has been found to be the major route of entry into general population. This study was performed to assess the body levels of As and their associated factors in Korean adults by analyzing total As in urine. Urine and blood samples were collected from 580 adults aged 20 years and older, who had not been exposed to As occupationally. Demographic information was collected with the help of a standard questionnaire, including age, smoking, alcohol intake, job profiles, and diet consumed in the last 24 hrs of the study. Total As, sum of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), in urine was determined using atomic absorption spectrometer involving hydride generation method. The geometric mean concentration of total As in urine was 7.10 ?g/L. Urine As was significantly higher in men (7.63 ?g/L) than in women (6.75 ?g/ L). Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and job profiles of study subjects did not significantly affect the concentration of As in urine. No significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI), Fe, and total cholesterol in serum and urinary As. Urine As level was positively correlated with seaweeds, fishes & shellfishes, and grain intake. A negative correlation between urinary As level and HDL-cholesterol in serum and meat intake was observed. Overall, these results suggest that urinary As concentration could be affected by seafood consumption. Therefore, people who frequently consume seafood and grain need to be monitored for chronic dietary As exposure. PMID:24278640

Bae, Hye-Sun; Ryu, Doug-Young; Choi, Byung-Sun



Preliminary screening method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in urine.  


A simple and rapid method was developed for the routine determination and classification of inorganic arsenic based on its clinical and forensic properties. Inorganic arsenic was isolated from urine by using copper granules, which was then made to react with ammonium molybdate in order to detect its presence with the naked eye. Based on studies of extraction and reaction conditions, e.g., reaction temperature and time, a colorimetric screening method was established. The reaction mixture was measured by a spectrophotometer, and there was linearity from 0.05 to 2.0microg/ml and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were greater than 0.99. The coefficients of intra-day variation at 0.2 and 2.0microg/ml of inorganic arsenic in urine were 9.6 and 4.2%, respectively (n=5). The minimum detectable level in urine is 0.03microg/ml, and it is possible to detect the lowest level of poisoning according to the published reports. The proposed method was applied to a poisoning case wherein the patient ingested NEOARSEN BLACK with alcohol, which contained 45% of arsenic trioxide. This method produced positive results in all the urine samples tested, and this method is useful for the screening of inorganic arsenic based on its clinical properties because it enables the detection of inorganic arsenic in urine without expensive equipment. PMID:19041271

Hua, Li; Nishida, Manami; Fujiwara, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Nagao, Masataka; Namera, Akira



Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and total urinary arsenic concentration in a Chilean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water and total urinary arsenic excretion in a nonoccupationally exposed population was evaluated in a cross-sectional study in three mayor cities of Chile (Antofagasta, Santiago, and Temuco). A total of 756 individuals in three population strata (elderly, students, and workers) provided first morning void urine specimens the day after exposure and food

Dante D. Caceres; Paulina Pino; Nestor Montesinos; Eduardo Atalah; Hugo Amigo; Dana Loomis



Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect

Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

Brima, Eid I. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Jenkins, Richard O. [De Monfort University, The Gateway, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Polya, Dave A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gault, Andrew G. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harrington, Chris F. [University of Leicester, Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)



Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods  

PubMed Central

Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2–12.6 ng g?1, n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3–22 ng g?1. Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.



Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods.  


Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2-12.6 ng g(-1), n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3-22 ng g(-1). Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L



Urine concentrations in the spaces of the sheep renal pelvis  

E-print Network

Short note Urine concentrations in the spaces of the sheep renal pelvis S Faix M Szanyiova L Leng / renal pelvis / urine concentration R�sum� ― Les concentrations urinaires dans les espaces du pelvis r�nal chez le mouton. Les concentrations urinaires ont �t� mesur�es dans des �chantillons pr

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Diet and toenail arsenic concentrations in a New Hampshire population with arsenic-containing water  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data exist on the contribution of dietary sources of arsenic to an individual’s total exposure, particularly in populations with exposure via drinking water. Here, the association between diet and toenail arsenic concentrations (a long-term biomarker of exposure) was evaluated for individuals with measured household tap water arsenic. Foods known to be high in arsenic, including rice and seafood, were of particular interest. Methods Associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of 120 individual diet items were quantified using general linear models that also accounted for household tap water arsenic and potentially confounding factors (e.g., age, caloric intake, sex, smoking) (n = 852). As part of the analysis, we assessed whether associations between log-transformed toenail arsenic and each diet item differed between subjects with household drinking water arsenic concentrations <1 ?g/L versus ?1 ?g/L. Results As expected, toenail arsenic concentrations increased with household water arsenic concentrations. Among the foods known to be high in arsenic, no clear relationship between toenail arsenic and rice consumption was detected, but there was a positive association with consumption of dark meat fish, a category that includes tuna steaks, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish. Positive associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of white wine, beer, and Brussels sprouts were also observed; these and most other associations were not modified by exposure via water. However, consumption of two foods cooked in water, beans/lentils and cooked oatmeal, was more strongly related to toenail arsenic among those with arsenic-containing drinking water (?1 ?g/L). Conclusions This study suggests that diet can be an important contributor to total arsenic exposure in U.S. populations regardless of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Thus, dietary exposure to arsenic in the US warrants consideration as a potential health risk. PMID:24237880



Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P<0.0001) positive regressions were seen between the TAs concentration in toenails and in drinking water (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r{sup 2}=0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r{sup 2}=0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine.

Adair, Blakely M. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)]. E-mail:; Hudgens, Edward E. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Schmitt, Michael T. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Calderon, Rebecca L. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Thomas, David J. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)



SLCO1B1 Variants and Urine Arsenic Metabolites in the Strong Heart Family Study  

PubMed Central

Arsenic species patterns in urine are associated with risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The organic anion transporter coded by the gene SLCO1B1 may transport arsenic species, but its association with arsenic metabolites in human urine has not yet been studied. The objective of this study is to evaluate associations of urine arsenic metabolites with variants in the candidate gene SLCO1B1 in adults from the Strong Heart Family Study. We estimated associations between % arsenic species biomarker traits and 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLCO1B1 gene in 157 participants, assuming additive genetics. Linear regression models for each SNP accounted for kinships and were adjusted for sex, body mass index, and study center. The minor allele of rs1564370 was associated with lower %MMA (p = .0003) and higher %DMA (p = .0002), accounting for 8% of the variance for %MMA and 9% for %DMA. The rs1564370 minor allele homozygote frequency was 17% and the heterozygote frequency was 43%. The minor allele of rs2291075 was associated with lower %MMA (p = .0006) and higher %DMA (p = .0014), accounting for 7% of the variance for %MMA and 5% for %DMA. The frequency of rs2291075 minor allele homozygotes was 1% and of heterozygotes was 15%. Common variants in SLCO1B1 were associated with differences in arsenic metabolites in a preliminary candidate gene study. Replication of this finding in other populations and analyses with respect to disease outcomes are needed to determine whether this novel candidate gene is important for arsenic-associated disease risks. PMID:23970802

Gribble, Matthew O.



Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  


Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E



Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal—India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tubewell water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families which were cultivated in that region. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic by

T. Uchino; T. Roychowdhury; M. Ando; H. Tokunaga



Urine concentration and avian aquaporin water channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although birds and mammals have evolved from primitive tetrapods and advanced divergently, both can conserve water by producing\\u000a hyperosmotic urine. Unique aspects in the avian system include the presence of loopless and looped nephrons, lack of the thin\\u000a ascending limb of Henle’s loop, a corticomedullary osmotic gradient primarily consisting of NaCl without contribution of urea,\\u000a and significant postrenal modification of

Hiroko Nishimura



Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia  

E-print Network

Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation, Australia Received 4 September 2001; Accepted 17 December 2001 Total arsenic concentrations and species were. Mean arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 55 mg gÃ?1 dry mass. Epiphytic algae/fungi associated

Canberra, University of


Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L. Comparison of arsenic concentrations in Pennsylvania groundwater by physiographic province indicates that the Central Lowland physiographic province had the highest median arsenic concentration (4.5 µg/L) and the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L (59 percent) and greater than or equal to 10.0 µg/L (43 percent). Evaluation of four major aquifer types (carbonate, crystalline, siliciclastic, and surficial) in Pennsylvania showed that all types had median arsenic concentrations less than 4.0 µg/L, and the highest arsenic concentration (490.0 µg/L) was in a siliciclastic aquifer. The siliciclastic and surficial aquifers had the highest percentage of sample records with arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 µg/L and 10.0 µg/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with low pH (less than or equal to 4.0), high pH (greater than or equal to 8.0), or reducing conditions. For waters classified as anoxic (405 samples), 20 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated concentrations of arsenic; for waters classified as oxic (1,530 samples) only 10 percent of sampled wells contained water with elevated arsenic concentrations. Nevertheless, regardless of the reduction-oxidation classification, 54 percent of samples with low pH (13 of 24 samples) and 25 percent of samples with high pH (57 of 230 samples) had elevated arsenic concentrations. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in Pennsylvania were correlated with concentrations of several chemical constituents or properties, including (1) constituents associated with redox processes, (2) constituents that may have a similar origin or be mobilized under similar chemical conditions as arsenic, and (3) anions or oxyanions that have similar sorption behavior or compete for sorption sites on iron oxides. Logistic regression models were created to predict and map the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater statewide in Pennsylvania and in three intrastate regions to further improve predictions for those three regions (glacial aquifer system, Gettysburg Basin, Newark Basin). Although the Pennsylvania and regional predictive models retained some different variables, they have common characteristics that can be grouped by (1) geologic and soils variables describing arsenic sources and mobilizers, (2) geochemical variables describing the geochemical environment of the groundwater, and (3) locally specific variables that are unique to each of the three regions studied and not applicable to statewide analysis. Maps of Pennsylvania and the three intrastate regions were produced that illustrate that areas most at risk are those with geology and soils capable of functioning as an arsenic source or mobilizer and geochemical groundwater conditions able to facilitate redox reactions. The models have limitations because they may not characterize areas that have localized controls on arsenic mobility. The probability maps associated with this report are intended for regional-scale use and may not be accurate for use at the field scale or when considering individual wells.

Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.



Arsenic Methylation Patterns Before and After Changing from High to Lower Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water  

E-print Network

Arsenic Methylation Patterns Before and After Changing from High to Lower Concentrations of Arsenic±r pefluon.E irnH lh :.... .... .... Inorganic arsenic (In-As) is known to increase the risk of cancer at several target sites. Inhalation of arsenic, mainly from dust exposure in occupational settings

California at Berkeley, University of


Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.  


The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (arsenic concentration of 2.46 microg L(-1). In a random effects linear regression model, soil arsenic concentration was the significant predictor of increased urinary arsenic concentrations. Season was shown to have a significant influence on urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other factors such as age, gender and hours of contact with soil may also be important risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations. PMID:15214611

Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H



Zinc supplement on tissue arsenic concentration in rats.  


To examine the effect of zinc in the removal of accumulated arsenic from different tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs), rats were initially allowed to drink high concentration (400 microg/kg/day) of arsenic for two months followed by a period of cessation (one month). Administration of zinc (2 mg/kg/day) during the third month in arsenic-treated and non-treated groups were compared. In arsenic-treated rats, the mean (+/- SD) amounts of total arsenic in liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs were 12.3 +/- 0.7, 20.5 +/- 1.0, 31.4 +/- 1.0 and 25.6 +/- 1.1 microg/g of tissues respectively. Administration of zinc to arsenic-treated rats reduced the arsenic concentrations of those tissues to 7.8, 10.7, 23.0 and 14.0 microg/g of tissues. This in vivo study suggests that zinc removes the accumulated arsenic from different tissues significantly (p < 0.001). PMID:17867273

Kamaluddin, M; Misbahuddin, M



Anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of dissolved arsenic in the Ganges Delta has puzzled researchers ever since the report of widespread arsenic poisoning two decades ago. Today, microbially mediated oxidation of organic carbon is thought to drive the geochemical transformations that release arsenic from sediments, but the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. At a typical site in Bangladesh, where groundwater-irrigated rice fields and constructed ponds are the main sources of groundwater recharge, we combine hydrologic and biogeochemical analyses to trace the origin of contaminated groundwater. Incubation experiments indicate that recharge from ponds contains biologically degradable organic carbon, whereas recharge from rice fields contains mainly recalcitrant organic carbon. Chemical and isotopic indicators as well as groundwater simulations suggest that recharge from ponds carries this degradable organic carbon into the shallow aquifer, and that groundwater flow, drawn by irrigation pumping, transports pond water to the depth where dissolved arsenic concentrations are greatest. Results also indicate that arsenic concentrations are low in groundwater originating from rice fields. Furthermore, solute composition in arsenic-contaminated water is consistent with that predicted using geochemical models of pond-water-aquifer-sediment interactions. We therefore suggest that the construction of ponds has influenced aquifer biogeochemistry, and that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer result from variations in the source of water, and the complex three-dimensional patterns of groundwater flow.

Neumann, Rebecca B.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ashraf Ali, M.; Shoemaker, Julie K.; Harvey, Charles F.



Mean Total Arsenic Concentrations in Chicken 1989-2000 and Estimated Exposures for Consumers of Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in

Tamar Lasky; Wenyu Sun; Abdel Kadry; Michael K. Hoffman



Arsenic Background Concentrations in Florida, U.S.A. Surface Soils: Determination and Interpretation  

E-print Network

Arsenic Background Concentrations in Florida, U.S.A. Surface Soils: Determination 2001) Background concentrations of soil arsenic have been used as an alternative soil cleanup criterion concentrations of arsenic in near pristine soils in Florida. Total arsenic was measured in 448 taxonomic

Ma, Lena


Investigation of Arsenic Exposure from Soil at a Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if significant arsenic exposure was occurring at a Superfund site with elevated surface soil arsenic concentrations. A second objective was to determine the statistical relationship between the various methods of measuring arsenic exposure in humans. Random urine, 24-hr urine, hair, and fingernail samples were collected at the end of the workweek from

D. J. Hewitt; G. C. Millner; A. C. Nye; H. F. Simmons



Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith



Low concentrations of methamphetamine detectable in urine in the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine.  


Twenty-two urine specimens reported by military drug-testing laboratories for the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine only were subject to further analysis for the presence of methamphetamine. The 22 urine specimens had concentrations of amphetamine in the range of 28,028 to 241,142 ng/mL. The specimens were also assayed for the respective isomeric ratio of d (S) and l (R) amphetamine and methamphetamine. The results suggest that urine specimens containing high concentrations of amphetamine in which the urine concentration ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine is less than 0.5% with similar isomeric distribution of d-(S) and l-(R) amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, may not necessarily indicate polydrug use. PMID:19371467

Jemionek, John F; Addison, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R



Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic

Iris Koch; Steven Sylvester; Vivian W.-M. Lai; Andrew Owen; Kenneth J. Reimer; William R. Cullen



Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan



Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.  


Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G



Urinary arsenic species, toenail arsenic, and arsenic intake estimates in a Michigan population with low levels of arsenic in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (?50 ?g\\/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder cancer case–control study in southeastern Michigan.

Zorimar Rivera-Núñez; Jaymie R Meliker; John D Meeker; Melissa J Slotnick; Jerome O Nriagu



Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

California at Berkeley, University of


Arsenic exposure in Hungary, Romania and Slovakia.  


Inorganic arsenic is a potent human carcinogen and toxicant which people are exposed to mainly via drinking water and food. The objective of the present study was to assess current exposure to arsenic via drinking water in three European countries. For this purpose, 520 individuals from four Hungarian, two Slovakian and two Romanian countries were investigated by measuring inorganic arsenic and methylated arsenic metabolites in urine by high performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Arsenic in drinking water was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Significantly higher concentrations of arsenic were found in both the water and the urine samples from the Hungarian counties (median: 11 and 15 microg dm(-3), respectively; p < 0.001) than from the Slovakian (median: 0.94 and 4.5 microg dm(-3), respectively) and Romanian (median: 0.70 and 2.1 microg dm(-3), respectively) counties. A significant correlation was seen between arsenic in water and arsenic in urine (R(2)= 0.46). At low water arsenic concentrations, the relative amount of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine was increased, indicating exposure via food. Also, high body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of arsenic in urine (p= 0.03), mostly in the form of DMA. Smokers had significantly higher urinary arsenic concentrations than non-smokers (p= 0.03). In conclusion, elevated arsenic exposure via drinking water was prevalent in some of the counties. Exposure to arsenic from food, mainly as DMA, and cigarette smoke, mainly as inorganic arsenic, are major determinants of arsenic exposure at very low concentrations of arsenic in drinking water. PMID:16395480

Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Rudnai, Peter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Slotova, Katarina; Gheorghiu, Emilia; Vahter, Marie



Distribution of Arsenic Sulfides in Van Phuc, Vietnam, and Their Relationship to Aquifer Arsenic Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater arsenic concentrations are highly heterogeneous, in part due to spatial variability in sediment geochemical and hydrological properties on fine scales. The concentration of As in groundwater depends on the balance between sources of dissolved As, and the sinks that can return it to the solid phase. While much effort has focused on Fe(III) reduction as a source of groundwater arsenic, much less research has been devoted the variation in the sinks of arsenic in exhibiting sharp contrasts between As-impacted and As-free waters. It is critical to understand these processes at such boundaries to properly evaluate the long-term viability of low-As aquifers as alternative water sources. Here, we examine the Fe, As, and S speciation in sediments collected while installing a transect of wells across a sharp gradient in dissolved As levels in Van Phuc village, Vietnam. Marked variations in solid phase As speciation as As(V), As(III) and As2S3 were observed as a function of core location and depth. Arsenic sulfides were not found in shallow, weakly reducing and oxic sediments associated with groundwater low in As, but were extensive in some gray sediments from reduced aquifers. Many reduced aquifers also exhibited low dissolved sulfate concentrations. These observations indicate that the formation of these sulfides is tied to sulfate reduction within anoxic aquifers, but the prevalence of arsenic sulfide is not correlated directly to aqueous As levels. Iron speciation indicates that many, but not all, sediments from low-As aquifers materials contain appreciable Fe(III). In such low-As aquifers, As concentrations may be buffered by adsorption to iron oxides. In low-As aquifers within reduced sediments, however, Fe(III) minerals are rare and sulfide minerals may play a dominant role in regulating the fate of arsenic. In either case, the quantity of Fe(III) and/sulfate as terminal electron acceptors limits the sediment’s capacity to scavenge As. Thus, the boundaries between high- and low-As groundwaters may not be stable over time. This is a concern in Van Phuc because high-As groundwater elevated appears to be passing through the low-As portion of the aquifer. Extensive groundwater pumping of low-As groundwater may also facilitate this process.

Bostick, B. C.; Harvey, C.; Stahl, M.; Oates, P.; L., Vi; Nguyen, M.; Viet, P.; Trang, P. T.; Berg, M.; Stengel, C.; van Geen, A.



Arsenic concentrations in water and fish from Chautauqua Lake, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Arsenic persists in Chautauqua Lake, New York waters 13 years after cessation of herbicide (sodium arsenite) application and continues to cycle within the lake. Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 22.4–114.81 ?g l?1, = 49.0 ?ag l?1. Well water samples generally contained less than 10 ?g l?1 arsenic. Arsenic concentrations in lake water exceeded U.S. Public Health Service

Robert E. Foley; James R. Spotila; John P. Giesy; Carolyn H. Wall



Biological and behavioral factors modify biomarkers of arsenic exposure in a U.S. population.  


Although consumption of drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is usually considered the primary exposure route, aggregate exposure to arsenic depends on direct consumption of water, use of water in food preparation, and the presence in arsenicals in foods. To gain insight into the effects of biological and behavioral factors on arsenic exposure, we determined arsenic concentrations in urine and toenails in a U.S. population that uses public or private water supplies containing inorganic arsenic. Study participants were 904 adult residents of Churchill County, Nevada, whose home tap water supplies contained <3 to about 1200 µg of arsenic per liter. Biomarkers of exposure for this study were summed urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites (speciated arsenical), of all urinary arsenicals (total arsenical), and of all toenail arsenicals (total arsenical). Increased tap water arsenic concentration and consumption were associated with significant upward trends for urinary speciated and total and toenail total arsenical concentrations. Significant gender differences in concentrations of speciated and total arsenicals in urine and toenails reflected male-female difference in water intake. Both recent and higher habitual seafood consumption significantly increased urinary total but not speciated arsenical concentration. In a stepwise general linear model, seafood consumption significantly predicted urinary total arsenical but not urinary speciated or toenail total arsenical concentrations. Smoking behavior significantly predicted urinary speciated or total arsenical concentration. Gender, tap water arsenic concentration, and primary drinking water source significantly predicted urinary speciated and total concentrations and toenail total arsenical concentrations. These findings confirm the primacy of home tap water as a determinant of arsenic concentration in urine and toenails. However, biological and behavioral factors can modify exposure-response relations for these biomarkers. Refining estimates of the influence of these factors will permit better models of dose-response relations for this important environmental contaminant. PMID:23777639

Calderon, Rebecca L; Hudgens, Edward E; Carty, Cara; He, Bin; Le, X Chris; Rogers, John; Thomas, David J



Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.  


The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic arsenic, we then applied the estimates to national chicken consumption data to calculate inorganic, organic, and total arsenic ingested by eating chicken. The mean concentration of total arsenic in young chickens was 0.39 ppm, 3- to 4-fold higher than in other poultry and meat. At mean levels of chicken consumption (60 g/person/day), people may ingest 1.38-5.24 microg/day of inorganic arsenic from chicken alone. At the 99th percentile of chicken consumption (350 g chicken/day), people may ingest 21.13-30.59 microg inorganic arsenic/day and 32.50-47.07 microg total arsenic/day from chicken. These concentrations are higher than previously recognized in chicken, which may necessitate adjustments to estimates of arsenic ingested through diet and may need to be considered when estimating overall exposure to arsenic. PMID:14698925

Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine. Citation: Hall MN, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper KN, Alam S, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Levy D, Siddique AB, Parvez F, Mey JL, van Geen A, Graziano J, Gamble MV. 2013. Chronic arsenic exposure and blood glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentrations in Bangladeshi adults. Environ Health Perspect 121:1068–1074; PMID:23792557

Hall, Megan N.; Niedzwiecki, Megan; Liu, Xinhua; Harper, Kristin N.; Alam, Shafiul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu B.; Parvez, Faruque; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph



Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



Associations between toenail arsenic concentration and dietary factors in a New Hampshire population  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water. However, the effects of dietary factors on toenail arsenic concentrations in well-nourished populations exposed to relatively low levels of water arsenic are unknown. Methods As part of a population-based case–control study of skin and bladder cancer from the USA, we evaluated relationships between consumption of dietary factors and arsenic concentrations in toenail clippings. Consumption of each dietary factor was determined from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used general linear models to examine the associations between toenail arsenic and each dietary factor, taking into account potentially confounding effects. Results As expected, we found an inverse association between ln-transformed toenail arsenic and consumption of vitamin B12 (excluding supplements) and animal protein. Unexpectedly, there were also inverse associations with numerous dietary lipids (e.g., total fat, total animal fat, total vegetable fat, total monounsaturated fat, total polyunsaturated fat, and total saturated fat). Finally, increased toenail arsenic concentrations were associated with increased consumption of long chain n-3 fatty acids. Conclusion In a relatively well-nourished population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic via water, consumption of certain dietary lipids may decrease toenail arsenic concentration, while long chain n-3 fatty acids may increase toenail arsenic concentration, possibly due to their association with arsenolipids in fish tissue. PMID:22747713



Arsenic speciation in clinical samples: urine analysis using fast micro-liquid chromatography ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic speciation is a subject that is developing all the time both from improvements in analytical techniques and from increases\\u000a in toxicological understanding. Despite speciation methods being widely developed, arsenic speciation is not routinely offered\\u000a as an analysis in clinical laboratory. The work in this paper describes a simple routine method for arsenic speciation that\\u000a could be easily implemented in

Jackie Morton; Elizabeth Leese



Adult polycystic kidney disease: Studies of the defect in urine concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult polycystic kidney disease: Studies of the defect in urine concentration. Patients with adult polycystic kidney disease with and without renal insufficiency and some of their family members in whom cysts were not demonstrable by radiography underwent tests of maximal urine concentrating ability (Umax). Ten of the twelve family members without demonstrable cysts (Group I) had Umax exceeding 900 mOsm\\/kg.

Manuel Martinez-Maldonado; Jackson J Yium; Garabed Eknoyan; Wadi N Suki





Arsenic is a natural element found in soil and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can get into air, water, and the ground from wind- ...


The Silicon Concentration in Cat Urine and Its Relationship with Other Elements  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats. PMID:24334829

TAKAHASHI, Fumihito; MOCHIZUKI, Mariko; YOGO, Takuya; ISHIOKA, Katsumi; YUMOTO, Norio; SAKO, Toshinori; UEDA, Fukiko; TAGAWA, Masahiro; TAZAKI, Hiroyuki



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

John E Bassett



Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De


Dietary Sources of Methylated Arsenic Species in Urine of the United States Population, NHANES 2003-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is an ubiquitous element linked to carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, as well as adverse respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and dermal health effects. Objective Identify dietary sources of speciated arsenic: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Methods Age-stratified, sample-weighted regression of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2003–2010 data (?8,300 participants ?6 years old) characterized the association between urinary arsenic species and the additional mass consumed of USDA-standardized food groups (24-hour dietary recall data), controlling for potential confounders. Results For all arsenic species, the rank-order of age strata for median urinary molar concentration was children 6–11 years > adults 20–84 years > adolescents 12–19 years, and for all age strata, the rank-order was DMA > MMA. Median urinary molar concentrations of methylated arsenic species ranged from 0.56 to 3.52 µmol/mol creatinine. Statistically significant increases in urinary arsenic species were associated with increased consumption of: fish (DMA); fruits (DMA, MMA); grain products (DMA, MMA); legumes, nuts, seeds (DMA); meat, poultry (DMA); rice (DMA, MMA); rice cakes/crackers (DMA, MMA); and sugars, sweets, beverages (MMA). And, for adults, rice beverage/milk (DMA, MMA). In addition, based on US (United States) median and 90th percentile consumption rates of each food group, exposure from the following food groups was highlighted: fish; fruits; grain products; legumes, nuts, seeds; meat, poultry; and sugars, sweets, beverages. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population, fish (adults), rice (children), and rice cakes/crackers (adolescents) had the largest associations with urinary DMA. For MMA, rice beverage/milk (adults) and rice cakes/crackers (children, adolescents) had the largest associations. PMID:25251890

deCastro, B. Rey; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Pan, Yi; Ward, Cynthia; Mortensen, Mary E.





... of tobacco because tobacco plants essentially take up arsenic naturally present in the soil. Also, in the past, the potential for elevated arsenic exposure was much greater when tobacco plants used ...


Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 ?g g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.





... happens to arsenic when it enters the environment? Arsenic occurs naturally in soil and minerals and may enter the air, water, ... live in an area with high levels of arsenic in water or soil, you should use cleaner sources of water and ...


Arsenic Concentrations in Water, Soil, Milk and Forage in Comarca Lagunera, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic levels were determined in seventy three samples of well water, and in fifty samples of soil, forage and cow's milk collected at the most important dairy farms of the Comarca Lagunera located in Coahuila and Durango, Mexico, region naturally rich in As. The total inorganic arsenic concentration in well water ranged from 7 to 740 µg L-1 and about

I. Rosas; R. Belmont; A. Armienta; A. Baez



Anomalous arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of an island community, Bowen Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, occurrences of elevated arsenic concentrations in bedrock groundwaters used for individual and municipal water supplies have been recognised along the mainland coast of southern British Columbia, Canada. An area on Bowen Island (Queen Charlotte Heights community) was chosen to investigate the source(s) of arsenic, geochemical processes controlling its aqueous uptake, the role of geology and structure in the formation

D. R. Boyle; R. J. W. Turner; G. E. M. Hall



Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed  

PubMed Central

This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna



Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.  


This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna



Comparison of Arsenic Concentrations in Carcass and Viscera of Swim-up Rainbow Trout Exposed to Dietary and Waterborne Arsenic  

EPA Science Inventory

Rainbow trout fry were exposed to arsenic in water only, diet only, or both diet and water in 28-d studies evaluating survival and growth. Diets consisted of Lumbriculus variegatus that were exposed to multiple concentrations of waterborne arsenate for 7d and then fed to test fi...


Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning  

SciTech Connect

Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

Faengstroem, Britta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Hamadani, Jena [ICDDR-B: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (Bangladesh); Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail:



Assessment of arsenic concentration in stream water using neuro fuzzy networks with factor analysis.  


We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang Creek in northern Taiwan is used as a study case. Results indicate that rainfall, nitrite nitrogen and temperature are important factors and the proposed estimation model (ANFIS(GT)) is superior to the two comparative models, in which 50% and 52% improvements in RMSE are made over ANFIS(CC) and ANFIS(all), respectively. Results reveal that arsenic concentration reaches the highest in an environment of lower temperature, higher nitrite nitrogen concentration and larger one-month antecedent rainfall; while it reaches the lowest in an environment of higher temperature, lower nitrite nitrogen concentration and smaller one-month antecedent rainfall. It is noted that these three selected factors are easy-to-collect. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a useful and effective methodology, which can be adapted to other similar settings to reliably model water quality based on parameters of interest and/or study areas of interest for universal usage. The proposed methodology gives a quick and reliable way to estimate arsenic concentration, which makes good contribution to water environment management. PMID:25046611

Chang, Fi-John; Chung, Chang-Han; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges



Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.  


Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

Bassett, John E




NSDL National Science Digital Library

On October 31, 2001, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its decision to move forward in implementing the standard for arsenic levels in drinking water at 10 parts per billion (ppb), down from the less strict 50 ppb standard. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to bladder and lung cancers, diabetes, and heart disease. Readers interested in learning more about the new standards, health effects, and costs should visit this EPA Web feature. Contents include a fact sheet, links to expert panel reviews including the National Academy of Science's Arsenic National Drinking Water Advisory Council, and current and past press releases on proposed standards and actions.



A Magnetic Bead-Based Method for Concentrating DNA from Human Urine for Downstream Detection  

PubMed Central

Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ?50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×103 to 5×108 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×106, 14×106, and 8×106 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR. PMID:23861895

Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K.; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.



Maple syrup urine disease: Branchedchain amino acid concentrations and metabolism in cultured human lymphoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular concentration of free leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their metabolism were studied in lymphoblast cultures established from peripheral blood of an individual with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a control subject. Branched-chain a-keto acid decarboxylase activity in the MSUD cells was 10% or less of the control value as measured by the ability of the cells to

Stephen D. Skaper; Daniel P. Molden; J. Edwin Seegmiller



Arsenic Species in Drinking Water Wells in the USA with High Arsenic Concentrations  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) arsenic treatment demonstration program, 65 five well waters scattered across the US were speciated for As(III) and As(V). The speciation test data showed that most (60) well waters had one dominant species, but...


Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic\\u000a acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different\\u000a fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great

Simone de Rosemond; Qianli Xie; Karsten Liber



Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 ?g\\/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline\\u000a value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although\\u000a arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide\\/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone\\u000a bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms

Jaymie R. Meliker; Melissa J. Slotnick; Gillian A. Avruskin; Sheridan K. Haack; Jerome O. Nriagu



Environmental Health Perspectives VOLUME 110 | NUMBER 7 | July 2002 729 Family Correlations of Arsenic Methylation Patterns in Children and Parents  

E-print Network

of Arsenic Methylation Patterns in Children and Parents Exposed to High Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking arsenic exposure (10). Methylation patterns can be assessed by the relative distributions in urine adult male (father), one adult female (mother), and two biologically related children older than 5 years

California at Berkeley, University of


Infant toenails as a biomarker of in utero arsenic exposure  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence suggests that in utero and early-life exposure to arsenic may have detrimental effects on children, even at the low to moderate levels common in the United States and elsewhere. In a sample of 170 mother–infant pairs from New Hampshire, we determined infant exposure to in utero arsenic by evaluating infant toenails as a biomarker using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant toenail arsenic concentration correlated with maternal postpartum toenail concentrations (Spearman’s correlation coefficient 0.34). In adjusted linear models, a doubling of maternal toenail arsenic concentration was associated with a 53.8% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration as compared with 20.4% for a doubling of maternal urine arsenic concentration. In a structural equation model, a doubling of the latent variable integrating maternal toenail and urine arsenic concentrations was associated with a 67.5% increase in infant toenail arsenic concentration. A similar correlation between infant and maternal postpartum toenail concentrations was observed in a validation cohort of 130 mother–infant pairs from Rhode Island. In utero exposure to arsenic occurs through maternal water and dietary sources, and infant toenails appear to be a reliable biomarker for estimating arsenic exposure during the critical window of gestation. PMID:24896769

Davis, Matthew A.; Li, Zhigang; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Lee, Joyce S.; Baker, Emily R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Karagas, Margaret R.



Integrating Mechanisms that Control the Concentration and Distribution of Groundwater Arsenic in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of the deltaic regions of southeastern Asia affects as many as one hundred million people. In these areas, the dominant mechanism for arsenic release into solution is the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron (hydr)oxides. What continues to confound researchers, however, is the heterogeneous nature of arsenic in groundwater. Recent evidence suggests that specific geomorphic environments are linked to regions of elevated groundwater arsenic. Moreover, waters from actively cycling surficial environments represent important sources of groundwater As in many environments. Here, we examine the mechanistic link between the localized expression of iron reduction and the large scale distribution of arsenic in groundwater along the Mekong River in Cambodia in a region impacted by widespread but heterogeneous arsenic contamination. In this region, arsenic levels in groundwater were correlated to sulfate levels, and both were strongly influenced by the extent of local surface water flooding (as quantified by remote sensing). Concentrations of arsenic ranged from 0 to 2100 micrograms/L, and were always found in groundwaters with significant dissolved iron and a sulfate concentration less than 1 mg/L. This indicates that the delivery of As and S was influenced by active redox processes in near-surface environments. In many, but not all, high As regions, groundwater concentrations of conservative halide anions also were similar to those of surficial environments, indicating that they were likely derived from the same locations. Low As regions, however, had widely variable halide concentrations in groundwater that may reflect additional groundwater sources. Thus, the expression of As contamination is strongly influenced by the hydrological connectivity of the aquifer with the surface. The isotopic composition of groundwater (hydrogen and oxygen) of high As areas also is similar to that of surface waters. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of waters is more complex, with As-impacted groundwaters having distinct isotopic signatures characteristic of either extensive or relatively limited organic matter decomposition. Regional correlations of As with dissolved organic carbon are also not uniform, suggesting that sedimentary carbon is also important in generating reducing conditions. These data indicate that the distribution of organic carbon helps determine the distribution of arsenic in the environment. Moreover, these data indicate that heterogeneity in arsenic concentrations results from the interplay of variable organic matter content and reactivity within complex hydrological systems that can at least in part be explained regionally based on depositional environment.

Bostick, B. C.; Rosen, E. L.; Nguyen, H. M.; Sampson, M. L.



Elevated lung cancer in younger adults and low concentrations of arsenic in water.  


Arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L in drinking water are a known cause of cancer, but the risks associated with lower concentrations are less well understood. The unusual geology and good information on past exposure found in northern Chile are key advantages for investigating the potential long-term effects of arsenic. We performed a case-control study of lung cancer from 2007 to 2010 in areas of northern Chile that had a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Previously, we reported evidence of elevated cancer risks at arsenic concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. In the present study, we restricted analyses to the 92 cases and 288 population-based controls who were exposed to concentrations less than 100 µg/L. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking behavior, these exposures from 40 or more years ago resulted in odds ratios for lung cancer of 1.00, 1.43 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.52), and 2.01 (90% confidence interval: 1.14, 3.52) for increasing tertiles of arsenic exposure, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Mean arsenic water concentrations in these tertiles were 6.5, 23.0, and 58.6 µg/L. For subjects younger than 65 years of age, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.00, 1.62 (90% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.90), and 3.41 (90% confidence interval: 1.51, 7.70). Adjustments for occupation, fruit and vegetable intake, and socioeconomic status had little impact on the results. These findings provide new evidence that arsenic water concentrations less than 100 µg/L are associated with higher risks of lung cancer. PMID:25371173

Steinmaus, Craig; Ferreccio, Catterina; Yuan, Yan; Acevedo, Johanna; González, Francisca; Perez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Balmes, John R; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H



Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills  

SciTech Connect

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven [Environmental Sciences Group, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, 2036 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Reimer, Kenneth J. [Environmental Sciences Group, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada)], E-mail:; Cullen, William R. [Department of Chemistry, 2036 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)



COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice.  


It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP mRNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 ± 11 vs. 70 ± 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex-outer medulla), AQP3 (all regions), and UT-A1 (inner medulla) protein abundances were elevated in COX-2(-/-) at baseline and further increased after WD. COX-2(-/-) mice had elevated plasma urea and creatinine and accumulation of small subcapsular glomeruli. In conclusion, hypothalamic COX-2 activity is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins. PMID:21880835

Nørregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Pernille B L; Bie, Peter; Thavalingam, Sugarna; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jensen, Boye L



Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA.  


The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great Slave Lake, near the city of Yellowknife, NT, Canada. The total concentration (dry weight) of arsenic in muscle ranged from 0.57 to 1.15 mg/kg, in the liver from 0.42 to 2.52 mg/kg and in the GIT from 1.48 to 8.92 mg/kg. Among fish species, C. commersoni had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations in the GIT than S. vitreum, E. lucius and C. clupeaformis, and higher total arsenic concentrations in the liver than C. clupeaformis. The mean concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the muscle of all fish ranged from < or =0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg and < or =0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and together comprised < or =7.5% of the total arsenic measured in muscle. The concentrations of MMA were below detection in the muscle of all five fish species. However, AsB and DMA were measured in all fish species and nearly all fish tissues. The concentrations of AsB ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 mg/kg and the concentrations of DMA ranged from <0.02 to 0.45 mg/kg. The majority (>50%) of organic arsenic in almost all of the tissues from fish caught in Back Bay was not directly identified. Evidence from the literature suggests that most of these other organic arsenic species were likely trimethylated arsenic compounds, however, further analytical work would need to be performed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:18214701

de Rosemond, Simone; Xie, Qianli; Liber, Karsten



Comparison of the accuracy of kriging and IDW interpolations in estimating groundwater arsenic concentrations in Texas.  


Exposure to arsenic causes many diseases. Most Americans in rural areas use groundwater for drinking, which may contain arsenic above the currently allowable level, 10µg/L. It is cost-effective to estimate groundwater arsenic levels based on data from wells with known arsenic concentrations. We compared the accuracy of several commonly used interpolation methods in estimating arsenic concentrations in >8000 wells in Texas by the leave-one-out-cross-validation technique. Correlation coefficient between measured and estimated arsenic levels was greater with inverse distance weighted (IDW) than kriging Gaussian, kriging spherical or cokriging interpolations when analyzing data from wells in the entire Texas (p<0.0001). Correlation coefficient was significantly lower with cokriging than any other methods (p<0.006) for wells in Texas, east Texas or the Edwards aquifer. Correlation coefficient was significantly greater for wells in southwestern Texas Panhandle than in east Texas, and was higher for wells in Ogallala aquifer than in Edwards aquifer (p<0.0001) regardless of interpolation methods. In regression analysis, the best models are when well depth and/or elevation were entered into the model as covariates regardless of area/aquifer or interpolation methods, and models with IDW are better than kriging in any area/aquifer. In conclusion, the accuracy in estimating groundwater arsenic level depends on both interpolation methods and wells' geographic distributions and characteristics in Texas. Taking well depth and elevation into regression analysis as covariates significantly increases the accuracy in estimating groundwater arsenic level in Texas with IDW in particular. PMID:24559533

Gong, Gordon; Mattevada, Sravan; O'Bryant, Sid E



Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice  

PubMed Central

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Guan, Youfei



Association of Arsenic and Metals with Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D among Adolescents in Torre?n, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: Limited data suggest that lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and uranium (U) may disrupt vitamin D metabolism and inhibit production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active vitamin D metabolite, from 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the kidney. Objectives: We evaluated the association between blood lead (BPb) and urine arsenic (As), Cd, molybdenum (Mo), thallium (Tl), and U with markers of vitamin D metabolism [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D]. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 512 adolescents in Torreón, a town in Mexico with a Pb smelter near residential areas. BPb was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine As, Cd, Mo, Tl, and U were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Multivariable linear models with vitamin D markers as the outcome were used to estimate associations of BPb and creatinine-corrected urine As and metal concentrations with serum vitamin D concentrations, controlling for age, sex, adiposity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and time outdoors. Results: Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with urine Mo and Tl [1.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.6) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.1) ng/mL higher with a doubling of exposure, respectively]. Serum 1,25(OH)2D was positively associated with urine As and U [3.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.9) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.7) pg/mL higher, respectively], with little change in associations after additional adjustment for serum 25(OH)D. Pb and Cd were not associated with 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Conclusions: Overall, our findings did not support a negative effect of As or metal exposures on serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Additional research is needed to confirm positive associations between serum 1,25(OH)2D and urine U and As concentrations and to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. Citation: Zamoiski RD, Guallar E, García-Vargas GG, Rothenberg SJ, Resnick C, Rubio Andrade M, Steuerwald AJ, Parsons PJ, Weaver VM, Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK. 2014. Association of arsenic and metals with concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D among adolescents in Torreón, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:1233–1238; PMID:25095279

Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Guallar, Eliseo; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Resnick, Carol; Andrade, Marisela Rubio; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana



Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  


Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



Reconnaissance of Arsenic Concentrations in Ground Water From Bedrock and Unconsolidated Aquifers in Eight Northern-Tier Counties of Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of ground water for analysis of total-arsenic concentrations were collected in eight counties--Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Susquehanna, Wayne, Pike, Sullivan, and Wyoming--and from eight bedrock formations (bedrock aquifers) and overlying glacial aquifers in the north-central and northeastern parts of Pennsylvania in July 2005 and from March through June 2006. The samples were collected from a total of 143 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 4 non-community wells, 2 community water-system wells, and 3 domestic springs by well or spring owners using sampling kits provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). An additional 15 domestic wells were sampled by the USGS for analysis of total arsenic. These 15 samples were collected using the same methods and sampling kits provided to the homeowners. Samples were analyzed for total arsenic by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Laboratory using a minimum reporting level of 4.0 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). Arsenic was detected in water from 18 domestic wells in four counties--Bradford (3 wells), Sullivan (1 well), Tioga (13 wells), and Wayne (1 well). The median concentration of total arsenic was less than 4.0 ?g/L, and the maximum concentration was 188 ?g/L. Water from 10 wells had concentrations of total arsenic greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ?g/L. Detectable concentrations of total arsenic were measured in water from wells that ranged in depth from 29 to 400 feet, and that were completed in three aquifers--Lock Haven Formation, Catskill Formation, and unconsolidated glacial sediments; no springs had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the Lock Haven Formation were collected from 60 wells; water from 12 of these wells had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the Catskill Formation were collected from 57 wells; water from 4 wells had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the unconsolidated glacial sediments were collected from 17 wells; 2 wells had water with detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Contingency tables tested for significant differences in total arsenic between aquifers, topographic settings, and well depths. Concentrations of total arsenic were significantly greater (95-percent confidence level) in the Lock Haven Formation than in the other bedrock units. Concentrations of total arsenic also varied significantly by topographic setting. Wells completed in the Lock Haven Formation and located in valleys had significantly greater concentrations of total arsenic than similar wells located on hilltops or slopes. Concentrations of total arsenic did not vary significantly by topographic setting in the Catskill Formation. Concentrations of total arsenic did not vary significantly by well depth for any aquifer. Iron staining, hydrogen-sulfide odor, or both were common complaints of well owners. Iron staining was a complaint of 44 well owners. Hydrogen-sulfide odor was a complaint of 35 well owners. Fourteen well owners complained of both iron staining and hydrogen sulfide. No correlation to the presence of arsenic in the wells sampled was found with iron staining, hydrogen-sulfide odor, or both. Water from 8 of the 10 wells that contained concentrations of total arsenic greater than 10 ?g/L were sampled by USGS personnel for the determination of concentrations of dissolved arsenic (minimum reporting level 0.3 ?g/L) and arsenic species {arsenite [As (III)], arsenate [As (V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA)} at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Analytical results from these samples showed a median concentration of 38.7 ?g/L dissolved arsenic in water and a maximum of 178 ?g/L. As (III) was the most common arsenic species present in the water for seven of the eight wells and was found in water characteristic of reducing environments [pH 8.2

Low, Dennis J.; Galeone, Daniel G.



Total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, and other elements concentrations in Italian rice grain varies with origin and type.  


Rice is comparatively efficient at assimilating inorganic arsenic (Asi), a class-one, non-threshold carcinogen, into its grain, being the dominant source of this element to mankind. Here it was investigated how the total arsenic (Ast) and Asi content of Italian rice grain sourced from market outlets varied by geographical origin and type. Total Cr, Cd Se, Mg, K, Zn, Ni were also quantified. Ast concentration on a variety basis ranged from means of 0.18 mg kg(-1) to 0.28 mg kg(-1), and from 0.11 mg kg(-1) to 0.28 mg kg(-1) by production region. For Asi concentration, means ranged from 0.08 mg kg(-1) to 0.11 mg kg(-1) by variety and 0.10 mg kg(-1) to 0.06 mg kg(-1) by region. There was significant geographical variation for both Ast and Asi; total Se and Ni concentration; while the total concentration of Zn, Cr, Ni and K were strongly influenced by the type of rice. PMID:23810819

Sommella, A; Deacon, C; Norton, G; Pigna, M; Violante, A; Meharg, A A



The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers  

SciTech Connect

The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)



The influence of sulfur and iron on dissolved arsenic concentrations in the shallow subsurface under changing redox conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical speciation of arsenic in sediments and porewaters of aquifers is the critical factor that determines whether dissolved arsenic accumulates to potentially toxic levels. Sequestration of arsenic in solid phases, which may occur by adsorption or precipitation processes, controls dissolved concentrations. We present synchrotron x-ray absorption spectra of arsenic in shallow aquifer sediments that indicate the local structure of realgar (AsS) as the primary arsenic-bearing phase in sulfate-reducing conditions at concentrations of 1–3 mmol·kg–1, which has not previously been verified in sediments at low temperature. Spectroscopic evidence shows that arsenic does not substitute for iron or sulfur in iron sulfide minerals at the molecular scale. A general geochemical model derived from our field and spectroscopic observations show that the ratio of reactive iron to sulfur in the system controls the distribution of solid phases capable of removing arsenic from solution when conditions change from oxidized to reduced, the rate of which is influenced by microbial processes. Because of the difference in solubility of iron versus arsenic sulfides, precipitation of iron sulfide may remove sulfide from solution but not arsenic if precipitation rates are fast. The lack of incorporation of arsenic into iron sulfides may result in the accumulation of dissolved As(III) if adsorption is weak or inhibited. Aquifers particularly at risk for such geochemical conditions are those in which oxidized and reduced waters mix, and where the amount of sulfate available for microbial reduction is limited. PMID:15356340

O'Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; Root, Robert; Rivera, Nelson



Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled vicks vapoinhaler administration.  


Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-?-methoxy-?-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ? 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



A urine-concentrating defect in 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice  

PubMed Central

In aldosterone target tissues, 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?HSD2) is coexpressed with mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and protects the receptor from activation by glucocorticoids. Null mutations in the encoding gene, HSD11B2, cause apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in which hypertension is thought to reflect volume expansion secondary to sodium retention. Hsd11b2?/? mice are indeed hypertensive, but impaired natriuretic capacity is associated with significant volume contraction, suggestive of a urine concentrating defect. Water turnover and the urine concentrating response to a 24-h water deprivation challenge were therefore assessed in Hsd11b2?/? mice and controls. Hsd11b2?/? mice have a severe and progressive polyuric/polydipsic phenotype. In younger mice (?2 mo of age), polyuria was associated with decreased abundance of aqp2 and aqp3 mRNA. The expression of other genes involved in water transport (aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2) was not changed. The kidney was structurally normal, and the concentrating response to water deprivation was intact. In older Hsd11b2?/? mice (>6 mo), polyuria was associated with a severe atrophy of the renal medulla and downregulation of aqp2, aqp3, aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2. The concentrating response to water deprivation was impaired, and the natriuretic effect of the loop diuretic bumetanide was lost. In older Hsd11b2?/? mice, the V2 receptor agonist desmopressin did not restore full urine concentrating capacity. We find that Hsd11b2?/? mice develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Gross changes to renal structure are observed, but these were probably secondary to sustained polyuria, rather than of developmental origin. PMID:22622456

Evans, Louise C.; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Dear, James W.; Mullins, John J.



Concentrations versus amounts of biomarkers in urine: a comparison of approaches to assess pyrethroid exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of human exposure to non-persistent pesticides such as pyrethroids is often based on urinary biomarker measurements. Urinary metabolite levels of these pesticides are usually reported in volume-weighted concentrations or creatinine-adjusted concentrations measured in spot urine samples. It is known that these units are subject to intra- and inter-individual variations. This research aimed at studying the impact of these variations on the assessment of pyrethroid absorbed doses at individual and population levels. Methods Using data obtained from various adult and infantile populations, the intra and inter-individual variability in the urinary flow rate and creatinine excretion rate was first estimated. Individual absorbed doses were then calculated using volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations according to published approaches and compared to those estimated from the amounts of biomarkers excreted in 15- or 24-h urine collections, the latter serving as a benchmark unit. The effect of the units of measurements (volume-weighted or creatinine adjusted concentrations or 24-h amounts) on results of the comparison of pyrethroid biomarker levels between two populations was also evaluated. Results Estimation of daily absorbed doses of permethrin from volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations of biomarkers was found to potentially lead to substantial under or overestimation when compared to doses reconstructed directly from amounts excreted in urine during a given period of time (-70 to +573% and -83 to +167%, respectively). It was also shown that the variability in creatinine excretion rate and urinary flow rate may introduce a bias in the case of between population comparisons. Conclusion The unit chosen to express biomonitoring data may influence the validity of estimated individual absorbed dose as well as the outcome of between population comparisons. PMID:18983658

Fortin, Marie-Chantale; Carrier, Gaetan; Bouchard, Michele



Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.  


To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 ?g day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food. PMID:23728998

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung



Urine Concentrating Ability in Infants with Sickle Cell Disease: Baseline Data from the Phase III Trial of Hydroxyurea (BABY HUG)  

PubMed Central

Background A urine concentrating defect is quite common in sickle cell anemia, has its onset in early childhood, and may be reversible with transfusion. The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing organ damage in young children with sickle cell anemia. Procedures Enrolled infants were subjected to parent-supervised fluid deprivation and urine and serum osmolality were determined. Results Of 185 infants age 7.5 – 17.9 months (mean 13.0+/-2.7) and fluid-deprived 7.4+/-2.4 hours (range 4-13), 178 had concurrent determinations of urine and serum osmolality. Mean serum osmolality was 286+/-6 mOsm/kg H2O (range 275-312) and independent of age, height, weight, or duration of fluid deprivation. Urine osmolality (mean 407+/-151, range 58-794 mOsm/ kg H2O) was greater than serum (p<0.0001) and correlated with duration of fluid deprivation (p=0.001). Of 142 (77.2%) who concentrated urine, 54 (29.4%) had urine osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality correlated with 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p=0.02) and serum urea nitrogen (p<0.0001), but not with serum osmolality, gender, age, height, weight or serum creatinine. Infants able to produce urine with osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O had higher mean fetal hemoglobin concentrations than did those who could not (p=0.014). Conclusions Even with often limited fluid deprivation, 77.2 percent of young infants with sickle cell anemia were able to concentrate urine. Preservation of concentrating ability was associated with higher fetal hemoglobin concentration. Assessment will be repeated after two years of hydroxyurea or placebo treatment. ( number, NCT00006400.) PMID:19621454

Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi; Rana, Sohail; Lane, Peter; Ware, Russell E.; Li, Daner; Rees, Renee C.




EPA Science Inventory

Elevated arsenic concentrations are coincident with enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in bedrock ground water within Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the lack of correlations between sulfate concentrations an...


Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061



Normative concentrations of urine thiocyanate in cassava eating communities in Nigeria.  


Exposure to cyanide is a major public health problem where highly cyanogenic cassava foods are consumed. Thiocyanate (SCN), the biomarker of exposure to cyanide is present in several foods, and produced endogenously. Concentrations of urine SCN were measured in endemic and non-endemic areas of ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria. Cassava food consumption in the endemic area was twice that of non-endemic areas. Geometrical mean (95% CI) urine SCN was 20?µmol/l (18-24) for no consumption of cassava foods, 56?µmol/l (49-64) for daily consumption, 56?µmol/l (48-65) for twice daily consumption and 85?µmol/l (62-117) for thrice daily consumption. 95th percentile reference limit was 125?µmol/l for no consumption of cassava food, but 360?µmol/l for thrice daily consumption. Urine SCN is a useful biomarker of exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. There is strong ecological association of exposure to cyanide and endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:23944969

Oluwole, O S A; Oludiran, A O



Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples exceeding 10, 50, 100, and 500 ug/L were calculated for the 174 towns with 20 or more sampled wells, and statewide maps were prepared for each of these categories. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 towns exceeded 10 ug/L. Many fewer towns had wells with samples that exceeded the 50, 100, or 500 ug/L categories. For 19 towns, more than 10 percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 ug/L, and in 45 towns, 1 percent or more exceeded 100 ug/L. Of these, Surry in Hancock County had 120 wells tested, and 23 percent of those wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 100 ug/L, which is a much higher rate than for other towns. In only four towns (Danforth in Washington County, Surry and Blue Hill in Hancock County, and Woolwich in Sagadahoc County), 1 percent or more of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 500 ug/L during 2005-09. The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally geologically controlled. There are clusters or belts of towns with high arsenic concentrations (> 50 ug/L), such as in southern coastal areas, the Kennebec County area, and towns along the central coastal part of Maine. In contrast, there are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such as the northernmost towns, as well as towns in the western and west-central areas. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater-one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. Earlier testing has identified other clusters of very high arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the towns of Northport, Buxton/Hollis, and Waldoboro, but those samples were collected before 2005 and did not factor in this analysis.

Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.



Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.  


Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar



Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.  


Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 ?g/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density. PMID:23892312

Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y



Speciated arsenic concentrations, exposure, and associated health risks for rice and bulgur.  


Arsenic species were determined in rice and bulgur samples that were collected from 50 participants who also supplied exposure related information through a questionnaire survey. Speciation analysis was conducted using an HPLC-ICP-MS system. Ingestion exposure to arsenic and associated health risks were assessed by combining the concentration and questionnaire data both for individual participants and the subject population. Inorganic arsenic dominated both in rice and bulgur but concentrations were about an order of magnitude higher in rice (160±38 ng/g) than in bulgur. Because participants also consumed more rice than bulgur, exposures were significantly higher for rice resulting in carcinogenic risks above acceptable level for 53% and 93% of the participants when the in-effect and the proposed potencies were used, respectively, compared to 0% and 5% for bulgur. An inorganic arsenic standard for rice would be useful to lower the risks while public awareness about the relation between excessive rice consumption and health risks is built, and bulgur consumption is promoted. PMID:24296133

Sofuoglu, Sait C; Güzelkaya, Hilal; Akgül, Özlem; Kavcar, P?nar; Kurucaoval?, Filiz; Sofuoglu, Aysun



Effects of low-level arsenic exposure on urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity.  


This study was aimed to evaluate whether renal tubular function is impaired by exposure to relatively low concentrations of arsenic. Mean urinary arsenic concentrations and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities were compared among 365 and 502 Korean men and women, respectively, in relation to gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and recent seafood consumption. The study subjects were divided into 4 groups according to urinary NAG activity and seafood consumption prior to urine sampling, and the correlation between arsenic concentration and urinary NAG activity was tested for each group. The mean urinary arsenic level was higher in women, non-smokers, and non-drinkers in comparison to men, smokers, and drinkers, respectively. Individuals who consumed seafood within 3 days prior to urine sampling showed a higher mean urinary arsenic level than those who did not. The correlation between urinary arsenic concentration and NAG activity in urine was significant only in subjects who did not consume seafood within 3 days prior to urine sampling and whose urinary NAG activity was 7.44 U/g creatinine (75th percentile) or higher. The urinary arsenic concentration was a significant determinant of urinary NAG activity in subjects with NAG activity higher than 7.44 U/g creatinine and especially in those who had not consumed seafood recently. These facts suggest that a relatively low-level exposure to inorganic arsenic produces renal tubular damage in humans. PMID:21622483

Eom, S-Y; Lee, Y-C; Yim, D-H; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-D; Choi, B-S; Park, C-H; Yu, S-D; Kim, D-S; Park, J-D; Kim, H



Geochemical controls of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater, Ester Dome, Fairbanks district, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ester Dome, an upland area near Fairbanks, Alaska, was chosen for a detailed hydrogeochemical study because of the previously reported elevated arsenic in groundwater, and the presence of a large set of wells amenable to detailed sampling. Ester Dome lies within the Fairbanks mining district, where gold-bearing quartz veins, typically containing 2-3??vol.% sulfide minerals (arsenopyrite, stibnite, and pyrite), have been mined both underground and in open cuts. Gold-bearing veins on Ester Dome occur in shear zones and the sulfide minerals in these veins have been crushed to fine-grained material by syn- or post-mineralization movement. Groundwater at Ester Dome is circumneutral, Ca-HCO3 to Ca-SO4 type, and ranges from dilute (specific conductance of 48????S/cm) to more concentrated (specific conductance as high as 2070????S/cm). In general, solute concentrations increase down hydrologic gradient. Redox species indicate that the groundwaters range from oxic to sub-oxic (low dissolved oxygen, Fe(III) reduction, no SO4 reduction). Waters with the highest Fe concentrations, as high as 10.7??mg/L, are the most anoxic. Dissolved As concentrations range from < 1 to 1160????g/L, with a median value of 146????g/L. Arsenic concentrations are not correlated with specific conductance or Fe concentrations, suggesting that neither groundwater residence time, nor reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, control the arsenic chemistry. Furthermore, As concentrations do not covary with other constituents that form anions and oxyanions in solution (e.g., HCO3, Mo, F, or U) such that desorption of arsenic from clays or oxides also does not control arsenic mobility. Oxidation of arsenopyrite and dissolution of scorodite, in the near-surface environment appears to be the primary control of dissolved As in this upland area. More specifically, the elevated As concentrations are spatially associated with sulfidized shear zones and localities of gold-bearing quartz veins. Consistent with this interpretation, elevated dissolved Sb concentrations (as high as 59????g/L), also correlated with occurrences of hypogene sulfide minerals, were measured in samples with high dissolved As concentrations.

Verplanck, P.L.; Mueller, S.H.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Youcha, E.K.



A Cross-sectional Study of the Impact of Blood Selenium on Blood and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic can naturally occur in the groundwater without an anthropogenic source of contamination. In Bangladesh over 50 million people are exposed to naturally occurring arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization’s guideline of 10 ?g/L. Selenium and arsenic have been shown to facilitate the excretion of each other in bile. Recent evidence suggests that selenium may play a role in arsenic elimination by forming a selenium-arsenic conjugate in the liver before excretion into the bile. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1601 adults and 287 children was conducted to assess the relationship between blood selenium and urinary and blood arsenic in a study population residing in a moderately arsenic-contaminated rural area in Bangladesh. Results The results of this study indicate a statistically significant inverse relationship between blood selenium and urinary arsenic concentrations in both adult and pediatric populations in rural Bangladesh after adjustment for age, sex, Body Mass Index, plasma folate and B12 (in children), and ever smoking and current betel nut use (in adults). In addition, there appears to be a statistically significant inverse relationship between blood selenium and blood arsenic in children. Conclusions Our results suggest that selenium is inversely associated with biomarkers of arsenic burden in both adults and children. These findings support the hypothesis that Se facilitates the biliary elimination of As, possibly via the putative formation of a Se-As conjugate using a glutathione complex. However, laboratory based studies are needed to provide further evidence to elucidate the presence of Se-As conjugate and its role in arsenic elimination in humans. PMID:23816141



Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health



A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.  


The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

PubMed Central

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:18801773

Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G



Identification of the dominant bacterium of two-stage biooxidation of gold-arsenic concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of biooxidation at 39°C in a continuous mode of the gold-arsenic concentrate from the Olympiadinskoe deposit,\\u000a which was pretreated by chemical leaching with ferric ions, by a microbial association from the BIO department reactors of\\u000a the Polyus gold mining company, a bacterial culture designated as strain HT-4 was isolated. The bacterium was a spore-forming\\u000a rod 0.5–0.6 ×

M. I. Muravyov; T. A. Pivovarova; T. P. Tourova; A. G. Bulaev; N. V. Fomchenko; T. F. Kondrat’eva



Catecholamines - urine  


Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)


Spatial and Temporal Variations in Arsenic Exposure via Drinking-water in Northern Argentina  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the spatial, temporal and inter-individual variations in exposure to arsenic via drinking-water in Northern Argentina, based on measurements of arsenic in water, urine, and hair. Arsenic concentrations in drinking-water varied markedly among locations, from <1 to about 200 ?g/L. Over a 10-year period, water from the same source in San Antonio de los Cobres fluctuated within 140 and 220 ?g/L, with no trend of decreasing concentration. Arsenic concentrations in women's urine (3–900 ?g/L, specific weight 1.018 g/mL) highly correlated with concentrations in water on a group level, but showed marked variations between individuals. Arsenic concentrations in hair (range 20–1,500 ?g/kg) rather poorly correlated with urinary arsenic, possibly due to external contamination. Thus, arsenic concentration in urine seems to be a better marker of individual arsenic exposure than concentrations in drinking-water and hair. PMID:17366773

Concha, Gabriela; Nermell, Barbro



Low concentration of arsenic-induced aberrant mitosis in keratinocytes through E2F1 transcriptionally regulated Aurora-A.  


Chronic exposure to low-concentration arsenic promotes cell proliferation and carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Centrosome amplification, the major cause of chromosome instability, occurs frequently in cancers. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase and causes centrosome amplification and chromosome instability when overexpressed. Our previous study revealed that low-concentration arsenic induces Aurora-A overexpression in immortalized bladder cells. In this study, we hypothesized that low-concentration arsenic induces aberrant mitosis in keratinocytes due to Aurora-A overexpression. The specimen of Bowen's disease (BD) and squamous cell carcinoma obtained from arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan showed Aurora-A overexpression. The mRNA/protein levels and kinase activity of Aurora-A were increased in immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cells after arsenic treatment at low concentration (< 1µM). Aberrant spindles, multiple centrosomes, and multinucleated cells were detected under fluorescent microscopy in HaCaT cells after arsenic treatment. These findings were associated with increased expression of Aurora-A. We further revealed that Aurora-A was regulated by arsenic-induced transcriptional factor E2F1 as demonstrated by chromosome immunoprecipitation, promoter activity, and small interfering RNA assays. Finally, in arsenic-treated HaCaT cells and in BD, a significant increase of dysfunctional p53 was found, and this event correlated with the increase in expression of Aurora-A. Altogether, our data suggest that low concentration of arsenic induces activation of E2F1-Aurora-A axis and results in aberrant mitosis of keratinocytes. Overexpression of Aurora-A and dysfunctional p53 may act synergistically to trigger skin tumor formation. Our findings suggest that Aurora-A may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of arsenic-related cancers. PMID:23174854

Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng



Stability studies of arsenic, selenium, antimony and tellurium species in water, urine, fish and soil extracts using HPLC/ICP-MS.  


The stability of arsenic, selenium, antimony and tellurium species in water and urine (NIST SRM 2670n) as well as in extracts of fish and soil certified reference materials (DORM-2 and NIST SRM 2710) has been investigated. Stability studies were carried out with As(III), As(V), arsenobetaine, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), Se(IV), Se(VI), selenomethionine, Sb(III), Sb(V) and Te(VI). Speciation analysis was performed by on-line coupling of anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Best storage of aqueous mixtures of the examined species was achieved at 3 degrees C whereas at -20 degrees C species transformation especially of selenomethionine and Sb(V) took place and a new selenium species appeared within a period of 30 days. Losses and species transformations during extraction processes were investigated. Extraction of the spiked fish material with methanol/water led to partial conversion of Sb(III), Sb(V) and selenomethionine to two new antimony and one new selenium species. The other arsenic, selenium and tellurium species were almost quantitatively extracted. For soil spiked with MMA, PAA, Se(IV) and Sb(III), recoveries after extraction with water and sulfuric acid (0.01 mol/L) were below 20%. PMID:11220582

Lindemann, T; Prange, A; Dannecker, W; Neidhart, B



Isotopic evidence for a link between agricultural irrigation and high arsenic concentrations in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An isotope-based survey was carried out in the Datong Basin, northern China to investigate the hydrogeology of groundwater with high arsenic concentrations. Oxygen isotope (?18O), hydrogen isotope (?D) and radioactive hydrogen isotope (3H) measurements were conducted with the aim of characterizing the groundwater origins and flow dynamics in this arsenic-contaminated groundwater system. Groundwater dating results from 3H measurements show that groundwaters from 20m ~ 70m have a wide range of ages (10a~ 191a), indicating diverse groundwater sources. In contrast, deeper groundwaters (70m ~90m) display a narrower age range (35a ~ 47a). In addition, the shallow-aquifer (<70m), groundwaters exhibit wide variations in ?18O and ?D, from -12.7% to -6.96% and -97.1% to -49.8%, respectively. Deep groundwaters (>70m) possess relatively narrower isotopic ranges and mostly lighter isotopic ratios, from -12.8% to -8.88% and -97.6% to -71.7%, respectively. Comparison with the local meteoric water line shows that groundwater ?18O and ?D values plot with a shallower slope, consistent with the arid-semiarid climate of the Datong Basin, as well as a meteoric origin of the groundwater, and points to precipitation as the dominant source of recharge to the deeper aquifers in the study area. Groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations (100?g/L ~ 309?g/L) mainly occur in aquifers at depths between 20m and 70m, while shallower (<20m) and deeper (>70m) groundwaters carry relatively lower arsenic concentrations (<50?g/L). This result differs from previous studies[1] [2], which documented that groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations occur primarily in the upper aquifers (<50m). It is striking that the groundwaters with elevated arsenic concentrations are also those with the greatest diversity of tritium ages and dispersion of ?18O and ?D values, suggesting that a single process may explain all three data sets. One explanation is that extensive irrigation with groundwaters from various depths (10m~200m) induces the age diversity of the shallow groundwaters. This interpretation is supported by the variations in the ?18O and ?D data. Intensive agricultural activities in the Datong Basin, including extensive pumping of irrigation water from aquifers of various depths, may be changing the hydrology of the shallow groundwater system and directly affecting the arsenic distribution in the groundwater. [1] Shvartsev, S. L. and Wang, Y. X. (2006). "Geochemistry of sodic waters in the Datong intermountain basin, Shanxi Province, northwestern China." Geochemistry International 44(10): 1015-1026. [2] Xie, X. J., Ellis A., Wang, Y. X., et al. (2009). "Geochemistry of redox-sensitive elements and sulfur isotopes in the high arsenic groundwater system of Datong Basin, China." Science of the Total Environment 407(12): 3823-3835.

Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Shock, E.



The Use of Hydrogel Microparticles to Sequester and Concentrate Bacterial Antigens in a Urine Test for Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) – acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine. PMID:21035184

Douglas, Temple; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin; Lepene, Benjamin S.; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra



Biomarkers of Exposure: A Case Study with Inorganic Arsenic  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminant inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Most mammals metabolize iAs by reducing it to trivalency, followed by oxidative methylation to pentavalency. iAs and its methylated metabolites are primarily excreted in urine within 4–5 days by most species and have a relatively low rate of bioaccumulation. Intra- and interindividual differences in the methylation of iAs may affect the adverse health effects of arsenic. Both inorganic and organic trivalent arsenicals are more potent toxicants than pentavalent forms. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed for arsenic-induced toxicity, but a scientific consensus has not been achieved. Biomarkers of exposure may be used to quantify exposure to iAs. The most common biomarker of exposure for iAs is the measurement of total urinary arsenic. However, consumption of seafood containing high concentrations of organic arsenic can confound estimation of iAs exposure. Because these organic species are thought to be relatively nontoxic, their presence in urine may not represent increased risk. Speciation of urinary arsenic into inorganic and organic forms, and even oxidation state, gives a more definitive indication of the exposure to iAs. Questions still remain, however, as to how reliably the measurement of urinary arsenic, either total or speciated, may predict arsenic concentrations at target tissues as well as how this measurement could be used to assess chronic exposures to iAs. PMID:17107869

Hughes, Michael F.



Concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals in vegetation at two abandoned mine tailings in South Korea.  


Untreated abandoned mines may result in hazards to ecosystems due to dispersion of various toxic elements such as arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Phytoremediation is an alternative of remediation for large scale mine dumps. Plant species were sampled from two abandoned gold (Au) mines in South Korea. Plant samples were digested following the guidelines of US EPA Method 3050 (US-EPA, 1996) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations and bioaccumulation factors of plants are reported and out-performing species are summarized. Poplar trees (Populus davidiana) growing on the Myoungbong tailings were suggested to be a potential species for revegetation of large scale Au mine tailings. Arsenic accumulations of bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum) sampled from the Duckum tailings were far lower than those of the reported hyperaccumulators, but the possible chronic adverse effects on residents through daily diet are of concern. PMID:16003579

Chang, Peichun; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong



Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.  


Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 ?g/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 ?g/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 ?g/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 ?g/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia



Reduction of large neutral amino acid concentrations in plasma and CSF of patients with maple syrup urine disease during crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological dysfunction is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disorder are poorly understood. We determined the concentrations of all amino acids in plasma of patients with MSUD during crises (with severe CNS symptoms) and after recovery in the hope of detecting possible alterations of these levels during metabolic decompensation.

M. Wajner; D. M. Coelho; A. G. Barschak; P. R. Araújo; R. F. Pires; F. L. G. Lulhier; C. R. Vargas



Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana.  


To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature. PMID:22446112

Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Biney, Charles Augustus; Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed; Otsuka, Masanari; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke



Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Razo, Luz Maria del [Toxicology Departament, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo [School of Medicine, Durango State Juarez University, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca [Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:



Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.  


The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter



Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3–5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28–0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35–7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32–0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717




Arsenic accumulation in the shore crab Carcinus maenas : the influence of nutritional state, sex and exposure concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of arsenate from seawater by the shore crab Carcinus maenas L. (collected from Odense Fjord, Denmark in 1991 and from Restronguet Creek, UK in 1991) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. A field study was also carried out to determine the effects of raised environmental arsenic concentrations on intra-organismal distribution and tissue concentrations. Studies on the

J. L. Andersen; M. H. Depledge



Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido



The concentration of bisphenol A in urine is affected by specimen collection, a preservative, and handling  

PubMed Central

In urine specimens that were collected from pregnant women in a large cohort, 24% contained more than 10 ng/ml of total bisphenol A (BPA), suggesting external contamination. Therefore, we conducted an investigation of the source(s) of extraneous BPA in the specimens. We found that under the conditions used to collect urine specimens in the epidemiologic study, contamination with BPA occurred, and by two separate mechanisms. PMID:23899777

Longnecker, M.P.; Harbak, K.; Kissling, G.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Eggesbo, M.; Jusko, T.A.; Eide, J.; Koch, H.M.



Correlation between concentration in urine and in blood of cadmium and lead among women in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study are to examine if there exists a quantitative relationship between lead in urine (Pb-U) and that in blood (Pb-B), and also between cadmium in urine (Cd-U) and that in blood (Cd-B) among the general populations who are environmentally (and not occupationally) exposed to these elements at various levels. For this purpose, peripheral blood and

Kae Higashikawa; Zuo-Wen Zhang; Shinichiro Shimbo; Chan-Seok Moon; Takao Watanabe; Haruo Nakatsuka; Naoko Matsuda-Inoguchi; Masayuki Ikeda



Analysis of Arsenic Concentrations and Correlation in Water, Soil and Aurum by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique: A Case Study in Bagerhat, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic concentrations were measured in water, soil and arum (vegetables) samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis method\\u000a and a correlation between arsenic concentrations in the samples was investigated. The case study at Bagerhat, Bangladesh revealed\\u000a that almost all the water samples were contaminated by a hazardous level of arsenic that exceeding the World Health Organization\\u000a recommended value of 0.05 mg\\/L for

S. M. A. Abdullah; M. T. Islam; S. Z. Islam; Iqbal Hossain; M. Samsuzzoha; M. D. Hossain; S. A. Latif; F. M. A. Islam



Polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes, urinary arsenic methylation profile and cancer.  


Arsenic-metabolism-related genes can regulate the arsenic methylation process and may influence susceptibility to cancer. We evaluated the roles of arsenic metabolism genes on urinary arsenic profiles of repeated measurement with 15-year follow-up (1988-2004) through general linear model (GLM) and assessed the effect of the changed extent of urinary arsenic profiles on cancer risk. Questionnaire information and blood samples and two urines (1988 and 2004) were collected from 208 subjects in an arseniasis hyperendemic area in Taiwan. Profiles for concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined using HPLC-HG-AAS. The relative proportion of each arsenic species was calculated by dividing the concentration of each arsenic species by the total arsenic concentration. Genotyping was done using the 5' nuclease allelic discrimination (Taqman) assay. The incidence of cancer was identified through linking to the National Cancer Registry Systems. The Cox proportional hazards model and survival curves were used in the analyses. After a 15-year follow-up, baseline monomethylarsonic acid percentage (MMA%) and change in MMA% exhibited a significant dose-response relationship with cancer risk. Individuals with a higher baseline MMA% and a lower change in MMA% had the earliest cancer incidence (statistically significant). Through GLM, significant gene effects of arsenic (+3 oxidation state)-methyltransferase (AS3MT) on MMA%, dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%) and DMA/MMA, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) on DMA% and glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2) on inorganic arsenics (InAs%) were found. Our results show that MMA% might be a potential predictor of cancer risk. The change in MMA% was linked to individual cancer susceptibility related to AS3MT rs3740393. PMID:19680750

Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Yung-Kai; Huang, Ya-Li; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Jen



Association of arsenic levels in soil and water with urinary arsenic concentration of residents in the vicinity of closed metal mines.  


Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious health problems, in particular cancer. Health hazard attributed to As in contaminated soil and water in the vicinity of closed or abandoned metal mines may be high. Little is known about how environmental exposure to As has affected the health of resident near closed metal mines. The objectives of this study were to compare the urinary level of As for those living near closed metal mines (the exposed group) with that of non-exposed group; and to investigate the correlation between As levels in soil (SoilAs) and water (WaterAs) and the urinary levels (UrineAs) of residents in the exposed group. Data for SoilAs and WaterAs were obtained from the national environmental survey performed between 2003 and 2005 by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. To measure UrineAs, 2674 and 237 subjects were selected from 67 closed metal mines (exposed areas) and two rural areas (non-exposed areas), respectively. Five milliliters of urine samples were taken, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze UrineAs. Of all the exposed areas, high SoilAs and WaterAs areas that exceed the Korean standards of As in soil (6 mg/kg-soil) and stream or groundwater (0.05 mg/l-water) were classified to evaluate the health risks in high polluted areas. Also, high UrineAs group was defined as 20 ?g/g creatinine or more. Student's t-test was performed to compare the UrineAs level between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by a logistic analysis to evaluate the risk for high UrineAs level from high SoilAs and WaterAs areas. The mean of urinary As were 8.90 ± 8.34 ?g/g-creatinine for the exposed group and 7.68 ± 4.98 ?g/g creatinine for the non-exposed group, respectively; and the significant difference of urinary As level was observed between both groups (p<0.05). Moreover, the means for urinary As of people in areas with high As level in soil and water were significantly higher than that for the control areas (p<0.001), and these differences were more pronounced for the As level in water. The odds of subjects with high UrineAs were positively and significantly associated with living in the areas with high As level in soil (OR=1.62; 95% C.I.=1.13-2.31). These associations were much stronger for the areas with high WaterAs (OR=3.79; 95% C.I.=2.32-6.19). These results indicate that the high level of As in environment may increase the risk of having high urinary As level of people in the exposed areas. PMID:22704486

Cho, YongMin; Seo, SungChul; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Lee, SeungKil; Kim, KyungHee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook



Arsenic Concentrations in Florida Surface Soils: Influence of Soil Type and Properties M. Chen,* L. Q. Ma, and W. G. Harris  

E-print Network

Arsenic Concentrations in Florida Surface Soils: Influence of Soil Type and Properties M. Chen,* L. Q. Ma, and W. G. Harris ABSTRACT through the food chain via uptake from contaminated soils may 1997). While the regulations governing As contamina-whether a soil is polluted. Arsenic concentrations

Ma, Lena


Blood Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background: In India, there is a rising burden of chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. It has been estimated that 25-40% of these patients are likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD), with a significant percentage requiring renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis is the most common method which is used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure. Derangements in the metabolism of several toxic and trace elements such as antimony, arsenic cadmium, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium have been reported for several decades in patients with chronically reduced renal functions. Overall, the available literature suggests that the blood levels of some elements such as cadmium, chromium, fluorine, iodine, lead, or vanadium are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Aim and Objectives: Our aim was to study the levels of blood arsenic and cadmium in ESRD patients who were on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), and to study whether there was any relationship between their concentrations and the duration of the MHD. Methods: The blood lead levels were determined in 50 healthy subjects with normal renal functions and in 50 patients with ESRD, who were on MHD. None of them had any history of smoking or any industrial exposure. Results: The results of the study revealed that the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were higher in the ESRD patients who were on MHD than in the healthy adults. The blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were found to increase with the duration of the MHD. Conclusion: The mild increase in the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations, with an increase in the duration of the MHD in the study population, may be viewed in the wider context, that a prolonged exposure to arsenic and cadmium, even at low levels, may result in renal damage and/or progression of an already existing CKD. PMID:23814716

Palaneeswari M., Subha; Rajan, P.M. Abraham Sam; Silambanan, Santhi; Jothimalar



Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva  

SciTech Connect

The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.



Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values. Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of the study area-about 93 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers was less than one-half the standard for nitrate as N (5.0 milligrams per liter), and 50 percent was less than one-half the standard for arsenic (5.0 micrograms per liter). The predicted concentrations and the improved understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of southwestern basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment can be used by water managers as a qualitative tool to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources in the Southwest.

Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.




EPA Science Inventory

A population of adults and children with ranges of 10 to 300 g/l of arsenic in their drinking water will have their urine analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. A sample of 30 families will be selected based on tap water analyses for arsenic. This sample will comprise 50% adul...


Oxidation of the arsenic-rich concentrate at the P?ebuz abandoned mine (Erzgebirge Mts., CZ): mineralogical evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ore concentrate with up to 65 wt.% of arsenic (by-product of cassiterite extraction) exposed to climatic conditions was studied from the mineralogical point of view. Detailed sampling, X-ray diffraction analyses, energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDAX) and especially scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the arsenopyrite–löllingite-concentrate weathering. The studied concentrate contains very small proportion (<5 vol.%) of gangue minerals such as

Michal Filippi



Effects of Broiler Litter Management Practices on Phosphorus, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, and Arsenic Concentrations in Maryland Coastal Plain Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to assess the long?term effects of broiler litter applications on soil phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentrations in Chesapeake Bay watershed Coastal Plain soils. Litter and soil samples were collected from 10 farms with more than 40 years of broiler production and from wooded sites adjacent to fields

Eton E. Codling; Rufus L. Chaney; Charles L. Mulchi



Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

EPA Science Inventory

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...


Geochemical processes underlying a sharp contrast in groundwater arsenic concentrations in a village on the Red River delta, Vietnam  

E-print Network

Geochemical processes underlying a sharp contrast in groundwater arsenic concentrations and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi, Viet Nam a r t i c l e i n f o Article but with very different As con- centrations in groundwater (site L:

van Geen, Alexander


Changes in hair arsenic concentration in a population exposed to heavy pollution: follow-up investigation in Chenzhou City, Hunan Province, southern China.  


Follow-up investigation on hair arsenic concentration was conducted in an arsenic heavily polluted area of southern China in 2002 and 2006. The results showed that the geometric mean of hair arsenic concentration decreased from 2.95 mg/kg in 2002 to 1.78 mg/kg in 2006, when the percentage of the population with levels over 1 mg/kg only decreased from 93.4% in 2002 to 80.5% in 2006. Over this four-year period, the population with high arsenic concentrations decreased significantly while there was no obvious change in hair arsenic concentration for people who had relatively low concentrations. In terms of age distribution, young and old people had higher hair arsenic concentrations than the middle-aged. All of these results showed that it is difficult to reverse the negative impact of arsenic pollution on human health. Arsenic pollution has a long-term continuous influence on the health of local residents. PMID:20397419

Wu, Bin; Chen, Tongbin



Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China.  


The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. PMID:24769413

Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying



Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.



Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).  


Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 ?g L(-1)-2000 ?g L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 ?g kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils. PMID:23583727

Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson



Isoniazid/acetylisoniazid urine concentrations: markers of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The Arkansas colorimetric method monitors adherence to isoniazid (INH) by the detection of INH metabolites in urine. Urine samples 4 h after INH administration in 31 human immunodeficiency virus infected children receiving daily or thrice weekly INH preventive therapy were Arkansas test-positive for 29/31 (94%), while acetylisoniazid (AcINH) was detected in 30/31 (97%) using mass spectrometry. At 24, 48 and 72 h, only 78%, 23% and 0 samples, respectively, were Arkansas-positive, while INH or AcINH was detected in respectively 94%, 69% and 33%. The Arkansas test reliably predicted INH ingestion at a clinic visit 4 h after morning doses, but did not perform well at 24 h. PMID:24903787

Amlabu, V.; Mulligan, C.; Jele, N.; Evans, A.; Gray, D.; Zar, H. J.; McIlleron, H.; Smith, P.



Detailed arsenic concentration profiles at Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The pile-up of arsenic at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface after As implantation and annealing was investigated by high resolution Z-contrast imaging, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (GI-XRF), secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, as well as Hall mobility and four-point probe resistivity measurements. After properly taking into account their respective artifacts, the results of all methods are compatible with each other, with EELS and GI-XRF combined with etching providing similar spatial resolution on the nanometer scale for the dopant profile. The sheet concentration of the piled-up As at the interface was found to be {approx}1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} for an implanted dose of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} with a maximum concentration of {approx}10 at. %. The strain observed in the Z-contrast images also suggests a significant concentration of local distortions within 3 nm from the interface, which, however, do not seem to involve intrinsic point defects.

Pei Lirong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7916 (United States); Duscher, Gerd [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7916 (United States); Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Steen, Christian [Chair of Electron Devices, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Pichler, Peter; Ryssel, Heiner [Chair of Electron Devices, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute of Integrated Systems and Device Technology, Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Napolitani, Enrico; De Salvador, Davide [MATIS-CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35141 Padova (Italy); Piro, Alberto Maria; Terrasi, Antonio [MATIS-CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95127 Catania (Italy); Severac, Fabrice; Cristiano, Filadelfo [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); Ravichandran, Karthik; Gupta, Naveen; Windl, Wolfgang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1178 (United States)



Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested or inhaled  

PubMed Central

In 1980, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined there was sufficient evidence that inorganic arsenic was a human lung carcinogen based on studies involving exposure through inhalation. In 2004, IARC listed arsenic in drinking water as a cause of lung cancer, making arsenic the first substance established to cause human cancer by two unrelated pathways of exposure. It may initially seem counterintuitive that arsenic in drinking water would cause human lung cancer, and even if it did, one might expect risks to be orders of magnitude lower than those from direct inhalation into the lungs. In this paper we consider lung cancer dose-response relationships for inhalation and ingestion of arsenic by focusing on two key studies, a cohort mortality study in the United States involving Tacoma smelter workers inhaling arsenic, and a lung cancer case-control study involving ingestion of arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile. When exposure was assessed based on absorbed dose identified by concentrations of arsenic in urine, there was very little difference in the dose-response findings for lung cancer relative risks between inhalation and ingestion. The lung cancer mortality rate ratio estimate was 8.0 (95% CI 3.2-16.5, p<0.001) for an average urine concentration of 1179 ?g/L following inhalation, and the odds ratio estimate of the lung cancer incidence rate ratio was 7.1 (95% CI 3.4-14.8, p<0.001) for an estimated average urine concentration of 825 ?g/L following ingestion. The slopes of the linear dose-response relationships between excess relative risk (RR-1) for lung cancer and urinary arsenic concentration were similar for the two routes of exposure. We conclude that lung cancer risks probably depend on absorbed dose, and not on whether inorganic arsenic is ingested or inhaled. PMID:19190673

Smith, Allan H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Steinmaus, Craig M.



Determination of arsenic in chicken feed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pre-concentration procedure with solid-phase extraction was developed for the determination of arsenic (As) in chicken feed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The procedure was based on the sorption of As(III) ions as complexes with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate onto a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam. After pre-concentration, the As was removed from the mini-column by acid solution, and

A. S. Dos Passos; T. S. Néri; M. V. Maciel; I. L. da Silva Romão; V. A. Lemos




EPA Science Inventory

Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenic speciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no single technique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complex e...


Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.  


The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking). PMID:18986150

Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L



When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  


This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Marjorie Aelion, C; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew



When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew



Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (?mol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at clinical as NCT01027052. PMID:20335545

Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan



Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions.  


The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions contacted responded, representing 218 giraffe. All responding zoos fed concentrate and alfalfa hay was the primary forage. Sixty-five percent of zoos fed browse and 43 different species of browse were listed. Six zoos reported a history of urolithiasis, seven reported wasting syndrome, and 10 reported sudden death. The median daily amount (as fed) of concentrate and hay offered were 5.45 kg (range of 2.73-9.55 kg) and 6.82 kg (range of 2.53-12.50 kg), respectively. The concentrate:hay ratio of the offered diet ranged from 0.22 to 3.47 with a median value of 0.79. Forty-three percent of the institutions offered a ratio greater than 1:1. Samples of concentrate and hay (six zoos), serum (five zoos), and urine (seven zoos) were obtained for chemical analyses. Analyzed nutrient content of the consumed diet, measured by weighing feed and orts for three consecutive days, met recommendations for giraffe, but was excessive for crude protein and P. Concentrate:hay and serum P were positively correlated (r=0.72; P<0.05). High dietary P content and a high level of concentrate relative to hay may be contributing factors to urolith formation and warrant further investigation. PMID:19816905

Sullivan, Kathleen; van Heugten, Eric; Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly; Poore, Matthew H; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Wolfe, Barbara



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.  


The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W



Developmental arrest in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to sublethal concentrations of atrazine and arsenic trioxide.  


Embryos of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to serial concentrations of atrazine (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) and arsenic trioxide (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 ppm) until hatching. Stasis of circulation, blood islands, titanic convulsions, tube heart and mortality were observed in atrazine-treated embryos. Each endpoint exhibited a concentration-response relationship. Only 4% of the embryos hatched in the 25 ppm, and none in the 50 and 100 ppm, probably due to cell death attributed to the embryos' inability to break from the chorion. With arsenic exposure, hatching was inversely correlated to chemical concentration: 86%, 75% and 54% for 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, respectively. Hatching periods were also reduced from 7-13 days in controls to 7-11 days in arsenic-treated embryos. This observation was more pronounced with the 0.05 ppm concentration, showing a reduction of about 4 days. Despite this shortage in hatching time, there were no observable morphological abnormalities, as seen with atrazine. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of sublethal toxicity tests using Japanese medaka embryos are important. PMID:15303697

Ishaque, Ali B; Tchounwou, Paul B; Wilson, Barbara A; Washington, Teresa



Urine-Concentrating Mechanism in the Inner Medulla: Function of the Thin Limbs of the Loops of Henle  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability of mammals to produce urine hyperosmotic to plasma requires the generation of a gradient of increasing osmolality along the medulla from the corticomedullary junction to the papilla tip. Countercurrent multiplication apparently establishes this gradient in the outer medulla, where there is substantial transepithelial reabsorption of NaCl from the water-impermeable thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle. However, this process does not establish the much steeper osmotic gradient in the inner medulla, where there are no thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle and the water-impermeable ascending thin limbs lack active transepithelial transport of NaCl or any other solute. The mechanism generating the osmotic gradient in the inner medulla remains an unsolved mystery, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in the tubules and vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional interactions between these inner medullary tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by creation of physiologic models that depict the three-dimensional relationships of tubules and vessels and their solute and water permeabilities in rat kidneys and by creation of mathematical models based on biologic phenomena. The current mathematical model, which incorporates experimentally determined or estimated solute and water flows through clearly defined tubular and interstitial compartments, predicts a urine osmolality in good agreement with that observed in moderately antidiuretic rats. The current model provides substantially better predictions than previous models; however, the current model still fails to predict urine osmolalities of maximally concentrating rats. PMID:23908457

Layton, Anita T.; Layton, Harold E.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.



Factors affecting paddy soil arsenic concentration in Bangladesh: prediction and uncertainty of geostatistical risk mapping.  


Knowledge of the spatial correlation of soil arsenic (As) concentrations with environmental variables is needed to assess the nature and extent of the risk of As contamination from irrigation water in Bangladesh. We analyzed 263 paired groundwater and paddy soil samples covering highland (HL) and medium highland-1 (MHL-1) land types for geostatistical mapping of soil As and delineation of As contaminated areas in Tala Upazilla, Satkhira district. We also collected 74 non-rice soil samples to assess the baseline concentration of soil As for this area. The mean soil As concentrations (mg/kg) for different land types under rice and non-rice crops were: rice-MHL-1 (21.2)>rice-HL (14.1)>non-rice-MHL-1 (11.9)>non-rice-HL (7.2). Multiple regression analyses showed that irrigation water As, Fe, land elevation and years of tubewell operation are the important factors affecting the concentrations of As in HL paddy soils. Only years of tubewell operation affected As concentration in the MHL-1 paddy soils. Quantitatively similar increases in soil As above the estimated baseline-As concentration were observed for rice soils on HL and MHL-1 after 6-8 years of groundwater irrigation, implying strong retention of As added in irrigation water in both land types. Application of single geostatistical methods with secondary variables such as regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (OCK) gave little improvement in prediction of soil As over ordinary kriging (OK). Comparing single prediction methods, kriging within strata (KWS), the combination of RK for HL and OCK for MHL-1, gave more accurate soil As predictions and showed the lowest misclassification of declaring a location "contaminated" with respect to 14.8 mg As/kg, the highest value obtained for the baseline soil As concentration. Prediction of soil As buildup over time indicated that 75% or the soils cropped to rice would contain at least 30 mg/L As by the year 2020. PMID:22055452

Ahmed, Zia U; Panaullah, Golam M; DeGloria, Stephen D; Duxbury, John M



Effect of hydrological flow pattern on groundwater arsenic concentration in Bangladesh by Khandaker Ashfaque.  

E-print Network

Widespread arsenic contamination of groundwater has become a major concern in Bangladesh since the water supply, particularly in rural areas, is heavily dependent on groundwater. However, relative to the extent of research ...

Ashfaque, Khandaker



Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This product "Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale vector spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.



Cadmium blood and urine concentrations as measures of exposure: NHANES 1999-2010.  


Exposure to cadmium, a heavy metal present in cigarettes, can be assessed in both urine and blood. Few studies have compared the properties of concurrent measurements of urine cadmium (uCd) and blood cadmium (bCd) in relation to the duration and timing of a known exposure. In this study, bCd and uCd were modeled with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010). Adjusted geometric mean bCd and uCd were estimated from regression results. Each 1% higher geometric mean uCd was associated with 0.50% (95% confidence interval: 0.47%-0.54%; R(2)=0.30) higher bCd. In male never-smokers, bCd was 69% (59%-81%) and uCd was 200% (166%-234%) higher at age ?70 years versus 20-29 years. Ten pack-years (py) of smoking were associated with 13.7% (10.0%-17.4%) higher bCd and 16.8% (12.6%-21.1%) higher uCd in male smokers. The first year after smoking cessation was associated with 53% (48%-58%) lower bCd and 23% (14%-33%) lower uCd in representative males aged 55 years with 20?py smoking. Smoking in the previous 5 days was associated with 55% (40%-71%) higher bCd and 7% (-3%-18%) higher uCd. Results were similar for women. uCd mainly measures long-term exposure and bCd recent exposure, but with noticeable overlap. Epidemiological studies should base the choice of uCd or bCd on the timing of cadmium exposure relevant to the disease under study. PMID:24002489

Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A



Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.  


The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents  

PubMed Central

Background Up to half the residents of nursing homes for the elderly have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which should not be treated with antibiotics. A complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) and ABU is needed, as diagnostic uncertainty is likely to generate significant antibiotic overtreatment. Previous studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urine might be suitable as such a test. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between laboratory findings of bacteriuria, IL-6 in the urine, dipstick urinalysis and newly onset symptoms among residents of nursing homes. Methods In this cross sectional study, voided urine specimens for culture, urine dipstick and IL-6 analyses were collected from all residents capable of providing a voided urine sample, regardless of the presence of symptoms. Urine specimens and symptom forms were provided from 421 residents of 22 nursing homes. The following new or increased nonspecific symptoms occurring during the previous month were registered; fatigue, restlessness, confusion, aggressiveness, loss of appetite, frequent falls and not being herself/himself, as well as symptoms from the urinary tract; dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency. Results Recent onset of nonspecific symptoms was common among elderly residents of nursing homes (85/421). Urine cultures were positive in 32% (135/421), Escherichia coli was by far the most common bacterial finding. Residents without nonspecific symptoms had positive urine cultures as often as those with nonspecific symptoms with a duration of up to one month. Residents with positive urine cultures had higher concentrations of IL-6 in the urine (p?urine cultures there were no differences in IL-6 concentrations or dipstick findings between those with or without nonspecific symptoms. Conclusions Nonspecific symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes are unlikely to be caused by bacteria in the urine. This study could not establish any clinical value of using dipstick urinalysis or IL-6 in the urine to verify if bacteriuria was linked to nonspecific symptoms. PMID:25117748



Bilirubin - urine  


Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...


Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state  

PubMed Central

Background Bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, is metabolized to hydroxybupropion (HB), an active metabolite, primarily by CYP2B6. Objectives To compare plasma concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state in healthy volunteers with and without CYP2B6 genetic variants. Methods In a genotype-guided study of 42 healthy subjects we measured plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and its metabolites, HB, threohydrobupropion (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB) after 7 days of sustained release bupropion dosing. Results CYP2B6*6 and *18 gene variants were associated with approximately 33% reduced concentrations of HB, with no effects on concentrations of bupropion or other metabolites. We could account for 50% of the variation in HB concentrations in a model including genotype and sex. Conclusions Since HB is active and steady state concentrations of HB are more than 10 times higher than bupropion, CYP2B6 variants are likely to affect pharmacological activity. Due to the large individual variation within genotype group, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for dose optimization may be necessary. PMID:23344581

Benowitz, Neal L.; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton



Regional estimation of groundwater arsenic concentrations through systematical dynamic-neural modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) is an odorless semi-metal that occurs naturally in rock and soil, and As contamination in groundwater resources has become a serious threat to human health. Thus, assessing the spatial and temporal variability of As concentration is highly desirable, particularly in heavily As-contaminated areas. However, various difficulties may be encountered in the regional estimation of As concentration such as cost-intensive field monitoring, scarcity of field data, identification of important factors affecting As, over-fitting or poor estimation accuracy. This study develops a novel systematical dynamic-neural modeling (SDM) for effectively estimating regional As-contaminated water quality by using easily-measured water quality variables. To tackle the difficulties commonly encountered in regional estimation, the SDM comprises of a neural network and four statistical techniques: the Nonlinear Autoregressive with eXogenous input (NARX) network, Gamma test, cross-validation, Bayesian regularization method and indicator kriging (IK). For practical application, this study investigated a heavily As-contaminated area in Taiwan. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is adopted for comparison purpose. The results demonstrate that the NARX network (Root mean square error (RMSE): 95.11 ?g l-1 for training; 106.13 ?g l-1 for validation) outperforms the BPNN (RMSE: 121.54 ?g l-1 for training; 143.37 ?g l-1 for validation). The constructed SDM can provide reliable estimation (R2 > 0.89) of As concentration at ungauged sites based merely on three easily-measured water quality variables (Alk, Ca2+ and pH). In addition, risk maps under the threshold of the WHO drinking water standard (10 ?g l-1) are derived by the IK to visually display the spatial and temporal variation of the As concentration in the whole study area at different time spans. The proposed SDM can be practically applied with satisfaction to the regional estimation in study areas of interest and the estimation of missing, hazardous or costly data to facilitate water resources management.

Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Min



Airborne arsenic exposure and excretion of methylated arsenic compounds.  

PubMed Central

First void urine samples were collected from copper smelter workers exposed to inorganic arsenic and from unexposed controls. Arsenic compounds (As (III), As (V), methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) in these samples were analyzed by selective volatilization as arsines with determination of arsenic by plasma excitation emission spectrometry. On the day preceding the urine sample collection a breathing zone measurement was made of respirable arsenic particulates for each subject. It was found that all of the subjects, including the controls excreted arsenic primarily as methylated species. Approximately 50% of the total arsenic was excreted as dimethylarsinic acid and 20% as methylarsonic acid. Slight differences in the proportion of various arsenic compounds were observed with varying levels of inorganic arsenic exposure. Amounts of arsenic species were all closely correlated with each other and with exposure. Irrespirable particulate exposures were measured on a subset of high exposure workers. Irrespirable arsenic was found to be more closely correlated with excretion of arsenic compounds than was respirable arsenic. PMID:908318

Smith, T J; Crecelius, E A; Reading, J C



Comparative physiology and architecture associated with the mammalian urine concentrating mechanism: role of inner medullary water and urea transport pathways in the rodent medulla  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of renal structure and function have potential to provide insights into the urine-concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. This review focuses on the tubular transport pathways for water and urea that play key roles in fluid and solute movements between various compartments of the rodent renal inner medulla. Information on aquaporin water channel and urea transporter expression has increased our understanding of functional segmentation of medullary thin limbs of Henle's loops, collecting ducts, and vasa recta. A more complete understanding of membrane transporters and medullary architecture has identified new and potentially significant interactions between these structures and the interstitium. These interactions are now being introduced into our concept of how the inner medullary urine-concentrating mechanism works. A variety of regulatory pathways lead directly or indirectly to variable patterns of fluid and solute movements among the interstitial and tissue compartments. Animals with the ability to produce highly concentrated urine, such as desert species, are considered to exemplify tubular structure and function that optimize urine concentration. These species may provide unique insights into the urine-concentrating process.1 PMID:23364530



Urine concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney: role of three-dimensional architecture  

PubMed Central

The urine concentrating mechanism in the mammalian renal inner medulla (IM) is not understood, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in tubules and blood vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional relationships of these tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by recent reconstructions from serial sections labelled with antibodies to tubular and vascular proteins and mathematical models based on these studies. The reconstructions revealed that the lower 60% of each descending thin limb (DTL) of Henle’s loops lacks water channels (aquaporin-1) and osmotic water permeability and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) begin with a prebend segment of constant length. In the outer zone of the IM (i) clusters of coalescing collecting ducts (CDs) form organizing motif for loops of Henle and vasa recta; (ii) DTLs and descending vasa recta (DVR) are arrayed outside CD clusters, whereas ATLs and ascending vasa recta (AVR) are uniformly distributed inside and outside clusters; (iii) within CD clusters, interstitial nodal spaces are formed by a CD on one side, AVR on two sides, and an ATL on the fourth side. These spaces may function as mixing chambers for urea from CDs and NaCl from ATLs. In the inner zone of the IM, cluster organization disappears and half of Henle’s loops have broad lateral bends wrapped around terminal CDs. Mathematical models based on these findings and involving solute mixing in the interstitial spaces can produce urine slightly more concentrated than that of a moderately antidiuretic rat but no higher. PMID:21054810

Dantzler, W. H.; Pannabecker, T. L.; Layton, A. T.; Layton, H. E.



Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants could cause contamination of the human food-chain, being beans a low-cost proteins source and a staple food in many Countries. Moreover, the compost application has allowed to reduce the As concentration in all tissues of the amended plants than those non-amended. The concentration of the As free-fraction in soil decreased significantly by increasing level of compost application, whereas the higher the compost application the higher was the concentration of specifically sorbed As by soil colloidal particles. The results of this study suggest that the growth of bean plants and their own As uptake were substantially affected by the mobility of As in soils and the plant management. Higher mobility of As in soil resulted in higher As uptake by bean plants. The use of compost, in addition to improve bean plants growth and their nutritional status, has allowed to limit the As uptake by biomasses, through the immobilization of the metalloid, derived by irrigation water, on/in their humified organic macromolecules. Furthermore, the supply of nutrients through the compost falls within the context of the organic farming, eco-friendly production system, which ensures the sustainability of the soil, improving its fertility.

Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.



Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi.  


Contamination by cadmium in the environment is of great concern because of its toxicity and threats to human and animal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of a cadmium contaminated diet on the osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi and eventual accumulation of this metal in vital organs such as the kidneys, which are directly implicated in water regulation. Originally, we used Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) to avoid the matrix interference due to the highly organic content in the biological samples. Our results show that Meriones shawi successfully maintained a homeostasis state and presented a special adaptation to regulate urine volume during cadmium exposure by decreasing diuresis and increasing urinary osmolality. The plasma osmolality and hematocrit remained constant throughout the experiment. The stripping signals of cadmium are linear up to 0.3-100 ?g L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 0.28 ?g L(-1). The DPASV technique was useful for easy, fast, selective and sensitive determination of Cd, which permits working at cellular concentration. This gives us more information about the chemical form in which Cd is introduced into the organ, as well as the intracellular Cd quantities. This study has potential importance if this valuable novel animal model, imitating human and animal environmental chronic exposure to Cd, could serve as an appropriate terrestrial biomonitor for Cd contaminated sites. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-cost and fast technology for the detection of pollutants and for studying the impairment caused by their effects. PMID:22696068

Mbarek, Sihem; Saidi, Tounes; González-Costas, Javier M; González-Romero, Elisa; Ben Chaouacha Chekir, Rafika



Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.  


Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R




EPA Science Inventory

The speciaton of arsenic in water, food and urine are analytical capabilities which are an essential part in arsenic risk assessment. The cancer risk associated with arsenic has been the driving force in generating the analytical research in each of these matrices. This presentat...


March 23, 2000 Hierarchical Modeling of Arsenic Concentrations at Entry Points in  

E-print Network

and sources affected by the various proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL) regulations are simulated based in public drinking water. The 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires EPA to re­evaluate the MCL Research Council Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water has concluded that the current MCL (50 ¯g


Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. Conclusions The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects described above, is sufficient to understand and predict recent experimental data. More experimental studies are needed to explicate the detailed mechanisms of action of glutathione on arsenic methylation. Recent experimental work on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation and our modeling study suggest that supplements that increase hepatic glutathione production should be considered as strategies to reduce adverse health effects in affected populations. PMID:24885596



Arsenic speciation and spatial and interspecies differences of metal concentrations in mollusks and crustaceans from a South China estuary.  


Arsenic speciation and concentrations were determined in mollusks and crustaceans in the intertidal zone from twelve locations in Zhanjiang estuary, South China. Metal concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also concurrently determined in these species. Arsenic speciation analysis showed that the less-toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) constituted 80.6-98.8 % of all As compounds, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) constituted 0.47-3.44 %. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As(V) were only detected in the whelk Drupa fiscella and the crab Heteropilumnus ciliatus, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)] was not detected in any of the sampled specimens, but there were also unidentified other As species. A strong spatial variation of metals in the oyster Saccostrea cucullata was found in the estuary, confirming that oysters can be used as a good biomonitor of metal contamination in the studied area. The concentrations of eight metals in the studied mollusks and crustaceans clearly revealed that these invertebrates accumulated different metals to different degrees. Furthermore, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb contents in mollusks and crustacean samples were below the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) safe concentrations, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of the metals through marine mollusks and crustaceans consumption. PMID:23475307

Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li



High arsenic concentrations and enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes in a fractured-bedrock ground-water system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water with high arsenic concentrations (up to 26.6????mol L- 1) has sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O in the fractured-bedrock, ground-water system of the Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. The ranges of sulfur and oxygen isotope values in aqueous sulfate, ??34S[SO4] and ??18O[SO4], at the Kelly's Cove watershed are + 3.4 to + 4.9??? and - 2.0 to + 6.7???, respectively. These isotope values are strikingly similar to those of the Goose River, Maine watershed which has ??34S[SO4] and ??18O[SO4] ranges of + 3.7 to + 4.6 ??? and - 2.6 to + 7.5???, respectively. In both systems, high arsenic concentrations occur with high ??34S[SO4] and ??18O[SO4] values, yet redox conditions and underlying rock types are quite different. The isotope values of sulfide minerals, ??34S[min], from four bedrock cores vary over short distances and range from - 5.1 to + 7.5???. The ??34S[SO4] values are controlled by the ??34S[min] values with minor input of atmospheric SO4. The much narrower range in ??34S[SO4] values than ??34S[min] values is probably due to sufficient ground-water mixing at a scale greater than the ??34S[min] variability. The ??34S[SO4] values are about 2??? higher than the average ??34S[min] value and fall within the range of ??34S[min] values, indicating only minor fractionation due to bacterial reduction of SO4. The highest ??18O[SO4] values were measured in the downgradient, confined, arsenic-rich ground water. High ??18O[SO4] values there cannot be due to aeration by atmospheric oxygen, but may arise from reoxidation of reduced SO4 products. The enrichment factors of ??18O in SO4 compared to H2O, + 7.2 to + 15.5???, in the Kelly's Cove ground water and the negligible 34S enrichment is very similar to those derived from experimental data of anaerobic sulfide oxidation in the presence of Mn and Fe oxides. Sea level at the Kelly's Cove watershed was approximately 80??m above present sea level about 13 000??years before present, imposing reducing conditions on that area of the watershed. Sea level dropped approximately 60??m below present sea level about 11 000??years before present, allowing for possible oxidation of sulfide minerals and precipitation of arsenic in ferric oxyhydroxides during aeration of the ground-water system. Under present redox conditions, there is evidence that bacteria reduction of ferric oxyhydroxides releases arsenic. The fractionation of 18O in the SO4 during anaerobic oxidation of sulfide in the presence of Mn and Fe oxides and subsequent release of arsenic during Mn and Fe oxide reduction may explain the relationship between high arsenic concentrations and elevated 18O[SO4] at Kelly's Cove. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lipfert, G.; Sidle, W.C.; Reeve, A.S.; Ayuso, R.A.; Boyce, A.J.



Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine

Maeve M. Moriarty; Iris Koch; Robert A. Gordon; Kenneth J. Reimer



21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...



21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.  

...Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...



Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.  


Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral ²?Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. ²?Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A



Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?  

PubMed Central

The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. PMID:12842773

Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Subhash C; Pati, Shyamapada; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Rahman, Mohammad M; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta R; Chakraborti, Anil K; Basu, Gautam K



Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic factors, socio-economic conditions, and concentrations in farm soils of the eight kinds of heavy metal. Spatial regression and GIS (Geographic Information System) were used. The registration contained 22,083 patients, who were diagnosed with oral cancer between 1982 and 2002. The concentrations of metal in the soils were retrieved from a nation-wide survey in the 1980s. Results The incidence rate of oral cancer is geographically related to the concentrations of arsenic and nickel in the patients' residential areas, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing as controlled variables. Conclusions Beside the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, arsenic and nickel in farm soils may be new risk factors for oral cancer. These two kinds of metal may involve in the development of oral cancer. Further studies are required to understand the pathways via which metal in the farm soils exerts its effects on human health. PMID:20152030



A Market Basket Survey of Inorganic Arsenic in Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary arsenic intake estimates based on surveys of total arsenic concentrations appear to be dominated by intake of the relatively non-toxic, organic arsenic forms found in seafood. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in food have not been not well characterized. Accurate dietary intake estimates for inorganic arsenic are needed to support studies of arsenic's status as an essential nutrient, and to

R. A Schoof; L. J Yost; J Eickhoff; E. A Crecelius; D. W Cragin; D. M Meacher; D. B Menzel



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium

T. Hew-Butler; T. D. Noakes; S. J. Soldin; J. G. Verbalis



Dry matter intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and concentration of minerals in the blood and urine of steers fed rice straw treated with wood ash extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to evaluate the effects of feeding rice straw treated with wood ash extract (WAE) on dry matter (DM) intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and mineral concentrations in the blood and urine were conducted using 12 Boran steers. The steers were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of untreated, urea treated and WAE treated rice straws in a completely randomised

G. H. Laswai; J. D. Mtamakaya; A. E. Kimambo; A. A. Aboud; P. W. Mtakwa



Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast to concentrations over 5,000 ?g/L in the Congo Road area. Although concentrations of fluoride up to 4 mg/L were reported for a few well-water samples collected throughout the Newark Basin, about 90 percent of the samples had concentrations of 0.5 mg/L or less. The USGS sampled 58 wells primarily in 5 areas in the Newark Basin, southeastern Pennsylvania, from February 2004 through April 2005 to identify other possible areas of elevated arsenic, boron, and fluoride and to characterize the geochemical environment associated with elevated concentrations of these constituents. Sampled wells included 12 monitor wells at an industrial facility near Congo Road, 45 private-supply wells in Berks, Montgomery, and Bucks Counties, and 1 private-supply well near Dillsburg, York County, an area where elevated fluoride in ground water had been reported in the adjacent Gettysburg Basin. Wells were sampled in transects from the diabase through the adjacent hornfels and into the unaltered shales of the Brunswick Group. Field measurements were made of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, dissolved and total concentrations of selected trace elements, and boron isotopic composition. Generally, the ground water from the 46 private-supply wells had relatively neutral to alkaline pH (ranging from 6.1 to 9.1) and moderate concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Most water samples were of the calcium-bicarbonate type. Concentrations of arsenic up to 60 ?g/L, boron up to 3,950 ?g/L, and fluoride up to 0.70 mg/L were measured. Drinking-water standards or health advisories (for constituents that do not have standards established) were exceeded most frequently (about 20 percent of samples) for arsenic and boron and less frequently (6 percent or less of samples) for total iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, lead, molybdenum, and strontium. In water from 12 monitor

Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.



Arsenic metabolism and thioarsenicals.  


Arsenic has received considerable attention in the world, since it can lead to a multitude of toxic effects and has been recognized as a human carcinogen causing cancers. Here, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the proposed mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation, with a little about cellular uptake, toxicity and clinical utilization of arsenicals. Since pentavalent methylated metabolites were found in animal urine after exposure to iAs(III), methylation was considered to be a detoxification process, but the discovery of methylated trivalent intermediates and thioarsenicals in urine has diverted the view and gained much interest regarding arsenic biotransformation. To further investigate the partially understood phenomena relating to arsenic toxicity and the uses of arsenic as a drug, it is important to elucidate the exact pathways involved in metabolism of this metalloid, as the toxicity and the clinical uses of arsenic can be best recognized in context of its biotransformation. Thereby, in this perspective, we have focused on arsenic metabolic pathways including three proposed mechanisms: a classic pathway by Challenger in 1945, followed by a new metabolic pathway proposed by Hayakawa in 2005 involving arsenic-glutathione complexes, while the third is a new reductive methylation pathway that is proposed by our group involving As-protein complexes. According to previous and present in vivo and in vitro experiments, we conclude that the methylation reaction takes place with simultaneous reductive rather than stepwise oxidative methylation. In addition, production of pentavalent methylated arsenic metabolites are suggested to be as the end product of metabolism, rather than intermediates. PMID:22358131

Rehman, Kanwal; Naranmandura, Hua



Arsenic induced overexpression of inflammatory cytokines based on the human urothelial cell model in vitro and urinary secretion of individuals chronically exposed to arsenic.  


Chronic persistent inflammation could play an important role in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, and inflammation is a critical factor for bladder cancer development. In this study, we measured urine levels of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and IL-8 in arsenic exposure workers and expressions of inflammatory cytokines in human urothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We found the concentrations of IL-8, TNF-?, and TGF-? presented in urine were significantly elevated in the high urinary arsenic workers compared with the low urinary arsenic workers. Multiple regression analysis showed that the urinary IL-8 level was significantly positively associated with urinary iAs concentration after adjusting for the confounding effects of age, employed years, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol, and seafood consumption in recent 3 days. Urinary TNF-? and TGF-? levels were also significantly positively associated with urinary iAs concentration, and SMI. TGF-? level was negatively associated with age after adjusting for the confounding effects. Consistent with the results in vivo, mRNA expressions of TNF-?, TGF-?, and IL-8 and protein expressions of TGF-?, TGF-?1, and IL-8 were significantly elevated in SV-HUC-1 cells after exposure to lower concentrations of arsenite for 24h as compared to the control group. These data indicated that arsenic increased the secretion of inflammatory factors and IL-8, TNF-?, and TGF-? expression may be a useful biomarker of the effect of arsenic exposure. PMID:25257954

Liu, Shengnan; Sun, Qingshan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lin; Song, Yingli; Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Guifan



Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.  


In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (p<0.05). The results showed that Pb, Cd and As contents in 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% rice samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. PMID:24206698

Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui



Arsenic incorporation in a salt marsh ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Replicate portions of a Delaware salt marsh were enclosed in cylindrical microcosms and exposed to elevated levels of inorganic arsenic (arsenate). All biotic and abiotic components in dosed cylinders rapidly incorporated arsenic. Spartina blades showed the greatest arsenic enrichment, with dosed plants incorporating arsenic concentrations an order of magnitude higher than controls. Spartina detritus and sediments also exhibited greatly elevated arsenic concentrations. Virtually all of the arsenic was incorporated into plant tissue or strongly sorbed to cell surfaces. Thus, elevated arsenic concentrations in estuarine waters will be reflected in living and non-living components of a salt marsh ecosystem, implying that increased arsenic will be available to organisms within the marsh ecosystem.

Sanders, James G.; Osman, Richard W.



Arsenic pollution sources.  


Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia



Arsenic Exposure and Cancer Mortality in a US-based Prospective Cohort: the Strong Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Inorganic arsenic, a carcinogen at high exposure levels, is a major global health problem. Prospective studies on carcinogenic effects at low-moderate arsenic levels are lacking. Methods We evaluated the association between baseline arsenic exposure and cancer mortality in 3,932 American Indians 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North/South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991 and were followed through 2008. We estimated inorganic arsenic exposure as the sum of inorganic and methylated species in urine. Cancer deaths (386 overall, 78 lung, 34 liver, 18 prostate, 26 kidney, 24 esophagus/stomach, 25 pancreas, 32 colon/rectal, 26 breast, 40 lymphatic/hematopoietic) were assessed by mortality surveillance reviews. We hypothesized an association with lung, liver, prostate and kidney cancer. Results Median (interquartile range) urine concentration for inorganic plus methylated arsenic species was 9.7 (5.8–15.6) ?g/g creatinine. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) comparing the 80th versus 20th percentiles of arsenic were 1.14 (0.92–1.41) for overall cancer, 1.56 (1.02–2.39) for lung cancer, 1.34 (0.66, 2.72) for liver cancer, 3.30 (1.28–8.48) for prostate cancer, and 0.44 (0.14, 1.14) for kidney cancer. The corresponding hazard ratios were 2.46 (1.09–5.58) for pancreatic cancer, and 0.46 (0.22–0.96) for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Arsenic was not associated with cancers of the esophagus and stomach, colon and rectum, and breast. Conclusions Low to moderate exposure to inorganic arsenic was prospectively associated with increased mortality for cancers of the lung, prostate and pancreas. Impact These findings support the role of low-moderate arsenic exposure in lung, prostate and pancreas cancer development and can inform arsenic risk assessment. PMID:23800676

García-Esquinas, Esther; Pollán, Marina; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara; Farley, John; Yeh, Jeunliang; Best, Lyle G.; Navas-Acien, Ana



Analytical strategy for the determination of various arsenic species in landfill leachate containing high concentrations of chlorine and organic carbon by HPLC-ICPMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a variety of wastes containing arsenic are disposed of in landfills, such facilities can play a prominent role in disseminating arsenic sources to the environment. Since it is widely recognized that arsenic toxicity is highly dependent on its species, accurate determination of various arsenic species should be considered as one of the essential goals to properly account for the potential health risk of arsenic in human and the environment. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry linked to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICPMS) is acknowledged as one of the most important tools for the trace analysis of metallic speciation because of its superior separation capability and detectability. However, the complexity of matrices can cause severe interferences in the analysis results, which is the problem often encountered with HPLC-ICPMS system. High concentration of organic carbon in a sample solution causes carbon build-up on the skimmer and sampling cone, which reduces analytical sensitivity and requires a high maintenance level for its cleaning. In addition, argon from the plasma and chlorine from the sample matrix may combine to form 40Ar35Cl, which has the same nominal mass to charge (m/z) ratio as arsenic. In this respect, analytical strategy for the determination of various arsenic species (e.g., inorganic arsenite and arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, dimethyldithioarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine) in landfill leachate containing high concentrations of chlorine and organic carbon was developed in the present study. Solid phase extraction disk (i.e., C18 disk), which does not significantly adsorb any target arsenic species, was used to remove organic carbon in sample solutions. In addition, helium (He) gas was injected into the collision reaction cell equipped in ICPMS to collapse 40Ar35Cl into individual 40Ar and 35Cl. Although He gas also decreased arsenic intensity by blocking 75As, its signal to noise ratio significantly increased after injecting He gas. We demonstrated that the analytical strategy was achieved improved sensitivity for the determination of various arsenic species in the landfill leachate as one of the complex matrices.

Bae, J.; An, J.; Kim, J.; Jung, H.; Kim, K.; Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.



Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.



Management Strategies to Reduce Arsenic Uptake by Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contaminated irrigation water in Bangladesh is most likely responsible for high arsenic levels in soils used for grow ing rice. Elevated arsenic concentrations in rice grain produced in such high arsenic water-soil environments ha ve been demonstrated. Because Bangladeshi diets are dominated by rice, arsenic contaminated rice could be aggravating existing human health risks from arsenic contaminated drinking water

J. G. Lauren; J. M. Duxbury


Arsenic removal from water  


Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)



Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Scope Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid and polyhydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPAA) alone and in combination on bioavailability, intracellular metabolism, and antiproliferative activity was determined in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Methods and Results The concentration of phenolic metabolites was quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection and MS. Urine concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and polyhydroxy-?-valerolactones were increased significantly in men drinking GT compared to control. Urine concentration of 3-O-methylgallic acid (3OMGA) was significantly increased in men drinking BT compared to control. Serum 3,4-DHPAA was significantly increased after consumption of GT and BT and 4-HPAA after GT consumption. In vitro treatment of HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 3,4-DHPAA and EGCG exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect, while methylation of 3,4-DHPAA was significantly decreased. 3OMGA exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity among the phenolic acids. Conclusions The consumption of both, GT and BT, was associated with a significant increase in urinary and serum phenolic acids. PMID:23319439

Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Abgaryan, Narine; Vicinanza, Roberto; de Oliveira, Daniela Moura; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Aronson, William J.; Heber, David



The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2-8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03?g/L for cases vs. 4.48?g/L for controls, P < 0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of “yam, sweet potato, or dasheen”, “carrot or pumpkin”, “callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi”, cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36?g/L for cases vs. 4.65?g/L for controls, P = 0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating “callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi” were significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P < 0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A.; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric



In-vitro Relationship between Proteinbinding and Free Drug Concentrations of a Water-soluble Selective Beta-adrenoreceptor Antagonist (Atenolol) and Its Interaction with Arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of binding of a drug to plasma proteins has a marked effect on its distribution, elimination, and pharmacological effect since only the unbound fraction is available for distribution into extra-vascular space. The protein-binding of atenolol was measured by equilibrium dialysis in the bovine serum albumin (BSA). Free atenolol concentration was increased due to addition of arsenic which reduced

M. A. Alam; M. A. Awal; N. Subhan; M. Mostofa



Digital Spatial Data for Predicted Nitrate and Arsenic Concentrations in Basin-Fill Aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers Study Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area is a 1:250,000-scale vector spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquife...

D. W. Anning, T. S. McKinney



Monomethylated trivalent arsenic species disrupt steroid receptor interactions with their DNA response elements at non-cytotoxic cellular concentrations.  


Arsenic (As) is considered a top environmental chemical of human health because it has been linked to adverse health effects including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive and developmental problems. In several cell culture and animal models, As acts as an endocrine disruptor, which may underlie many of its health effects. Previous work showed that steroid receptor (SR)-driven gene expression is disrupted in cells treated with inorganic As (arsenite, iAs(+3)). In those studies, low iAs(+3) concentrations (0.1-0.7 ?M) stimulated hormone-inducible transcription, whereas somewhat higher but still non-cytotoxic levels (1-3 ?M) inhibited transcription. This investigation focuses on the mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects and evaluates the role of methylated trivalent As metabolites on SR function. Recent evidence suggests that, compared with iAs, methylated forms may have distinct biochemical effects. Here, fluorescence polarization (FP) experiments utilizing purified, hormone-bound human glucocorticoid (GR) and progesterone receptor (PR) have demonstrated that neither inorganic (iAs(+3)) nor dimethylated (DMA(+3)) species of trivalent As affect receptor interactions with glucocorticoid DNA response elements (GREs). However, monomethylated forms (monomethylarsenite, MMA(+3) and monomethylarsonic diglutathione, MADG) strongly inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE binding. Additionally, speciation studies of iAs(+3)-treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells show that, under treatment conditions that cause inhibition of hormone-inducible gene transcription, the intracellular concentration of MADG is sufficient to inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE interactions in vivo. These results indicate that arsenic's inhibitory endocrine disruption effects are probably caused in part by methylated metabolites' disruption of SR ability to bind DNA response elements that are crucial to hormone-driven gene transcription. PMID:23765520

Gosse, Julie A; Taylor, Vivien F; Jackson, Brian P; Hamilton, Joshua W; Bodwell, Jack E



National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh



Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.  


Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ?40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P



Determination of arsenic in foods by flow injection on-line sorption pre-concentration with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.  


A method was developed for the determination of total arsenic in foods using flow injection on-line sorption coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) using a cigarette filter as the sorbent material. After reducing As(V) to As(III) by using L-cysteine, the determination of total arsenic was achieved through on-line formation and retention of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate arsenic complex (As(III)-PDC) on the cigarette filter, which was packed in the pre-concentration column and total arsenic was determined by HG-AFS. The analytes were eluted with 1.68 mol l(-1) HCl from the sorbent material. With consumption of 22 ml of the sample solution, an enrichment factor of 25.6 was obtained at a sample throughput of 11.6 h(-1). The detection limits (3 standard deviations) and the precision (relative standard deviation) in foods ranged from 2.5 to 9.9 ng g(-1) and from 1.1 to 2.2%, respectively. The method was used to determine arsenic in carrot, mushroom, chicken tissue, cod fish, rice, common carp and shrimp. PMID:19680958

Li, N; Fang, G; Zhao, L; Wang, S



A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and\\/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs.The samples were collected from a

Michael Scott-Ham; Fiona C. Burton



Determination of arsenic in chicken feed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with polyurethane foam.  


A pre-concentration procedure with solid-phase extraction was developed for the determination of arsenic (As) in chicken feed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The procedure was based on the sorption of As(III) ions as complexes with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate onto a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam. After pre-concentration, the As was removed from the mini-column by acid solution, and the analyte content in the eluate was measured by HG-AAS. The following main experimental conditions were established: adjustment of the As solution pH with 0.05?mol?l?¹ HCl, 2.88?×?10?³ mol?l?¹ complexing agent concentration and 6.0?mol?l?¹ eluting hydrochloric acid concentration. The proposed method produced an enrichment factor of 67, with 0.050 and 0.165?µg?g?¹ limits of detection and quantification, respectively. The procedure was applied to the determination of As content in two types of chicken feed using the proposed procedure and atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomisation (ETAAS). The t-test indicated that the results were not significantly different at a confidence level of 95%. PMID:22845621

Dos Passos, A S; Néri, T S; Maciel, M V; da Silva Romão, I L; Lemos, V A



Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-K? and Co-K? lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 ?gL -1. The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

Barros, Haydn; Marcó Parra, Lué-Merú; Bennun, Leonardo; Greaves, Eduardo D.



Arsenic concentrations in dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and laboratory experiments were performed in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area near Las Vegas, NV, USA to evaluate arsenic concentrations associated with dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles. Soil samples were collected from 17 types of desert surfaces and five unpaved parking lot locations for analyses. The surface units are based on surficial characteristics that affect dust emissions. Arsenic concentrations were also measured in dust emitted from each surface unit using a Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). Emissions were measured from ORV trails and undisturbed terrain. Concentrations of As in the soil and parking lot samples ranged from 3.49 to 83.02 ?g g-1 and from 16.13 to 312 ?g g-1 in the PI-SWERL samples. The lower concentrations in the soil samples are expected because of the larger particle sizes (<2 mm) as compared to the PI-SWERL samples (<10 and 10-60 ?m). Soluble As in the PI-SWERL samples was as high as 14.7 ?g g-1. In the Nellis Dunes area the emission rates for As for wind-induced emissions (wind erosion) are highest for the surfaces with significant amounts of sand. Surfaces rich in silt and clay, on the other hand, produce nearly no arsenic during wind erosion but can emit substantial arsenic concentrations when driven on by off-road vehicles. The elevated arsenic emissions from the Nellis Dunes area are of great concern because the site is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Las Vegas, and utilized by over 300,000 visitors annually.

Soukup, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Ulery, April; McLaurin, Brett T.; Baron, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin



Assessment of in vivo Bioaccessibility of Arsenic in Dietary Rice by a Mass Balance Approach  

PubMed Central

A pilot dietary experiment was conducted over ten days to evaluate whether a simple yet often under utilized approach of constructing mass balance of arsenic metabolites can be used to assess in vivo bioaccessibility of arsenic in cooked rice. Two volunteers were involved in this study. The quantity of drinking water, food and urine samples, together with arsenic concentration and speciation of these samples were monitored to construct a mass balance of arsenic intake and excretion. In the first five days, the two volunteers on a wheat diet had an average arsenic daily intake of 15.4 ± 2.6 µg and 9.6 ± 0.7 µg, respectively. In the next five days, these volunteers switched to a rice diet, increasing the average arsenic daily intake to 36.4 ± 2.8 µg and 34.1 ± 7.7 µg, respectively. Daily excretion of urinary arsenic, mostly as dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), doubled from 9.8 ± 0.3 µg to 21.0 ± 3.0 µg, and from 6.5 ± 0.8 µg to 11.6 ± 4.5 µg, respectively. The percentage of ingested arsenic excreted in urine remained constant at ~ 58% for one volunteer before and after the rice diet, and was ~ 69 % for another. Mass balance established during a controlled dietary experiment over 10 days is shown to be a useful approach to evaluate in vivo bioaccessibility and metabolism of arsenic uptake from diet and is applicable to study with more subjects. PMID:20071009

He, Yi; Zheng, Yan



Arsenic treatment considerations  

SciTech Connect

The best arsenic treatment technique for a given utility will depend on arsenic concentration and species in source water, other constituents in the water, existing treatment processes, treatment costs, and handling of residuals. To evaluate these issues, a national survey investigated arsenic occurrence and speciation in US drinking water sources. In general, total arsenic concentration was higher in groundwater than in surface water supplies. Particulate arsenic was more abundant than previously suspected, and more arsenate than arsenite was present. The cost of arsenic treatment increased in the following order: modified conventional treatment {much_lt} activated alumina or anion exchange < reverse osmosis. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective treatment still might not be best, because secondary treatment benefits and residuals handling should also be taken into account.

Chen, H.W. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Frey, M.M. [McGuire Environmental Consulting Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Clifford, D. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering



Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n=17) of 0.11mg\\/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25mg\\/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16mg\\/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4–12 months) was considered with

Andrew A. Meharg; Guoxin Sun; Paul N. Williams; Eureka Adomako; Claire Deacon; Yong-Guan Zhu; Joerg Feldmann; Andrea Raab



Elevated concentrations of arsenic, predominance of thioarsenates, and orpiment precipitation on the seafloor at the marine shallow-water hydrothermal system off Milos Island, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine shallow-water hydrothermal vents off Milos Island, Greece, are discharging a low pH, high temperature, highly sulfidic brine into the coastal ocean. We present here the discovery that hydrothermal fluids are extremely elevated in arsenic (maximum ~78 ?M (5.9 mg/L)), or almost 3000 times sea water concentration). This is the highest concentration of arsenic reported for marine hydrothermal vents to date. Ion microprobe analysis confirmed that red hydrothermal precipitates on the seafloor are orpiment (As2S3). Two sites were investigated; Palaeochori Bay, where abundant gas discharge is surrounded by large white and red patches of hydrothermal precipitates in 3-5 meters water depth, and Spathi Bay, a deeper site (~18 meters) where large patches of white hydrothermal precipitates occur. Total arsenic was measured on the hydrothermal fluids, as well as on fluids from brown areas surrounding the white and red patches. These 4 areas contained total arsenic concentrations of 20 (brown), 640 (white), 2700 (red), and 5900 ?g/L (Spathi). Arsenic speciation analysis of the hydrothermal fluids revealed arsenite, arsenate, and mono-, di-, and trithioarsenate as the major species present in hydrothermal fluids. Fluids from the red area at Palaeochori Bay contained predominantly arsenite (77 %) followed by arsenate (14 %), then monothioarsenate (7 %) and dithioarsenate (1%). The hydrothermal fluids from the Palaeochori Bay white area were dominantly arsenite (49 %) and dithioarsenate (29 %), followed by arsenate, monothioarsenate, and trithioarsenate (9, 9, and 2 %, respectively). The brown area in Palaeochori Bay contained a similar distribution of arsenic species compared to the white area, only at much lower concentrations. Finally, the Spathi Bay site, which contained overall higher H2S and lower pH, was dominated by trithioarsenate (50%), followed by arsenite (24%), dithioarsenate (22%), and low abundances of monothioarsenate (3%) and arsenate (1%). Each of the hydrothermal fluids had pH ~5.1, and the detection of trithioarsenate at such acidic conditions is unique so far. Previously, trithioarsenate has only been observed in geothermal waters with pH > 6. The occurrence of di- and trithioarsenates in the hydrothermal fluids seems to be related to H2S concentration, and may be linked to the precipitation of orpiment on the seafloor. This also suggests that thioarsenic species are much more important in marine arsenic cycling than previously considered. Very little is know about the toxicity of thioarsenic species, but previous investigations on bioluminescent marine bacteria (Vibrio fisheri) have shown an increase in toxicity with an increasing number of thio(SH)-groups. The toxicity of trithioarsenate was reported to be similar to that of arsenite. Thus, marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems may be considered as natural analogs to coastal anthropogenic pollution.

Price, R. E.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Savov, I. P.; Pichler, T.



Arsenic concentration in porewater of an alkaline coal ash disposal site: Roles of siderite precipitation/dissolution and soil cover.  


The geochemical behavior of As in porewaters of an alkaline coal ash disposal site was investigated using multilevel samplers. The disposal site was in operation from 1983 until 1994 and was covered with 0.3-0.5m thick soils in 2001 when this study was initiated. Sequential extraction analyses and batch leaching experiments were also performed using the coal ash samples collected from the disposal site. The results suggest the important roles of siderite (FeCO(3)) precipitation/dissolution and soil cover, which have been ignored previously. Arsenic levels in the porewater were very low (average of 10microgL(-1)) when the site was covered with soil due to coprecipitation with siderite. The soil cover enabled the creation of anoxic conditions, which raised the Fe concentration by the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides. Because of the high alkalinity generated from the alkaline coal ash, even a small increase in the Fe concentration (0.66mgL(-1) on average) could cause siderite precipitation. When the soil cover was removed, however, an oxidizing condition was created and triggered the precipitation of dissolved Fe as (hydr)oxides. As a result, the dissolution of previously precipitated As-rich siderite caused higher As concentration in the porewater (average of 345microgL(-1)). PMID:19682722

Kim, Kangjoo; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Jinsam; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Moon, Jeong-Tae; Hwang, Gab-Soo; Cha, Wang-Seog



Effects of abandoned gold mine tailings on the arsenic concentrations in water and sediments of jack of clubs lake, B.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1933 to 1964 gold was extracted by underground mining at the northeast shore of Jack of Clubs Lake. At present, tailings and waste rock 4.5 m thick covers approximately 25 hectares of land adjacent to the lake. Arsenic concentrations (>2,000 ?g.g) were found in the tailing materials. Two simultaneous processes are controlling the elevated As concentrations in the lake

J. M. Azcue; A. Mudroch; F. Rosa; G. E. M. Hall



Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures

M. K. Sengupta; M. A. Hossain; A. Mukherjee; S. Ahamed; B. Das; B. Nayak; A. Pal; D. Chakraborti



Lack of protein kinase C-? leads to impaired urine concentrating ability and decreased aquaporin-2 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.  


Regulation of water and urea transport in the inner medullary collecting duct is essential for urine concentration. Aquaporin (AQP)2 water channels and urea transporter (UT)-A1 are inserted into the apical membrane upon phosphorylation of the channels to allow the transcellular movement of water and urea. Since ANG II activates PKC in many cell types, we tested the hypothesis that ANG II-induced regulation of water and urea transport is mediated by PKC. Osmotic minipumps delivered ANG II to wild-type (WT) or PKC-?(-/-) mice for 7 days. Inner medullas were harvested, and protein abundance was determined by immunoblot. ANG II increased systolic blood pressure to a similar degree in WT and PKC-?(-/-) mice. ANG II had no effect on the urine output of WT mice but increased that of PKC-?(-/-) mice. In accordance with observed differences in urine output, AQP2 abundance was unchanged in ANG II-treated WT animals but was decreased in PKC-?(-/-) mice. No change in membrane accumulation was seen. Phosphorylation of the cAMP-induced transcription factor CREB was decreased in PKC-?(-/-) mice in response to ANG II with no change in overall CREB abundance. ANG II did not alter the abundance of UT-A1 protein in WT or PKC-?(-/-) mice. Phosphorylation and overall abundance of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein, a transcription factor that regulates UT-A1, were also unaltered by ANG II in either group. We conclude that PKC-? protects against ANG II-induced decreases in urine concentrating ability by maintaining AQP2 levels through CREB phosphorylation. PMID:22492943

Thai, Tiffany L; Blount, Mitsi A; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M



Environmental arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers presented at the Intl Conference on Environmental Arsenic, held in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., on October 5-8, 1976, are reviewed. The topics discussed include: applications of arsine evolution methods to environmental analyses; flameless atomic absorption and gas liquid chromatographic studies in arsenic bioanalysis; environmental mobility of arsenic; various effects of arsenic in Japan; industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment;

R. S. Braman; P. Mushak; K. W. Nelson; K. J. Irgolic; T. J. Smith; S. Pinto; E. A. Woolson



Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.



Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato, E-mail: [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)



Investigating concentration distributions of arsenic, gold and antimony in grain-size fractions of gold ore using instrumental neutron activation analysis.  


Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to quantify concentrations of arsenic (As), gold (Au) and antimony (Sb) in grain-size fractions of a gold ore. The ore, which was taken from the Ahafo project site of Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd., was fractionated into 14 grain-size fractions using state-of-the-art analytical sieve machine. The minimum sieve mesh size used was 36mum and grains >2000mum were not considered for analysis. Result of the sieving was analysed with easysieve(R) software. The<36mum subfraction was found to be the optimum, hosting bulk of all three elements. Arsenic was found to be highly concentrated in<36-100mum size fractions and erratically distributed in from 150mum fraction and above. For gold, with the exception of the subfraction <36mum which had exceptionally high concentration, the element was found to be approximately equally distributed in all the size fractions but slightly "played out" in 150-400mum size fractions. Antimony occurrence in the sample was relatively high in <36mum size fraction followed by 600, 800, 400 and 36mum size fractions in that order. Gold content in the sample was comparatively far greater than arsenic and antimony; this is indicative of level of gold mineralization in the concession where the sample ore was taken. The concentration of gold in the composite sample was in the range 564-8420ppm as compared to 14.33-186.92ppm for arsenic and 1.09-9.48ppm for antimony. Elemental concentrations were correlated with each other and with grain-size fractions and the relationships between these descriptive parameters were established. PMID:19896855

Nyarku, M; Nyarko, B J B; Serfor-Armah, Y; Osae, S



Arsenic in Bangladesh Groundwater: from Science to Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large proportion of the populations of Bangladesh and other South Asian countries is at risk of contracting cancers and other debilitating diseases due to exposure to high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater supplied by millions of tube wells. Starting in January 2000, and in partnership with several Bangladeshi institutions, an interdisciplinary team of health, earth, and social scientists from Columbia University has focused its efforts to address this crisis on a 25 km2 region in Araihazar upazila, about 20 km northeast of Dhaka. The project started with the recording of the position and depth of ~6600 wells in the area, the collection of groundwater samples from these wells, and laboratory analyses for arsenic and a suite of other constituents. This was followed by the recruitment of 12,000 adult inhabitants of the area for a long-term cohort study of the effects of arsenic exposure, as well as cross-sectional studies of their children. This presentation will focus on (1) the extreme degree of spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater, (2) the notion that spatial variability hampers mitigation in the sense that it complicates predictions but also offers an opportunity for mitigation because many households live within walking or drilling distance of safe water, and (3) the implication of recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization for potential temporal changes in groundwater arsenic. In addition, (4) a unique data set documenting the response of 6500 households to 4 years of mitigation in Araihazar, supported by documented reductions in exposure to arsenic based on urine analyses, will be presented. The presentation will conclude with (5) a proposal for scaling up mitigation efforts to the rest of the country by targeting safe aquifers with information transmitted to the village level from a central data base using cellular phones.

van Geen, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Graziano, J. H.



Chronic arsenicosis in goats with special reference to its exposure, excretion and deposition in an arsenic contaminated zone.  


Thirty goats were selected randomly from a village of Nadia district, West Bengal according to the previous reports of human being suffering from chronic arsenicosis. Environmental samples viz. drinking water, rice plants and grass used for goat and biological samples viz. blood, urine, faeces, hair and meat were collected to evaluate the arsenic status. It was found that arsenic concentration in both environmental and biological samples was significantly (p<0.01) higher rather than respective samples on control zone. Bio-concentration factor (BCF) and bio-transfer factor (BTF) are indicated to evaluate the subclinical toxicity in goat as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22306488

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Das, Subhashree; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar



High-throughput chemical screening identifies AG-490 as a stimulator of aquaporin 2 membrane expression and urine concentration.  


A reduction or loss of plasma membrane aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in kidney principal cells due to defective vasopressin (VP) signaling through the VP receptor causes excessive urine production, i.e., diabetes insipidus. The amount of AQP2 on the plasma membrane is regulated by a balance of exocytosis and endocytosis and is the rate limiting step for water reabsorption in the collecting duct. We describe here a systematic approach using high-throughput screening (HTS) followed by in vitro and in vivo assays to discover novel compounds that enhance vasopressin-independent AQP2 membrane expression. We performed initial chemical library screening with a high-throughput exocytosis fluorescence assay using LLC-PK1 cells expressing soluble secreted yellow fluorescent protein and AQP2. Thirty-six candidate exocytosis enhancers were identified. These compounds were then rescreened in AQP2-expressing cells to determine their ability to increase AQP2 membrane accumulation. Effective drugs were then applied to kidney slices in vitro. Three compounds, AG-490, ?-lapachone, and HA14-1 increased AQP2 membrane accumulation in LLC-PK1 cells, and both AG-490 and ?-lapachone were also effective in MDCK cells and principal cells in rat kidney slices. Finally, one compound, AG-490 (an EGF receptor and JAK-2 kinase inhibitor), decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality significantly in the first 2-4 h after a single injection into VP-deficient Brattleboro rats. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic procedure for identifying new compounds that modulate AQP2 trafficking using initial HTS followed by in vitro assays in cells and kidney slices, and concluding with in vivo testing in an animal model. PMID:24944200

Nomura, Naohiro; Nunes, Paula; Bouley, Richard; Nair, Anil V; Shaw, Stanley; Ueda, Erica; Pathomthongtaweechai, Nutthapoom; Lu, Hua A Jenny; Brown, Dennis



A Preliminary Study of Geographic Influence on Arsenic Concentrations in Human Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past mining activities in the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom, has exposed the local environment to raised levels of As. Previous research has shown an increased concentration of As in crops grown in such areas and the subsequent take-up of As through the food chain may lead to an increased body burden in man. In an attempt to

D. F. Peach



Fate of Arsenic in Swine Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine diets are often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to treat animal diseases and promote growth. Recent work reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Th e objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize a suite

Konstantinos C. Makris; Shahida Quazi; Pravin Punamiya; Dibyendu Sarkar; Rupali Datta



Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi



Mercury, arsenic and selenium concentrations in water and fish from sub-Saharan semi-arid freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso).  


Despite intensive mining activities in Burkina Faso, little is known on the environmental impacts of metals and metalloids potentially released from these activities. Water samples and 334 fish from 10 reservoirs were taken in order to evaluate the extent of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contamination in aquatic systems and their potential health risk for humans and wildlife, taking into account their antagonistic interactions. Water and fish levels of these elements were relatively low and did not reveal an important impact of gold mining activities. Water temperature and conductivity were the key factors associated with higher levels of MeHg. Higher sulfate content was reported in sites with more particulate Hg, As and Se, suggesting anthropogenic origin of metal(loid) inputs in water reservoirs. Metal(loid) concentrations in fish were low and ranged from 0.002 to 0.607 ?g/g wet weight (w.w.) for Hg, 0.023 to 0.672 for Se and 0.039 to 0.42 for As. These levels are similar or slightly higher than those reported in many other studies from Africa. Nevertheless, more than 70% of piscivore fish exceeded the threshold for wildlife protection for MeHg. Further, a traditional risk analysis performed ignoring Se antagonism indicated that these piscivores should be consumed by humans with caution. However, when taking into account the antagonistic effect of Se on Hg toxicity, up to 99% of all fish could be protected from Hg toxicity by their Se content. When considering both As/Se and Se/Hg antagonism, 83% instead the 99% of fish should be considered safe for consumption. Fish Se and As concentrations did not pose potential risk for both animals and humans. Overall, these reservoirs were relatively unaffected by As, Se and Hg contamination despite the rising gold mining activities. Further, considering antagonistic effects of As, Se and Hg may help refine consumption advisories. PMID:23274243

Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Amyot, Marc



Arsenic Detection DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800776  

E-print Network

Arsenic Detection DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800776 Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Trace Arsenic, and Peidong Yang* Low-level arsenic contamination of drinking water in Ban- gladesh, India, and parts of China ) for maximum arsenic content in groundwater.[1] However, exposure to arsenic at these concentrations still

Yang, Peidong


Arsenic species in an arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos: a potential phytoremediator of arsenic-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fern Pityrogramma calomelanos is a hyperaccumulator of arsenic that grows readily on arsenic-contaminated soils in the Ron Phibun district of southern Thailand. P. calomelanos accumulates arsenic mostly in the fronds (up to 8350 ?g As g?1 dry mass) while the rhizoids contain the lowest concentrations of arsenic (88–310 ?g As g?1 dry mass). The arsenic species in aqueous extracts

Kevin Francesconi; Pornsawan Visoottiviseth; Weeraphan Sridokchan; Walter Goessler



Concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995.  


Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 'carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., 'bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carp and bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984-1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8-4.7 microg g-(1) in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where levels of these metals were high in the past and increased from 1986 to 1995. PMID:15887377

Schmitt, Christopher J



Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kim, M. -J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.



Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults  

SciTech Connect

Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China); Sun Xiance [Hygiene Department, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Sun Guifan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China)], E-mail:



Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg\\/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg\\/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations

Anita Geiszinger; Walter Goessler; Doris Kuehnelt; W. Kosmus; K. Francesconi



Urination Pain  


... Trouble "Down There" Getting a Urine Test (Video) Movie: Urinary System Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...


Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Urination - painful  


... atrophic vaginitis ) Herpes infection in the genital area Irritation of the vaginal tissue caused by bubble bath, perfumes, or lotions Vulvovaginitis , such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ...


Amylase - urine  


... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .


Temporal trends in the concentration of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, vanadium and zinc in mosses across Europe between 1990 and 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European heavy metals in mosses biomonitoring network provides data on the concentration of 10 heavy metals in naturally growing mosses and is currently coordinated by the UNECE ICP Vegetation (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe International Co-operative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops). The technique of moss analysis provides a surrogate, time-integrated measure of metal deposition from the atmosphere to terrestrial systems. It is easier and cheaper, less prone to contamination and allows a much higher sampling density than conventional precipitation analysis. Moss surveys have been repeated at five-yearly intervals and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, vanadium and zinc between 1990 and 2000. Maps were produced of the metal concentration in mosses for 1990, 1995 and 2000, showing the mean concentration per metal per 50km×50km EMEP grid square. Metal- and country-specific temporal trends were observed. Although the metal concentration in mosses generally decreased with time for all metals, only the decreases for arsenic, copper, vanadium and zinc were statistically significant. The observed temporal trends were compared with emission trends for Europe reported by EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutant in Europe).

Harmens, Harry; Norris, David A.; Koerber, Georgia R.; Buse, Alan; Steinnes, Eiliv; Rühling, Åke


Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.  


Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 ?g/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions. PMID:25252363

Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra



Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation  

PubMed Central

Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9??g dm?3 and 2.7??g dm?3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300??g dm?3 for sample volumes of 4?mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60?g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant. PMID:22448343

Cacho, Frantisek; Lauko, Lukas; Manova, Alena; Dzurov, Jan; Beinrohr, Ernest



Measuring the elimination of arsenic by the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) by using a two compartment respirometer  

SciTech Connect

The present study is designed to examine the role of gills in arsenic excretion and also to obtain a quantitative estimate of this route for arsenic elimination. The proportion of the ingested dose eliminated via the urine was also estimated.

Oladimeji, A.A.; Qadri, S.U.; deFreitas, A.S.W.



Pink urine.  


Abstract A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P



Total arsenic in rice milk.  


Rice milk and its by-products were tested for total arsenic concentration. Total arsenic concentration was determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.7 ± 0.3 to 17.9 ± 0.5 µg L(-1). Rice milk and its by-products are not clearly defined as food, water or milk substitute. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have set a level of 10 µg L(-1) for total arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The EU and the US regulatory agencies do not provide any guidelines on total arsenic concentrations in foods. This study provides us with a starting point to address this issue in the State of Mississippi, USA. PMID:24779982

Shannon, Ron; Rodriguez, Jose M



Arsenic Methyltransferase  

EPA Science Inventory

The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...


Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.



Urine culture - catheterized specimen  


Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...


Arsenic uptake and depuration by red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed to various concentrations of monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) herbicide  

SciTech Connect

Like many other heavy metals, arsenic is known to accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms including crayfish. One of the earliest reports on red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, reported the bioaccumulation factor (BF) ratios for radioactive sodium methanearsonate to range from 80-480. Other heavy metals, i.e., Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg have also been reported to accumulate experimentally in P. clarkii tissues. This study was conducted to evaluate in the laboratory the bio-accumulative potential of As by the American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, which is abundant in Louisiana; and also to assess the level of arsenic present in the tissues of fieldcollected individuals. Total revenues from the sales of this crayfish exceeds $143 million annually.

Naqvi, S.M.; Flagge, C.T.; Hawkins, R.L. (Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (USA))



[Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].  


The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

Bizo?, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina



Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species.  


Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. PMID:23466730

Norton, Gareth J; Adomako, Eureka E; Deacon, Claire M; Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A



Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.  


A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values. PMID:23994963

Llorens, Esther; Obradors, Joshua; Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Poch, Manel




EPA Science Inventory

Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...


Associations of estimated residential soil arsenic and lead concentrations and community-level environmental measures with mother-child health conditions in South Carolina.  


We undertook a community-level aggregate analysis in South Carolina, USA, to examine associations between mother-child conditions from a Medicaid cohort of pregnant women and their children using spatially interpolated arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) concentrations in three geographic case areas and a control area. Weeks of gestation at birth was significantly negatively correlated with higher estimated As (r(s) = -0.28, p = 0.01) and Pb (r(s) = -0.26, p = 0.02) concentrations in one case area. Higher estimated Pb concentrations were consistently positively associated with frequency of black mothers (all p < 0.02) and negatively associated with frequency of white mothers (all p < 0.01), suggesting a racial disparity with respect to Pb. PMID:22579118

Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Use of REMEDi HS in emergency toxicology for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations in urine, serum, and gastric samples.  


The REMEDi HS is a broad spectrum drug identification system, designed for emergency toxicology screening and forensic applications. The total analysis time is about 20 min. The current library has 555 drugs and metabolites. The system has a software routine that uses an internal standard (IS) to perform quantitative analysis for target compounds when calibrators are available; further, response factors (RF) are supplied for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations when calibrators are unavailable. In the present study, The concentrations of six drugs (bromisovalum, ephedrine, hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine, ranitidine, and lidocaine) and a metabolite of lidocaine (glycinexylidide) were determined using both methods. The slopes of the regression lines between the rapid estimate method and the IS method were generally within 20% of unity, in agreement with the manufacturer's claim. Semiquantitative estimates based on RF also showed good agreement with results obtained using multipoint calibration. These estimates were sufficient for clinical differentiation of routine and toxic levels. Our study demonstrated that the REMEDi HS is particularly useful for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations in the samples from emergency cases when calibrators are not readily available. Our study also showed that this system can be used for the therapeutic monitoring of ranitidine, bromisovalum, lidocaine, and diphenhydrmine. PMID:8789851

Ohtsuji, M; Lai, J S; Binder, S R; Kondo, T; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T



Folate and cobalamin modify associations between S-adenosylmethionine and methylated arsenic metabolites in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults.  


Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) through drinking water is a major problem worldwide. InAs undergoes hepatic methylation to form mono- and dimethyl arsenical species (MMA and DMA, respectively), facilitating arsenic elimination. Both reactions are catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor, yielding the methylated product and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent product-inhibitor of AS3MT. SAM biosynthesis depends on folate- and cobalamin-dependent one-carbon metabolism. With the use of samples from 353 participants in the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, our objective was to test the hypotheses that blood SAM and SAH concentrations are associated with arsenic methylation and that these associations differ by folate and cobalamin nutritional status. Blood SAM and SAH were measured by HPLC. Arsenic metabolites in blood and urine were measured by HPLC coupled to dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma MS. In linear regression analyses, SAH was not associated with any of the arsenic metabolites. However, log(SAM) was negatively associated with log(% urinary InAs) (?: -0.11; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.02; P = 0.01), and folate and cobalamin nutritional status significantly modified associations between SAM and percentage of blood MMA (%bMMA) and percentage of blood DMA (%bDMA) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). In folate- and cobalamin-deficient individuals, log(SAM) was positively associated with %bMMA (?: 6.96; 95% CI: 1.86, 12.05; P < 0.01) and negatively associated with %bDMA (?: -6.19; 95% CI: -12.71, 0.32; P = 0.06). These findings suggest that when exposure to InAs is high, and methyl groups are limiting, SAM is used primarily for MMA synthesis rather than for DMA synthesis, contributing additional evidence that nutritional status may explain some of the interindividual differences in arsenic metabolism and, consequently, susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. PMID:24598884

Howe, Caitlin G; Niedzwiecki, Megan M; Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Alam, Shafiul; Siddique, Abu B; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V



Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and DNA Methylation in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic is an epigenetic toxicant and could influence fetal developmental programming. Objectives: We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in maternal and umbilical cord leukocytes. Methods: Drinking-water and urine samples were collected when women were at ? 28 weeks gestation; the samples were analyzed for arsenic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. DNA methylation at CpG sites in p16 (n = 7) and p53 (n = 4), and in LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements (3 CpG sites in each), was quantified using pyrosequencing in 113 pairs of maternal and umbilical blood samples. We used general linear models to evaluate the relationship between DNA methylation and tertiles of arsenic exposure. Results: Mean (± SD) drinking-water arsenic concentration was 14.8 ± 36.2 ?g/L (range: < 1–230 ?g/L). Methylation in LINE-1 increased by 1.36% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 2.21%] and 1.08% (95% CI: 0.07, 2.10%) in umbilical cord and maternal leukocytes, respectively, in association with the highest versus lowest tertile of total urinary arsenic per gram creatinine. Arsenic exposure was also associated with higher methylation of some of the tested CpG sites in the promoter region of p16 in umbilical cord and maternal leukocytes. No associations were observed for Alu or p53 methylation. Conclusions: Exposure to higher levels of arsenic was positively associated with DNA methylation in LINE-1 repeated elements, and to a lesser degree at CpG sites within the promoter region of the tumor suppressor gene p16. Associations were observed in both maternal and fetal leukocytes. Future research is needed to confirm these results and determine if these small increases in methylation are associated with any health effects. PMID:22466225

Baccarelli, Andrea; Hoffman, Elaine; Tarantini, Letizia; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wright, Robert O.; Christiani, David C.



Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences] [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine] [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine



A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.  


This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type. PMID:16356751

Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C



Removing arsenic from copper smelter gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrometallurgical processing of nonferrous minerals found in association with sulfur and arsenic generates arsenic-bearing SO2 gases. Effective process gas cleaning presents technical problems due to the high volatility of the As2O3 compound and the elevated dew point of the sulfur-trioxidecontaining SO2 gas. Critical factors for gascleaning technology selection pertaining to technical feasibility, economic acceptability, and environmental compatibility are the arsenic-to-sulfur ratio in the feed material, the operating parameters of the pyrometallurgical and gas cooling process, the admissible arsenic concentration of the SO2 gas after arsenic elimination, and the most suitable form of the arsenic-bearing output material. Depending on these factors, the bulk of the arsenic can be eliminated from the process gas in concentrated form according to either the dry or wet method, after which final arsenic removal from the process gas to below the required admissible level must take place in a wet electrostatic precipitator.

Dalewski, Frank



Removal of arsenic compounds by chemisorption filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on arsenic removal from water sources down to the residual concentration below 10 ?g\\/l are reported. The basic physico-chemical\\u000a parameters are set for arsenic removal by polystyrene modified by polymer polyHIPE granules, calcium alginate granules saturated\\u000a (coated) with iron hydroxide. Adsorption filtration is an efficient method of arsenic removal.

P. M. Solozhenkin; A. I. Zouboulis; I. A. Katsoyiannis



Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:22505948

Sears, Margaret E.; Kerr, Kathleen J.; Bray, Riina I.



Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and twenty-six breast milk samples were collected from lactating women from 3 blocks of North-24 Paragans, one of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 226 samples, only in 39 samples arsenic was detected. Urine, hair, and nail samples were also analyzed to know the arsenic body burden of the lactating women. Arsenic in drinking water

Gautam Samanta; Dipankar Das; Badal K. Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Dipankar Chakraborti; Arup Pal; Sad Ahamed



Changes in concentrations of lysergol in urine and prolactin in plasma, rectal temperature and respiration rate in sheep selected for resistance or susceptibility to ryegrass staggers and fed ergovaline  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine the effects of feeding ryegrass seed containing ergovaline to sheep selected for resistance or susceptibility to ryegrass staggers on concentration of lysergol (a metabolite of ergovaline) in urine, prolactin in plasma, rectal temperature and respiration rate.METHODS: Two experiments were carried out using 12 Romney crossbred ewe lambs aged 9 months, comprising animals resistant (n=4), susceptible (n=4) or

SR Gooneratne; M Scannell; M Wellby; L Fletcher



Arsenic in the New Zealand environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, elevated levels of arsenic in soils and waters occur as a result of geothermal activity, exacerbated by geothermal power exploitation, and the past and present use of arsenic-based pesticides. Some lakes and rivers in the Taupo Volcanic Zone have arsenic concentrations above the World Health Organisation's (WHO) limit for arsenic in drinking water (0.01 mg\\/L). Aquatic plants

Brett Robinson; Brent Clothier; Nanthi S. Bolan; Santiago Mahimairaja; Marc Greven; Christopher Moni; Monica Marchetti; Carlo van den Dijssel; Georgina Milne



XAS Speciation of Arsenic in a Hyper-Accumulating Fern  

E-print Network

XAS Speciation of Arsenic in a Hyper-Accumulating Fern S A M U E L M . W E B B , J E A N - F R A N environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyper-accumulating fern (Pteris high As concentrations (ca. 1% As per dry weight) arsenic in the fern leaves is coordinated

Ma, Lena


Assessing the Measurement Precision of Various Arsenic Forms and Arsenic Exposure in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archived samples collected from 1995 to 1997 in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 (R5) and the Children's Study (CS) in Minnesota were analyzed for total arsenic, arsenate (As(V)), arsenite, dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA), monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine. Samples for the CS included drinking water, urine, hair, and

Edo D. Pellizzari; C. Andrew Clayton



Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This product "Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale point spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.



The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents  

SciTech Connect

To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong.

Mingshi Wang; Dangyu Song; Baoshan Zheng; R.B. Finkelman [Institute of Geochemistry, Guiyang (China). State Key Lab of Environmental Geochemistry



Differences in Urinary Arsenic Metabolites between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is considered to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus. In order to clarify the possible differences in the metabolism in diabetics, we measured urinary iAs metabolites in diabetic cases and non-diabetic control subjects in Faridpur, an arsenic-contaminated area in Bangladesh. Physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetic cases (140 persons) and non-diabetic controls (180 persons) were recruited. Drinking water and spot urine samples were collected. Mean concentrations of total arsenic in drinking water did not differ between cases (85.1 ?g/L) and controls (85.8 ?g/L). The percentage of urinary iAs (iAs%) was significantly lower in cases (8.6%) than in controls (10.4%), while that of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) was higher in cases (82.6%) than in controls (79.9%). This may have been due to the higher secondary methylation index (SMI) in the former (11.6) rather than the latter (10.0). Adjusting for matching factors (sex and unions), and the additional other covariates (age and water arsenic) significantly attenuated the differences in iAs%, SMI, and DMA%, respectively, though the difference in monomethylarsonic acid% was newly significant in the latter adjustment. Our study did not suggest any significant differences in urinary arsenic metabolites between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. PMID:23481591

Nizam, Saika; Kato, Masashi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Naito, Hisao; Nakajima, Tamie



Correlation between urine and blood concentrations, and dietary intake of cadmium and lead among women in the general population of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether lead (Pb) in urine and cadmium (Cd) in blood, especially the former, can be used as markers of environmental\\u000a exposure of general populations to these metals. Methods: Between 1991 and 1998, spot urine and peripheral blood samples, together with 24?h duplicates of food intake were collected\\u000a from 607?non-smoking adult women in 30?survey sites (SS) in seven

S. Shimbo; Z.-W. Zhang; C.-S. Moon; T. Watanabe; H. Nakatsuka; N. Matsuda-Inoguchi; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda



Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate and phosphate  

E-print Network

Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arsenic Aquifer sediment Column leaching Phosphate Bicarbonate Datong Basin Effects of phosphate and bicarbonate concentration on mobilization of arsenic in aquifer

Hu, Qinhong "Max"


A market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food.  


Dietary arsenic intake estimates based on surveys of total arsenic concentrations appear to be dominated by intake of the relatively non-toxic, organic arsenic forms found in seafood. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in food have not been not well characterized. Accurate dietary intake estimates for inorganic arsenic are needed to support studies of arsenic's status as an essential nutrient, and to establish background levels of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In the market basket survey reported here, 40 commodities anticipated to provide at least 90% of dietary inorganic arsenic intake were identified. Four samples of each commodity were collected. Total arsenic was analysed using an NaOH digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Separate aliquots were analysed for arsenic species using an HCl digestion and hydride atomic absorption spectroscopy. Consistent with earlier studies, total arsenic concentrations (all concentrations reported as elemental arsenic per tissue wet weight) were highest in the seafoods sampled (ranging from 160 ng/g in freshwater fish to 2360 ng/g in saltwater fish). In contrast, average inorganic arsenic in seafood ranged from less than 1 ng/g to 2 ng/g. The highest inorganic arsenic values were found in raw rice (74 ng/g), followed by flour (11 ng/g), grape juice (9 ng/g) and cooked spinach (6 ng/g). Thus, grains and produce are expected to be significant contributors to dietary inorganic arsenic intake. PMID:10506007

Schoof, R A; Yost, L J; Eickhoff, J; Crecelius, E A; Cragin, D W; Meacher, D M; Menzel, D B



Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil  

SciTech Connect

In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael



Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil  

PubMed Central

In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89–17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91–19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background. PMID:16330356

Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda S.; Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Mink, Pamela J.; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael




E-print Network

CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER concentrations, calcium concentrations, arsenic concentrations and pH after 100,000 years of simulated groundH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER LITER #12;PHAST--A Program


Determination of arsenic in foods by flow injection on-line sorption pre-concentration with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the determination of total arsenic in foods using flow injection on-line sorption coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) using a cigarette filter as the sorbent material. After reducing As(V) to As(III) by using L-cysteine, the determination of total arsenic was achieved through on-line formation and retention of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate arsenic complex (As(III)–PDC)

N. Li; G. Fang; L. Zhao; S. Wang



Urine drainage bags  


Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach to a catheter (tube) that is inside your bladder. You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary ...


Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa, Ganymede, Titan or Enceladus (formed by cryo-concentration), arsenotrophy could serve as a credible means of microbial energy conservation. Regrettably, the direct search for arsenic biomarkers is restricted because only one stable isotope exists (75As), which rules out the use of stable isotopic ratios in this regard. However, antimony oxyanions often co-occur with arsenic in the environment. Its two stable isotopes (123Sb and 121Sb) hold the potential to be exploited as a proxy isotopic biomarker for the fingerprint of microbial arsenotrophy. Whether such an approach is feasible needs to be investigated.

Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.



Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.  


This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs. PMID:22012303

Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M



Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong



Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption.

Grimanis, A.P.



Factors controlling arsenic adsorption in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Recent epidemiological studies on arsenic report that the cancer risk associated with arsenic at the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 {mu}g/L is much greater than previously believed. In response to these findings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency intends to decrease the MCL to between 2 and 20 {mu}g/L. The efficiency of arsenic removal in water treatment and the ambient levels of arsenic in source waters are both strongly influenced by the extent of arsenic adsorption to oxide surfaces. An investigation of ft factors controlling arsenic adsorption is crucial to evaluate properly the effectiveness of arsenic removal technologies such as enhanced coagulation. This study examined the effects of the following parameters on arsenic adsorption to preformed hydrous ferric oxide: arsenic oxidation state, initial arsenic concentration, pH and the presence of sulfate. The studies were carried out over initial arsenic concentrations between 2.5 and 100 {mu}g/L (0.33 and 1.34 {mu}M).

Wilkie, J.A.; Hering, J.G. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)



A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic  

SciTech Connect

A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground. Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

Meagher, Richard B.



Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.  


Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration. PMID:24933913

Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik



Arsenic: The Silent Killer  

SciTech Connect

Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

Foster, Andrea (USGS) [USGS



Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic  

E-print Network

include volcanoes and forest fires. In nature, arsenic can be found in many forms, both organic and inorganic. Inorganic arsenic is generat- ed when arsenic binds with elements such as oxy- gen, chlorine and sulfur. Arsenic is usually found in inorganic... include volcanoes and forest fires. In nature, arsenic can be found in many forms, both organic and inorganic. Inorganic arsenic is generat- ed when arsenic binds with elements such as oxy- gen, chlorine and sulfur. Arsenic is usually found in inorganic...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty



Arsenic for the fool: an exponential connection.  


Anthropogenic arsenic is insidiously building up together with natural arsenic to a level unprecedented in the history of mankind. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) is the principal ore of arsenic and gold in hard rock mines; it is formed by a coupled substitution of sulphur by arsenic in the structure of pyrite (FeS(2)) - nicknamed "fool's gold". Other important sources of anthropogenic arsenic are fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Here I report on the first indication that the environmental concentration of total arsenic in topsoils - in the 7-18ppm range - is exponentially related to the prevalence and mortality of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in European countries. This evidence defies the imputed absence of verified cases of human morbidity or mortality resulting from exposure to low-level arsenic in topsoils. PMID:20123147

Dani, Sergio U



Trace element concentrations (mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, aluminium, nickel, arsenic, and selenium) in some aquatic birds of the southwest Atlantic coast of France.  


Trace elements (mercury [Hg], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], lead [Pb], aluminium [Al], nickel [Ni], arsenic [As], and selenium [Se]) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in liver, kidney, muscle, and feather of aquatic birds wintering or inhabiting the wetlands situated on the Southwest Atlantic coast of France. A majority of greylag geese, red knots, and grey plovers were collected from among hunter-shot animals. The relation between residue concentrations, age (juvenile vs. adult), and sex was investigated. Trace elements were lower than threshold levels of toxicity, except for Pb. Greylag geese sampled could be considered Pb-poisoned. These consequential levels of contamination could be the result of the ingestion of Pb-shot from ammunition used in hunting areas they crossed during migration. Cd accumulation increased with age, whereas Pb levels in feathers were lower in adult birds in connection with moulting. As was influenced by sex. Female birds displayed higher concentrations in liver and feathers than did male birds. PMID:19763676

Lucia, Magali; André, Jean-Marc; Gontier, Karine; Diot, Nicolas; Veiga, Jesus; Davail, Stéphane



Tracer test with As(V) under variable redox conditions controlling arsenic transport in the presence of elevated ferrous iron concentrations.  


To study transport and reactions of arsenic under field conditions, a small-scale tracer test was performed in an anoxic, iron-reducing zone of a sandy aquifer at the USGS research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. For four weeks, a stream of groundwater with added As(V) (6.7 muM) and bromide (1.6 mM), was injected in order to observe the reduction of As(V) to As(III). Breakthrough of bromide (Br(-)), As(V), and As(III) as well as additional parameters characterizing the geochemical conditions was observed at various locations downstream of the injection well over a period of 104 days. After a short lag period, nitrate and dissolved oxygen from the injectate oxidized ferrous iron and As(V) became bound to the freshly formed hydrous iron oxides. Approximately one week after terminating the injection, anoxic conditions had been reestablished and increases in As(III) concentrations were observed within 1 m of the injection. During the observation period, As(III) and As(V) were transported to a distance of 4.5 m downgradient indicating significant retardation by sorption processes for both species. Sediment assays as well as elevated concentrations of hydrogen reflected the presence of As(V) reducing microorganisms. Thus, microbial As(V) reduction was thought to be one major process driving the release of As(III) during the tracer test in the Cape Cod aquifer. PMID:16945450

Höhn, R; Isenbeck-Schröter, M; Kent, D B; Davis, J A; Jakobsen, R; Jann, S; Niedan, V; Scholz, C; Stadler, S; Tretner, A



Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry] [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology] [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology




EPA Science Inventory

This data set includes analytical results for measurements of metals in 600 urine samples. For some chemicals, particularly arsenic, urine provides the best information about the relationship between exposure and body burden. Two samples were collected from each participant on da...


Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and  

E-print Network

Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within

Canberra, University of


Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...


Arsenic speciation, and arsenic and phosphate distribution in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and  

E-print Network

Arsenic speciation, and arsenic and phosphate distribution in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris examined the roles of arsenic translocation and reduction, and P distribution in arsenic detoxification of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese Brake fern), an arsenic hyperaccumulator and Pteris ensiformis L. (Slender

Ma, Lena


Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India--a review and commentary.  


Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 microg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 microg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 microg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement was evident with and without neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic studies proved helpful for the diagnosis of neurological involvement. Advanced neglected cases with many years of exposure presented with cancer of skin and of the lung, liver, kidney, and bladder. The diagnosis of subclinical arsenicosis was made in 83%, 93%, and 95% of hair, nail and urine samples, respectively, in Bangladesh; and 57%, 83%, and 89% of hair, nail, and urine samples, respectively in West Bengal. Approximately 90% of children below 11 years of age living in the affected areas show hair and nail arsenic above the normal level. Children appear to have a higher body burden than adults despite fewer dermatological manifestations. Limited trials of 4 arsenic chelators in the treatment of chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal over the last 2 decades do not provide any clinical, biochemical, or histopathological benefit except for the accompanying preliminary report of clinical benefit with dimercaptopropanesulfonate therapy. Extensive efforts are needed in both countries to combat the arsenic crisis including control of tube-wells, watershed management with effective use of the prodigious supplies of surface water, traditional water management, public awareness programs, and education concerning the apparent benefits of optimal nutrition. PMID:11778666

Rahman, M M; Chowdhury, U K; Mukherjee, S C; Mondal, B K; Paul, K; Lodh, D; Biswas, B K; Chanda, C R; Basu, G K; Saha, K C; Roy, S; Das, R; Palit, S K; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D



Ion implanted arsenic in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of high concentration ion implanted arsenic in silicon during high temperature annealing has been studied. It is found that the cooling rate following high temperature anneling has a pronounced effect on the maximum carrier concentration which can be obtained at a given temperature, and it is demonstrated that the equilibrium carrier concentration at a given temperature is higher than the previously accepted value. The anomalous, enhanced diffusion for arsenic concentrations exceeding ˜ 2 × 10 20 cm -3 is successfully modelled within the vacancy-percolation model, and it is concluded that collective phenomena play a significant role in the diffusion at high donor concentrations.

Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Christensen, Birgit; Christensen, Peter H.; Shiryaev, Sergey Yu.



Arsenic removal from water\\/wastewater using adsorbents—A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th–21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan,

Dinesh Mohan; Charles U. Pittman



Arsenic accumulation in three species of sea turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic in the liver, kidney and muscle of three species of sea turtles, e.g., green turtles (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), were determined using HG-AAS, followed by arsenic speciation analysis using HPLC-ICP-MS. The order of arsenic concentration in tissues was muscle > kidney > liver. Unexpectedly, the arsenic concentrations in the hawksbill turtles feeding mainly on

Kazutoshi Saeki; Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Haruya Sakai; Takashi Kunito; Shinsuke Tanabe



Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling  

PubMed Central

Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th – 95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement. PMID:19603658

Aelion, C.M.; Davis, H.T.; Liu, Y.; Lawson, A.B.; McDermott, S.



[Tissue distribution of arsenic of liushen pills and realgar].  


This study is to report the tissue distribution of arsenic after giving different doses of realgar and Liushen pills to Beagle dogs, in order to provide basis for the safety evaluation of Liushen pills. ICP-MS was used to measure arsenic concentration, and HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze arsenic speciation. The concentration of total arsenic and As(III) + DMA (arsenite + dimethylarsenic acid) increased with dosing of realgar. Total arsenic concentration in most tissues and As(III) + DMA concentration in all tissues of Liushen pills group are lower than that of realgar group, but AsB concentration in liver, spleen and kidney of Liushen pills group increased. The concentration of total arsenic showed a dose-dependent manner with dosage administered. It was indicated that components in Liushen pills can reduce solubility of arsenic in realgar, which may decrease toxicity of realgar. PMID:21882532

Zhang, Qing-Li; Wu, Qian; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Lian-Zhong; Fan, Min-Wei; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Wang, Yi-Ming; Luo, Guo-An



Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida Environmental impacts of lead pellets at shooting ranges and arsenical herbicides  

E-print Network

at shooting ranges and arsenical herbicides on golf courses in Florida Ma, L. Q., W. Harris and Jerry Sartain of arsenical herbicides on golf courses in Florida Determine arsenic concentrations in soil, green and water

Ma, Lena


Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.  


Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie



Bacterial sulfate reduction limits natural arsenic contamination in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater, increasingly recognized as a threat to human health worldwide, is characterized by arsenic concentrations that vary sharply over short distances. Variation in arsenic levels in the Mahomet aquifer system, a regional glacial aquifer in central Illinois, appears to arise from variable rates of bacterial sulfate reduction in the subsurface, not differences in arsenic supply. Where sulfate-reducing bacteria are active, the sulfide produced reacts to precipitate arsenic, or coprecipitate it with iron, leaving little in solution. In the absence of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis is the dominant type of microbial metabolism, and arsenic accumulates to high levels.

Kirk, Matthew F.; Holm, Thomas R.; Park, Jungho; Jin, Qusheng; Sanford, Robert A.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Bethke, Craig M.



Impact of local recharge on arsenic concentrations in shallow aquifers inferred from the electromagnetic conductivity of soils in Araihazar, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-degree of spatial variability of dissolved As levels in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin has been well documented but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compare here As concentrations measured in groundwater pumped from 4700 wells <22 m (75 ft) deep across a 25 km2 area of Bangladesh with variations in the nature of surface soils inferred

Z. Aziz; A. van Geen; M. Stute; R. Versteeg; A. Horneman; Y. Zheng; S. Goodbred; M. Steckler; B. Weinman; I. Gavrieli; M. A. Hoque; M. Shamsudduha; K. M. Ahmed



Impact of local recharge on arsenic concentrations in shallow aquifers inferred from the electromagnetic conductivity of soils in Araihazar, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-degree of spatial variability of dissolved As levels in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin has been well documented but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compare here As concentrations measured in groundwater pumped from 4700 wells <22 m (75 ft) deep across a 25 km2 area of Bangladesh with variations in the nature of surface soils inferred from 18,500 measurements of frequency domain electromagnetic induction. A set of 14 hand auger cores recovered from the same area indicate that a combination of grain size and the conductivity of soil water dominate the electromagnetic signal. The relationship between pairs of individual EM conductivity and dissolved As measurements within a distance of 50 m is significant but highly scattered (r2 = 0.12; n = 614). Concentrations of As tend to be lower in shallow aquifers underlying sandy soils and higher below finer-grained and high conductivity soils. Variations in EM conductivity account for nearly half the variance of the rate of increase of As concentration with depth, however, when the data are averaged over a distance of 50 m (r2 = 0.50; n = 145). The association is interpreted as an indication that groundwater recharge through permeable sandy soils prevents As concentrations from rising in shallow reducing groundwater.

Aziz, Z.; van Geen, A.; Stute, M.; Versteeg, R.; Horneman, A.; Zheng, Y.; Goodbred, S.; Steckler, M.; Weinman, B.; Gavrieli, I.; Hoque, M. A.; Shamsudduha, M.; Ahmed, K. M.



Speciation analysis of arsenic and selenium compounds in environmental and biological samples by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer.  


An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used as an ion chromatographic (IC) detector for the speciation analysis of arsenic and selenium. The arsenic and selenium species studied included arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), selenite [Se(IV)] and selenate [Se(VI)]. Gradient elution using (NH4)2CO3 and methanol at pH 9 allowed the chromatographic separation of all species in less than 12 min. Effluents from the IC column were delivered to the nebulization system of ICP-DRC-MS for the determination of arsenic and selenium. The potentially interfering 38Ar 40Ar+ and 40Ar 40Ar+ at the selenium masses m/z 78 and 80 were reduced in intensity by approximately 3 orders of magnitude by using 0.6 mL min(-1) CH4 as reactive cell gas in the DRC while an Rpq value of 0.3 was used. Meanwhile, arsenic was determined as the adduct ion 75As 12CHH+ at m/z 89, which is more sensitive than 75As. The limits of detection for arsenic and selenium were in the range of 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) and 0.01-0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively, based on peak height. The relative standard deviation of the peak areas for five injections of 5 ng mL(-1) As and Se mixture was in the range of 2-4%. The concentrations of arsenic and selenium species have been determined in urine samples collected locally. The major As and Se species in urines were AsB, DMA and probably selenosugar at concentration of 20-40, 15-19 and 17-31 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 94-105% for all the determinations. This method has also been applied to determine various arsenic compounds in two fish samples. In this study, a simple and rapid microwave-assisted extraction method was used for the extraction of arsenic compounds from fish. The arsenic species were quantitatively leached with an 80% v/v methanol solution in a focused microwave field during a period of 5 min. PMID:17448350

Wang, Ruoh-Yun; Hsu, Ying-Ling; Chang, Lan-Fang; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen



Enhanced Arsenic Accumulation by Engineered Yeast Cells Expressing  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Enhanced Arsenic Accumulation by Engineered Yeast Cells Expressing Arabidopsis thaliana occurring peptides with high-binding capabilities for a wide range of heavy metals including arsenic (As As accumulation as compared to the control strain under a wide range of As concentrations. For the high-arsenic

Chen, Wilfred


ORIGINAL PAPER Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in fresh  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in fresh and combusted coal wastes from, the content and speciation of arsenic in coal waste and gas condensates from coal waste fires were-ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of four major arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic

Hu, Qinhong "Max"


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth, and Infant with elevated arsenic concentrations. Epidemiologic studies, mainly cross-sectional in design, have suggested that arsenic in drinking water may affect pregnancy outcome and infant health. We assessed the association

California at Berkeley, University of


Arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh: A geostatistical and epidemiological framework  

E-print Network

Arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh: A geostatistical and epidemiological framework for evaluating] This paper examines the health crisis in Bangladesh due to dissolved arsenic in groundwater. First, we use geostatistical methods to construct a map of arsenic concentrations that divides Bangladesh into regions

Entekhabi, Dara


Urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites after repeated ingestion of sodium metaarsenite by volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (125, 250, 500 or 1000 µg as NaAsO2) was administered orally once a day for five consecutive days to 4 volunteers who refrained from eating marine organisms during the experiment. Urine was collected during 24-h periods starting one day before the first administration and up to 14 days later. The following determinations were performed: total arsenic, inorganic arsenic (As;),

J. P. Buchet; R. Lauwerys; H. Roels



Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility of arsenic-induced health hazards in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers and vascular diseases in a dose-response relationship. A series of molecular environmental epidemiological studies have been carried out to elucidate biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility for arsenic-related health hazards in Taiwan. Arsenic levels in urine, hair, and nail are biomarkers for short-term (

Chien-Jen Chen; Lin-I Hsu; Chih-Hao Wang; Wei-Liang Shih; Yi-Hsiang Hsu; Mei-Ping Tseng; Yu-Chun Lin; Wei-Ling Chou; Chia-Yen Chen; Cheng-Yeh Lee; Li-Hua Wang; Yu-Chin Cheng; Chi-Ling Chen; Shu-Yuan Chen; Yuan-Hung Wang; Yu-Mei Hsueh; Hung-Yi Chiou; Meei-Maan Wu



Arsenic poisoning in groundwater: Health risk and geochemical sources in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 2508 water samples analyzed in 10 districts of Bangladesh, 51%, on an average, contained arsenic levels of 0.05 to 2.50 mg\\/l. 95% of nail, 96% of hair, and 94% of urine samples contained arsenic above the normal level. Approximately 3.58 million people out of a total of 17.92 million who are drinking water containing arsenic levels >0.20 mg\\/l

H. M. Anawar; J. Akai; K. M. G. Mostofa; S. Safiullah; S. M. Tareq



Getting a Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Page The Pink Locker Society Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...


Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified CCA as a restricted use product, for use only by certified pesticide applicators. Of the City of San Francisco's 142 play structures, 92 are constructed with CCA pressure-treated wood. Eighty-five were tested by the City of San Francisco and 34 play structures tested positive for As by wipe tests of the play structures themselves. The SF-ROCKS high school outreach program hypothesized that we would find significant levels of As and Cr, in the sand or clay below each structure due to the weathering and flaking off of the CCA-treated wood. We visited 18 of the playgrounds that showed the highest levels of As and sampled the sand and clay beneath the structures for the presence of transported As and Cr. We collected 2-3 samples from varying depth at each of the 11 playgrounds that had not yet been replaced by the City of San Francisco. Sand and clay samples were then extracted and analyzed for As and Cr totals. This study outlines the As and Cr concentrations present in the sand and clay below each CCA-treated wood play structure we visited in San Francisco.

Polly, J.; Delos Santos, D.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Santo, D.; Beier, J.



Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where

Charles F. Harvey; Christopher H. Swartz; A. B. M. Badruzzaman; Nicole Keon-Blute; Winston Yu; M. Ashraf Ali; Jenny Jay; Roger Beckie; Volker Niedan; Daniel Brabander; Peter M. Oates; Khandaker N. Ashfaque; Shafiqul Islam; Harold F. Hemond; M. Feroze Ahmed



Arsenic Species in the Ground Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...


Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India  

E-print Network

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India Reina Haque with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-re- sponse relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin

California at Berkeley, University of


Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.



Comparison of arsenic concentrations in simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer particles from Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, and Nepal  

PubMed Central

One of the reasons the processes resulting in As release to groundwater in southern Asia remain poorly understood is the high degree of spatial variability of physical and chemical properties in shallow aquifers. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, a simple device that collects groundwater and sediment as a slurry from precisely the same interval was developed in Bangladesh. Recently published results from Bangladesh and India relying on the needle-sampler are augmented here with new data from 37 intervals of grey aquifer material of likely Holocene age in Vietnam and Nepal. A total of 145 samples of filtered groundwater ranging in depth from 3 to 36 m that were analyzed for As (1–1000 ?g/L), Fe (0.01–40 mg/L), Mn (0.2–4 mg/L) and S (0.04–14 mg/L) are compared. The P-extractable (0.01–36 mg/kg) and HCl-extractable As (0.04–36 mg/kg) content of the particulate phase was determined in the same suite of samples, in addition to Fe(II)/Fe ratios (0.2–1.0) in the acid-leachable fraction of the particulate phase. Needle-sampler data from Bangladesh indicated a relationship between dissolved As in groundwater and P-extractable As in the particulate phase that was interpreted as an indication of adsorptive equilibrium, under sufficiently reducing conditions, across 3 orders of magnitude in concentrations according to a distribution coefficient of 4 mL/g. The more recent observations from India, Vietnam and Nepal show groundwater As concentrations that are often an order of magnitude lower at a given level of P-extractable As compared to Bangladesh, even if only the subset of particularly reducing intervals characterized by leachable Fe(II)/Fe >0.5 and dissolved Fe >0.2 mg/L are considered. Without attempting to explain why As appears to be particularly mobile in reducing aquifers of Bangladesh compared to the other regions, the consequences of increasing the distribution coefficient for As between the particulate and dissolved phase to 40 mL/g for the flushing of shallow aquifers of their initial As content are explored. PMID:19884967

van Geen, A.; Radloff, K.; Aziz, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Huq, M.R.; Ahmed, K.M.; Weinman, B.; Goodbred, S.; Jung, H.B.; Zheng, Y.; Berg, M.; Trang, P.T.K.; Charlet, L.; Metral, J.; Tisserand, D.; Guillot, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Gajurel, A.P.; Upreti, B.N.



Biomarkers for the evaluation of population health status 16 years after the intervention of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Xinjiang, China.  


The arsenicosis endemic area in the region of Kuitun and Chepaizi, Dzungaria district, Xinjiang, People Republic of China was the first identified arsenic endemic area in China where arsenic concentration of up to 850 ?g/L in the groundwater was reported. An intervention was put in place in 1985 by government to provide an alternative water source at a centralized community level. Sixteen years on since the intervention, we evaluated the health status of 178 villagers from endemic and 179 villagers from control sites. Biomarkers in their urine, included arsenic, porphyrins and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured and the prevalence of skin lesions was also assessed. The average urinary arsenic (117 ± 8.3 ?g/g of creatinine) from the endemic-villages was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of the controls (73.6 ± 3.2 ?g/g of creatinine) while no significant difference was found in urinary porphyrins and malondialdehyde concentrations in the overall studies subjects from these two areas. However when the urinary arsenic was higher than 150 ?g/g of creatinine, MDA and porphyrins were higher in the endemic-villagers compared to the controls. Fifty-one out of 178 people from the arsenic endemic area showed skin lesions related to arsenicosis but these were absent among villagers from the control site. Of particular concern, skin lesions related to arsenicosis were observed in 4 out of 9 subjects 16 years of age or younger who were from different villages and born after the completion of water intervention. Although sporadic exposure and/or voluntary drinking contaminated water were thought to be a contributor of arsenicosis after the water intervention, the contribution from other dietary arsenic intakes remain unclear. PMID:23608750

Liu, Faye F; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Jian; Ng, Jack C



Life and death with arsenic  

PubMed Central

Arsenic and phosphorus are group 15 elements with similar chemical properties. Is it possible that arsenate could replace phosphate in some of the chemicals that are required for life? Phosphate esters are ubiquitous in biomolecules and are essential for life, from the sugar phosphates of intermediary metabolism to ATP to phospholipids to the phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA. Some enzymes that form phosphate esters catalyze the formation of arsenate esters. Arsenate esters hydrolyze very rapidly in aqueous solution, which makes it improbable that phosphorous could be completely replaced with arsenic to support life. Studies of bacterial growth at high arsenic:phosphorus ratios demonstrate that relatively high arsenic concentrations can be tolerated, and that arsenic can become involved in vital functions in the cell, though likely much less efficiently than phosphorus. Recently Wolfe-Simon et al. [1] reported the isolation of a microorganism that they maintain uses arsenic in place of phosphorus for growth. Here, we examine and evaluate their data and conclusions. PMID:21387349

Rosen, Barry P.; Ajees, A. Abdul; McDermott, Timothy R.



Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests. Institutional mechanisms are not capable to prevent and resolve conflicts over water; moreover, data on water resources availability, use, and quality are not accessible for all parties, promoting a potential crisis on water governance. To revert this water resources crisis in the IB, a social participation is needed and supported with scientific information. Preliminary results on participatory approaches will be discussed.

Ortega, A.



Phytoremediation of Arsenic and Lead in Contaminated Soil Using Chinese Brake Ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the performance of phytoremediation of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil at an EPA Superfund site (Barber Orchard). Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) were used to extract arsenic. On average, fern shoot arsenic concentrations were as high as 20 times the soil arsenic concentrations under field conditions. It was estimated that 8

Arthur L. Salido; Kelly L. Hasty; Jae-Min Lim; David J. Butcher



High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.  


Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review. PMID:21899878

Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H



Arsenic Hazards to Humans, Plants, and Animals from Gold Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations,\\u000a roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially enhanced leaching. Arsenic\\u000a concentrations near gold mining operations are elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations\\u000a measured were 560 ?g\\/L in surface waters,

Ronald Eisler


Higher urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic but not parabens concentrations in people with high blood pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011-2012.  


Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP) in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index), urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11-2.20, P = 0.014), molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06-2.01, P = 0.023), manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09-1.86, P = 0.012), lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28-1.96, P < 0.001), tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25-1.66, P < 0.001), antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10-1.77, P = 0.010), and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25-1.77, P < 0.001) concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00-1.62, P = 0.006), mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13-1.62, P = 0.002), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05-1.49, P = 0.014), mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07-1.48, P = 0.007), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07-1.48, P = 0.009), and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15-1.69, P = 0.002) tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27-4.81, P = 0.011) and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12-1.79, P = 0.006) were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the causal effect cannot be established from the current study design. Elimination of environmental chemicals in humans would still need to be continued. PMID:24905244

Shiue, Ivy



Arsenic bioaccumulation in rice and edible plants and subsequent transmission through food chain in Bengal basin: a review of the perspectives for environmental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that poses serious environmental threats due to its behemoth toxicity and wide abundance. The use of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for irrigation purpose in crop fields elevates arsenic concentration in surface soil and in the plants. In many arsenic-affected countries, including Bangladesh and India, rice is reported to be one of the major sources of arsenic contamination.

Sayan Bhattacharya; Kaushik Gupta; Sushanta Debnath; Uday Chand Ghosh; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay; Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay



[Characterization of arsenic emissions from a coal-fired power plant].  


An emissions study for arsenic was conducted at a 300 MW coal-fired plant equipped with an electrostatic precipitator. The input and output streams such as coal, slag, ESP ash, and flue gas containing the post-ESP particulates were collected. Gaseous arsenic was sampled using EPA method 29 and the arsenic concentrations in the samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES). The mass balance recovery of arsenic estimated in this study was 87.2%. Arsenic concentration in stack gas was 2.5 microg/m3. Approximately 0.53% of the coal-derived arsenic was incorporated into slag, 84.6% of the arsenic was found on the fly ash collected by electrostatic precipitators, and 2.16% was found in the vapor phase. The relationship between arsenic concentration and ash particle size was also assessed, and arsenic is significantly concentrated in the small sized particles. PMID:16767977

Guo, Xin; Zheng, Chu-guang; Cheng, Dan



Uptake of arsenic by New Zealand watercress (Lepidium sativum).  


Watercress (Lepidium sativum) is consumed as a vegetable, especially by the indigenous community in New Zealand. An investigation was carried out on the accumulation of arsenic by watercress, following earlier reports of inordinate arsenic concentrations in some aquatic macrophytes collected from the Waikato River, North Island, New Zealand. The Waikato River and some other aquatic systems in Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand have elevated arsenic concentrations due to geothermal activity. Watercress, river water and sediment samples were collected from 27 sites along the Waikato river and analysed for arsenic. Greenhouse trials with watercress grown in beakers containing added arsenic were conducted to confirm the ability of this species to accumulate arsenic. At a number of sites, the concentration of arsenic in both the water and the watercress samples exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) limit for drinking water (0.01 mg l(-1)) and foodstuffs (2 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight basis). The average leaf and stem arsenic concentrations were, respectively, 29.0 and 15.9 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Plants grown in solutions of >0.4 mg l(-1) arsenic concentration had fresh weight arsenic concentrations above the WHO limit. Despite these higher concentrations, arsenic levels in plants grown under greenhouse conditions were approximately fivefold lower than in plants growing in the Waikato River, possibly because under natural conditions, the watercress is rooted in sediment containing on average approximately 35 mg kg(-1) arsenic. It is recommended that watercress from the Waikato River, or other areas with elevated water arsenic concentrations, should not be consumed. PMID:12493186

Robinson, Brett; Duwig, Céline; Bolan, Nanthi; Kannathasan, M; Saravanan, A



Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M. [Pharmacokinetics Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Thomas, David J., E-mail: [Pharmacokinetics Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)



SSC TJ881-02 October 20, 2003 23:51 Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic  

E-print Network

SSC TJ881-02 October 20, 2003 23:51 Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic Concentrations in Soil underneath DOI: 10.1080/10588330390254829 Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic Concentrations in Soil underneath CCA concentrations of metals at depths up to 20 cm. The arithmetic mean concentra- tions of arsenic, chromium

Florida, University of


Maternal exposure to metals—Concentrations and predictors of exposure  

SciTech Connect

A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01–0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01–0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. -- Highlights: • High concentrations of uranium with respect to international literature. • Environmental concentrations of Al, Cu and Li influenced urinary concentrations. • Exposure to mechanics/welding hobbies increased blood Mn concentrations. • Iron/Folic acid supplements reduced biological concentrations of Al, Ni and Mn.

Callan, A.C., E-mail: [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Hinwood, A.L.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)



Gut microbiome perturbations induced by bacterial infection affect arsenic biotransformation.  


Exposure to arsenic affects large human populations worldwide and has been associated with a long list of human diseases, including skin, bladder, lung, and liver cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. In addition, there are large individual differences in susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases, which are frequently associated with different patterns of arsenic metabolism. Several underlying mechanisms, such as genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics, have been proposed, as these factors closely impact the individuals' capacity to metabolize arsenic. In this context, the role of the gut microbiome in directly metabolizing arsenic and triggering systemic responses in diverse organs raises the possibility that perturbations of the gut microbial communities affect the spectrum of metabolized arsenic species and subsequent toxicological effects. In this study, we used an animal model with an altered gut microbiome induced by bacterial infection, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based arsenic speciation to examine the effect of gut microbiome perturbations on the biotransformation of arsenic. Metagenomics sequencing revealed that bacterial infection significantly perturbed the gut microbiome composition in C57BL/6 mice, which in turn resulted in altered spectra of arsenic metabolites in urine, with inorganic arsenic species and methylated and thiolated arsenic being perturbed. These data clearly illustrated that gut microbiome phenotypes significantly affected arsenic metabolic reactions, including reduction, methylation, and thiolation. These findings improve our understanding of how infectious diseases and environmental exposure interact and may also provide novel insight regarding the gut microbiome composition as a new risk factor of individual susceptibility to environmental chemicals. PMID:24134150

Lu, Kun; Cable, Peter Hans; Abo, Ryan Phillip; Ru, Hongyu; Graffam, Michelle E; Schlieper, Katherine Ann; Parry, Nicola M A; Levine, Stuart; Bodnar, Wanda M; Wishnok, John S; Styblo, Miroslav; Swenberg, James A; Fox, James G; Tannenbaum, Steven R



Groundwater arsenic in Chimaltenango, Guatemala.  


In the Municipality of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, we sampled groundwater for total inorganic arsenic. In total, 42 samples were collected from 27 (43.5%) of the 62 wells in the municipality, with sites chosen to achieve spatial representation throughout the municipality. Samples were collected from household faucets used for drinking water, and sent to the USA for analysis. The only site found to have a concentration above the 10 ?g/L World Health Organization provisional guideline for arsenic in drinking water was Cerro Alto, where the average concentration was 47.5 ?g/L. A health risk assessment based on the arsenic levels found in Cerro Alto showed an increase in noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents as a result of consuming groundwater as their primary drinking water source. Using data from the US Geological Survey and our global positioning system data of the sample locations, we found Cerro Alto to be the only site sampled within the tertiary volcanic rock layer, a known source of naturally occurring arsenic. Recommendations were made to reduce the levels of arsenic found in the community's drinking water so that the health risks can be managed. PMID:25252357

Lotter, Jason T; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Socoy Set, Genaro; Khodadoust, Amid P; Erdal, Serap



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Arsenic surveillance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.



Technical assistance to the Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Arsenic and lead exposure study of residents living near the Rocker operable unit of the Silver Bow Creek Superfund site, Rocker, Montana. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The ATSDR and the Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences conducted a study to assess arsenic and lead exposure among residents of Rocker, Montana, where arsenic had been detected in soil up to 214,000 ppm. No statistically significant difference was found between Rocker residents and a comparison population with respect to the geometric mean of the urine arsenic levels. When data were combined from both groups, recent seafood ingestion was the variable most strongly associated with detectable urine arsenic levels. Although blood lead levels in the target area differed significantly from those in the comparison, a significant association was not detected between blood lead levels > or = 10 microgram/d1 and area of residence. Lead was detected in the blood of two siblings in the target area at levels of 20.7 and 31.3 microgram/d1. A lead based paint hazard and elevated concentrations of soil lead from the children's play area were detected in the household.

Gaventa, S.; Coull, B.; Gedrose, J.; Jones, P.; Dennehy, D.



Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

Nimick, D.A.



Arsenic in ground water of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the USGS National Analysis of Trace Elements, this new page offers a recent, much publicized map "that shows where and to what extent arsenic occurs in ground water across the country," a new fact sheet ("Arsenic in ground-water resources of the United States"), and a detailed report ("A retrospective analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in ground-water resources of the US and limitations in drinking-water-supply characterizations"). The site also contains data of arsenic concentrations for 18,850 ground-water samples collected between 1973 and 1997. In addition, users will find links to other sites with information on arsenic in ground water.


Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapor:validation of a previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine  

SciTech Connect

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out among subjects exposed to mercury (Hg) vapor, ie, a group of 131 male workers (mean age: 30.9 yr; average duration of exposure, 4.8 yr) and a group of 54 female workers (mean age, 29.9 yr; average duration of exposure 7 yr). The results were compared with those obtained in well-matched control groups comprising 114 and 48 male and female workers, respectively. The intensity of current Hg vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the levels of mercury in urine (HgU) (mean and 95th percentile: males 52 and 147 micrograms/g creatinine; females 37 and 63 micrograms/g creatinine) and of mercury in blood (mean and 95th percentile: males 1.4 and 3.7 micrograms/dl; females 0.9 and 1.4 microgram/dl). Several symptoms mainly related to the central nervous system (memory disturbances, depressive feelings, fatigue, irritability) were more prevalent in the Hg-exposed subjects. They were, however, not related to exposure parameters. In both male and female Hg-exposed workers no significant disturbances were found in short-term memory (audioverbal), simple reaction time (visual), critical flicker fusion, and color discrimination ability. Only slight renal tubular effects were detected in Hg-exposed males and females, ie, an increased urinary beta-galactosidase activity and an increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein. The prevalence of these preclinical renal effects was more related to the current exposure intensity (HgU) than to the duration of exposure and was detected mainly when HgU exceeds 50 micrograms/g creatinine. Changes in hand tremor spectrum recorded with an accelerometer were found in the Hg-exposed males only.

Roels, H.; Gennart, J.P.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Malchaire, J.; Bernard, A.



Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.



Arsenic Contamination in Rice, Wheat, Pulses, and Vegetables: A Study in an Arsenic Affected Area of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin is one of the major arsenic-contaminated hotspot in the world. To assess the level of severity\\u000a of arsenic contamination, concentrations of arsenic in irrigation water, soil, rice, wheat, common vegetables, and pulses,\\u000a intensively cultivated and consumed by the people of highly arsenic affected Nadia district, West Bengal, India, were investigated.\\u000a Results revealed that the arsenic-contaminated irrigation water (0.318–0.643 mg l-1)

P. Bhattacharya; A. C. Samal; J. Majumdar; S. C. Santra



Urine pH test  


A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).


In search of an arsenic MCL  

SciTech Connect

Questions about arsenic continue to fan the flames of debate that surround the US Environmental Protection Agency's quest for a new, more appropriate maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic. In making its decision, the USEPA is taking into account many factors, including occurrence, exposure and health effects, and treatment technologies. Recent studies in Taiwan on long-term human exposure show that arsenic in drinking water is associated with liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancers as well as previously documented skin cancer. However, studies of several US communities served by water supplies containing high concentrations of arsenic failed to show excessive skin disorders, and the arsenic-induced risk of internal cancer in the US is uncertain. In response to the question of whether the current arsenic MCL (0.05 mg/L) protects health, these authors conclude that existing epidemiologic data are too limited to provide a definitive answer. Once USEPA has selected MCL options for arsenic, it will use occurrence data to develop a regulatory impact analysis; from this analysis the costs and benefits of compliance with the various MCLs can be estimated. In reviewing past surveys of arsenic occurrence and ongoing investigations of low-level occurrence, the latter are particularly important because USEPA is considering an MCL below 5 [mu]g/L.

Not Available




EPA Science Inventory

Because the methylation of arsenic produces intermediates and terminal products that exceed inorganic arsenic in potency as enzyme inhibitors, cytotoxins, and genotoxins, the methylation of arsenic is properly regarded as an activation process. The methylation of arsenic is an e...



EPA Science Inventory

Presentation will discuss arsenic chemistry, arsenic speciation methods and arsenic treatment technology. The presentation will include case study information drawn from EPA arsenic field studies on ion exchange, activated alumina and iron removal process. The presentation will...


Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Determining the practical quantitation level for arsenic  

SciTech Connect

In light of the fact that the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic is likely to be lowered significantly, the purpose of this study was to assess the capabilities of laboratories for arsenic analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry at concentrations near those being considered for the revised MCL. The evaluation involved 22 laboratories and used four representative drinking water matrixes to determine a practical quantitation level (PQL) for arsenic, which could be used by the US Environmental Agency in setting the new MCL. Samples were spiked with arsenic at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 [mu]g/L. On an interlaboratory basis, analytical precision and bias changed markedly at concentrations < 4 [mu]g/L, setting a lower limit to the PQL of 4 [mu]g/L. Reliable quantitation levels were also determined.

Eaton, A.D. (Montgomery Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States))



Genetic polymorphisms in AS3MT and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) with the As concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary As profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Concentrations of total As in groundwater were 0.7-502 {mu}g/l. Total As levels in groundwater drastically decreased by using sand filter, indicating that the filter could be effective to remove As from raw groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic As (IAs) in urine and total As in hair of males were higher than those of females. A significant positive correlation between monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/IAs and age in females indicates that older females have higher methylation capacity from IAs to MMA. Body mass index negatively correlated with urinary As concentrations in males. Homozygote for SNPs 4602AA, 35991GG, and 37853GG, which showed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), had higher percentage (%) of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. SNPs 4740 and 12590 had strong LD and associated with urinary %DMA. Although SNPs 6144, 12390, 14215, and 35587 comprised LD cluster, homozygotes in SNPs 12390GG and 35587CC had lower DMA/MMA in urine, suggesting low methylation capacity from MMA to DMA in homo types for these SNPs. SNPs 5913 and 8973 correlated with %MMA and %DMA, respectively. Heterozygote for SNP 14458TC had higher MMA/IAs in urine than TT homozygote, indicating that the heterozygote may have stronger methylation ability of IAs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the association of genetic factors with As metabolism in Vietnamese.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail:; Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)



Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women  

PubMed Central

Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's home tap water for arsenic, which we combined with tap water consumption to estimate arsenic exposure through water. Women who reported rice intake (n = 73) consumed a median of 28.3 g/d, which is ?0.5 cup of cooked rice each day. In general linear models adjusted for age and urinary dilution, both rice consumption (g, dry mass/d) and arsenic exposure through water (?g/d) were significantly associated with natural log-transformed total urinary arsenic (, , both P < 0.0001), as well as inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid (each P < 0.005). Based on total arsenic, consumption of 0.56 cup/d of cooked rice was comparable to drinking 1 L/d of 10 ?g As/L water, the current US maximum contaminant limit. US rice consumption varies, averaging ?0.5 cup/d, with Asian Americans consuming an average of >2 cups/d. Rice arsenic content and speciation also vary, with some strains predominated by dimethylarsinic acid, particularly those grown in the United States. Our findings along with others indicate that rice consumption should be considered when designing arsenic reduction strategies in the United States. PMID:22143778

Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.



Arsenic Uptake by Native Fern Species in Thailand: Effect of Chelating Agents on Hyperaccumulation of Arsenic by Pityrogramma calomelanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen native fern species collected from an area in Thailand with high arsenic concentration in soil and in ground water as a result of tin mining was screened for elevated arsenic concentration in fronds. Two species of fern were found to contain elevated arsenic in their fronds in nature: Pityrogrammacalomelanos (108–1156 µg g dried weight) and Pterisvittata (79 µg g dried weight). Under hydroponic

Jirarut Wongkongkatep; Kensuke Fukushi; Preeda Parkpian; Ronald D. DeLaune; Aroon Jugsujinda



Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

Sarquis, Mickey



Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.



On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan



Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration  

SciTech Connect

Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) is a rat bladder carcinogen and the major urinary metabolite of administered inorganic arsenic in most mammals. This study examined the disposition of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after acute oral administration. Adult female mice were administered [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) and sacrificed serially over 24 h. Tissues and excreta were collected for analysis of radioactivity. Other mice were administered unlabeled DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) or dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (0.6 mg As/kg) and sacrificed at 2 or 24 h. Tissues (2 h) and urine (24 h) were collected and analyzed for arsenicals. Absorption, distribution and excretion of [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) were rapid, as radioactivity was detected in tissues and urine at 0.25 h. For low dose DMA(V) mice, there was a greater fractional absorption of DMA(V) and significantly greater tissue concentrations of radioactivity at several time points. Radioactivity distributed greatest to the liver (1-2% of dose) and declined to less than 0.05% in all tissues examined at 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the 0.6 mg As/kg DMA(V) group. Conversely, fecal excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the high dose group. Urinary metabolites of DMA(V) included DMA(III), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. Urinary metabolites of DMA(III) included TMAO, dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. DMA(V) was also excreted by DMA(III)-treated mice, showing its sensitivity to oxidation. TMAO was detected in tissues of the high dose DMA(V) group. The low acute toxicity of DMA(V) in the mouse appears to be due in part to its minimal retention and rapid elimination.

Hughes, Michael F. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail:; Devesa, Vicenta [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Adair, Blakely M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Styblo, Miroslav [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)



Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes  

SciTech Connect

Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields} A case-control study was conducted to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. {yields} Arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate atherosclerosis risk in individuals with high levels of arsenic in well water.

Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China) [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)



Monitoring of low level arsenic exposure during maintenance of ion implanters.  


To delineate potential exposure in ion implanter maintenance, the authors recruited 21 maintenance engineers (exposed group) and 10 computer programmers (controls) at three semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Samples of air, wipes, and urine; used cleaning cloths; and used gloves were collected for the characterization of arsenic exposure. Arsenic levels were very low in environmental samples, but high arsenic levels were found in some wipe samples, used cleaning cloths, and gloves. The average baseline content of urinary arsenic measured for maintenance engineers was 3.6 microg/g creatinine. Maintenance engineers experienced an increase of 1.0-7.8 microg/g creatinine in urinary arsenic levels during ion implanter maintenance. Results of a mixed-model analysis indicated that urinary arsenic levels were associated significantly with time series (p = .0001), and the extent of association was different among the three facilities (p = .0226). The results of this study indicate that arsenic intake via ingestion, rather than through inhalation, might play a significant role in the elevation of urinary arsenic levels. However, a series of urine samples with self-reference continue to be a good approach for the monitoring of low-level arsenic exposure. PMID:11063410

Hwang, Y H; Chen, S C




Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic exposure from drinking water is generating continued regulatory and scientific debate, as the health risks associated with arsenic concentrations observed in groundwater of the United States remain unclear. Concentrations of arsenic exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines (10 µg\\/L) have been identified in ground-water supplies of 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. These findings

Gillian AvRuskin; Jaymie Meliker; Melissa Slotnick; Andrew Kaufmann; Stacey Fedewa; Geoffrey Jacquez; Jerome Nriagu


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Low-level Population Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in the  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Low-level Population Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic in the United States: Although studies have reported associations between high concentrations of ingested inorganic arsenic increase in diabetes at low concentrations of urinary arsenic. This potentially affects 40 million adults

California at Berkeley, University of


Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J. (Royal)



Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...


Determination of Rh, Pd and Pt in urine samples using a pre-concentration sequential injection analysis system coupled to a quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer.  


The proposed flow system was developed in order to minimize the drawbacks related to the PGEs determination by quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). It was intended not only to lower the limits of detection (LODs) but also to eliminate the interferences originating from some atomic and molecular ions produced in the argon plasma. This was accomplished by means of an on-line sample clean-up/pre-concentration step, using a chelating resin (Metalfixtrade mark Chelaminetrade mark) in which Rh, Pd and Pt were preferably retained when compared with the interfering species. The results obtained by using the developed flow system in the analysis of urine samples are presented. With a sampling rate of 9 samples h(-1) (i.e., 27 determinations) and a sample consumption of ca. 10 mL, the developed flow system allowed linear calibration plots up to 100 ngL(-1) with detection limits of 1.2 ngL(-1) (Rh), 0.4 ngL(-1) (Pd) and 0.9 ngL(-1) (Pt). Repeatability studies showed good precision (R.S.D.%, n=5): 3.7% (Rh); 2.6% (Pd) and 2.4% (Pt), for 10 ngL(-1); 2.4% (Rh); 1.4% (Pd) and 1.9% (Pt), for 50 ngL(-1); and 1.3% (Rh); 0.58% (Pd) and 0.62% (Pt), for 100 ngL(-1). By spiking human urine samples, recovery tests were performed, and the values obtained ranged between 89% and 105% (Rh); 90% and 104% (Pd); and 93% and 105% (Pt). PMID:17903489

Lopes, Cristina M P V; Almeida, Agostinho A; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Lima, José L F C



Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.  


CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails. PMID:15028000

Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M



Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.  


Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike. PMID:18198937

Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T



Microbial Mineral Weathering for Nutrient Acquisition Releases Arsenic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tens of millions of people in Southeast Asia drink groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The process of arsenic release from the sediment to the groundwater remains poorly understood. Experiments were performed to determine if microbial mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition can serve as a potential mechanism for arsenic mobilization. We performed microcosm experiments with Burkholderia fungorum, phosphate free artificial groundwater, and natural apatite. Controls included incubations with no cells and with killed cells. Additionally, samples were treated with two spikes - an arsenic spike, to show that arsenic release is independent of the initial arsenic concentration, and a phosphate spike to determine whether release occurs at field relevant phosphate conditions. We show in laboratory experiments that phosphate-limited cells of Burkholderia fungorum mobilize ancillary arsenic from apatite as a by-product of mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition. The released arsenic does not undergo a redox transformation but appears to be solubilized from the apatite mineral lattice as arsenate during weathering. Apatite has been shown to be commonly present in sediment samples from Bangladesh aquifers. Analysis of apatite purified from the Ganges, Brahamputra, Meghna drainage basin shows 210 mg/kg of arsenic, which is higher than the average crustal level. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of the microbial phenotype that releases arsenic from apatite in Bangladesh sediments. These results suggest that microbial weathering for nutrient acquisition could be an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization.

Mailloux, B. J.; Alexandrova, E.; Keimowitz, A.; Wovkulich, K.; Freyer, G.; Stolz, J.; Kenna, T.; Pichler, T.; Polizzotto, M.; Dong, H.; Radloff, K. A.; van Geen, A.



Arsenic in detergents: Possible danger and pollution hazard  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic at a concentration of 10 to 70 parts per million has been detected in several common presoaks and household detergents. Arsenic values of 2 to 8 parts per billion have been measured in the Kansas River. These concentrations are close to the amount (10 parts per billion) recommended by the United States Public Health Service as a drinking-water standard.

Angino, E. E.; Magnuson, L. M.; Waugh, T. C.; Galle, O. K.; Bredfeldt, J.



Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase–derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

States, J. Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron



Arsenic in ground water in selected parts of southwestern Ohio, 2002-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 57 domestic wells in Preble, Miami, and Shelby Counties, in southwestern Ohio. The median arsenic concentration was 7.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. Thirty-seven percent of samples had arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 ?g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations (>10 ?g/L) were detected over the entire range of depths sampled (42 to 221 feet) and in each of three aquifer types, Silurian carbonate bedrock, glacial buried-valley deposits, and glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel. One factor common in all samples with elevated arsenic concentrations was that iron concentrations were greater than 1,000 ?g/L. The observed correlations of arsenic with iron and alkalinity are consistent with the hypothesis that arsenic was released from iron oxides under reducing conditions (by reductive dissolution or reductive desorption). Comparisons among the three aquifer types revealed some differences in arsenic occurrence. For buried-valley deposits, the median arsenic concentration was 4.6 ?g/L, and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. There was no correlation between arsenic concentrations and depth; the highest concentrations were at intermediate depths (about 100 feet). Half of the buried-valley samples were estimated to be methanic. Most of the samples with elevated arsenic concentrations also had elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and ammonia. For carbonate bedrock, the median arsenic concentration was 8.0 ?g/L, and the maximum was 30.7 ?g/L. Arsenic concentrations increased with depth. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in iron- or sulfate-reducing samples. Arsenic was significantly correled with molybdenum, strontium, fluoride, and silica, which are components of naturally ocurring minerals. For glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel, half of the samples had elevated arsenic concentrations. The median was 11.4 ?g/L, and the maximum was 27.6 ?g/L. At shallow depths (<100 feet), this aquifer type had higher arsenic and iron concentrations than carbonate bedrock. It is not known whether these observed differences among aquifer types are related to variations in (1) arsenic content of the aquifer material, (2) organic carbon content of the aquifer material, (3) mechanisms of arsenic mobilization (or uptake), or (4) rates of arsenic mobilization (or uptake). A followup study that includes solid-phase analyses and geochemical modeling was begun in 2004 in northwestern Preble County.

Thomas, Mary Ann; Schumann, Thomas L.; Pletsch, Bruce A.



Influence of GSTT1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Arsenic Metabolism  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A repeated measures study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh to investigate factors that influence biomarkers of arsenic exposure. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary arsenic species [arsenite (As3), arsenate (As5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were detected using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HGAAS). Linear mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to evaluate the effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) on total urinary arsenic, primary methylation index [MMA/(As3+As5)], secondary methylation index (DMA/MMA), and total methylation index [(MMA+DMA)/(As3+As5)]. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were positively associated with total urinary arsenic concentrations and total methylation index. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between urinary arsenic exposure in drinking water GSTT1 but not GSTM1 where GSTT1 null individuals had a slightly higher excretion rate of arsenic compared to GSTT1 wildtypes after adjusting for other factors. Additionally, individuals with GSTT1 null genotypes had a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index compared to GSTT1 wildtype after adjusting for other factors. This data suggests that GSTT1 contributes to the observed variability in arsenic metabolism. Since individuals with a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index are more susceptible to arsenic related disease, these results suggest that GSTT1 null individuals may be more susceptible to arsenic-related toxicity. No significant associations were observed between GSTM1 and any of the arsenic methylation indices. PMID:24511153

Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Christiani, David C.



Evaluation of the influence of arsenical livestock drinking waters on total arsenic levels in cow’s raw milk from Argentinean dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of total arsenic in cow’s raw milk and in the livestock drinking water were determined and compared, in order to establish the influence of natural arsenic levels in groundwaters on the final presence of arsenic in milk production of the most important dairy region in Argentina. A dry ashing procedure was used for the mineralisation of the milk

Mirna Sigrist; Horacio Beldoménico; M. Rosa Repetti